1. How do the lives of Ted Kaczynski and Alice Walker
illustrate the questions explored in the course
• One question is what leads one person, full of
promise and potential to commit acts of
brutal violence and
• another to change poverty and trauma into a
literary treasure chest.
• Another question is how are different lives
• A third question is how does understanding
lifespan development illuminate the nature of
development and
• how science seeks to ask and answer
questions about development.
2. What is the importance of studying the
development using the lifespan perspective?
• Studying development using the lifespan perspective
illustrates how lives are unique
• contain information about who we are
• how we came to be the way we are and
• where future will likely lead us.
• shows that development involves both growth and
decline as well as changes that occur from
conception until death.
3. What are 8 characteristics of the
lifespan perspective?
• A. lifelong – includes changes from conception until
• B. multidimensional – body, mind and emotions and
relationships change and affect each other
throughout life;
• involves biological, cognitive and socioemotional
• C. multidirectional – in all phases of life some
abilities improve while others decline;
• example is ability to learn second and third
languages decreases as we grow older.
• D. plastic – involves capacity for change and growth
during different stages of life in terms of cognition,
physiology and social and emotional functioning.
• E. multidisciplinary – lifespan perspective
integrates information from psychology,
sociology, anthropology, neurology and
medicine to help us to understand
• F. contextual – lifespan perspective
emphasizes that development occurs in a
particular setting or context (cultural, social,
• context of development has 3 types of
influence on development: 1)normative agegraded; 2)normative history-graded; and
• G. involves 3 goals of growth, maintenance
and regulating loss of functioning.
• H. involves interaction of factors associated
with biology, culture and individual
• biology includes physiological and genetic
factors suggesting tendencies and
• culture provides environment and context;
• individual experience contributes a unique
dimension to each person’s life.
4. What are 4 contemporary concerns
regarding lifespan development?
• A. health and well-being –
• mental and physical health professionals help us to
improve our physical and mental state and feeling of
• physical and psychological lifestyle and state affects
both mental and physical health.
• B. parenting and education –
• Understanding lifespan perspective helps us to
answer questions about pressures on the
family and problems facing educators;
• other issues: child care, divorce, parenting
styles, intergenerational relationships, early
childhood education, efforts to promote
lifelong learning.
• C. social and cultural contexts and diversity –
• 4 concepts:
• 1)culture: behavior patterns, beliefs of a
particular group;
• 2)ethnicity: related to cultural heritage,
nationality, race, religion and language;
• 3)socioeconomic status:
• position in society with regard to occupation,
education and economic resources;
• 4)gender: psychological and social and cultural
experience of being male or female.
• D. social policy –
• government’s course of action for protecting
and promoting the welfare of citizens;
• involves values, economics and politics;
• special concern for children and elderly
5. What are 4 features of the nature of
A. biological, cognitive and socioemotional processes
1)biological processes:
changes in physiology;
examples, genes from parents, brain development,
height and weight gain, hormonal changes in
• 2) cognitive processes:
• changes in thinking, intelligence and language;
• examples, watching a crib mobile, creating
multiword sentences, imagining what is would
be like to president of the United States.
• 3)social and emotional processes:
• changes in relationships with other people,
emotions and personality;
• examples, infant smile in response to
• toddler’s aggressive behavior toward a
• mutual affection expressed by elderly couple.
• B. periods of development –
• time frame in life characterized by certain features,
usually involving an 8-period sequence;
• 1)prenatal period:
• conception to birth;
• from single cell to complete organism with complex
brain and nervous system capable to variety of
• 2) infancy:
• birth to 18-24 months;
• extreme dependency on adults and other
older individuals;
• psychological activity begins;
3) early childhood:
age 2 to 5 or 6;
preschool years;
become more self-sufficient;
learn school readiness skills such as following
instructions and recognizing letters and colors;
4) middle and late childhood:
from 6 to 11 or 12;
elementary school years;
master basic skills of reading, writing and
• achievement is central theme;
• person shows increasing self-control;
5) adolescence:
transition from childhood to early adulthood;
from 10-12 to age 18-22;
begins with rapid physical changes
characteristic of puberty;
• major goals becoming independent and
developing an individual identity;
• thinking more logical and abstract;
• 6) early adulthood:
• from late teens through 30’s;
• establish personal, social, emotional and
economic independence;
• beginning career development;
• select life partner;
• start family and child rearing;
• 7)middle adulthood:
• from early 40’s until around age 60;
• expand personal and social involvement and
• assist next generation;
• reach and maintain career satisfaction.
8) late adulthood:
from 60’s and 70’s until death;
time of review and reflection;
retirement and adjusting to decreasing
strength and health;
• longest span of any developmental period
• C. conceptions of age
• 1)chronological age: number of years since birth;
• 2)biological age: describes biological health and
functional capacity of vital organs, such as heart,
lungs, kidneys, circulatory system;
• 3)psychological age: measure of adaptive
capacities, including ability to learn, establish and
maintain motivation, be flexible and think clearly.
• D. Developmental issues start here mon sep7
• 1) nature and nurture:
• extent to which our development is affected
by biological inheritance and environmental
• evolutionary and genetic tendencies (nature)
as well as environmental setting result in
shared growth and developmental
• some controversy as to how much nature and
nurture influence development.
• 2) stability and change:
• involves degree to which early traits and
characteristics persist throughout life;
• some disagreement about amount of stability
or change we are likely to experience;
• remember idea of plasticity suggesting
potential for change exists throughout the
• 3)continuity and discontinuity:
• focus on degree to which development is
gradual and continuous or
• occurs in distinct stages;
• usually continuous within stages and
discontinuous or discrete between stages.
• 6. Describe 6 theoretical approaches that help
understand development –>theory = set of related
ideas about development that explain what happens
and why
A. psychoanalytic
B. Cognitive
C. Behavioral and Social Cognitive
D. Ethological
E. Ecological
F. Eclectic
• Testing a theory involves using scientific
• a. state a process or problem to be studied;
• b. collect research information or data;
• c. analyze the data;
• d. draw conclusions;
• e. share findings with others.
• A. psychoanalytic –
• assumes development is mostly unconscious
and influenced by emotions;
• emphasizes behavior consists of mainly
surface characteristics;
• true understanding involves analyzing
symbolic meaning;
• stresses early childhood experiences.
• Examples of psychoanalytic theories from Sigmund
Freud and Erik Erikson;
• Freud suggested 5 stages of development including
• oral, anal, phallic, latent and genital;
• personality depends on how we resolve conflicts
between sources of pleasure and demands of reality
at each stage.
• Erikson proposed 8 stages of development;
• each stage involves unique developmental task
presenting the person with a crisis to resolve.
• Erickson’s crises are turning points characterized by
increased vulnerability and potential.
• Erickson’s stages:
• 1)trust vs mistrust – first year
• 2)autonomy vs shame and doubt – second
• 3)initiative vs guilt – ages 3-5
4) industry vs inferiority – ages 6-12
5)identity vs role confusion – ages 13-19
6)intimacy vs isolation – 20’s -30’s
7) generativity vs stagnation – 40’s-50’s
8)integrity vs despair – 60’s -death
• B. Cognitive theories –
• emphasize effects of conscious thoughts on
• Examples of cognitive theories
• a. Piaget’s cognitive stages,
• b. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural cognitive theory,
• c. information processing theory.
• a. Piaget: proposed 4 stages of cognitive
• sensorimotor,
• preoperational,
• concrete operational and
• formal operational;
• suggested we actively construct our understanding of
the world;
• Cognitive understanding involves organization
(deciding how to separate ideas and describe
how the ideas relate to each other) and
• adaptation (adjusting to environmental
• Each stage is age-related and characterized by
a distinct way of thinking that is qualitatively
different from thinking in other stages.
• Description of Piaget’s cognitive stages:
• birth to 2 years;
• coordinate sensory experiences with physical motor
or muscle responses;
• 2)preoperational
• 2-7 years;
• represent world with words, images and
• lack ability to perform operations
• internalized mental actions
• allow child to accomplish mentally what could
previously be done only physically.
• 3)concrete operational
• 7-12 years; perform operations involving
• reason logically when reasoning applied to
specific or concrete examples.
4)formal operational
from 11-15 through adult life;
think in abstract and logical terms;
develop images of ideal circumstances used
for comparison with reality;
• think about future possibilities;
• Formal operations more systematic in
problem solving compared to earlier stages;
• develop hypotheses about why something
happens and test hypotheses.
• b. Vygotsky’s sociocultural cognitive theory:
• believed child actively constructs knowledge about
the world;
• emphasized effects of social interaction and culture;
• believed child development inseparable from social
and cultural activities;
• Vygotsky proposed cognitive development
involves learning to use social inventions such
as language, math, memory strategies;
• believed social interaction with skilled adults
and peers essential to cognitive development;
• learn through social interaction to use tools
needed for adaptation and success in a
particular culture.
• c. Information processing theory:
• emphasizes manipulating and monitoring
• developing strategies about information;
• propose a gradually increasing capacity for
processing information
• allowing a person to acquire increasingly
complex knowledge and skills;
• IP theory proposes people perceive, encode,
represent, store and retrieve information
while thinking;
• important to learn effective information
processing strategies.
• C. Behavioral and social cognitive
• development described in terms
of behaviors learned through
interaction with the environment.
• a. behaviorism:
• study scientifically only what we directly
observe and measure;
• examples:
• Skinner’s operant conditioning
• Bandura’s social cognitive theory
• 1)Skinner’s operant conditioning theory =
• consequences of behavior produce changes in
probability of behavior occurring;
• behavior followed by reward more likely to
occur later;
• behavior followed by punishment or no
consequences less likely to occur in the future;
• Skinner’s key to development: behavior rather
than thought and feelings;
• emphasize development as pattern of
behavioral changes resulting from rewards
and punishment.
• 2)Bandura’s social cognitive theory
• propose behavior, environment and
personal+cognitive factors key to
• emphasize cognitive processes important link
to environment and behavior;
• early focus on observational learning(imitation
or modeling)
• we learn by observing others;
• Bandura’s cognitive link to observational
learning: person representing behavior
cognitively or mentally and
• adopting the observed behavior;
• most recent model of social cognitive theory
has 3 elements:
• behavior, personal cognition and
• person develops while experiencing
confidence about controlling success in life
• based on cognitive strategies learned and
• D. Ethological theory –
• stresses behavior influenced by biology and
• behavior characterized by critical periods or
sensitive periods
• or special time frames associated with the
absence or presence of experiences having
lasting influence on the person’s
• Examples – Konrad Lorenz and John Bowlby
• Lorenz’s critical period is important for
imprinting very early in life as with baby
• Sensitive periods similar to Bowlby’s idea of a
time period in the life of human infants.
• 1) Konrad Lorenz promoted ethology
• the study of animal behavior with emphasis
on the behavioral patterns that occur in
natural environments.
• Lorenz studied behavior of greylag geese who
follow mother soon after hatching;
• Lorenz separated a group of eggs from one
mother goose;
• Group A eggs were returned to mother goose
for hatching and care;
• these baby geese later behaved as expected;
• Group B eggs were hatched in an incubator
and saw “mother” Lorenz immediately after
• later all baby geese placed in a box with a lid;
• when lid was lifted Group A babies headed for
mother goose as expected;
• Group B babies headed for “mother”Lorenz;
• Lorenz called the process imprinting, a rapid
innate learning involved in attachment to the
first moving object viewed after hatching.
• 2) John Bowlby proposed important
application of ethology to development;
• suggested a child’s attachment to caregiver
during first year of life is important influence;
• if attachment is positive and secure, future
development is likely positive;
• if attachment is negative and insecure, future
develop likely characterized by problems.
• E. Ecological theory – emphasizes
environmental factors effect on development
• 1. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory:
• development reflect effects of 5
environmental systems:
• a. microsystem – setting in which person lives,
such as family, peers, school, neighborhood;
• most direct interaction with social agents such
as parents, teachers and peers;
• person helps to construct developmental
• b. mesosystem –
• Controls relations between microsystem and
connections between contexts;
• example: relationship between family and
school or school and church;
• c. exosystem – links between social setting
where individual is not active and person’s
immediate context;
• example – child’s experience at home
influenced by mom’s experience at work;
• d. macrosystem –
• culture in which individual lives
• Includes behavior patterns, beliefs and
products of a group shared among different
generations; and
• e. chronosystem –
• pattern of environmental events and
transitions over life course
• plus sociohistorical circumstances;
• examples – divorce as transition;
• recent increased career opportunities for
women as sociohistorical circumstances.
• Recent addition of biological influences has
resulted in bioecological theory,
• heavy emphasis on ecological influences.
• F. Eclectic theoretical orientation –
• All theories together form a more complete
picture of development.
• Psychoanalytic theories best at explaining
unconscious mind.
• Erikson’s theory best to explain adult
• Piaget and Vygotsky + information processing
theory best to explain cognitive development.
• Behavioral and social cognitive + ecological
theories best to explain environmental
• Ethological theory best to explain effects of
biological factors and influence of sensitive
• Course textbook best described as eclectic in
7. Describe 3 features of research
in development
• A. 5 methods for collecting data,
• B. 3 research designs;
• C. 3 time frames for research
A. Methods for collecting data:
1)observation: must be systematic;
know what you are looking for;
know when, where and how to make
observations and how to record observations;
• where to make observations – in laboratory or
everyday life;
• observe scientifically in controlled conditions
in laboratory;
• drawbacks to lab:
• unnatural setting,
• participants aware of observation,
• people willing to come to lab may not be
typical; -
• participants could be intimidated by lab
• naturalistic (everyday life) observations:
• eg observing parents and children in science
museum with no attempt to control or
influence behavior.
• Observations easier to relate to typical
• 2) surveys and interviews:
• ask people directly;
• survey or questionnaire using standard set of
• useful to get information on wide range of
information; -
• Difficulty with surveys and interviews:
• people tend to give what they consider
socially acceptable answers.
• 3)standardized tests:
• uniform procedure for administering and
• allow comparison with other people;
• gives information about individual differences;
• example: Stanford-Binet intelligence test (Ch
7); -
• Criticism of standardized tests:
• assume behavior is consistent and stable;
• however, personality and intelligence,
commonly studied using standardized tests,
can vary with situation or setting.
• 4) case study:
• In-depth study of single individual or a few
• provides information for a specific person or a
small group such as a family;
• information can come from interviews and
medical records; -
• cautious about generalizing to other
individuals or families;
• unknown reliability.
• 5. physiological measures:
• often used to study development at different
times during lifespan;
• example: blood levels of hormones in
adolescence, early, mid and late adulthood; 
• also neuroimaging such as functional
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) 
• use electromagnetic waves to construct
images of brain tissue and biochemical
• 3 research strategies
• 1. descriptive - all methods previously listed
can be used in descriptive studies;
• cannot be used to support cause and effect or
to predict behavior;
• can be source of extensive information
• 2. correlational –
• helps to predict how people will act, think,
and feel in the future;
• goal: describe relationship between 2 or more
• example: ask if children of permissive parents
are likely to show decreased self-control; -
• analyze data statistically using correlation
coefficient (number ranging from +1.00 to 1.00);
• positive number indicates variables are
related in the same direction;
• negative number shows variables are related
in opposite direction; -
• higher number shows stronger relationship
and better prediction;
• lower number shows weaker relationship and
worse predictions.
• 3. Experimental research –
• experiment is carefully controlled procedure;
• can determine cause and effect relationships;
2 types of variables:
(controlled by experimenter;
is a potential cause;
manipulated by experimenter independently
of other variables) and-
• dependent 
• (can change in the experiment in response to
the independent variable;
• dv’s are measured for potential effects).
• Example:
• study whether meditation could cause
newborns sleeping and breathing patterns to
• Group A moms meditate and Group B moms
do not; then-
• study newborns breathing patterns from both
groups to see whether there is a difference to
test the hypothesis;
2 types of groups:
(receives the experimental treatment) and
(does not receive experimental treatment;
provides a baseline comparison level);
• random assignment to experimental and
control groups important
• reduces effects of experimenter bias and
participant expectations.
• C. 3 Time spans or Time frames of research:
• cross-sectional;
• longitudinal,
• cohort effects
• 1. cross-sectional –
• compares several groups of participants of
different ages at same time;
• example: study 3 groups of children, ages 5, 8
and 11;
• can be compared using variety of independent
and dependent variables such as IQ, memory
or peer relationships; -
• advantage:
• economical in time, money and effort;
• drawback: no information about stability and
change across time in factors studied for
individual participants;
• 2. longitudinal – same individuals studied over
a certain period of time, such as 5, 10 or 20
• gives information about stability and change
for individuals as well as influence of early
experience for later development;
• drawbacks:
• expensive and time-consuming;
• participants may drop out for variety of
reasons, creating a source of positive or
negative bias.
• 3. cohort effects –
• cohort is group of people born at similar point
in time;
• share similar experiences;
• example: live through Korean, Vietnam or
Middle Eastern war;
• shared experiences result in range of
differences compared to other cohorts; -
• Cohort effects result from time of birth, era or
• not necessarily related to actual age.
8. How can research designer make
sure the research is ethical?
• Important to know rights of research
participants, whether you are experimenter or
• proposed research studies at colleges and
universities must meet standards imposed by
research ethics committees;
• American Psychological Association has
established important ethical guidelines;
• research participants should be protected
from mental and physical harm.
• 4 important issues:
• a. informed consent (know what research
involves and possible risks);
• b. confidentiality (keep all data confidential
and, if possible, completely anonymous);
• c. debriefing
• (after study discuss purpose of research and
methods used);
• d. deception
• (if deception used, ensure deception will
cause no harm;
• afterward tell participants about the nature of
the study).
• 1. What ideas do the stories of the Jim and Jim
twins and the giggle sisters illustrate about
genetic heritage and biological factors effect
on development?
• A. Jim and Jim, separated at birth,
demonstrate the effects of genetic similarity.
Similar jobs, vacations, cars, pet names, wife
names, personal habits, and physiological
• B. Daphne and Barbara (giggle sisters) also
separated in young infancy, also showed
similar characteristics.
• C. Can other factors cause similarities? twins
share some experiences as well as genes.
• 2. What are features of the evolutionary
• A. Natural selection and adaptive behavior -
natural selection: process by which individual
in a species best adapted survive and
• Charles Darwin suggested struggle for food,
water and resources occurs among young
because some don’t survive;
• survivors who reproduce pass genes to next
• those best adapted to survive leave more
• B. Evolutionary psychology:
• emphasizes importance of adaptation,
reproduction and survival fittest in shaping
• fit = ability to bear offspring who are capable
of surviving to have offspring of their own;
• natural selection favors behavior that
increases reproductive success;
• David Buss (2008) suggests evolution
influences decisions, aggressive tendencies,
emotions and mating choices;
• example: among a culture of hunters and
gatherers, those who hunted needed certain
physical traits as well as cognitive abilities to
be successful hunters;
• successful hunters could have passed these
traits to their offspring.
• C. Developmental evolutionary psychology:
• application of evolutionary psychology to
understand development;
• extended human childhood evolved because
humans required time to develop large brains
and learn about human society;
• many psychological mechanisms are domain
• applying only to specific aspects of individual
makeup, such as information processing;
• the idea that mind is not a general purpose
• specific information processing skills
developed contributing to ancestors task
3. What are some features of the genetic
foundations of development?
A. Genetic process:
begin life as single cell;
contains genetic code;
nucleus of each cell contains chromosomes,
made of DNA;
• genes are short segments of DNA which direct
cells to reproduce cells and assemble proteins;
• hormones circulate in the blood and activate
or deactivate genes;
• hormone flow also influenced by
environmental conditions such as light,
nutrition and behavior
• B. Genes and chromosomes: 3 processes- 1.
mitosis,2. meiosis and 3.fertilization.
• 1. mitosis: regular cells (all except sperm and
eggs) reproduce by mitosis, cell’s nucleus
reproduces itself and creates exact duplicate
with 46 chromosomes
• 2. meiosis: reproductive cells (sperm and egg)
duplicates chromosomes then divides again,
resulting in 4 cells, each with 23
• 3.fertilization: egg and sperm join to form a
single cell or zygote;
• each parent contributes ½ the genetic
• chromosome structure for males and females
differ at 23rd chromosome pair- male, XY
and female, XX
• C. Sources of variability:
• combining genes of 2 parents results in
increased variability;
• provides more characteristics for natural
• 3 sources of variability:
• 1)chromosomes in the zygote not exact copies
of parent chromosomes;
• in forming sperm and egg, pairs of
chromosomes are separated;
• later which chromosomes in each pair go to
the sperm or egg is random;
• 2)variability from DNA;
• sometimes random effects resulting from
mistakes in cell metabolism or environmental
damage lead to mutated genes;
• 3)differences between genotype (complete
genetic potential) and phenotype (observable
• D. Genetic principles:
• 1)dominant and recessive genes;
• dominant genes influence phenotype even
when only one gene present;
• recessive genes require presence of both
genes for the trait to be observed. -
examples of dominant traits:
brown hair and far-sightedness;
Recessive traits:
blonde hair and near-sightedness;
• 2)sex-linked genes:
• most mutated genes are recessive;
• if mutated gene is on X chromosome, trait is
X-linked with different implications for males
and females;
• males have only one X chromosome, so the
harmful gene may lead to an x-linked
• females have 2 X chromosomes so healthy
gene is more influential;
• more males than females tend to have xlinked diseases;
• example of x-linked disease more of problem
for males is fragile X syndrome.
• 3)polygenic influence –
• some traits reflect the influence of several
genes, not just one;
• examples are height, weight, and intelligence
• 4. Chromosome and gene-linked
• a. chromosome abnormalities –
abnormal number of chromosomes
(Down syndrome;
cause of MR and certain physical features;
usually caused by extra copy of chromosome
• round face, flattened skull, extra fold of skin
on eyelids;
• retarded motor and mental abilities; )
sex-linked chromosome abnormalities
(mostly involve extra X or Y chromosome;
or missing X chromosome in females;
Klinefelter’s syndrome- males are tall and have
enlarged breasts and extra X chromosome;
• Fragile X syndrome –
• X chromosome constricted or sometime in
• results in lower level intelligence or learning
Turner Syndrome –
in females missing X chromosome;
X0 instead of XX;
short height; webbed neck skin; math
difficulties; verbal ability usually good;
• XYY – males with extra Y chromosome; no
reliable psychological characteristic pattern;
• 5. Gene-linked abnormalities –
• defective genes;
• a)phenylketonuria – (PKU); not process
phenylalanine properly;
• recessive trait;
• easily detected in newborns;
• illustrates genotype/phenotype differences;
b)sickle cell anemia –
most often in African Americans;
impairs red blood cells;
RBC shaped like sickle or hook;
cannot carry oxygen and dies quickly;
c. other examples:
cystic fibrosis,
Huntington Disease,
spina bifida, and
Tay-Sachs Disease.
4. Heredity and Environment
Interaction Features
• A. Behavior genetics:
• seeks to discover influence of heredity and
environment on individual differences in
human traits and development
• Uses study of twins and adopted children;
• twin study • compares behavioral similarity of identical
twins with that of fraternal twins;
• if behavior or trait is more similar in identical
twins, can conclude trait has stronger genetic
• adoption study –
• studies whether behavioral or psychological
characteristics of adopted children are more
similar to those of adopted parents or
biological parents.
• B. Heredity-environmental correlations:
• involve heredity-environment correlations or
influence of genes on environments to which
• 3 types of heredity-environment correlations;
• B1. passive genotype-environment
• biological parents provide rearing
environment for their children
• (intelligent skilled readers provide
environment that enhances reading skills);
• B2. evocative genotype-environment
• child’s characteristics elicit certain type of
environmental stimulation –
• smiling children receive more social
stimulation than children who don’t smile;
• B3. active genotype -environment correlation
• children seek out stimulating environments;
• example, outgoing children actively seek out
social contexts to interact with people;
• C. Epigenetic view:
• development results from ongoing, mutual
interchange between heredity and
• Example: baby inherits genes from both
• before birth, toxins, nutrition and stress can
influence development and -
• make some genes stronger and other genes
• during infancy heredity and environment
continue to act together to influence genetic
activity as well as nervous system activity;
• D. Conclusions about heredity and
• relative contribution of H and E is not additive
• there is a no certain percentage contribution
from H and a certain percentage from E;
• genetic influence occurs throughout life, not
just at conception;
emerging view:
complex behaviors have a genetic loading –
or tendency to act/think/feel in certain ways;
environment is also complicated, including
parenting style, family dynamics, school and
neighborhood quality.
• 5. Prenatal development:
• begins when sperm and egg join in process of
5A. Course of prenatal
3 periods
germinal period:
2 weeks following conception;
creation of zygote;
cell division; and
attachment to wall of uterus;
• cell division process- mitosis;
• cell specialization
• (blastocyst or inner mass of cells becomes the
• trophoblast or outer layer of cells provides
nutrition and support;
• implantation (attach to uterine wall 10-14
days after conception.
5A2. embryonic period:
• 2-8 weeks after conception;
• cell differentiation intensifies;
• support systems develop and organs form;
• 3 layers of cells develop from blastocyst:
• endoderm or inner layer gives rise to digestive
and respiratory systems;
• ectoderm or outer layer becomes the nervous
system, sensory receptors and skin parts;
• mesoderm or middle layer becomes
circulatory system, bones, muscles, excretory
system and reproductive system;
• life support systems from trophoblast:
• amnion, umbilical cord and placenta;
• amnion is a bag or envelope containing a clear
liquid controlling temperature and humidity;
• umbilical cord, 2 arteries and a vein connect
the embryo to placenta;
• placenta, a disk-shaped group of tissues made
up of small blood vessels connecting embryo
to mother; -
• very close but not joined;
• in placenta, small molecules such as oxygen,
water, salt, digestive waste pass back and
• Larger molecules cannot pass back of forth
• 5A3. fetal period:
• 2-9 months after conception;
• at 3 months, fetus is about 3 inches long
weighs 3 oz;
• can move arms and legs,
• open and close mouth,
• can distinguish features such as face,
forehead, eyelids, nose and chin; -
genitals identify fetus as male or female;
4th month, mom can feel baby move;
5th month, 12 inches, close to 1 lb,
skin structures form such as toe nails, and
• 6th month, eyes and eyelids formed;
• layer of hair on head; -
• grasping reflex and irregular breathing
• 7th month, 16 inches, 3 lbs,
• considered able to survive outside mother;
• last 2 months fatty tissues develop;
• functions of heart and kidneys increase;
• gains height and weight; at birth, average
American baby 7 ½ lbs; 20 inches.
5B. Prenatal Tests,
include ultrasound,
chorionic villus sampling,
maternal blood screening
5B1. ultrasound:
• usually at 7 weeks and other times;
• noninvasive;
• high frequency sound waves directed toward
mother’s abdomen;
• echoes from these sound waves transformed
into visual representations of baby’s internal
structures; -
• can detect structural abnormalities such as
microcephaly (very small brain).
• 5B2. chorionic villus sampling:
• 10-12th week;
• screen for genetic defects and genetic
• tissue sample from placenta analyzed; results
in 10 days;
5B3. amniocentesis:
• 15-18 weeks;
• sample of amniotic fluid analyzed for
chromosome or metabolic disorders;
• later tests more accurate;
• earlier tests more useful to plan pregnancy;
small risk of miscarriage;
5B4. maternal blood screening:
• identifies elevated risk for birth defects such
as spina bifida or Down Syndrome;
5C. Infertility and Reproductive
• 10-15% couples experience difficulty
conceiving a child after 12 months regular
• cause may be associated with woman’s failure
to ovulate,
• blocked fallopian tubes
• or man’s lack of sperm or low-mobility sperm;
• surgery can correct some problems
• Also hormone therapy is possible
• in vitro fertilization may also be used (egg and
sperm combined outside the other
5D. Hazards to Prenatal
• 5D1. General Principles:
• 5D1a. teratogens –
• anything that could potentially cause birth
defect or damage cognitive or behavioral
• include drugs, incompatible blood types,
environmental pollution, infectious diseases,
nutrition problems, maternal stress or
parental age;
• 3 characteristics of teratogens:
• *higher more intense dosage has greater
• *type and severity of abnormality linked to
genotype of mother and baby;
• *time of exposure has different effects,
depending on whether occur at certain points
in developmental sequence;
• damage during germinal period can prevent
• exposure during embryonic period has higher
risk of structural defect early in this period.
5D2. prescription and nonprescription drugs:
examples include
antibiotics like streptomycin and tetracycline,
hormones such as progestin and synthetic
• nonprescription drugs such as diet pills and
5D3. psychoactive drugs act on
mother’s nervous system
alter states of consciousness,
modify perception and
change moods
Examples: caffeine, alcohol, nicotine, cocaine,
methamphetamine, marijuana and heroin.
• caffeine results in small risk for spontaneous
miscarriage and low birth weight;
• alcohol can result in fetal alcohol syndrome
with facial deformities, defective limbs, likely
cognitive deficiencies;
• nicotine can result in premature birth, low
birthweight, fetal and neonatal death,
respiratory problems and sudden infant death
• cocaine use can result in reduced birth weight,
length, and head circumference,
• impaired motor performance,
• lower arousal,
• less effective self-regulation,
• higher excitability at 1 month,
• attention deficit and learning disability in
• methamphetamine is a stimulant
• can speed up the nervous system, resulting in
higher infant mortality, low birth weight,
developmental and behavioral problems;
• marijuana use by mother can result in
memory and information processing
• depressive symptoms and be associated with
later drug use by the child;
• heroin can result in withdrawal symptoms
such as
• tremors, irritability, abnormal crying,
disturbed sleep, and impaired motor control.
5D4. Incompatible blood types:
• differences in surface structures of red blood
cells associated with different blood groups
(A,B, O and AB) and
• Rh factor: if present, individual is Rh+ and if
absent, individual is Rh-.
• If Rh- woman conceives with Rh+ man,
• baby’s blood type may be Rh+.
• Mother’s immune system will produce
antibodies that will attack the baby’s RBCs.
• First baby will be ok; later children increasingly
at risk;
• serum (Rhogam) given to mom will prevent
producing the antibodies;
• blood transfusion either before or after birth
also possible.
5D5. maternal diseases:
• Viruses can cross placental barrier,
• rubella or German measles causes highest risk
in 3-4th week of pregnancy;
• vaccine possible for mom;
more damage 4 mos + after conception;
damages organs after formation;
eye and skin lesions, if present at birth cause
problems in central nervous system and
gastrointestinal tract;
• genital herpes,
• baby infected if exposed to virus in mom’s
birth canal or vagina;
• AIDS, sexually transmitted syndrome; caused
by virus that destroys body’s immune system;
• infection possible 3 ways, -
• A. during gestation across placenta,
• B. during delivery if exposed to mother’s
• C. after birth through breast feeding;
• effects for baby: 1)infected and shows
symptoms, 2)infected and shows no
symptoms, 3)not infected;
5D6. Maternal diet and nutrition:
• developing baby depends on mom for
nutrition from mom’s blood;
• total calories and intake of proteins, vitamins
and minerals;
• if mom overweight, higher risk of still birth
and neonatal death;
• folic acid or B-complex vitamin;
• lack linked to neural tube deficits leading to
spina bifida, a potentially fatal defect in spinal
cord development;
5D7. Emotional states and stress:
• intense fears, anxieties and other emotions;
• increased adrenaline in mother’s body
restricts blood flow to uterus and lowers
available oxygen for baby;
5D8. maternal age:
• especially adolescence and 35+ can lead to
still birth and higher infant mortality;
• link to Down Syndrome;
• older mothers have higher risk for babies with
low birth weight, premature birth and fetal
5D9. paternal factors:
• exposure to lead, radiation, pesticides and
other chemicals;
• Can result in sperm abnormalities;
• diet low in Vitamin C can lead to increased
birth defects and cancer;
• cocaine use can result in male-related
• older fathers can have children with increased
risk of Down Syndrome, dwarfism and Marfan
5D10. Environmental hazards
•toxic wastes, and
•chemical pollution with potential
effects on eggs and sperm
5E Prenatal care:
• involves regular schedule of visits for medical
• screening for manageable conditions and
treatable diseases;
• comprehensive educational, social and
nutritional services.
6. Birth and Postpartum Period
6A. Birth process: 3 stages
6A1a stage 1:
uterine contractions;
15-20 minutes apart;
last up to 1 minute;
cervix stretches and opens; -
• contraction rate increases to 2-5/minute;
• intensity increases;
• at end of stage 1 cervix opens to about 4
• lasts about 12-24 hours for first pregnancy; 8
hours for later births;
6A1b stage 2:
baby’s head moves into vagina;
ends when baby is completely out;
contractions come faster, about 1/minute;
lasts 1 ½ hours to 45 minutes.
6A1c stage 3:
• afterbirth;
• placenta, umbilical cord and other tissues
expelled, lasts a few minutes.
6A2 child birth setting and
• in US mostly in hospitals;
• also home delivery and free-standing birth
• assistance usually from physicians
(obstetricians), commonly males;
• in US fathers usually present;
• other cultures, men may be excluded;
• midwives common throughout the world, less
common in US;
• doula – a caregiver providing physical,
emotional and educational support to the new
6A3. Methods of childbirth:
• a. medication can involve analgesia,
anesthesia, and oxytocics;
• analgesia relieves pain,
• examples tranquilizers, barbiturates and
• anesthesia,
• used late in first stage and while baby is
coming out to block sensation or
• epidural block numbs body from waist down;
• oxytosis,
• synthetic hormone used to stimulate
• most common, pitocin;
• predicting drug effects difficult, depends on
type of drug and dosage level.
6A3b natural and prepared
• aims to reduce pain by decreasing fear
through education;
• teaches breathing and relaxation strategies;
• Lamaze: special breathing techniques to
control pushing in final stages.
6A3c. other non-medication
• water birth,
• massage
• acupuncture.
6A3d. cesarean delivery:
• surgical delivery used if baby is turned so
bottom would come out first;
• or baby is crosswise in uterus;
• Also if baby’s head is too large to move
through pelvis opening;
• Or if complications exist or mother is bleeding
6B. Transition from fetus to new
• stress for baby;
• if long delivery, possible decreased oxygen
• can lead to brain damage;
• usually managed by increased levels of
adrenaline and noradrenaline.
• after birth,
• umbilical cord is cut and baby can breathe
• Apgar scale is administered to measure
neurological health signs at 1 minute and 5
minutes after birth.
• Apgar scale evaluates heart rate, breathing,
muscle tone, skin color, and reflex irritability.
• If total score is 7-10, baby considered to be in
good condition;
• if 5, possible problems;
• if 3 or less, emergency medical attention is
• Low birth weight: less than 3 lbs;
• extremely low birth weight: less than 2 lbs.
• Premature or preterm: born 3 weeks or more
before pregnancy reaches full term (35 or
fewer weeks).
• Small for date or gestational age:
• weight below normal, considering length of
• weigh less than 90% of all babies of same
gestational age;
• may be preterm or full term.
• Causes of low birth weight: most but not all
are preterm; (66)
• Consequences of low-birth weight:
• usually have more health and developmental
problems than babies of average birth weight.
• More likely to have attention deficit, learning
disability and breathing problems.
Kangaroo care:
hold baby so skin-to-skin contact;
breast feeding on demand;
helpful in treating preterm infants;
often results in stabilizing heart beat, body
temperature and breathing rate.
Massage therapy:
stroking with palms of hands,
3 times daily for about 15 minutes;
seems to benefit preterm babies,
resulting in increased weight gain, discharge
from hospital 3-6 days earlier than without
massage therapy.
• Bonding:
• special component of parent –infant
relationship; forming connection,
• especially physical bond between parents and
• extreme form of bonding hypothesis that
close contact during first few days of life is
required: not supported;
• for some infant-mother pairs,
• (preterm infants, adolescent mothers, and
mothers in disadvantaged circumstances)
• early close contact important in establishing
improved interaction after leaving hospital.
• Postpartum period:
• time after child birth;
• lasts about 6 weeks until mother’s body has
adjusted and returned to nearly pre pregnant state;
• mother’s body must adjust physically and
psychologically to childbearing process;
• family-centered approach can be helpful;
• Physical adjustment:
• energy levels can be variable;
• hormone levels and production (estrogen and
progesterone)drop after placenta is delivered
• remain low until ovaries start producing
hormones again;
• menstrual flow resumes in 4-8 weeks if not
breast feeding;
• if breast feeding, menstrual flow resumes in
several months to a year;
• Involution: uterus returns to pre-pregnant
• usually in 5-6 weeks;
• drop in uterus weight from 2-3 lbs to 2-3 ½
• Conditioning exercises help mother’s body
return to pre-pregnant contours and strength;
• relaxation exercises also helpful during
postpartum period.
• Emotional and psychological adjustment:
• emotional highs and lows common in
postpartum period;
• some women’s emotions stabilize faster than
• about 70% of mothers experience some form
of “baby blues” including feeling depressed,
anxious and upset;
• may last from 2-3 days after birth through 1-2
• postpartum depression – major depressive
episode can occur at about 4 weeks after
• Mothers have trouble coping with daily tasks;
• if not treated, can last for many months;
• Fathers also experience postpartum
adjustment issues;
• may feel baby comes first and receives most
of mother’s attention;
• may feel baby has taken their place in
mother’s affections;
• parents should set aside special time for
themselves to be together;
• helps if father participates in pre-birth classes
• is active participant in caring for the baby.
• 1. Physical growth and development in infancy
– patterns of growth and development
• cephalocaudal patterns –
• sequences in which early growth occurs from
top to bottom;
• physical growth and differentiation of
features works from top to bottom;
• sensory and motor development also follows
this pattern
• proximodistal pattern –
• growth starts at center of body and
moves toward the extremities;
• height and weight –
• at birth average north American
baby 20 inches long and weighs 7 ½
lbs; -
• first several days, lose 5-7% of
body weight, before adjusting to
feeding by sucking, swallowing
and digesting;
• gain 5-6 oz per week;
• double birth weight by 4 mos;
and 3x birth weight by age 1;
• grow about 1 inch/month;
• 1 ½ birth length by age 1.
• by 2 years, 26-32 lbs; 32-35 inches tall
• Brain –
• extensive brain
development during infancy
and later;
• protect baby’s head from
falls and other injuries;
• shaken baby syndrome – brain swelling
and bleeding;
• brain development –
• does not mature uniformly
during infancy;
• can be described in terms of
sections or lobes –
• frontal, parietal, occipital and
temporal; -
• each section has a left and right counterpart;
• 2 halves of brain or hemispheres are not
identical in anatomy or function.
• lateralization –
• specialized function in one or the other
• specialization in hemispheres begins at birth;
• Example, greater electrical activity in left
compared to right side when listening to
speech sounds;
• language primarily processes on left side
• complex functions require cooperation of left
and right sides of the brain.
• changes in brain cells or neurons –
• nerve cells made up of bundles of fibers for
handling information;
• 2 types of fibers:
• dendrites carry information toward the cell
• axons carry information away from cell body
(where nucleus and DNA are);
• terminal buttons at ends of axons
• release neurotransmitters or chemicals into
the synapses or small gaps between neurons;
• neurons change in 2 important ways:
• a. myelination (covers nerve fibers with fat
cells) and
• b. increased connectivity (creating new neural
pathways; new dendrites develop and
increasing numbers of synaptic connections –
nearly 2x as many as will eventually be used)
• changes in regions of the brain –
• dramatic growth in synaptic connections
• highest in visual, auditory and prefrontal
• peak of synaptic growth in visual cortex by 4th
postnatal month;
• peak in hearing and language areas similar,
though somewhat later;
• peak in prefrontal cortex area (for higher level
thinking)about 1 year;
• mid to late adolescence achieve adult density
• peak myelination in visual cortex complete in
about 6 months;
• peak myelination in hearing area not complete
until age 4 or 5;
• early experiences and the brain –
• before birth genes determine basic nerve
• after birth, environmental experiences
determines brain development.
• sleep – average newborn sleeps 16-17
hours/day total; wide variability in how time
spread throughout the day; by 1 month sleep
longer at night; by 4 months, closer to adult
sleeping patterns;
• REM sleep – greater amount of time; rapid
eye movement sleep; about ½ of infant sleep
time; by 3 mos, REM percentage decrease to
• why? may provide added self-stimulation;
may promote brain development in infancy;
sudden infant death syndrome;
infant stops breathing, usually at night;
dies without apparent cause.
• American Academy of Pediatrics recommends
infants sleep on back;
• why?
• sleeping on stomach impairs arousal from
• restricts ability to swallow;
• increased risk if exposed to passive cigarette
smoke or sleep on soft bed
Nutrition• breast vs bottle feeding –
• 1st 4-6 mos human milk or alternative formula
is main source of nutrients and energy;
• growing consensus that breast feeding is best;
Breast Feeding Benefits
• - appropriate weight gain;
• lower risk of childhood obesity;
• prevention or reduction of diarrhea,
respiratory infections, bacterial or urinary
tract infections, otitis media (middle ear
• denser bones in childhood and adulthood;
• decreased risk of childhood cancer and
decreased risk of breast cancer in mothers;
• when should not breast feed?
• 1)mom infected with AIDS or other infectious
• 2)mom has active tuberculosis;
• 3)mom taking drugs not safe for baby.
• nutritional needs:
• recommend infants consume 50 cal/day per lb
of body weight;
• early nutrition important;
• Family Support/Healthy Start Program in
Hawaii good example of helpful services for
families of newborns at risk for developmental
Motor development – how do infants develop
motor skills; which skills develop at what time:
• dynamic systems theory –
• assemble motor skills for perceiving and
acting; perception and action coordinated;
• to develop skills, infants perceive something in
environment that motivates them to act;
• use perceptions to fine tune movements;
• motor skills are solutions to goals; -
new behavior results from
converging factors
a. nervous system development,
b. body’s physical properties,
c. possibilities for movement;
d. goal motivated to reach, environmental
support for skill;
• e. infant change movement patterns to fit
new task by exploring and selecting possible
movement patterns
built in reactions to environmental signals;
genetically carried survival responses;
automatic and involuntary;
allow adaptive response before opportunity to
• example, if immersed in water, automatically
hold breath and constrict throat;
other reflexes
• rooting and sucking –
• if stroke cheek or touch side of mouth, turn
toward side touched or stroked;
• find something to suck;
• sucking – occurs if object placed in baby’s
• Moro reflex –
• startle response to sudden intense noise or
• arch back, throw back head, fling out arms
and legs then quickly close arms and legs;
• possible way of grabbing for support while
• some reflexes persist throughout life –
• cough, sneeze, blink, shiver, yawn;
• some reflexes incorporated into more complex
voluntary behaviors later
• example: (grasping reflex)occurs when
something touches infant palm;
• by end of 3rd month, action more voluntary,
smoother; manipulating and exploring.
Gross Motor Skills
• involve large muscle activities;
• moving arms and legs;
• newborns cannot control posture voluntarily;
after few weeks, can hold head up;
• soon lift head while on stomach;
• 2 mos – sit while supported in lap;
• 6 mos; sit up independently;
• 8 mos – pull self to standing position while
holding on to support;
• 10-12 mos • can stand alone;
• to walk upright, balance on one leg while shifting
other forward;
• shift weight from one leg to the other;
• must learn places and surfaces safe for crawling
and walking;
• to learn where safe to crawl and walk, have to
integrate perceptual information and motor skills
• First year: milestones and variations (chart on
page 86) timing of reaching milestones can
vary by 2-4 months;
• some babies never crawl;
Second year gross motor skills
pull a toy attached to string;
use hands and legs to climb steps;
walk quickly;
run a short distance;
balance on feet while squatting;
walk backward;
stand and throw a ball;
jump in place;
Fine motor skills
• grasp a toy;
• use spoon,
• button shirt;
• reaching and grasping significant achievement;
• first reach by moving shoulders and swing arm
• later, move wrist, rotate hands;
• must coordinate thumb and forefinger motions;
• perceptual-motor coordination necessary for
• 4 mos – rely more on touch to grasp;
• 8 mos – use vision more often as cue;
• experience influences grasping skills:
• infants who had practice with “sticky mittens”
learned grasping skills sooner.
• exercising gross motor skills and fine motor
skills important and helpful.
• sensation: info interacts with sensory
receptors – eyes, ears tongue, nostrils and skin
• perception: interpreting what is sensed.
• ecological view (Eleanor and James Gibson):
we directly perceive information in the world
around us. perception allows contact with
environment and adapting to it.
• Robert Fantz: found babies look at different
things for different lengths of time.
• Babies in looking chamber;
• 2 visual displays (p. 90) above babies head;
• experiments used peephole to watch babies’
• babies 2 days of age preferred patterned
stimuli to plainly colored discs.
Habituation and dishabituation
• decreased and increased response to stimuli
• present stimulus a number of times;
• if decreased response to stimulus, indicates
lower interest in it;
• measures of habituation: sucking, heart rate
breathing rate.
• High amplitude sucking:
• nonnutritive nipple connected to sound
generator; each sucking act causes a sound;
habituate to same sounds; experimenter can
change sounds; babies show ability to
discriminate between the sounds.
• Other methods: orienting response (turn head
toward sight or sound); tracking (eye
movements following moving objects.
5 mos: 20/100;
1 year: approximately same as normal (20/20)
adult vision.
Color vision
• birth - distinguish green and red;
• 2 mos – all color receptors active at normal
levels of sensitivity.
• 2-3 week-old infants prefer patterns to plain
• 2 mos – scans more facial details than 1 mo.
• Eleanor Gibson and James Walk:
• develop visual cliff with drop-off covered with
• 6-12 mos on edge of visual cliff;
• mothers tried to coax babies to crawl onto
glass; -
• babies just starting to crawl would cross;
• after a few weeks, would not cross;
• infants can perceive depth by about 3-4 mos
• usually refuse to cross drop-off
• can hear during last 2 mos before birth;
• babies whose moms read Cat in the Hat to
them before birth gave different response to
Cat in the Hat reading after birth compared to
King, Mice and Cheese (different reading pace
and emphasis with voice tones).
• Changes in hearing during infancy –
perception loudness pitch and location:
• 1)immediately after birth can’t hear soft
sounds as well as adults;
• 2)newborns less sensitive to changes in pitch
(frequency such as soprano or bass tones)
compared to adults; -
• at 2 years,
• improved pitch distinction;
• 3)newborns can determine general sound
• by 6 mos much better at determining specific
• TOUCH AND PAIN • touch stimulates reflexes (rooting and
• pain – respond to circumcision (no anesthesia)
with intense crying;
• recover quickly (normal eating and social
• saccharin in amniotic fluid of near-term fetus
resulted in increased swallowing;
• different facial expression to sweet, salt and
bitter solutions (pictures on page 93)
• Integrate information from 2 or more senses;
newborns turn head at sound of rattle.
• Piaget’s theory:
• adaptation – adjusting to new environmental
demands and actively constructing mental
• schemes – actions or mental representations
for organizing knowledge;
• infants actively use physical responses
(sucking, grasping);
• toddlers and older children use mental
schemes (cognitive activities) for organizing
• assimilation – use existing schemes to handle
new information;
• accommodation – adjust existing schemes to
handle new information;
• organization – grouping isolated behaviors
and thoughts into higher order systems.
DEVELOPMENT – process by which make shift
from one stage of development to the next; 4
stages of development – first stage is
sensorimotor stage (birth to 2 years);
• 1)simple reflexes: birth to 1 mo;
• sensation and action coordinated using
reflexive behaviors;
• 2)first habits and primary circular reactions –
• 1-4 mos;
• coordinates sensations and 2 schemes, habits and
primary circular reactions;
• habit is scheme based on reflex separated from
triggering stimulus; (sucking)
• primary circular reactions are repetitive actions based
on trying to reproduce event first occurring by chance;
(kicking mobile)
• stereotyped and repeated the same way each time;
3)secondary circular reactions;
4-8 mos;
more object oriented;
repeated because of consequences;
example: shake rattle to reproduce sound;
some imitation of behavior by others;
4) coordinated secondary circular reactions;
8-12 mos;
coordinates vision and touch;
eye and hand;
actions more outwardly-directed;
coordinates actions and intentions;
5)tertiary circular reactions –
beginnings of novelty and curiosity;
12-18 mos;
interested in properties of objects and things
they can do to objects (fall, spin, slide, hit
another object);
• purposely explore new possibilities of objects
and experiences;
• 6) internalized schemes –
• 18-24 mos; use primitive symbols (internal
sensory images or words that represent
concrete objects;
• can think about concrete objects and events
without actually seeing or touching them;
• Understanding that objects continue to exist
even though cannot see, touch or hear them;
modifications of Piaget’s ideas;
• A-not-B or AB error (playing hide toy under
the blanket game);
• may be memory or motivation problem rather
than lack of cognitive ability;
• some cognitive abilities can be demonstrated
earlier than Piaget thought,
• such as object permanence
• Skinner’s operant conditioning;
• behavior’s consequences change probability
that behavior will occur in the future;
• infants can learn using operant conditioning,
especially perceptual skills;
• infant suck faster on nipple if sucking
following by interesting visual display musical
sounds, or human voice;
• Rovee-Collier showed 2 ½ -mo-old infant
whose foot was tied to a mobile and who
learned to kick to make the mobile move
• later kicked even when foot not tied to
focus mental resources on select information;
newborn can detect contours of objects;
older babies scan more thoroughly;
attention is influenced by novelty and
• if object is familiar, attention is shorter and
more vulnerable to distraction;
• joint attention –
• 2 individuals (such as baby and parent or
caregiver) focus on same object or event;
1)ability to track someone else’s attention;
2)reciprocal interaction;
emerging forms at 7-8 mos;
skills more developed at 10-11 mos;
by 12 mos, infant can direct adult attention;
• increases infant’s ability to learn from other
people responses, such as language.
• Meltzoff believes infants’ imitation ability is
• observed some imitation by newborns;
• not 100% accepted;
• Meltzoff also described deferred imitation in
which babies demonstrate behaviors they
observed as much as 24 hours earlier;
• MEMORY – retention of information over
• Rovee-Collier concluded memory skills
demonstrated by infants as young as 1 ½ -2
• disagreement whether implicit (memory
without conscious recollection;
• performed automatically)or explicit (conscious
memory of facts and experiences)memory.
• infantile or childhood amnesia –
• difficulty remembering events during first 1-3
years of life;
• concepts – ideas about what categories
• Categories - groups of objects and events and
characteristics based on common properties;
• 7-9 mos use conceptual categories
characterized by perceptual variability;
• first concepts broad and general;
• gradually differentiated.
• language is form of communication based on
systems of symbols;
• consists of words used by a group and rules
for combining and varying them;
• infinite generativity – ability to reproduce
endless number of meaningful sentences
using limited set of rules and words;
crying – signals distress and other meanings;
cooing – first observed at 1-2 mos;
gurgling sounds from back of throat;
usually signal pleasure;
babbling – strings of consonant-vowel
• gestures – showing or pointing at objects or
people; first observed about 8-12 mos; a wave
bye-bye, nod yes.
• recognizing language sounds –
• before can make language sounds,
• can recognize differences in sounds;
• until 6 mos, recognize sound differences
regardless of language source;
• gradually lose ability to (or interest in)
recognizing differences in languages other
than the one they ear most often.
• first words – usually observed at 8-12 mos;
• indicates first understanding of words;
• first spoken words at 10-15 mos;
• average 13 mos;
• first words usually name important people,
familiar animals;
• vehicles, toys, food, body parts, clothes,
household items, greetings;
• receptive vocabulary – develop faster than
expressive or spoken vocabulary;
• expressive vocabulary increases very quickly
after first spoken words; • vocabulary spurt.
• 2-word utterances – 18-24 mos; convey
meaning with 2 words plus gestures, tone of
voice and using context;
• omit some parts of speech;
• succinct and telegraphic;
• omit grammatical markers such as articles,
auxiliary verbs and connective words.
• spoken language required certain vocal
structures and nervous system capabilities;
• 2 areas of brain important (Broca and
Wernicke) in left hemisphere;
• Noam Chomsky suggested language
acquisition device (biological readiness to
learn language;
• not referring to any specific biological or
anatomical structure;
environmental influence
• behaviorist view explaining language as chains
of reinforced verbal behaviors,
• Problems with strict behaviorist view
• 1)does not explain novel sentences;
• 2) children learn syntax or grammar of own
language without reinforcement;
• experiences, particular language learned,
context of language influence language
• support and involvement of caregivers and
teachers influence language behavior;
• interactive view of language learning –
• learn specific languages in specific contexts;
• child’s vocabulary links to family
socioeconomic status and speech parents
direct toward their children;
• child-directed speech – spoken using higherpitch with simple words and sentences;
• captures attention and maintains
• includes “baby-talk”;
• other adult strategies:
• 1)recasting – rephrasing something child says;
allows indicating interest and elaborating
• 2)expanding – restating in linguistically
sophisticated from what child says;
• 3)labeling – identifying the nature of objects
and experiences; original word game;
• Strategies used best to guide language
learning instead of overloading;
• encouragement is better than drill and
infants –
be active conversational partner;
talk as if infant understands;
use language style comfortable to individual
toddlers –
continue active conversational partner;
remember to listen;
use comfortable language style;
consider expanding child’s language abilities;
adjust to child’s idiosyncrasies;
interactionist view –
biology and environment both important;
provide rich verbal environment;
provide opportunities for conversation;
pay attention and listen;
read to children and label things and events in