Mental Training- Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Application Mark Stanbrough, Ph.D.

Mental Training- Bridging the
Gap Between Theory and
Application
Mark Stanbrough, Ph.D.
Emporia State University
Emporia High School
Great Coaches
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Have a passion for athletes they work
with
Love their athletes
Have a passion for the sport they coach
Have a vision
Develop training plans
Teach skills
Develop each athlete’s mental skills and
confidence
Sports Psychology
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Not something to fear or avoid
Not mystical or magical
Simple and logical
Most coaches possess the basis for it
IT’S ABOUT THINKING RIGHT
Fixing Problems?
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Challenging athletes
I have a problem can you fix it?
Lack of: confidence, motivation,
concentration, self-discipline, respect,
overarousal, poor communication
Thought of as REACTIVE
The horse is out of the barn at that
time-it’s already broken!
BE PROACTIVE
The job of the coach is to develop the
athlete’s core confidence!
 Provide an experience for athletes to:
prepare better
perform better
be happier
more fulfilled
Also prepares them for life
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Trees Grow Slowly
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Be positive
Build athletes up
Communication-Golden Rule
Monitor and build each athlete’s
confidence
How much of athletics is mental?
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How much time do you spend on the
mental?
Do we believe it’s important?
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Do athletes either have it or don’t have
psychological skills?
Do coaches have the background?
Do we have the time?
Research
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1973- Dr. Leroy Walker, Olympic Coach
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Importance of a “psychological winning
edge”
USATF Sports Psychology- started in
1982
1988 Olympic trials- 85% used mental
training- Ungerleider & Golding
Canadian Olympic team- 99%- Williams
Theories of Mental Training
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Symbolic Learning Theory
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Blueprint deep in mind
Psychoneuromuscular Theory
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Produces small muscular contractions
EMG of skiers
Chevreul’s pendulum
Mind-Body
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Fight or flight system
Mugger
Lemon
Walking the board
The world’s greatest computer is in
your mind!
Stages of a Mental Training
Program
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Relaxation
Affirmations
Mental Recall
Mental Rehearsal
Goals
Relaxation
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Achieve an optimal arousal level
Inverted U-theory
Relaxation
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Prepares one for imagery
Conscious (rational) mind
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Views things as they currently are
Likes status quo
Comfortable with way things are
Subconscious Mind
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Accepts new ideas and images
The POWER TO MOVE THE WORLD IS
IN YOUR SUBCONSCIOUS MIND…
William James
Imagination Rules Your World
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To have what you have not, you must
do what you have not done!
A narrow comfort zone makes dream
achieving impossible.
The comfort zone junkie is satisfied and
fears making mistakes.
Dream it. See it. Believe it. Achieve
it.
Relaxation Techniques
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Progressive relaxation
Breathing rhythms
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Inhalation phase
Exhalation phase
Inhale without any conscious thought
Focus on the exhalation phase
Eliminate points of tension
Affirmations
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Powerful statements that repeated over
and over will lead to changed beliefs.
I am the greatest!
I am strong!
I am fast!
I run relaxed!
I explode!
5 P’s of Affirmations
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Positive
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Present Tense
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These are your words
Powerful
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“I am”
“I can” or “I will” or try is an early quit.
Personal
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Positive talk filters down to subconscious
Action words such as power, strong, explode
Point
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Short and to the point
Cue Words
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Power word in your affirmation.
When your mind draws up the image
your body responds
The more often affirmations are
repeated the more noticeable the
desired effect.
Quick
Strong
Power Picture
Attack
Mental Recall
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Recall one of your best performance
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In the flow
Everything worked perfectly
Puts you in a positive frame of mind
Mental Rehearsal
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Preview the upcoming performance
Use positive frame of mind
You guide the mind- you’re in control
Visualize different situations
Visualize performance with
neuromuscular blueprint
Mental Rehearsal- Meet
Situations
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800 meters
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Pace
Surges
Start
Maintain
Contact
Push through comfort zone
Kick
Goal Setting
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Research shows it improves
performance by 16%
Athletes need info on how to set goals
Once goals are set, work with them
Goal Guidelines
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Challenging but realistic- art of coaching
Inch by inch, it’s a cinch
Be specific and measurable
Performance goals versus outcome goals
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You have control only over yourself
Short term, intermediate, long term
Identify steps to reach your goals
Practice goals
Write down your goals
Athletes have major input, coaches advise
Follow up with goals
Limit to 2-3 major goals
Practice
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To starting line
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Talent and genetics are outside your control
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Am if good enough to win?
Has my preparation given me the best chance to
perform to my potential?
Can’t choose to be taller or have more fast twitch
fibers
Can choose to practice consistently with a
high degree of quality
Practice makes Pe________
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When athletes compete, their bodies
respond in the same way they were
trained to perform.
Learned responses occur automatically
in times of high stress
Incorporate mental training into
practice
Negative versus Positive SelfTalk
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Third throw- Poor
first throw, 2ndsector foul
I've got to get a
good throw. What if
I foul?
Anxiety, pressure
Overarousal
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Third throw- Poor
first throw, 2ndsector foul
Composed, focus on
process of throw,
easy out of back,
good position,
explode
Focused, confident
Optimal arousal
Example Cues
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Hurdles: Drive to erect, fast, attack
Sprints: Sound releases, quick hands, Go!
800: Control, hot track, quick hands
High Jump: Push, grab the ground, pop
Long Jump: Push, rock rolling downhill, grab the
board
Shot: Compress, push, fire hips
Javelin: Run away from hand, push off and
extend, left arm, right leg
Meet Jitters
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The goal is to get the butterflies flying in
formation.
Achieve optimal level of arousal
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Pre-meet routine
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Different for different people
Relaxation, say affirmations
Stay positive
Be confident of yourself
The feeling of fear before a contest is called
EXCITEMENT!
Evaluations
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Mental Toughness Questionaire
Mental Training Skills
Meet
Practice
Mid-season
End of season
Motivational Strategies
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Bulletin Board
Team Goals, Individual Goals for meet
Motivational sayings- daily, team
developed
Team motto- ROHO
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Two teams, one dream
Reach out and touch someone
Motivational Strategies
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Power songs
Power videos
Get rid of stinking thinking
Draw goals
Training diaries
Mental training logs
Develop strong beliefs
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In yourself
In your coach or leaders
In your philosophy of life
Mental toughness is learned. You are not
born with it….. Joe Vigil
A solid mental training program shifts the
rewards form extrinsic to intrinsic.
Today I gave the best I had. For what I’ve
kept I’ve lost forever.
Ordinary People With
Extraordinary Desire
What type of athlete do you like
to coach?
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Come early
Stay late
What can I do to be great?
They know there is room for
improvement.
Resources
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The Mental Athlete, Kay Porter
The Mindset for Winning, Jack Curtis
In Pursuit of Excellence, Terry Orlick
The Psychology of High-Performance Track
and Field- Ralph Vernacchia and Traci Statler
Sports Coach Psychology:
http://www.brianmac.demon.co.uk/psych.ht
m
Sport Psychology: http://wwwpersonal.umich.edu/~bing/oversite/sportpsyc
h.html
Contact
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For relaxation, affirmations, mental
recall, and mental rehearsal scripts,
evaulations, goals, please e-mail.
Mark Stanbrough, Box 4013, Emporia
State University, Emporia, KS 66801
[email protected]
620-341-5399
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