New Imperialism

New Imperialism
New Imperialism
 The
extension of a nation’s power over
other lands.
 European nations want to
expand trade with
Asia and Africa for
European markets
 Want direct control
Some key events that still impact
us today…

Competition among European nations leads to the
partition of Africa
 Colonial rule creates a new social class of
westernized intellectuals
 British rule brought order and stability to India,
but with its own set of costs.
 As a colonial power, the United States practiced
many of the same imperialist policies as European
nations.
Europeans wanted control of
raw materials and markets.
 New
Imperialism was tied to
racism and Social Darwinism –
“the fittest will survive”
 Some believed that Westerners had
a moral right to civilize Asia,
Africa and Latin America.
They must Christianize them.
By 1900, most of Southeast Asia
was under Western control…
Great Britain
Singapore
Burma
France
Vietnam becomes a
protectorate
Cambodia-Annan-TonkinLaos= French Indochina
Thailand
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Only remaining free state in Southeast Asia
King Mongkut and King Chulalongkorn
– Promote Western learning and remained friendly with
European powers

Thailand acts as an independent buffer between
France and Britain in Southeast Asia and remains
independent
British control over South America, French control over
Indochina, and Spanish control over Mexico are
examples of…
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Isolationism
Appeasement
Nonalignment
Imperialism
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Which of the following was a major reason why
European nations colonized other nations?
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Need for raw materials
Fear of Asian dominance
Surplus of manufactured goods
Desire to learn about other cultures
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10
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What was a major factor that allowed imperialist powers
to dominate large parts of Asia and Africa in the 19th
and 20th centuries?
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Technological and military superiority
2. Desire of Asians and Africans to convert to
Christianity
3. Willingness of imperialists to respect local
traditions/customs
4. Spread of nationalism among slave peoples in
colonial areas
1.
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10
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What was an important motive behind the European
desire to obtain colonies in Africa in the late 1800s
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Africa’s valuable minerals like gold and
diamonds
Africa’s tea, silk, and other luxury goods
Africa’s free labor for the Americas
Africa’s advanced industries
Response Grid
10
Countdown
Which European country in the late 19th century
controlled so many colonies around the world that it was
said “the sun never set” on its flag?
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France
Germany
Great Britain
Italy
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10
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Participant Scores
500
Participant 10
500
500
500
500
Participant 19
Participant 6
Participant 23
Participant 2
Goal was to exploit countries
natural resources.
Rule – allow local rulers to
remain in power, yet still answer to
the government that had
conquered.
 Westerners argued that they
brought civilization to these
countries.
 Indirect
Direct Rule – your government
runs the new country.
 Westerners
feared indigenous people
gaining political power.
 Native people worked low level jobs for
poverty wages.
 High taxes were placed on peasants.
Colonial rule did bring
benefits.
 Modern
economic systems began.
 Improved infrastructure.
 Expanded exports.
 Some became Western educated
and became professionals.
Peasant Revolts
 Nationalism
the reason for revolts.
 Most revolts were handled with
great force.
 1930’s begins revolts that bring
independence.
Africa
Africa
 Europeans
did not hesitate to deceive
Africans in order to get their land and
natural resources.
 All of Africa under European rule from
1880 – 1890.
 Slave trading declared illegal in 1890’s
by the world.
West Africa
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Slave trade
Europeans seek to trade textiles and manufactured
goods for natural resources
 Encouraged by trade
– Europeans push for more permanent presence
– 1874: Britain annexes the west coastal states as the first
British colony of Gold Coast
– Britain also establishes protectorate over Nigeria
– 1900: France adds parts of West Africa
– Germany controls Togo, Caeroon and German
Southwest Africa (now Namibia)
North Africa

Muhammad Ali

Suez Canal
(NOT
)
– Connects Mediterranean to Red Sea
– French build canal
– links Britain to India… Take great interest in Egypt… Own Suez
Canal…Egyptians revolt…Egypt=English protectorate in 1915
– Look to Sudan…
Sudan

Sudanese resist British rule- 1885
 Britain unable to claim Sudan until 1898
Central Africa

David Livingstone
– Explores the interior of Africa and
disappears
– Henry Stanley sent to find him

“Dr. Livingstone, I presume”
King Leopold II

Belgian king
 Real driving force behind the colonization
of Central Africa
 ‘Heart of Darkness’ written about Belgians
in the Congo
East Africa

British and Germany fight over territory
In the 19th century, European countries claimed that the conquest
of Africa would bring the benefits of Western civilization to that
continent. From the perspective of the African peoples, the result
was…
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Loss of political independence
2. Fewer agricultural products for foreign trade
3. New national boundaries based on ethnic and
cultural similarities
4. Global appreciation for African cultures and
encouragement of their development
1.
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The belief that it is the right of the strong
to take over the weak is known as…
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Social Darwinism
Imperialism
Racism
Creationism
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The European policy of paternalism
reflected the belief that Africans should
be..
1. Separated into ethnic groups
2. Trained to function as leaders
3. Watched over and taken care of
4. Granted more rights and freedoms
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Which of the following is an example
of a positive effect of imperialism?
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Wealth
Stable economies
Lasting stability
Roads
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10
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European colonial actions sometimes resulted in tribal
conflict among native Africans. Which colonial practice
most frequently resulted in such conflict?
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Europeans let Africans remain in power
Europeans created artificial borders in
Africa
Europeans converted Africans to
Christianity
Europeans spread democracy in their
colonies
Response Grid
10
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Participant Scores
400
Participant 5
400
400
400
400
Participant 9
Participant 7
Participant 20
Participant 23
South Africa
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Original Dutch settlers--- Boer descendants
British take over– Boers leave
Boers fight the Zulu people
Zulus lead by Shaka, a talented ruler
British get involved and defeat Zulu after Shaka’s
death
 British fight Boers, and win
– Angered by guerrilla tactics
– 1910: British create Union of South Africa

To appease voters, only whites can vote

By 1914, only Liberia remains free in the
entire continent of Africa…
– Why Liberia?
– Created by freed American slaves
– Back to Africa Movement and Marcus Garvey
How to rule…
 Britain
relied on existing political
elites to govern their territories.
 Most European nations used direct
rule.
– French wanted to assimilate the
Africans. No more traditions.
New African leaders emerge.
 20th
century sees Western educated
Africans lead their people.
 Organized political parties and
movements to end foreign rule.
 Many admired Western life and
wanted to bring it to their nation.
African Independence
 During
the 1950s and 60s, most
African nations gained their
independence.
 Ghana, formerly the Golden Coast,
was the first in 1957.
 South Africa – African National
Congress helped lead the fight.
By the 1950s, South African
whites, Afrikaners, ruled.
 Strengthened
laws separating
whites and blacks.
 Racial segregation – Apartheid
 Blacks demonstrated – Nelson
Mandela is jailed. (life sentence).
Armed resistance is called for .
Most new African leaders
were Western educated.
 Most
wanted Western Democratic
model used for Africa.
 Some wanted Pan-Africanism :
unity of ALL African nations.
 1976 – UN asks for end to
Apartheid, boycott trade.
 1985:
Mandela offered freedom, he
refuses
 Bishop Desmond Tutu works to
free Mandela.
 1990 – FREEDOM
 1994 – becomes
their first
black president.
After Independence
 Many
nations rely on a single crop
– drought.
 Corruption and bribery.
 1957-1982 : over 70 leaders are
overthrown ruled, by military.
 Some democracies emerge.
 Poverty
is widespread.
 AIDS has hit these nations the
hardest.
 Women do not have total equality
to men.
 Many still live in rural areas.
One factor that motivated
imperialism…
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Development of closer political ties with
European nations
Closing of China to all foreign trade
Support of international peacekeeping
operations
Acquisition of new markets and sources of
raw materials
Response Grid
10
Countdown
In the past, European nations have
practiced imperialism. One reason for this
is…
1. Industrialization in Europe and the need for
raw materials
2. Desire to spread communism
3. European belief in human rights for all
people
4. Request of developing nations for modern
machinery and technology
Response Grid
10
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How did European colonizers view their
mining of natural resources in Africa?
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It was a necessity for their countries to
survive
It was a way to preserve traditions in Africa
It was a way to protect Africans from the
Industrial Revolution
It was their right to take what they wanted
Response Grid
10
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Imperialism affected almost
the entire continent of…
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Africa
Europe
Australia
North America
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10
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This is the country in which
apartheid is practiced.
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Egypt
India
South Africa
England
Response Grid
10
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Participant Scores
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Participant 1
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Participant 2
Participant 3
Participant 4
Participant 5
INDIA
India
controls India in 18th
century.
 1857 – Sepoy Mutiny – bullets
greased with cow fat (sacred to the
Hindus).
 Revolt crushed in a year.
 Britain
 1876:
Queen Victoria named
Empress of India as a result of the
revolt.
 Greatest cost to Indian people was
economic hardships.
 Large taxes from peasants.
 Switch from growing food to
cotton to benefit Britain. 30
Million die as a result 1800-1900.
 Leads to Armritsar Massacre
British rule degraded even the
elite Indian. (Racial tensions)
 Top
jobs still given to British.
 1915 – Mohandas Gandhi leads
independence movement.
 Most of these nations eventually
fought for their independence and
won, some not until the 20th
century.
Indian Independence
Which was NOT a cost of
British rule of India?
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Destroyed local industries
Degraded even elite Indian citizens
Shipped food from Burma, causing
livestock to starve
Started producing cotton, which led to food
shortages
Response Grid
10
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The Sepoy Mutiny in India and the Islamic
Revolution are similar in that…
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Restored power to the hereditary monarchy
Attempted to reject traditions
Resisted foreign influence
Reestablished the power of religious
leaders
Response Grid
10
Countdown
In ________imperialism, countries would set up trading
posts but would not entirely control other nations.
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New
New elite
Old school
Old
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Which was NOT a motivation
for new imperialism?
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Economic motives
Expansion of industrialization
Desire for political power
Sense of racial superiority
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10
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Both France and England wanted control
of Egypot because Egypt had……
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Control of the spice trade
An industrial-based economy
Vital mineral resources
A strategic location
Response Grid
10
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Participant Scores
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Participant 1
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Participant 2
Participant 3
Participant 4
Participant 5
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