# Lesson Aim

```Lesson Aim
To have a good understanding of the
science of energy production and its
application to sporting performance
and physical training
UNIT 6
Energy Pathways, Training
Theory and Recovery Processes
The links between the 3
topics and possible exam
questions
Which Sports are to be analysed?
Bobsleigh requirements
Excellent sprinters
Very strong
Co-ordinated
Bobsleigh is an
ANAEROBIC activity
that requires a high
burst of energy
generating a lot of
POWER
How do we generate this Power?
ATP-PC Pathway
Fast acting for
immediate energy
Good for short
bursts of energy
E.g. Bobsleigh start
ATP-PC Energy Pathway
ATP
ADP + P + Energy
This will provide energy for 3 secs.
CP
C + P + Energy
ADP + P + Energy
ATP
This will provide energy for 8-9 secs
(see elite sprint times)
10m split times for World Class
Sprinters
1997 World Championships, Athens GRE wind = +0.2 m/s Velocity
data is instantaneous velocity (m/s) at the end of the specific interval.
Maurice Greene (+0.13s) 1.71 1.04 0.92 0.88 0.87 0.85 0.85 0.86 0.87
0.88s 1.71 2.75 3.67 4.55 5.42 6.27 7.12 7.98 8.85 9.73s
Donovan Bailey (+0.14s) 1.78 1.03 0.91 0.87 0.85 0.85 0.85 0.86 0.87
0.90 1.78 2.81 3.72 4.59 5.44 6.29 7.14 8.00 8.87 9.77
Tim Montgomery (+0.13s) 1.73 1.03 0.93 0.88 0.86 0.86 0.86 0.87 0.88
0.90 1.73 2.76 3.69 4.57 5.43 6.29 7.15 8.02 8.90 9.80
POWER
Speed X Strength = Power
Power = Work done ÷ Time taken
Measured in WATTS
Magaria Step Test practical
Why Bobsleigh utilises the
ATP- PC Energy Pathway
The Push start
lasts for 5 secs.
A 4 – Man sled
weighs 300 Kg
The 50m start is
covered in 4.80 –
5.00 seconds
This is a speed of
10 m/s
Which Components of fitness?
Speed
Strength
Power
Flexibility
Sprint Training Sessions
High Intensity @
100% effort.
Short in duration
Long recoveries
between
repetitions and
sets (3-5 mins)
Track/spikes
Favourable wind
conditions
SPRINTING
To be FAST we
need to train FAST
Long recoveries
allow resynthesis
of ATP-PC stores
The last rep should
be almost as fast
as the first rep
Examples of Sprint sessions
3 (6x30m)
2 (120,90,60,30m)
2(6x60m)
All @ 100% effort
and long recoveries
Recovery from Sprinting and
Weightlifting
After intense exercise the athlete
needs to resynthesise ATP and CP
stores (phosphagens)
This takes 3-5 minutes if stores are
to return to 100%
High intensity work requires long
periods of recovery if quality of
performance is to remain high
Weight Training
Maximum strength is
Developed by;
• Lifting heavy
weights (95%
1RM)
• 3-5 Reps
• 3-5 Sets
• 3-5 minutes
recovery
Why does lifting heavy make us
strong?
More Motor Units
are used (Motor
neurone + the
fibres that it
stimulates)
All of the muscle
fibres are
stimulated
Weight Training Sessions
Power Cleans 5x5
@ 95-100% 1RM
Squats 5x5 @ 95100% 1RM
Bench Press
Hamstring Curls
Shoulder Press
Other Power Training Activities
Plyometrics
Eccentric/Concentric
(Stretch-shortening cycle)
Towing – Weighted
sleds, parachutes
Running up hills
These activities are
sport specific and
allow power to be
developed
Exam question – June 2003
Sprinters and endurance athletes
train to delay a particular energy
pathway from becoming the
dominant energy provider.
i) Identify the energy pathway and
state why both types of athlete seek
to delay it. (3 marks)
Answer
The pathway that they seek to delay is the Lactic
Acid/Anaerobic Glycolysis Energy Pathway.
Why ?
The sprinter can work harder/faster/longer in the ATP-PC
pathway.
The endurance athlete can work longer/harder and more
efficiently in the Aerobic energy pathway
The adverse effects of the Lactic acid pathway cause the
muscles to stop contracting (remember the Sliding Filament
Theory and LA stops Ca2+ binding to the Active sites on
the Actin Filaments which stops the Myosin Rods from
forming a cross-bridge)
Question
1.
i)
ii)
2.
i)
ii)
Explain how the 2 different athletes might achieve this.
Sprinter
Increase stores of ATP and PC by increasing muscle
size/space to the phosphagens (HYPERTROPHY)
Regular training will deplete these store and
‘supercompensation’ may occur
Endurance athlete
Increase VO2 Max by increasing the body’s ability to USE
air/improve CV efficiency
Train just above the AnaerobicThreshold
800m requirements
Speed
High levels of CV endurance
Ability to tolerate high levels of
LACTATE
Muscular endurance
Energy Continuum
There are 3 ways of
providing energy for
muscular
contractions
1. ATP-PC
2. Lactic Acid
3. Aerobic
Duration and
intensity of exercise
determine how we
resynthesise ATP
How do we generate energy for
800m?
An elite male 800m
runner takes 1min
45 secs to run
800m
The ATP-PC
pathway cannot be
used
The LACTIC ACID
pathway has to be
utilised
The Lactic Acid Pathway
(Anaerobic Glycolysis)
ATP
ADP + P + Energy
Glycogen + ADP
ATP + Pyruvic Acid
The breakdown of glycogen is called Glycolysis and causes Pyruvic
Acid and H+ ions to be formed
These H+ ions need to be removed because a build up causes
muscle cells to become acidic and interferes with muscle function
Carrier molecules called NAD and FAD will remove the H+ ions to
the ETC only if oxygen is available
H+ ions build up and are accepted by the Pyruvic Acid to form
LACTIC ACID and affect muscle function
800m training guidelines
Need to generate
Lactic Acid
Then develop
tolerance to lactic acid
By training when lactic
acid is present in the
muscles
Any intense prolonged
exercise will cause a
build up of lactic acid
800m training sessions
4 x 600m @ target
race time pace
3 x 800m @ 10%
slower than target
time
2 x 1000m
Recoveries are long
enough to allow HR to
drop but not for lactic
acid to fully clear
Recovery from 800m training
ATP and CP
regenerate after 35 mins
Clearing Lactic Acid
can take up to an
hour (cool down
can assist)
Excess Post-exercise Oxygen
Consumption
Oxygen Deficit – the difference
between oxygen consumed during
exercise and the amount that would
have been consumed had AEROBIC
metabolism been reached
immediately
Factors contributing to EPOC
Lactate removal
Resynthesis of ATP and CP
Elevated body temp
Elevated hormones
Post exercise elevation of HR and
breathing
 Restoration of muscle and blood oxygen





The 2 components of EPOC
1.Fast – Alactic
component
 50% of PC is
restored in 30 secs
 75% in 60 secs
 100% within 3
mins
2 components of EPOC
2. Slow – Lactacid
component
 Clearing Lactic Acid
 70% is oxidised
 20% is converted
to glucose
 10% is converted
to protein
 This can take an
hour
Adaptations to high intensity
exercise
Strength training can lead to
HYPERTROPHY of muscles
There is an increase in the rate of
GLYCOLYSIS due to increased level of
enzymes. More lactic acid can be produced
Increases in PHOSPHOCREATINE and
GLYCOGEN stores in the muscles
8 weeks of anaerobic training shows an
increase in muscle buffering capacity by
12-50%. The trained athlete can cope with
high levels of lactic acid because the H+
ions are buffered
Marathon Requirements
High levels of CV
endurance
Very high VO2 Max
High level of
muscular
endurance
Determinaton
How do we generate energy to run
a Marathon?
Elite male runner
take 2hrs 10 mins,
elite female 2hrs
20 mins
This is a long time
to maintain
muscular
contractions
Exercise intensity
is relatively low
and is AEROBIC
Aerobic Energy Pathway
ATP
ADP + P + Energy
Glycogen + ADP
ATP + Pyruvic Acid
Glycolysis causes a build up of H+ ions and because oxygen
is available the NAD and FAD carriers are able to transport
the H+ ions into the ETC where carbonic acid is formed.
Carbonic acid is unstable and breaks down to form carbon
dioxide and water (this is breathed out during exercise)
Energy Yields from each pathway
ATP-PC gives 2 ATP
Lactic Acid (Krebs Cycle) 2 ATP
Aerobic gives 34 ATP
Therefore if the Aerobic Pathway is utilised
an athlete can exercise for longer (at a
lower intensity)
How to train for the Marathon
Lots of running!
Up to 100 miles per
week
Different types of
sessions
Early morning to
utilise fat stores
(Glycogen sparing)
Running Sessions for Marathon
‘Speed’ sessions
• 10 x 600m @ 5K
pace
• 10 x 400m @ 5K
pace
• 4 x 2000m @ 10K
pace
Other Marathon sessions
Longer runs
• 10 miles
• 15 miles
• 20 miles
Often early morning
runs with the ‘speed’
sessions in the
afternoon
Recovery from Marathon training
Re-hydrate – 60% of
our body is made up
of water
Replenish Glycogen
stores
It may take 24 hrs to
fully replenish
glycogen stores
(implications for
structuring training
intensity)
Adaptations to Aerobic Training
Capillarisation
More motochondria
Glycogen and myoglobin stores increase
Increased ability to mobilise fat as a fuel and a
drop in lactate production
Increase in blood volume, stroke volume and
Cardiac Output (Q = SV x HR)
Better utilisation of oxygen
There is an increased ability to work at a higher
% of VO2 Max without reaching lactate threshold
PERIODISATION
Dividing an annual plan into smaller
manageable blocks
MACRO cycles
MESO cycles
MICRO cycles
A Single Periodised Year
Competitive
Preparation
Specific Preparation
General Preparation
Periodisation
This concept allows athletes to cycle their training to
maximise improvements
Blocks of hard work are followed by blocks of easier training
This approach ensures that each successive peak is higher
and fitness improves leading to a competitive peak such as
an Olympic Games or World Championships
Energy Continuum
Question
Identify an athletic race that falls
midway on the continuum. Explain
the reason for its position and the
energy pathways that would
predominate during the different
stages of the race.
(Unit 6 June 2003)
Answer
1500m
All 3 energy pathways
are predominate at
different stages
It is considered as
being equally
aerobic/anaerobic
First 50m –ATP-PC
Next 350m – LA
Next 700m – Aerobic
Next 300m – LA
Last 100m – ATP-PC
Lesson Finished
```