Second Intermediate Period (1720-1540) 13 Dynasty continues Middle Kingdom culture

Second Intermediate Period
13th Dynasty continues Middle Kingdom culture
of 12th Dynasty
Kush (Nubia)
Kush (Nubia)
Middle Kingdom – heavy trade with Nubia brought prosperity to region
Powerful kingdom developed at Kerma; from start of 12th Dynasty it is called
12th Dynasty pharaohs construct fortresses at
cataracts as protection against Kush
Inability of 13th Dynasty pharaohs to upkeep forts,
turns them into permanent settlements
-1720 – collapse of unified Egypt meant no support
for forts
Kush (Nubia)
Some rulers in Lower Nubia claim pharaonic status
Unable to hold of Kush; by 1650 – all of Lower Nubia peacefully accepts Upper
Nubian takeover
(15th Dynasty, 1650-1540)
Egyptian term: hekau khasut “chieftains of foreign lands”
… incredibly out of parts of the east men of
despicable ethnicity marched boldly against the
land, and seizing it easily by overwhelming force
without fighting a battle. And having taken prisoner
those who were the leaders here, they thereafter
savagely burned the cities and demolished the
gods’ shrines. They treated all the inhabitants most
hatefully, slaughtering some, and leading into
slavery the children and wives of others.
Canaanites already entering into Egypt; collapse in 1720
probably allowed even more to flow into Delta region.
1650, one group of newcomers able to take over Delta,
defeating local rulers - Capitol at Avaris
Shortly after 1650 – 13 Dynasty in Thebes dies out
and is replaced by local dynasty (17th Dynasty)
- Paid tribute to Hyksos
- Likely had marriage ties
1. Metal technology – ability to make bronze
2. Military : horse-drawn chariots with spoked wheels; bronze
helmets, armor of bronze scales
3. Composite bow
Hyksos vs. Thebes
Theban dynasty is subordinate to Hyksos and isolated
Kush (Nubia) and Hyksos form alliance
Thebes builds up army and strike before Kush and Hyksos can
attack it
Hyksos capital at Avaris
Egyptians control Upper Egypt from
Nubia (Kush) controls far south
Seqenenre II (1559-1554) of the
17th Dynasty
Began the Theban attempt to expel Hyksos from Egypt
Khamose – son of Seqenenra
Stele commemorating his successful campaigns in the north against the
Manages to get all the way to Avaris, but doesn’t take the city
Ahmose (1550-1525)
Brother of Khamose
First king of eighteenth dynasty
After 4 attempts, kick Hyksos out of Avaris and out
of Egypt.
Campaigns in Nubia
Married to his sister Ahmose Nefertari
Amenhotep I (1525-1504)
Son of Ahmose
Campaigns in Nubia
Memphis – political capital
Thebes – religious capital
First pharaoh buried in the Valley of the Kings
Valley of the Kings
Thutmosis I (1504-1491)
Not related to Amenhotep by blood – possibly married into royal family
Began with campaigns in south against Nubia
Then moved north against Syria.
Extensive work on the Temple of Amun at Karnak
Thutmosis I
• Ahmose son of Ebana: “His majesty [Thutmosis I] arrived at
Naharin (N’-h’-ry-n’ = Mittani in N. Syria)… his majesty made
a great slaughter among them.”
• Ahomse-pen-nekhbet: “Again I served for King Okheperkere
[Thutmosis I], triumphant; I captured for him in the country of
Naharin (N’-h-ry-n’), 21 hands, one horse, and one chariot”
• Ineni: “[Thutmosis I] the Good God, who smites the Nubians,
lord of might, who overthrows the Asiatics”
Thutmosis II (1491-1479)
Younger son of Thutmosis I
Married his half-sister Hatshepsut
Thutmosis III (1479-1425)
Hatshepsut (1479-1458)
Hatshepsut (1479-1458)
Half-sister and wife of Thutmose II ; aunt
of Thutmose III
Originally named regent for Thutmose III,
but takes throne and becomes pharaoh
“The Holy of Holies”
Thutmose (c. year 47)
Year 24:
“The tribute of the chief of Assur…”
Year 33:
“Behold, his majesty went north capturing the towns and
laying waste the settlements of that foe of wretched
Naharin… His majesty arrived at the city of Niy, going
southward, when his majesty returned, having set up his
tablet in Naharin, extending the boundaries of Egypt”
“The tribute of the chief of Shinar [i.e. Babylon]…”
“The tribute of Hatti the Great…”
Amenhotep II (1428-1397)
“Then the ruler of Naharin, the ruler of Hatti, and the ruler of
Sangar (Babylon) acknowledged the great victory which I had
performed, everyone imitating his neighbor with every
present of every foreign country. They spoke from their hearts
on behalf of their ancestors, in order to request gifts from his
Majesty and in quest of the giving of the breath of life to
Thutmosis IV (1397-1388)
Dream Stele – justifies his accession to (or usurpation of?) the throne
Amenhotep III (1388-1350)
Mittani Marriage Scarab
“The king of Upper and Lower Egypt, lord of the cult
act, Nebmaatre, chosen of Re, the son of Re
Amonhotep, ruler of Thebes, given life; the great
royal wife Tiye, may she live. The name of her father
is Yuya; the name of her mother is Tuya. Marvels
which were brought to his majesty, (life, prosperity,
health), the daughter of the Chief (wr) of Nahrin,
Shuttarna, Kelu-Heba, and the choicest of her female
entertainers: 317 women.”
Amenhotep IV / Akhenaten (1350-1334)
During reign of Amenhotep III, the pharaoh began to increasingly
focus religion on the Aton, the solar orb; his son Amenhotep IV
follows suit
Year 4: began to build city for his god, calling it Akhetaton
“Horizon of the Sun Disk” or “The Transfigured Spirit of the
Solar Orb”
Moved capital from Thebes to Akhetaton
Year 8 or 9: changed writing of the name Aton, removing
hieroglyphs symbolizing sun as falcon
Began to have names of other gods removed from stele,
especially Amun.
Akh – “glorified being of light”
Akhetaton – “place where Aton is transformed into the
glorified being”
Amenhotep IV changes name to:
Akhenaton – proclaiming that he is the transfigured form of the
Religious Revolution
Complete change in religious beliefs.
Aton was the highest god, and the only other gods were the king and his wife
Afterlife could only be bestowed by the divine royal couple
Special favors could only be asked for from the Aton through the divine royal couple
Worship of no other god was allowed, including all household deities. Evidence that
the royal couple became a substituted source of veneration.
Smenkhkare (1336-1334)
Nefertiti disappears from records around year 14 or so (very
likely died)
Akhenaton marries Meritaton, one of his daughters and raises
her to her mother’s position
Names Smenkhkare (a son?) as co-regent with Akhenaton
Takes Nefertiti’s place as third divinity (along with the
Aton and with Akhenaton)
Akhenaton dies in his year 17, less than year later,
Smenkhkare dies too
Tutankhaton/Tutankhamun (c. 1334-1325)
9 or 10 when he gets throne; Ay, father of Nefertiti rules as regent
Tut marries his half-sister
Restoration of old religion.
Dies at age of 18 or 19