Intelligent packaging Smart packaging

Intelligent packaging
Smart packaging
Intelligent packaging
• monitors and gives information about
the quality of the packed food;
• is a system that monitors conditions
surrounding food and gives information
about its quality during transport and
• Intelligent package – cover with
Applications in practice
• Controlling critical control points
• The importance of consumers knowing
what they are buying.
Types of indicators
• External indicators
• Time-temperature indicators
• Indicators of physical shock
• Internal indicators
• placed
- in atmosphere of packaging
- part of the lid
• Indicators of O2, CO2, MO and pathogens.
• Others
• Special line codes
• Specific indicators
Give information about
Storage conditions
Food stored under
chilled and frozen
Oxygen indicator
Redox dyes
pH dyes
Storage conditions
package leak
Foods stored in
packages with reduced
oxygen concentration
Indicator of CO2
Storage conditions
package leak
Foods package in MAP
or CAP
Microbial growth
indicators MO
Freshness indicators
pH dyes,
All dyes reacting with
certain metabolites
Microbial quality of
foods (i.e. spoilage)
Perishable foods such
as meat, fish, poultry.
Pathogen indicators
Various chemical and
immunochemical methods
reacting with toxins
Specific pathogenic
bacteria such as
E. coli O157
Perishable foods such
as meat, fish, poultry.
A) Intelligent packaging to improve
product quality and value
B) Intelligent packaging providing
more comfort
A) Intelligent packaging to improve
product quality and value
1. Freshness indicators and indicators
of microbial quality.
• Principle – interaction between food
and indicator.
• The resources for this interaction can be various
substances of food e.g. glucose, CO2 , ammonia,
DMA and TMA, biogenic amines, sulphuric
compounds, ethanol, organic acid .....
• Most of concepts are based on a
colour change of the indicator.
a) Fresh Tag®
• Indicator sensitive to volatile nitrogen
• Is typical for packaging of fish.
• Colour change in response to the release of
volatile amines, which are typical of ageing and
degradation of fish meat by microorganism.
• It is a label that contains a plastic chip with
a reagent and „taper“, which passes into
b) Indicator of H2S
• for determining the quality of poultry products
packed in MAP.
• Freshness indicator is based on the colour
change of myoglobin by H2S, which is produced
in considerable amounts during the ageing of
packed poultry during storage.
• The indicators were prepared by applying
commercial myoglobin dissolved in a sodium
phosphate buffer on small squares of agarose.
c) Chromogen indicators
• based on a colour change of chromogenic
substrates after reaction with enzymes
produces by contaminating microbes,
• suitable for detecting microbial contamination
in liquid products.
d) Knife sampler of meat freshness
• based on an assessment of the glucose gradient
at the surface of meat.
• On the surface of meat a MO primarily use
glucose, sampler which indirectly determines
the level of bacterial contamination and
consequently the freshness of the product.
e) indicator Toxin GuardTM
• System used PE packaging materials that
contain immobilized antibodies to detect the
presence of pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella,
Campylobacter, E. coli O157, Listeria)
• Bacterial toxin is bound to the immobilized
antibody in contact with packaging material,
reaction – colour change.
f) CO2 indicator
• Monitoring the formation of CO2 generated
by the growth of MO,
• indicator responds to the change in pH by
changing colour.
f) Indicators sensitive to pH change
• These concepts are based on the use of pHdyes, which change colour in the presence of
volatile compounds produced during spoilage.
g) Indicators sensitive to
miscellaneous microbial metabolites
• A diamine dye-based sensor system
responding to the presence of
diacetyl vapour.
• Diacetyl is a volatile compound
evolving from meat.
• Diacetyl migrating through the
packaging material would react with
the dye and induce a colour change.
2. Temperature indicators
• provide an overview of the temperatures that were
actually exposed to packaged product
• heating of food, cold chain
• principle
microbiological and enzymatic reactions
• response
= reversible colour change of indicator
= mechanical deformation
= movement of colour field etc.
Type of temperature indicators
• Critical temperature indicators (CTI)
• show exposure above (or below) a reference
temperature the indicator reversible changes
colour of indicator.
• Critical time-temperature indicators (CTTI)
• respond to the change of critical time and critical
• Indicators of time and temperature
• give a continuous, temperature dependent response
throughout the product’s history
ideal temperature for consumption 22 ºC
Time-temperature indicators
• 3M Monitor Mark is diffusion-based indicator
label and is on the color change of an oxidable
chemical system controlled by temperaturedependent permeation through a film. The action
is activated by a blue-dyed fatty acid ester
diffusing along a wick.
• Fresh-Check - is based on a solid state
polymerization reaction, resulting in a highly
coloured polymer. The response of the TTI is the
colour change measurable as a decrease in
• CheckPoint – enzymatic reaction
3. Indicators of gas concentration
(leakage of packaging)
• The principle of operation is based on
changes in oxide-reduction-sensitive
colours (e.g. methylene blue) due to
chemical or enzymatic reactions or as a
result of the colour pigments influence
the pH shift.
O2 indicator
• As indicator of cover leakage (MAP).
• The increased concentration of O2 as the
selected value in MA → indicator irreversibly
changes colour → warns consumers that the
product is not right (which is visually more
noticeable on the product).
• Verification of the effect of oxygen absorber.
• O2 indicator tablet which controlling
normal function of Ageless absorber
• O2 concentration in atmosphere ≤ 0.1 % →
indicator is pink
• O2 concentration in atmosphere ≥ 0.5 % →
indicator is blue
CO2 indicator
• Monitoring of CO2 level in MAP – indicator of
integrity of the packaging (decrease the
concentration of CO2)
• Indicator of microbial stability
Disadvantage :
• Microbial spoilage bacteria can consume O2 captured
as a result of leakage or MO may produce CO2, which
will be located in the space above the food.
Humidity indicator
B) Intelligent packaging
providing more comfort
Thank you for your attention.