Introducing Agile Processes into a Waterfall Organisation Chris Cooper-Bland, Senior

Introducing Agile
Processes into a
Waterfall Organisation
Chris Cooper-Bland, Senior
Architect @ Endava Ltd
Agenda
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What is Agile – Refresher
What makes Organisations Waterfall?
Introducing Change
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Change the process
Change the Organisation
What works
Summary and Q&A
How many of your organisations are using agile currently?
How many are planning to?
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Delivering business value is
hard…

“Of the work executed: “Many
(possibly most) organisations lose as
much as 45% of their total revenues
due to costs associated with low
quality”

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“Some 75 percent of most large-scale
J2EE projects fail by missing both time
and budget projections …”
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Six Sigma
Mark Driver, Gartner
“64% of features actually delivered are
either rarely or never used”

Jim Johnson, Standish Group
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Brief History of Development
Methodologies
AGILE e.g. XP
(Kent Beck)
Methodologies
WATERFALL (Royce)
Requirements, design
implementation,
verification &
maintenance
Waterfall
1960
1970
RUP
(Rational) user
Incremental,
driven, low process
RAD
Object oriented,
(James Martin)
iterative, time-boxed,
user driven
RUP
Prototyping,
iterative, time-boxed,
user driven
RAD
SPIRAL MODEL
(Barry Boehm)
V-MODEL (Anon)
Iterative Spiral Model
Aligns testing to
Waterfall
development V-Model
1980
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85
91
98 99
Agile Misconceptions?

Agile means:
“letting the programming team do whatever they need to
with no project management, and no architecture, allowing a solution to
emerge, the programmers will do all the testing necessary with Unit
Tests…”
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What is Agile?

http://www.agilemanifesto.org/
We are uncovering better ways of developing
software by doing it and helping others do it.
Through this work we have come to value:
Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
Working software over comprehensive documentation
Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
Responding to change over following a plan
That is, while there is value in the items on
the right, we value the items on the left more.

Management can tend to value the things on the
right over the things on the6 left
Agile project management SCRUM
Daily Scrum Meeting:
15 minutes
Team-Level
Planning
Each teams member answers 3
questions:
1) What did I do since last meeting?
2) What obstacles are in my way?
3) What will I do before next meeting?
Every 24hrs
Every Iteration
4-6 weeks
Working
Software
Delivered
Prioritised
Iteration
Requirements
Scope
Requirements
Requirements
Requirements
Requirements
Prioritised Requirements
& Features “Backlog”
Applying Agile: 7
Continuous integration; continuously monitored progress
Agile - XP explained (1)
The Values
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Communication
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Simplicity
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Feedback
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Courage
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Respect
(added in the latest version)
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Agile - XP explained (2)
1.
2.
3.
7.
Test First Programming
Test First without code
The Planning Game
- Business Stories
- Customer decides, Prog.
Implements
Small, Frequent Releases
8.
9.
10.
- Release early and release often
4.
5.
6.
Always use the Simplest design that
adds business value
System Metaphor
- Programmers define a handful of
classes and patterns that shape the
core business problem and solution
- Like a primitive Architecture
On-site Customer
- Customer has authority to define
functionality
- encourages face-to-face dialogue
11.
12.
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Refactoring Restructuring code
without changing its functionality
- Mainly Simplification
Pair Programming
Collective Code Ownership
Coding Standards
- Everyone should use the same
coding styles.
Continuous Integration
- At least a few times a day
- All unit tests must pass prior to
integration
- All functional tests must pass
afterwards
Forty Hour Week !
- Tired programmers write poor code
and make more mistakes
Water Fall Organisations
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Accounting system – annual
accounts, monthly returns
Legal and regulatory
controls
Shareholders – 3 year
plans, annual plans
Interface with other
organisations
SLAs
Reward System, annual
event not immediate
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Random Example
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From Northern Constabulary
Approach to Change
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Models to introduce change into
the organisation
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Incremental approach
Step change
Thin threads
Scope of change island or
wholesale
Prerequisites for change
Blockers & enablers - timing
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Key influencers
Other changes
Disasters
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What to change – Best
Practices
Most Useful
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Collaborative working
Iterative projects
Visual Modelling
Risk based prioritisation
Requirements Management
Change Management
Configuration Management
Tools
Traceability
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Least Useful
Factors for Success
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Choose the right project
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
Size
Importance
visibility
Get buy-in of senior
management
Communicate to all
Use experienced people
Don’t trust blindly
Common sense –
no silver bullets
effort = people * environment *size
- Walker Royce
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(process)
Changing the process Integrating the method

Advantages
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Single place to look
Easy alignment
People already understand parts
Disadvantages
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May lead to confusion
External staff don’t know it
Overlaps and/or gaps
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Customising the method
Standard Method
specification
Industry
Level
Industry Standards.
Industry Methods development
(e.g.
(e.g. Iterative, Agile)
ISO 12207,SW-CMM)
Organisation’s Software
Engineering group
Project Assurance
(monitoring adherence to
process and feedback for
Software process improvement)
Macro-level tailoring
Organisational
Level
Organisational Tailoring of Method
Micro-level tailoring
Project
Level
Project defined process documented
in some form
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Changing the organisation

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People
 Team rewards
 Celebrate success
 Leadership – management must ask the right questions
 Communication, brown bags etc.
Understand perceptions of success, what does finished mean?
 Quality/stage gates
Senior Management control
 Estimating and budgeting
 Real options
 Portfolio planning
Structure of the organisation
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Estimating
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This will prove problematic
Identify an approach early, keep reviewing it
Ideal model is to use a model calibrated with the
actuals captured from your organisation, but ….
Use model with someone else's metrics
Use Industry model
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CoComo II
Function point analysis
Guess
Planning game is usually too late to help
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The Budgeting Problem
The Cone of Uncertainty
Source McConnell 1998
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Addressing it
Convince management to make a fixed investment to establish costs
Source McConnell 1998
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Application Project Portfolios
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Senior management
must give authority and
control to IT
Use a portfolio
management approach
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Programme portfolio
management
Define portfolio
segments
Apportion available
budget
Revalidate at stage
gates, for balance and
progress
Proven proof of
Concepts
Stage gate 3
Stage gate 2
Stage gate 1
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Real Options – a way of
thinking
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Based on commodity
options – right but not an
obligation to buy at a point
in the future
Investment is continued
only in favourable
conditions, use probability
models to predict future
likelihood of return
Can hedge different
investments
Allows management to be
in control
Share holders like it
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Structure – Skunk Works
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Lockhead Martin needed to
develop secret projects,
outside formal control
Formed in June 1943 –
Burbank CA
14 rules to ensure efficiency
– similar to XP principles
Now seen as technique for
introducing change – but …
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Structure - Radical Changes
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Change the company
structure of the
organisation
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Create new spin-off
company
Joint venture
Acquisition
XP
No Change
Agility
required
Waterfall
Change the internal
structure
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Bureaucracy
Dynamic
Existing Structure
New ventures
department
New project teams
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Don’t do this – if you want to
fail
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Use integrated teams
Sort out the development environment early
Choose tools carefully
Enterprise architecture is important for
large/long lived systems
One person needs to own the process vision
with support from many
Use partners experienced in the method
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What Works Well
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Configuration and change management,
continuous integration
Selling the method
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Books, presentations etc.
Immersion for the project
Briefings for the rest of the company
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Make them want it too…
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Summary
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The organisation will have to change too
More you have to change the harder it is
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Resources
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Craig Larman’s books
http://www.bcs-spa.org/
http://www.dsdm.org/
http://www.realoptions.com/
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Conclusion & Questions
Contact Details
Chris Cooper-Bland
Senior Architect
[email protected]
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