The Big Six An Introduction to

An Introduction to
The Big Six
A Bit of History
• In 1997, US Congress asked the Director of the
National Institute of Child Health and Human
Development (NICHD) at the National Institutes of
Health, in consultation with the Secretary of
Education, to convene a national panel to assess
the effectiveness of different approaches used to
teach children to read.
• In April 2000, the National Reading Panel (NRP)
released its research-based findings in two reports
and a video entitled, "Teaching Children to Read."
• Other publications for teachers and parents
followed.
National Reading Panel
The panel found that a combination of techniques is effective for teaching children
to read:
Phonemic awareness—the knowledge that spoken words can be broken apart into
smaller segments of sound known as phonemes. Children who are read to at
home—especially material that rhymes—often develop the basis of phonemic
awareness. Children who are not read to will probably need to be taught that words
can be broken apart into smaller sounds.
Phonics—the knowledge that letters of the alphabet represent phonemes, and that
these sounds are blended together to form written words. Readers who are skilled in
phonics can sound out words they haven't seen before, without first having to
memorize them.
Fluency—the ability to recognise words easily, read with greater speed, accuracy,
and expression, and to better understand what is read. Children gain fluency by
practicing reading until the process becomes automatic; guided oral repeated
reading is one approach to helping children become fluent readers.
National Reading Panel
Guided oral reading—reading out loud while getting guidance
and feedback from skilled readers. The combination of practice
and feedback promotes reading fluency.
Teaching vocabulary words—teaching new words, either as
they appear in text, or by introducing new words separately.
This type of instruction also aids reading ability.
Reading comprehension strategies—techniques for helping
individuals to understand what they read. Such techniques
involve having students summarise what they've read, to gain a
better understanding of the material.
Standards:
NAR reading standards
What are the Targets set against the
Standards for this school?
Self Review:
Performance Reporting:
How do you report reading
comprehension achievement to students,
parents & NAR?
Evidence of distance travelled in one
page report to ARD/RD against stated
Targets, end Term 4 & via Annual Report
What is the reading comprehension level for each
student in your school? How do you know?
Documented Evidence of a whole of school agreement
about data collection and analysis for each student (RR,
PAT-R, NAPLAN)
That you know this is happening consistently in all
classrooms
Improvement Planning:
Intervention & Support:
What will you do to ensure success for each
student?
Documented Evidence of a whole of school
agreement about intervention & support.
How is this monitored, how often, by whom,
who is the leader?
What do you need to do in your programming and planning?
Documented Evidence:
Scope and sequence for “Big 6” in Pre – 2, and Yr 3 - 7
Whole of school diagnostic assessment plan
Use of quality pedagogical framework eg Tefl
Focussed discussions using data and evidence within PLC’s &
performance meetings
PD to build knowledge and skills of teachers
NAR educators are expected to understand what the
components of the Big Six skills are, how to assess
them and how to design appropriate learning
experiences to challenge and support all learners.
This includes employing
– valid and reliable screening, diagnostic and progress
assessments
– coherent instructional design which includes
alignment with the Australian Curriculum and the
TfEL framework (Teaching for Effective Learning)
– explicit, systematic and differentiated instruction
which includes the use of an instructional model
such as the Gradual Release of Responsibility
(Pearson & Gallagher) or the Apprenticeship Model
(Tactical Teaching: Reading)
The Big Six Overview P-12
1
2
3
4
5
6
Pre
R
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8+
Early Literacy Experiences
(including Oral Language)
Phonological Awareness
Basic phonics
Advanced Phonics / Spelling
Vocabulary
Fluency
Comprehension
Making Connections / Questioning / Inferring / Visualising / Determining Importance / Summarising / Synthesising in all
learning areas P - 12
Early
Literacy
What are early literacy experiences?
http://www.decd.sa.gov.au/northernadelaide/files/links/Concepts_about_Print.pdf
Deslea Konza – 1. Oral Language (5:21 min)
Phonological
Awareness
Phonological
awareness
A broad term; an awareness of the
sounds of the English language,
including rhythm, rhyme, pattern of
intonation, and single sounds
Phoneme
A single sound; the smallest part of
the English language that makes a
difference to a word; e.g. log and dog
differ by one phoneme;
May be represented by one letter or
more, e.g. t th ng ough
Phonemic awareness Awareness of the individual sounds of
the English language
Phonics (alphabetic
The relationship between letters and
principle, letter-sound the sounds they represent; not the
knowledge)
same as phonemic awareness; but
builds on phonemic awareness
Phonological Awareness & Phonics (1:06 min)
Deslea Konza – 2. Phonological Awareness (6:12 min)
Assessment
19
• Phonological Awareness Skill Map - DECD Speech
Pathology
• Screen of Phonological Awareness (SPA)DECS
Publication
• Sutherland Phonological Awareness Test –
Revised (SPAT-R)
Gathering baseline data is important in
identifying needs and measuring change.
Assess
Plan
Teach
Slide based on Talking Literacy Training Package: “Coding Breaking a Phonological Awareness Perspective” developed by DECS Speech Pathology, 2009
The SPA covers a broad range of early metalinguistic and phonological skills that
have been correlated to literacy development. The items cover:
•word awareness
•rhyme awareness,
•syllable awareness
•sound awareness
•auditory memory and sequencing
•sentence repair
•letter recognition.
Phonological Awareness Skill Map
http://dlb.sa.edu.au/dlsmoodle/course/view.php?id=30
21
Phonics
Phonics
• Also called “alphabetic principle”
• “Letter-sound knowledge”
Phonics
• Print
–
–
–
–
–
Letter-sound correspondences
Blending
Segmenting
Detecting sounds in words
All with the printed form of the word
• Letter formation instruction
– Talking about the shapes of letters
– Writing letters and words in the context of
learning letter-sound relationships
Deslea Konza – 3. Phonics (8:50 min)
Spelling
Stages of Spelling Development
• Emerging print concepts
• Semi-phonetic
• Phonetic
• Transitional
• Proficient
Types of Spelling Knowledge
•Phonological
How words sound
How words look
•Visual
Visual
How words change form
•Morphemic
•Etymological
Where words come from
Spelling by
Kinaesthetic memory is also involved in
the storage and retrieval of spelling
patterns, particularly those of high
frequency words.
Some researchers have observed a
connection between fluent, neat
handwriting and spelling ability.
Vocabulary
Vocabulary knowledge
• Is complex
• Is critical to reading success
• Is developmental
• Requires explicit teaching
Stage 4: knows the word in different contexts
and knows different meanings.
Stage 3: recognises the word in some contexts
but not others
Stage 2: has seen or heard the word but
meanings are not known
Stage 1: has never seen or heard the word
before
Tiers of Vocabulary
Tier 1 – everyday words
Tier 2 – words used in text but not
so frequently in everyday
language
Tier 3 – subject specific vocabulary
Deslea Konza – 5. Vocabulary (5:22 min)
Fluency
Deslea Konza – 4. Fluency (7:07 min)
Some definitions
• Automaticity is defined as fast, accurate
and effortless word identification at the
single word level. The speed and accuracy
at which single words are identified is the
best predictor of comprehension.
• Fluency, on the other hand, involves not
only automatic word identification but also
the application of appropriate prosodic
features (rhythm, intonation, and phrasing)
at the phrase, sentence, and text levels.
Fluency =
automaticity
+
prosody
Passages
Texts
Paragraphs
Phrases
Words
Letters
Sounds
Rapid Automatic Naming
Rate and Fluency Guidelines
Comprehension
Good readers:
• understand the purpose of the text
• monitor their comprehension
• adjust their reading strategies
Students need to be explicitly taught strategies:
• before reading
• during reading
• after reading
Deslea Konza – 6. Comprehension (7:10 min)
Process
What it is…
So I need to teach…
Element of Big Six
______________________________
Ways of assessing…
Instructional methods include …
Element of the Big Six
What it is....
How I assess this skill
Formal / standardised assessments
Summative Assessments
Year Level
Formative Assessments
NIT / Specialist Subject
What and how I explicitly teach –
Wave 1
What I do for intervention...
For students who already know it
For students who haven’t learnt it
after explicit teaching (Wave 2 & 3)
The Big Six Overview P-12
1
2
3
4
5
6
Pre
R
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8+
Early Literacy Experiences
(including Oral Language)
Phonological Awareness
Basic phonics
Advanced Phonics / Spelling
Vocabulary
Fluency
Comprehension
Making Connections / Questioning / Inferring / Visualising / Determining Importance / Summarising / Synthesising in all
learning areas P - 12
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