Religion and Human Relationships some quotes and past exam questions

Religion and Human Relationships some
quotes and past exam questions
The Topics
Ethics
Topic 6
Human
Relationships
Most Christians approve
Some Christians disapprove
MARRIAGE symbol of Jesus and church –
commitment
•“it is not good for man to be alone”
•Monogamy – faithful relationship between 2
MARRIAGE sacrament – blessed by God
•Some prefer to commit to God – monks, nuns,
priests
•MARRIAGE CEREMONY – welcome SPEECH, VOWS, Free to marry, + RBPHS – rings,
blessings, prayers, hymns, sign register
Test Yourself:
MEN AND WOMEN – are equal
•“there is neither male nor female, all are equal
in Jesus”
•“all made in image of God”
•Share responsibilities and privileges
MEN AND WOMEN – not equal
•“I will make him a helper”
•“Wives should submit to their husbands”
•Different roles needed
DIVORCE – some say ok – if loving thing to do
– shows FORGIVENESS
DIVORCE – not ok –
•“what god has joined let no man divide”
•Re-marriage = adultery
SEX – if ‘loving thing to do’ then ok out of
marriage but in faithful relationships
- SO: homosexuality ok
SEX – only for marriage
•“Be fruitful and increase” – for kids
•Out of marriage is adultery, SO:
homosexuality wrong
1. What happens at a marriage ceremony?
2. What are the roles of women?
3. When is sex acceptable?
4. Why is divorce sometimes ok?
CONTRACEPTION- ok if loving thing to do –
CONTRACEPTION – artificial not ok –
Religion and Human relationships useful quotations
‘It is not good for man to be alone. I will make a helper suitable for him’
(this quotation is saying that God created man and woman to be together. It also suggests
that women have a lesser role as man’s helper)
’There is neither Jew nor Greek, slave nor female, for you are all one in Christ
Jesus.’
(This quotation is saying that all people are equal in the eyes of Jesus no matter what their
gender or race. It can be used to argue against sexism and racism)
’Wives… be submissive to your husband’
(This quotation suggests that women should do as their husbands tell them. It is from the
Old Testament and was written a long time ago).
‘Anyone who divorces his wife and marries another woman commits adultery against
her’ and ‘Let man not separate what God has joined together’
(these quotations could be used to talk about why Catholic Christians are against divorce.
The idea is that once you are joined in marriage by God then you cannot break that
bond)
‘Be fruitful and increase’
(This is God’s command to Adam and Eve. He is telling them to go and have children. It
could be used to argue against contraception, abortion and homosexuality).
Past Exam Questions
June 2006 Religion and Human Relationships
(a) Describe the roles of men and women in a Christian family. [8]
(b) Explain Christian attitudes towards divorce.
[7]
(c) ‘Every Christian should get married.’
Do you agree? Give reasons to support your opinion and show that you
have thought about different points of view. You must refer to
Christianity in your answer. [5]
June 2007
(a) Describe Christian teachings about the use of contraception. [8]
(b) Explain Christian attitudes towards sexual relationships. [7]
(c) ‘Divorce is often the best solution.’
Do you agree? Give reasons to support your opinion and show that you
have thought about different points of view. You must refer to
Christianity in your answer. [5]
Religion and Human Relationships sample questions with some
advice from the examiners
•
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•
•
•
•
(a) Describe Christian beliefs about divorce.[8]
Description could include views from both Protestant and Roman Catholic traditions.
Candidates might show that divorce is never encouraged, but that it is accepted by
some Christians as inevitable in some cases. Issues relating to the remarriage of
divorced people could be explored.
(b) Explain how a Christian marriage service might guide a couple in their
married life. [7]
Candidates might demonstrate understanding of the main elements of a Christian
marriage service, and show how the beliefs expressed might support a Christian
couple. They could include the emphasis on marriage for life, on faithfulness, and on
marriage as sanctified by God; there might also be a discussion of the expectation
that a married couple will want to have children. The ways in which Christians might
use these beliefs for guidance could be considered.
(c) ‘Divorce is never the best way to solve problems with a marriage.’
Do you agree? Give reasons to support your answer and show that you have
thought about different points of view. You must refer to Christianity in your
answer. [5]
Discussion could include an exploration of circumstances under which divorce might
seem to be the right solution, for example in cases of desertion or ‘irretrievable
breakdown’. Christian principles of compassion might be expressed or Roman
Catholic views about the permanence of the marriage sacrament.
Religion and Medical Ethics –
quotes and past paper questions
The Topics
Ethics
Medical Ethics
Topic 7
Some Christians say right
Other Christians say wrong
•ABORTION ok if most loving thing to do “Love your
neighbour”
•If risk to health of mum
•RC say ABORTION always wrong as life begins at
conception and “Do not kill”
•Interferes with God’s plan – “all the days ordained
for us are written in a book” – same for FT
FERTILITY TREATMENT – ok if brings happiness
- God said “increase in number”
RC – God decides who can and can’t have kids
“Hannah had no children as the Lord had closed
her womb”
EUTHANASIA/ SUICIDE
- ok if most loving thing to do
- relieves pain
EUTHANASIA/ SUICIDE
- God decides when we die – all planned
- “Do not kill”
- instead use Hospice
ANIMAL TESTING
- ok as saves life of humans – vip
- humans “have dominion”- in charge
ANIMAL TESTING
- God gave us stewardship – in charge – should not
be cruel
When does life begin?
What happens to spare
embryos?
TEST YOURSELF
Who is in charge of
life?
1)
Why might RC disapprove of abortion, IVF and euthanasia?
2)
When might a Christian approve of abortion, IVF and euthanasia?
3)
What sorts of IVF might a Christian not approve of? (Consider donor sperm and eggs)
Are animals less
sacred?
Religion and Medical Ethics some useful quotations
‘Before
I formed you in the womb I knew you’; ‘All the days ordained for
you were written in your book’; ‘There is a time for everything. ‘A time to
be born, a time to die’
(These quotations all suggest the idea that God has a plan for all human life
and this means that Euthanasia and Abortion should be considered wrong as
they are interfering with God’s plan).
‘Thou shall not kill’
(This quotation is one of the 10 commandments that tells people that God
thinks murder is wrong. It is used by some people to argue against Abortion and
Euthanasia)
the earth is the lords and everything in it
(this leads to the idea that we are stewards of the earth and therefore have a
responsibility of care. This might include looking after animals… caring for
them)
Past Exam Questions
June 2006 Religion and Medical Ethics
(a) Describe Christian attitudes towards abortion. [8]
(b) Explain why some Christians might be against fertility treatment. [7]
(c) ‘It is up to God to decide if a woman is going to have a baby.’
Do you agree? Give reasons to support your opinion and show that you have
thought about different points of view. You must refer to Christianity in your
answer.
[5]
June 2007
(a) Describe Christian teachings about euthanasia. [8]
(b) Explain how Christians might respond to someone who wants to die. [7]
(c) ‘People should have the right to choose when they die.’
Do you agree? Give reasons to support your opinion and show that you have
thought about different points of view. You must refer to Christianity in your
answer. [5]
Topic 7 – Religion and Medical
Ethics
•
(a) Describe Christian attitudes towards abortion.[8]
Description could include both Protestant and Roman Catholic views, showing a
spectrum of opinion from those who believe that abortion is never permissible to
those who believe that it can sometimes be the kindest and most compassionate
solution to a problem. Biblical references used in support of different views.
•
(b) Explain how a Christian might respond to someone who was thinking about
committing suicide.[7]
Answers might include the recognition that people who are thinking about suicide
tend to be desperate rather than immoral, and may need help and support rather
than blame. Reference might be made to compassion; also arguments about the
sanctity of life; also possibly the work of organisations such as the Samaritans.
•
(c) ‘Only God has the right to take away life.’
Do you agree? Give reasons to support your answer and show that you have
thought about different points of view. You must refer to Christianity in your
answer. [5]
Discussion could include beliefs in the sanctity of life, as given by God, and the
concept that each individual has a purpose. Different circumstances under which
taking life might be acceptable could be included, alongside contrasting points of
view.
Religion, Peace and Justice
Ethics
Topic 10
The Topics
Peace and Justice
Use violence:
JUST WAR:
•Jesus did in temple
A - authority
•“Prepare for war”
F - force
•Defend the weak and fight against evil
R – good reason
WAR IS WRONG:
1)
Killing is murder
2)
Killing is not ”love your
enemy”
3)
4)
R – last resort
O – good outcome
If sorry – be forgiven
CONSCIENTIOUS
OBJECTORS- eg: Quakers
Deter, Protect,
Punish,
Retribution
Pacifist: non-violence only
eg: protest
Elizabeth Fry – 1780 – 1845
Unfairness in
society
Liberation Theology:
Belief that Xians should fight for
other’s freedom.
Let he who is
without sin
throw the 1st
stone”
“Love your
neighbour”
- ships, trade, better conditions,
education, all equal, Quaker
MENCAP, Amnesty
International campaign for
equal rights
TEST YOURSELF:
1)
What are the main rules for a Just War?
3) Why is Elizabeth Fry famous?
2) What do pacifists believe and why?
4) What is liberation theology?
The Quotes
Unit 10 GCSE Philosophy and Ethics: Peace and Justice
‘Love your enemies’; ’Turn the other cheek’; ‘Blessed are the
peacemakers’; ‘Love your neighbour’; ‘If your brother sins…forgive
him’
(All of these are quotations that come from the New Testament and all can
be used by Christians to argue against violence and war. They emphasise
love and forgiveness. Being kind to your fellow human beings)
Jesus used violence in the temple; ‘an eye for an eye, a tooth for a
tooth and a life for a life’; Much of the Old Testament sees God as a
war loving God, encouraging his people to fight.
(There is much in the Bible, especially the Old Testament that encourages
War… this is why Christians have different views on War… make sure you
know all about the idea of ‘just war’)
‘If an alien lives in your land, do not mistreat him’
(This encourages Christians to show friendship to foreigners in their country)
‘Seek Justice, encourage the oppressed’
(This encourages Christians to be fair and seek to promote fairness (justice). It
tells Christians to stand up for those who are put down).
Past Exam Questions
(a) Describe Christian teachings about war.
[8]
(b) Explain why Christians might work for peace. [7]
(c) ‘Violence is sometimes necessary.’
Do you agree? Give reasons to support your opinion and show
that you have thought about different points of view. You must
refer to Christianity in your answer.
[5]
June 2007
(a) Describe Christian teachings about crime and punishment. [8]
(b) Explain how Christians might treat criminals. [7]
(c) ‘Criminals must be punished as an example
to others.’
Do you agree? Give reasons to support your opinion and show
that you have thought about different points of view. You must
refer to Christianity in your answer. [5]
Topic 10 – Religion, Peace and
Justice
) Describe what Christians mean by a ‘Just War.’[8]
•
(a
•
Candidates will probably want to refer to Thomas Aquinas and the conditions set out
for judging whether to engage in warfare: the cause must be just, it must remain just
throughout etc. There might also be discussion of the circumstances under which
these rules might be needed, and whether they can be applied today.
(b) Explain how Christians might respond if they see other people being
treated very badly by a government.[7]
Some knowledge could be demonstrated of Christian attitudes to social injustice. The
candidates might suggest possible responses such as the use of the vote, protests,
petitions, letter campaigns etc., and also perhaps more extreme measures such as
those advocated by some liberation theologians. Injustice on a smaller scale, such as
miscarriages of justice or inhumane treatment of prisoners might also be used.
(c) ‘Sometimes using violence is the only way to solve a problem.’
Do you agree? Give reasons to support your answer and show that you have
thought about different points of view. You must refer to Christianity in your
answer. [5]
Discussion could include a consideration of different forms of non-violent protests
and their effectiveness, perhaps with examples. The ethics of war could be
considered, using Christian points of view as well as other opinions. Candidates
might consider whether there are any circumstances under which violence is justified
or appropriate.
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Death and the afterlife
The Topics
Philosophy
Topic 4
Death and the Afterlife
Heaven
All have soul as made in
”image of God”
Soul = “Breath of Life
Resurrection of
Jesus proves
afterlife
Hell
•“many rooms”, “reserve a
place”, “no more death, crying,
mourning, pain”, “eternal life”
“fire, agony,
torment and
pain”
- Some think it does not exist if God forgives all
PURGATORY: only RC believe in this. Travel
from death to heaven
Body dies, soul eternal
To get to heaven:
Parable of sheep and
goats
Buried or cremated
•Help needy
Service
reminds of
belief in eternal
life
God gives life
and takes away
•Help poor
•Feed hungry
Readings, prayers, talk, hymns
TEST YOURSELF
1)
Describe the soul
2)
What is resurrection, heaven, hell, purgatory?
3)
What happens at a funeral?
4)
What beliefs are reflected at a funeral?
•“Righteous will go to
eternal life”
•Follow the 10
Commandments
Death and the afterlife – some useful quotations
‘God breathed into his nostrils the breath of life’
(This quotation refers to the Christian story of creation and the giving of life to
Adam. Christians link the ‘breath of life’ to the idea that we have a soul, the God
like part of us)
‘Then the bad will go away to eternal punishment, but the righteous to
eternal life’
(this refers to the Christian teaching about Heaven and Hell. Heaven is seen as a
place of reward, Hell as a place of punishment)
‘I am the resurrection and the life. He who lives and believes in me will
never die’
(this is a central Christian belief and is reflects the idea that Jesus died to makeup
for the wrong doing of Humans. Meaning that by believing in him we can enter into
a loving relationship with God and receive eternal life in Heaven as a reward)
Topic 4 – Death and the Afterlife
•
•
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•
•
•
•
•
•
(a) Describe Christian beliefs about what happens to evil people after death.[8]
Candidates might describe different Christian views about life after death for evil people; they
might include traditional views of hell as a place of suffering at the hands of the devil, or other
views in which the good are united with God but the evil are left behind. Roman Catholic views
about purgatory might be included. There could be a
discussion of whether descriptions of hell as an eternal fire are symbolic or literal.
(b) Explain how a Christian funeral service might comfort someone whose close friend
has died. [7]
Understanding of the main elements of a Christian funeral service might be demonstrated, with
the emphasis on the promise of resurrection and comforting images of the dead at rest and in
the hands of God; death as something which takes a person
forward into eternal life. This might be seen as comforting where death is not the end and the
separation from loved ones is temporary.
(c) ‘It cannot be true that there is life after death, because there is no evidence for it.’
Do you agree? Give reasons to support your answer and show that you have thought
about different points of view. You must refer to Christianity in your answer. [5]
Answers might include the view that for Christians, there is evidence for life after death in the
resurrection of Christ. Arguments might also include the idea that there are plenty of things
which can be true in the absence of hard evidence; or that there is no evidence against life after
death either. Contrasting views might agree with the statement and suggest that belief in life
after death is wishful thinking.
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