Chapter 7 Corporate Strategies I Moses Acquaah, Ph.D. 377 Bryan Building

Chapter 7
Corporate Strategies I
Moses Acquaah, Ph.D.
377 Bryan Building
Phone: (336) 334-5305
Email: [email protected]
Lecture Objectives
Define corporate strategy.
Explain the difference between a single-business firm and a
multiple-business firm.
Discuss how corporate strategy is related to the other firm
Explain the corporate strategic directions available to firms.
Describe the various organizational growth strategies.
Discuss the reasons/motives for diversification
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of related &
unrelated diversification.
Explain how growth strategies can be implemented.
Describe when organizational stability is an appropriate
strategic choice.
What is Corporate Strategy?
Those strategies concerned with the broad and
long-term questions of
what business(es) the organization is in or wants to be
in & what it wants to do with those businesses
Task involves
Moves to enter new businesses
Actions to boost combined performance of businesses
Ways to capture synergy among related businesses
Establishing investment priorities & steering
corporate resources into most attractive units
Single & Multiple Business
Single business organizations
Operates primarily in only one industry (e.g., Coca-Cola
– Beverage Industry; Wrigley Jr. Company – Chewing
Multiple Business Organizations
Operates in more than one industry
Example: PepsiCo – Snack Food Industry business
(Frito Lay); & Beverage Industry
Philip Morris Companies – Tobacco Industry; Brewery
Industry (Miller Brewery); & Food Processing Industry
(Kraft General Foods).
Corporate, Competitive &
Functional Strategies
Corporate strategy establishes the overall
direction that the organization hopes to go.
Competitive & functional strategies provide
the means or mechanisms for making sure
the organization gets there.
Possible Corporate Strategic
(1) Moving the organization ahead -Organizational Growth
(2) Keeping the organization where it is -Organizational Stability
(3) Reversing the organization’s weaknesses or
decline -- Organizational Renewal
Growth strategy
Involves the attainment of specific growth objectives by
increasing the level of an firm’s operations
Typical growth objectives for businesses
Increase in sales revenues
Increase in earnings or profits
Other performance measures
Growth objectives of not-for-profit businesses
Increasing clients served or patrons attracted
Broadening the geographic area
Increasing programs offered
Types of Growth Strategies
Concentration Strategy
A growth strategy where the firm
Concentrates on its primary line of business
Looks for ways to meet its growth objectives
through increasing its level of operation in this
primary business
When a single-business organization
pursues growth, it is using the concentration
Concentration Strategy
Four concentration strategy options
Concentration Strategy
Product-Market Exploration Option
Describes attempts by firm to increase sales of
its current product(s) in its current market(s) by
depending on its functional & competitive
Product Development Option
Firm create new product for use by its current
market (customers)
Concentration Strategy
Market Development Option
When a firm sell its current products in new
markets (additional geographic areas or market
segments not currently served by firm)
Product-Market Diversification Option
Where firm seeks to expand both into new
products & new markets
Single-business firm becomes a multiplebusiness firm since it is now operating in a
different industry
Concentration Strategy
Organization becomes very good at what it does
Organization is vulnerable to industry and other
external environmental shifts
Concentration strategy is used by both smallsized and large organizations
Vertical Integration Strategies
An organization’s attempt to gain control of
Its inputs (backward integration) -- supplier
Its output (forward integration) -- distributor
Or both inputs and output
Purpose is to (1) reduce resource acquisition costs, &
(2) deal with inefficient operations
Vertical Integration
Considered a growth strategy because the firm’s
operations are expanded beyond primary business
Mixed empirical results as to whether strategy helps or
hurt performance
What is the role of outsourcing in achieving same
objective as vertical integration?
Vertical Integration Strategies
Reduced purchasing &
selling costs
Improved coordination
of functions &
Protected proprietary
Reduced flexibility as
firm is locked into
products & technology
Create an exit barrier
due to existence of
assets that are hard to
Difficulties in
integrating various
Financial costs of
acquiring or starting up
Horizontal Integration Strategies
Expanding the firm's operations through combining
with competitors operating in the same industry &
doing the same things
It is an appropriate corporate growth strategy as
long as
It enables the company to meet its growth objectives
It can be strategically managed to attain a sustainable
competitive advantage
It satisfies legal and regulatory guidelines
Diversification Strategies
A corporate growth strategy in which a firm
expands its operation by moving into a
different industry
Many reasons or motives for diversification
Two major types of diversification
Related (concentric) diversification
Unrelated (conglomerate) diversification
Why Do Firms Diversify?
To Grow
Increase sales & profitability beyond what firm’s core
businesses can provide
Managerial self-serving behavior -- compensation
Managerial “hubris” -- pride or status that come from
managing a large business
To more fully utilize existing resources and
Skills in sales & marketing, general management
skills & knowledge, distribution channels, etc.
Why Do Firms Diversify?
Risk reduction and/or spreading
Escape from unattractive or undesirable industries (e.g., tobacco
& oil companies)
Stability of profit flows (CAPM: systematic vs. unsystematic
risks; shareholders & diversified portfolios)
To make use of surplus cash flows
Large cash balances attract corporate raiders
Use cash balances to avoid hostile takeovers
To build shareholder value
Create synergy among the businesses of a firm
Make 2 + 2 = 5: The whole should be greater than the sum of
the parts
Why Do Firms Diversify
Synergy can be obtained in three ways
Exploiting economies of scale
Exploiting economies of scope
Efficient allocation of capital through the use of portfolio
management techniques
Problems that prevent diversified firms from
realizing synergies
A poor understanding of how diversification activities will “fit”
or be coordinated with existing businesses
Dangers or risks associated with the acquisition of businesses
Problems with the development of internal businesses
Why Do Firms Diversify?
Diversification is capable of increasing
shareholder value if it passes three tests:
The attractiveness test: The industry must be
structurally attractive or capable of being made
The cost-of-entry test: The cost of entry must
not capitalize all future profits
The better-off test: Either the new unit must gain
competitive advantage from its link with the
corporation or vice versa (i.e. synergy)
Related (Concentric) Diversification
Related (Concentric) Diversification
Diversifying into a different industry but one
that’s related in some ways to the organization’s
current operations
Search for strategic “synergy”, which is the
performance of the sum of the parts is better than
the whole
• The idea that 2 + 2 = 5
Synergy happens because of the interactions and
the interrelatedness of the combined operations
and the sharing of resources, capabilities, &
distinctive competencies
Related Diversification
Builds shareholder value by capturing
cross-business “strategic fits”
Transferring skills & capabilities from one
business to another
Sharing facilities or resources to reduce costs
Leveraging the use of common brand name
Combining resources to create new competitive
strengths and capabilities
Related Diversification
Advantages or Benefits
Opportunities to achieve economies of scale and scope
through skill transfers, lower costs, common brand name,
technology, etc.
Opportunities to expand product or service offerings and
preserve unity in businesses
Complexity and difficulty of coordinating different, but
related businesses (e.g. Philip Morris’ General Food and
Kraft subsidiaries)
Related diversification is a strategy-driven approach
to creating shareholder value
Unrelated Diversification
Diversifying into completely different
industry from the firm’s current operations
Firm move into industries where there is
No strategic fit to be exploited
No meaningful value chain relationships
No unifying strategic theme
E.g.: GE; Walt Disney; Sara Lee
Approach is venture into any business with
good profitability prospects
Unrelated Diversification
Targets for unrelated diversification
Firms with undervalued assets
Firms in financial distress
Firms with bright growth prospects but limited capital
Business risk spread over different industries
Efficient allocation of capital resources
Stability of profits
Enhanced shareholder value
Unrelated Diversification
Difficulties of competently managing many
diverse businesses
No strategic fits which can be leveraged into
competitive advantage
Unrelated diversification is a finance-driven
approach to creating shareholder value
Implementing Growth Strategies
Mergers & Acquisitions
A merger is a legal transaction in which two or
more organizations combine through an exchange
of stock, but only one firm actually remain
An acquisition is an outright purchase of an
organization by another
What is a Takeover?
Implementing Growth Strategies
Internal Development
Organization chooses to expand its operation by
starting a new business from scratch
Choice between mergers-acquisition and internal
development depends on: (See Table 7-4)
• The new industry’s barriers to entry
• Relatedness of new business to the existing one
• Speed & development cost associated with each
• Risks associated with each approach
• Stage of the industry life cycle
Implementing Growth Strategies
Strategic Partnering
When two or more firms establish a legitimate
relationship by combining their resources, core
competencies, distinctive capabilities for some
business purpose
Arrangement can be used to implement any of
the growth strategies
• Vertical Integration
• Horizontal Integration
• Related Diversification
Implementing Growth Strategies
Types of Strategic Partnerships
Joint Venture (JV)
• Two or more separate organization form an
independent organization for strategic purposes
• Partners usually own equal shares of new venture
• Used when partners do not want to be legally joined
Long-Term Contract
• Legal contract between organizations covering a
specific business purpose
• Typically between an organization & its suppliers
Implementing Growth Strategies
Types of strategic Partnerships (cont’d)
Strategic Alliance
• Two or more firms share resources, capabilities or
competencies to pursue some business purpose
• Similar to JV’s but no formation of a separate entity
• Often pursued in order to
• Partners reap benefits of expanded operations
A strategy where the organization maintains
its current size and current level of business
When is stability an appropriate strategy?
Industry is in a period of rapid upheaval with
several key industry & external forces drastically
changing, making future highly uncertain
Industry is facing slow or no growth opportunities
Many small business owners follow stability
strategy indefinitely
When is stability an appropriate strategy?
Organization has just completed a frenzied
period of growth & needs to have some “down”
time in order for its resources & capabilities to
build up strength again
large firm in large industry at maturity stage of
industry life cycle
Implementation of Stability Strategy
Not expanding organization’s level of operation
Should be a short-run strategy