A Humanizing Pedagogy in support of the DDPA Prof Andre Keet

A Humanizing Pedagogy in
support of the DDPA
Human Rights Council (IGWG on the DDPA)
Prof Andre Keet
Universities of Free State and Pretoria
October 2011
11 January 2017
 The
 Meaning of HP
 Development of HP
 [Ex] changing pedagogies
 The nature of HP
 Practical Principles
 Conceptual Principles
11 January 2017
What is the human?
Where is the human?
Humans are animals of culture/ active
agents who create cultures
In systems that they create
Developments in biogenetics,
biotechnology, bio-prospecting/
In structures that they develop to
imprison them
Bioethics and the concept of ‘dignity’ vs
personal autonomy
In Derrida’ text from where language
speaks us (not us speaking it)
In Foucault’ discourses ... As by products
of discursive regimes
Human genome projects ... Reaffirming
Becoming machine
Ethics ... “Reflections from a damage
Human consciousness follows production
11 January 2017
Meaning of ‘human’:
 French: ‘humain’ … of or belonging to ‘man’
 Latin: ‘humanus’ … related to homo … ‘man’
 humus "earth" … notion of "earthly beings”
Meaning of ‘ize’:
 Suffix forming verbs/ thus to ‘imbue with humaneness’
Pedagogy: “Art of teaching”
Humanizing Pedagogy: Art of teaching that is ‘imbued with and
advances humaneness’ … a pedagogy that ‘cultivates humanity’
11 January 2017
Dominance of Behaviourist Pedagogies
the work of
Freire and
concern for
to merge
critical and
HP emerged
within the
health and
Progressive Education Theories
Postcolonial/ poststructuralist ET
Positivist Education Theory
11 January 2017
 Fundamental
 Critical Pedagogy
 Pedagogy of Hospitality
 Messianic Pedagogy
 Post-structural/ postcolonial
 Pedagogy of discomfort
 Hopeful pedagogies
 Pedagogies of nostalgia
 Post-conflict pedagogies
 Humanizing pedagogies
11 January 2017
 “Humanization
 “A
is the ontological vocation of
humanising pedagogy expresses the
consciousness of the students”.
(Freire, 1970)
11 January 2017
“There is no learning or humanization
without the act of mutual dialogue. Yet
for dialogue to be transformative it
needs to be carried out in relations of
love, mutual respect, and trust. If the
capacity to dialogue offers an
alternative to the ‘‘banking concept’’ of
education, it does so because it no
longer reduces the oppressed human
being to the status of a thing or
(Freire, 1970)
11 January 2017
“humanizing pedagogy” is a pedagogy in
which the whole person develops and they do
so as their relationships with others evolve
and enlarge. Hence the teacher and the
teacher’s development become part of the
equation. Humanizing pedagogy becomes a
process of becoming for all parties.
(Price and Osborne, 2006)
11 January 2017
 Courageously
humane teaching – borne of a
commitment not only to transfer specific and
meaningful academic knowledge but to
further the overall wellness of human beings
– is needed by all students [and teachers].
(Michael Mwangaza, 2006)
11 January 2017
A humanizing, democratic education needs to emphasize the
multiple possibilities of agency as well as the hope of
living in a more emancipated society.
A democratic education would seek to develop a process of
learning that assisted public forms of participation but also
enabled students to produce new forms of democratic
(Giroux, 2006)
11 January 2017
A humanizing pedagogy will point us toward a
world that is more harmonious and more
humane, less discriminatory, and more just.
(Donaldo Macedo, 2006)
11 January 2017
should be
Interdisciplinary, and;
11 January 2017
 Communicating
 Providing constructive feedback;
 Designing teaching methods that consider:
diverse learning styles,
ways of knowing, and
previous experience and background knowledge;
 Creating
multiple ways for students to
demonstrate their knowledge
11 January 2017
model of exclusion/ inclusion:
Personal/ psychological exclusion: thoughts, feelings,
actions, prejudice, attitudes: etc.
Cultural exclusion through shared ways of seeing,
thinking and doing … normative frames as the “totality
of background meanings, norms, discourses, and
practices” to “which the self orient itself”
Structural exclusion though networks of social divisions
and social forces sewn into fabric of society
11 January 2017
Social justice …
… generally refers to the
idea of creating a
society or institution
that is based on the
principles of equality
and solidarity, that
understands and values
human rights, and that
recognizes the dignity
of every human being.
11 January 2017
Mutual Vulnerability
Students must suspend their cultural default drive (that critical
minimum of ways, customs, manners, gestures and postures that
facilitate uninhibited, unselfconscious action) in favour of that of
the lecturer … this is the burdensome condition of critical selfconsciousness.
Some students are included (and advantaged) since they share the cultural
default drive of the lecturer/ institution
Others are excluded … (and disadvantaged)
Through mutual vulnerability the burden of constant selfconsciousness must be shared between lecturers and students
and amongst students…to work against cultural arrogance and the
normative frames of the dominant cultures
11 January 2017
Challenging Epistemic Injustice
(Fricker, 2007)
EI refers to a wrong done to someone
specifically in their capacity as a knower
One form of epistemic injustice is testimonial injustice which
when prejudice causes a hearer to give a deflated level of
credibility to a speaker’s word (for example, you are less
believable as a speaker or writer when you are black).
11 January 2017
Curriculum as Discourse
Refers to the relationships between disciplines, curriculum, courses,
vocations and the professional, intellectual and institutional
practices that create and maintain modes of classification,
control and containment that construct disciplinary and
professional identities along social, economic, cultural, racial
and other fault-lines already resident in society.
Exclusion is already facilitated by the way in which
curricula and disciplines are organised!!
11 January 2017
Understanding Power and Privilege
Social practices, like education, are supported by power
Power refers to relations based on social, political and
material asymmetries (structural and otherwise)… by
which some are rewarded and others are sanctioned.
These asymmetries allow the workings of social systems to
perpetuate privilege …/ and inequalities
11 January 2017