Religion and Human Relationships some quotes and past exam questions The Topics Ethics Topic 6 Human Relationships Most Christians approve Some Christians disapprove MARRIAGE symbol of Jesus and church – commitment •“it is not good for man to be alone” •Monogamy – faithful relationship between 2 MARRIAGE sacrament – blessed by God •Some prefer to commit to God – monks, nuns, priests •MARRIAGE CEREMONY – welcome SPEECH, VOWS, Free to marry, + RBPHS – rings, blessings, prayers, hymns, sign register Test Yourself: MEN AND WOMEN – are equal •“there is neither male nor female, all are equal in Jesus” •“all made in image of God” •Share responsibilities and privileges MEN AND WOMEN – not equal •“I will make him a helper” •“Wives should submit to their husbands” •Different roles needed DIVORCE – some say ok – if loving thing to do – shows FORGIVENESS DIVORCE – not ok – •“what god has joined let no man divide” •Re-marriage = adultery SEX – if ‘loving thing to do’ then ok out of marriage but in faithful relationships - SO: homosexuality ok SEX – only for marriage •“Be fruitful and increase” – for kids •Out of marriage is adultery, SO: homosexuality wrong 1. What happens at a marriage ceremony? 2. What are the roles of women? 3. When is sex acceptable? 4. Why is divorce sometimes ok? CONTRACEPTION- ok if loving thing to do – CONTRACEPTION – artificial not ok – Religion and Human relationships useful quotations ‘It is not good for man to be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him’ (this quotation is saying that God created man and woman to be together. It also suggests that women have a lesser role as man’s helper) ’There is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.’ (This quotation is saying that all people are equal in the eyes of Jesus no matter what their gender or race. It can be used to argue against sexism and racism) ’Wives… be submissive to your husband’ (This quotation suggests that women should do as their husbands tell them. It is from the Old Testament and was written a long time ago). ‘Anyone who divorces his wife and marries another woman commits adultery against her’ and ‘Let man not separate what God has joined together’ (these quotations could be used to talk about why Catholic Christians are against divorce. The idea is that once you are joined in marriage by God then you cannot break that bond) ‘Be fruitful and increase’ (This is God’s command to Adam and Eve. He is telling them to go and have children. It could be used to argue against contraception, abortion and homosexuality). Past Exam Questions June 2006 Religion and Human Relationships (a) Describe the roles of men and women in a Christian family.  (b) Explain Christian attitudes towards divorce.  (c) ‘Every Christian should get married.’ Do you agree? Give reasons to support your opinion and show that you have thought about different points of view. You must refer to Christianity in your answer.  June 2007 (a) Describe Christian teachings about the use of contraception.  (b) Explain Christian attitudes towards sexual relationships.  (c) ‘Divorce is often the best solution.’ Do you agree? Give reasons to support your opinion and show that you have thought about different points of view. You must refer to Christianity in your answer.  Religion and Human Relationships sample questions with some advice from the examiners • • • • • • • (a) Describe Christian beliefs about divorce. Description could include views from both Protestant and Roman Catholic traditions. Candidates might show that divorce is never encouraged, but that it is accepted by some Christians as inevitable in some cases. Issues relating to the remarriage of divorced people could be explored. (b) Explain how a Christian marriage service might guide a couple in their married life.  Candidates might demonstrate understanding of the main elements of a Christian marriage service, and show how the beliefs expressed might support a Christian couple. They could include the emphasis on marriage for life, on faithfulness, and on marriage as sanctified by God; there might also be a discussion of the expectation that a married couple will want to have children. The ways in which Christians might use these beliefs for guidance could be considered. (c) ‘Divorce is never the best way to solve problems with a marriage.’ Do you agree? Give reasons to support your answer and show that you have thought about different points of view. You must refer to Christianity in your answer.  Discussion could include an exploration of circumstances under which divorce might seem to be the right solution, for example in cases of desertion or ‘irretrievable breakdown’. Christian principles of compassion might be expressed or Roman Catholic views about the permanence of the marriage sacrament. Religion and Medical Ethics – quotes and past paper questions The Topics Ethics Medical Ethics Topic 7 Some Christians say right Other Christians say wrong •ABORTION ok if most loving thing to do “Love your neighbour” •If risk to health of mum •RC say ABORTION always wrong as life begins at conception and “Do not kill” •Interferes with God’s plan – “all the days ordained for us are written in a book” – same for FT FERTILITY TREATMENT – ok if brings happiness - God said “increase in number” RC – God decides who can and can’t have kids “Hannah had no children as the Lord had closed her womb” EUTHANASIA/ SUICIDE - ok if most loving thing to do - relieves pain EUTHANASIA/ SUICIDE - God decides when we die – all planned - “Do not kill” - instead use Hospice ANIMAL TESTING - ok as saves life of humans – vip - humans “have dominion”- in charge ANIMAL TESTING - God gave us stewardship – in charge – should not be cruel When does life begin? What happens to spare embryos? TEST YOURSELF Who is in charge of life? 1) Why might RC disapprove of abortion, IVF and euthanasia? 2) When might a Christian approve of abortion, IVF and euthanasia? 3) What sorts of IVF might a Christian not approve of? (Consider donor sperm and eggs) Are animals less sacred? Religion and Medical Ethics some useful quotations ‘Before I formed you in the womb I knew you’; ‘All the days ordained for you were written in your book’; ‘There is a time for everything. ‘A time to be born, a time to die’ (These quotations all suggest the idea that God has a plan for all human life and this means that Euthanasia and Abortion should be considered wrong as they are interfering with God’s plan). ‘Thou shall not kill’ (This quotation is one of the 10 commandments that tells people that God thinks murder is wrong. It is used by some people to argue against Abortion and Euthanasia) the earth is the lords and everything in it (this leads to the idea that we are stewards of the earth and therefore have a responsibility of care. This might include looking after animals… caring for them) Past Exam Questions June 2006 Religion and Medical Ethics (a) Describe Christian attitudes towards abortion.  (b) Explain why some Christians might be against fertility treatment.  (c) ‘It is up to God to decide if a woman is going to have a baby.’ Do you agree? Give reasons to support your opinion and show that you have thought about different points of view. You must refer to Christianity in your answer.  June 2007 (a) Describe Christian teachings about euthanasia.  (b) Explain how Christians might respond to someone who wants to die.  (c) ‘People should have the right to choose when they die.’ Do you agree? Give reasons to support your opinion and show that you have thought about different points of view. You must refer to Christianity in your answer.  Topic 7 – Religion and Medical Ethics • (a) Describe Christian attitudes towards abortion. Description could include both Protestant and Roman Catholic views, showing a spectrum of opinion from those who believe that abortion is never permissible to those who believe that it can sometimes be the kindest and most compassionate solution to a problem. Biblical references used in support of different views. • (b) Explain how a Christian might respond to someone who was thinking about committing suicide. Answers might include the recognition that people who are thinking about suicide tend to be desperate rather than immoral, and may need help and support rather than blame. Reference might be made to compassion; also arguments about the sanctity of life; also possibly the work of organisations such as the Samaritans. • (c) ‘Only God has the right to take away life.’ Do you agree? Give reasons to support your answer and show that you have thought about different points of view. You must refer to Christianity in your answer.  Discussion could include beliefs in the sanctity of life, as given by God, and the concept that each individual has a purpose. Different circumstances under which taking life might be acceptable could be included, alongside contrasting points of view. Religion, Peace and Justice Ethics Topic 10 The Topics Peace and Justice Use violence: JUST WAR: •Jesus did in temple A - authority •“Prepare for war” F - force •Defend the weak and fight against evil R – good reason WAR IS WRONG: 1) Killing is murder 2) Killing is not ”love your enemy” 3) 4) R – last resort O – good outcome If sorry – be forgiven CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTORS- eg: Quakers Deter, Protect, Punish, Retribution Pacifist: non-violence only eg: protest Elizabeth Fry – 1780 – 1845 Unfairness in society Liberation Theology: Belief that Xians should fight for other’s freedom. Let he who is without sin throw the 1st stone” “Love your neighbour” - ships, trade, better conditions, education, all equal, Quaker MENCAP, Amnesty International campaign for equal rights TEST YOURSELF: 1) What are the main rules for a Just War? 3) Why is Elizabeth Fry famous? 2) What do pacifists believe and why? 4) What is liberation theology? The Quotes Unit 10 GCSE Philosophy and Ethics: Peace and Justice ‘Love your enemies’; ’Turn the other cheek’; ‘Blessed are the peacemakers’; ‘Love your neighbour’; ‘If your brother sins…forgive him’ (All of these are quotations that come from the New Testament and all can be used by Christians to argue against violence and war. They emphasise love and forgiveness. Being kind to your fellow human beings) Jesus used violence in the temple; ‘an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth and a life for a life’; Much of the Old Testament sees God as a war loving God, encouraging his people to fight. (There is much in the Bible, especially the Old Testament that encourages War… this is why Christians have different views on War… make sure you know all about the idea of ‘just war’) ‘If an alien lives in your land, do not mistreat him’ (This encourages Christians to show friendship to foreigners in their country) ‘Seek Justice, encourage the oppressed’ (This encourages Christians to be fair and seek to promote fairness (justice). It tells Christians to stand up for those who are put down). Past Exam Questions (a) Describe Christian teachings about war.  (b) Explain why Christians might work for peace.  (c) ‘Violence is sometimes necessary.’ Do you agree? Give reasons to support your opinion and show that you have thought about different points of view. You must refer to Christianity in your answer.  June 2007 (a) Describe Christian teachings about crime and punishment.  (b) Explain how Christians might treat criminals.  (c) ‘Criminals must be punished as an example to others.’ Do you agree? Give reasons to support your opinion and show that you have thought about different points of view. You must refer to Christianity in your answer.  Topic 10 – Religion, Peace and Justice ) Describe what Christians mean by a ‘Just War.’ • (a • Candidates will probably want to refer to Thomas Aquinas and the conditions set out for judging whether to engage in warfare: the cause must be just, it must remain just throughout etc. There might also be discussion of the circumstances under which these rules might be needed, and whether they can be applied today. (b) Explain how Christians might respond if they see other people being treated very badly by a government. Some knowledge could be demonstrated of Christian attitudes to social injustice. The candidates might suggest possible responses such as the use of the vote, protests, petitions, letter campaigns etc., and also perhaps more extreme measures such as those advocated by some liberation theologians. Injustice on a smaller scale, such as miscarriages of justice or inhumane treatment of prisoners might also be used. (c) ‘Sometimes using violence is the only way to solve a problem.’ Do you agree? Give reasons to support your answer and show that you have thought about different points of view. You must refer to Christianity in your answer.  Discussion could include a consideration of different forms of non-violent protests and their effectiveness, perhaps with examples. The ethics of war could be considered, using Christian points of view as well as other opinions. Candidates might consider whether there are any circumstances under which violence is justified or appropriate. • • • • • • Death and the afterlife The Topics Philosophy Topic 4 Death and the Afterlife Heaven All have soul as made in ”image of God” Soul = “Breath of Life Resurrection of Jesus proves afterlife Hell •“many rooms”, “reserve a place”, “no more death, crying, mourning, pain”, “eternal life” “fire, agony, torment and pain” - Some think it does not exist if God forgives all PURGATORY: only RC believe in this. Travel from death to heaven Body dies, soul eternal To get to heaven: Parable of sheep and goats Buried or cremated •Help needy Service reminds of belief in eternal life God gives life and takes away •Help poor •Feed hungry Readings, prayers, talk, hymns TEST YOURSELF 1) Describe the soul 2) What is resurrection, heaven, hell, purgatory? 3) What happens at a funeral? 4) What beliefs are reflected at a funeral? •“Righteous will go to eternal life” •Follow the 10 Commandments Death and the afterlife – some useful quotations ‘God breathed into his nostrils the breath of life’ (This quotation refers to the Christian story of creation and the giving of life to Adam. Christians link the ‘breath of life’ to the idea that we have a soul, the God like part of us) ‘Then the bad will go away to eternal punishment, but the righteous to eternal life’ (this refers to the Christian teaching about Heaven and Hell. Heaven is seen as a place of reward, Hell as a place of punishment) ‘I am the resurrection and the life. He who lives and believes in me will never die’ (this is a central Christian belief and is reflects the idea that Jesus died to makeup for the wrong doing of Humans. Meaning that by believing in him we can enter into a loving relationship with God and receive eternal life in Heaven as a reward) Topic 4 – Death and the Afterlife • • • • • • • • • (a) Describe Christian beliefs about what happens to evil people after death. Candidates might describe different Christian views about life after death for evil people; they might include traditional views of hell as a place of suffering at the hands of the devil, or other views in which the good are united with God but the evil are left behind. Roman Catholic views about purgatory might be included. There could be a discussion of whether descriptions of hell as an eternal fire are symbolic or literal. (b) Explain how a Christian funeral service might comfort someone whose close friend has died.  Understanding of the main elements of a Christian funeral service might be demonstrated, with the emphasis on the promise of resurrection and comforting images of the dead at rest and in the hands of God; death as something which takes a person forward into eternal life. This might be seen as comforting where death is not the end and the separation from loved ones is temporary. (c) ‘It cannot be true that there is life after death, because there is no evidence for it.’ Do you agree? Give reasons to support your answer and show that you have thought about different points of view. You must refer to Christianity in your answer.  Answers might include the view that for Christians, there is evidence for life after death in the resurrection of Christ. Arguments might also include the idea that there are plenty of things which can be true in the absence of hard evidence; or that there is no evidence against life after death either. Contrasting views might agree with the statement and suggest that belief in life after death is wishful thinking.
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