Intelligent packaging Smart packaging Intelligent packaging • monitors and gives information about the quality of the packed food; • is a system that monitors conditions surrounding food and gives information about its quality during transport and storage. • Intelligent package – cover with indicator. Applications in practice • Controlling critical control points (HACCP). • The importance of consumers knowing what they are buying. Types of indicators • External indicators • Time-temperature indicators • Indicators of physical shock • Internal indicators • placed - in atmosphere of packaging - part of the lid • Indicators of O2, CO2, MO and pathogens. • Others • Special line codes • Specific indicators Indicator Principle/reagents Give information about Application Time-temperature indicator (ext.) Mechanical, chemical, enzymatic Storage conditions Food stored under chilled and frozen conditions Oxygen indicator (int.) Redox dyes pH dyes enzymes Storage conditions package leak Foods stored in packages with reduced oxygen concentration Indicator of CO2 (int.) chemical Storage conditions package leak Foods package in MAP or CAP Microbial growth indicators MO (int/ext), Freshness indicators pH dyes, All dyes reacting with certain metabolites Microbial quality of foods (i.e. spoilage) Perishable foods such as meat, fish, poultry. Pathogen indicators (int.) Various chemical and immunochemical methods reacting with toxins Specific pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli O157 Perishable foods such as meat, fish, poultry. A) Intelligent packaging to improve product quality and value B) Intelligent packaging providing more comfort A) Intelligent packaging to improve product quality and value 1. Freshness indicators and indicators of microbial quality. • Principle – interaction between food and indicator. • The resources for this interaction can be various substances of food e.g. glucose, CO2 , ammonia, DMA and TMA, biogenic amines, sulphuric compounds, ethanol, organic acid ..... • Most of concepts are based on a colour change of the indicator. a) Fresh Tag® • Indicator sensitive to volatile nitrogen compounds. • Is typical for packaging of fish. • Colour change in response to the release of volatile amines, which are typical of ageing and degradation of fish meat by microorganism. • It is a label that contains a plastic chip with a reagent and „taper“, which passes into container. b) Indicator of H2S • for determining the quality of poultry products packed in MAP. • Freshness indicator is based on the colour change of myoglobin by H2S, which is produced in considerable amounts during the ageing of packed poultry during storage. • The indicators were prepared by applying commercial myoglobin dissolved in a sodium phosphate buffer on small squares of agarose. c) Chromogen indicators • based on a colour change of chromogenic substrates after reaction with enzymes produces by contaminating microbes, • suitable for detecting microbial contamination in liquid products. d) Knife sampler of meat freshness • based on an assessment of the glucose gradient at the surface of meat. • On the surface of meat a MO primarily use glucose, sampler which indirectly determines the level of bacterial contamination and consequently the freshness of the product. e) indicator Toxin GuardTM • System used PE packaging materials that contain immobilized antibodies to detect the presence of pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli O157, Listeria) • Bacterial toxin is bound to the immobilized antibody in contact with packaging material, reaction – colour change. f) CO2 indicator • Monitoring the formation of CO2 generated by the growth of MO, • indicator responds to the change in pH by changing colour. f) Indicators sensitive to pH change • These concepts are based on the use of pHdyes, which change colour in the presence of volatile compounds produced during spoilage. g) Indicators sensitive to miscellaneous microbial metabolites • A diamine dye-based sensor system responding to the presence of diacetyl vapour. • Diacetyl is a volatile compound evolving from meat. • Diacetyl migrating through the packaging material would react with the dye and induce a colour change. 2. Temperature indicators • provide an overview of the temperatures that were actually exposed to packaged product • heating of food, cold chain • principle based on the physical, chemical, microbiological and enzymatic reactions • response = reversible colour change of indicator = mechanical deformation = movement of colour field etc. Type of temperature indicators • Critical temperature indicators (CTI) • show exposure above (or below) a reference temperature. After crossing the critical temperature the indicator reversible changes colour of indicator. • Critical time-temperature indicators (CTTI) • respond to the change of critical time and critical temperature • Indicators of time and temperature • give a continuous, temperature dependent response throughout the product’s history Chocolate ideal temperature for consumption 22 ºC Time-temperature indicators • 3M Monitor Mark is diffusion-based indicator label and is on the color change of an oxidable chemical system controlled by temperaturedependent permeation through a film. The action is activated by a blue-dyed fatty acid ester diffusing along a wick. • Fresh-Check - is based on a solid state polymerization reaction, resulting in a highly coloured polymer. The response of the TTI is the colour change measurable as a decrease in reflectance • CheckPoint – enzymatic reaction 3. Indicators of gas concentration (leakage of packaging) • The principle of operation is based on changes in oxide-reduction-sensitive colours (e.g. methylene blue) due to chemical or enzymatic reactions or as a result of the colour pigments influence the pH shift. O2 indicator • As indicator of cover leakage (MAP). • The increased concentration of O2 as the selected value in MA → indicator irreversibly changes colour → warns consumers that the product is not right (which is visually more noticeable on the product). • Verification of the effect of oxygen absorber. Ageless-eye • O2 indicator tablet which controlling normal function of Ageless absorber • O2 concentration in atmosphere ≤ 0.1 % → indicator is pink • O2 concentration in atmosphere ≥ 0.5 % → indicator is blue CO2 indicator • Monitoring of CO2 level in MAP – indicator of integrity of the packaging (decrease the concentration of CO2) • Indicator of microbial stability Disadvantage : • Microbial spoilage bacteria can consume O2 captured as a result of leakage or MO may produce CO2, which will be located in the space above the food. Humidity indicator B) Intelligent packaging providing more comfort Thank you for your attention.
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