Tennis & Further Education
Taught Lesson Supporting Presentation
Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Extended National Diploma in Sport (Development, Coaching & Fitness)
Aim & Purpose
The aim of this unit is to develop learners’ understanding of the
psychological dimensions of sport and develop techniques to
improve sporting performance.
Learning Outcomes:
1. Know the effect of personality and motivation on sports
2. Know the relationship between stress, anxiety, arousal and
sports performance
3. Know the role of group dynamics in team sports
4. Be able to plan a psychological skills training programme to
enhance sports performance.
Student Task
In your groups consider what you think
Cohesion is and produce a short
• Definition
• Task Cohesion
• Social Cohesion
Aspects of Cohesion
• The concept of cohesion has been an
important factor in the study of group
behavior and its significance is often a
source of motivation for group leaders.
• Clichés such as "Together We Stand,
Divided We Fall", "There is No I in Team",
or "Players Play, Teams Win" are often
used to show individuals the importance of
team cohesion.
Carron, Brawley, and Widmeyer (1998) defined
cohesion as “a dynamic process that is
reflected in the tendency of a group to stick
together and remain united in the pursuit of its
instrumental objectives and/or for the
satisfaction of member needs”
Further Definition
Cohesion is the total field of forces which act on
members to remain in a particular group.
(Festinger, Schacter, & Back, 1950).
Definition of a Cohesive Group
A Collective Identity
A sense of Shared Purpose
Structured patterns of Communication
Carron (1980)
Student Task
What are the characteristics of a cohesive
Consider the following teams:
Liverpool FC (1980’s)
Europe Ryder Cup Team
Chicago Bulls (1996 – 1998)
Any Olympic Team
GB Davis Cup Team
Characteristics of Cohesion
• Motivation
• Respect
• Defined Roles
• Trust
• Group Norms
• Pride
• Common Goals
• Good
• Team Identity
• Synergy
Factors Affecting Group Cohesion
• Individual Member Feelings
• Reasons for Team Membership
• Group Performance
• External Levels of Support
• Communication
• Leadership
• Sense of Identity / Friendship
Task v Social
Task Cohesion
• The degree to which members of the group
work together to achieve common goals
Social Cohesion
• The degree to which members of the group
like each other and enjoy each others
Task Cohesion
• Highly Motivated
• Shared Purpose
• Success Driven
• High Skill Level
Social Cohesion
• Friendship
• Likeness
• Caring
• Emotional Bonds
• Social Connection
• Low Outcome Focus
• Quality
Student Task
You are a new coach who has inherited a
college team that had a great deal of
dissension and infighting last season.
Discuss what you would do before and
during the season to build both task and
social cohesion in your team.
• Definition of Cohesion
• Task Cohesion
• Social Cohesion
• Characteristics of Cohesion
Further Topics
• Social Loafing & Ringelmann Effect
• Performance
• Structures & Roles within Groups & Team
Further Reading
Caroon, A.v., Chelladurai, P. (1981) ‘The Dynamics of
Group Cohesion in Sport’, Journal of Sport & Exercise
Psychology, 3(2)
Shields, D., Gardner, E., et al (1997) ‘The Relationship
Between Leadership Behaviours & Group Cohesion in
Team Sports’, Journal of Psychology, vol 131.