Tennis & Further Education Taught Lesson Supporting Presentation UNIT 17 PYSCHOLOGY FOR SPORTS PERFORMANCE Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Extended National Diploma in Sport (Development, Coaching & Fitness) Aim & Purpose The aim of this unit is to develop learners’ understanding of the psychological dimensions of sport and develop techniques to improve sporting performance. Learning Outcomes: 1. Know the effect of personality and motivation on sports performance 2. Know the relationship between stress, anxiety, arousal and sports performance 3. Know the role of group dynamics in team sports 4. Be able to plan a psychological skills training programme to enhance sports performance. Student Task In your groups consider what you think Cohesion is and produce a short definition Cohesion • Definition • Task Cohesion • Social Cohesion Aspects of Cohesion • The concept of cohesion has been an important factor in the study of group behavior and its significance is often a source of motivation for group leaders. • Clichés such as "Together We Stand, Divided We Fall", "There is No I in Team", or "Players Play, Teams Win" are often used to show individuals the importance of team cohesion. Definition Carron, Brawley, and Widmeyer (1998) defined cohesion as “a dynamic process that is reflected in the tendency of a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the satisfaction of member needs” Further Definition Cohesion is the total field of forces which act on members to remain in a particular group. (Festinger, Schacter, & Back, 1950). Definition of a Cohesive Group A Collective Identity A sense of Shared Purpose Structured patterns of Communication Carron (1980) Student Task What are the characteristics of a cohesive group? Consider the following teams: Liverpool FC (1980’s) Europe Ryder Cup Team Chicago Bulls (1996 – 1998) Any Olympic Team GB Davis Cup Team Characteristics of Cohesion • Motivation • Respect • Defined Roles • Trust • Group Norms • Pride • Common Goals • Good Communication • Team Identity • Synergy Factors Affecting Group Cohesion • Individual Member Feelings • Reasons for Team Membership • Group Performance • External Levels of Support • Communication • Leadership • Sense of Identity / Friendship Task v Social Task Cohesion • The degree to which members of the group work together to achieve common goals Social Cohesion • The degree to which members of the group like each other and enjoy each others company Task Cohesion • Highly Motivated • Shared Purpose • Success Driven • High Skill Level Social Cohesion • Friendship • Likeness • Caring • Emotional Bonds • Social Connection • Low Outcome Focus • Quality Student Task You are a new coach who has inherited a college team that had a great deal of dissension and infighting last season. Discuss what you would do before and during the season to build both task and social cohesion in your team. Summary • Definition of Cohesion • Task Cohesion • Social Cohesion • Characteristics of Cohesion Further Topics • Social Loafing & Ringelmann Effect • Performance • Structures & Roles within Groups & Team Further Reading Caroon, A.v., Chelladurai, P. (1981) ‘The Dynamics of Group Cohesion in Sport’, Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 3(2) Shields, D., Gardner, E., et al (1997) ‘The Relationship Between Leadership Behaviours & Group Cohesion in Team Sports’, Journal of Psychology, vol 131.
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