Document 368986

DAVID BROOKS
WHAT THE EBOLA CRISIS
REVEALS ABOUT CULTURE
MISSION TO MARS
BUT FIRST, EIGHT
MONTHS IN HAWAII
MALARIA FIGHT
THE MAN WHO’S
SUCCEEDING
PAGE 13
PAGE 8
PAGE 7
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OPINION
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HEALTH+SCIENCE
|
WORLD NEWS
....
WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 22, 2014
U.S. shifts
terror cases
to courtroom
with success
Officials hint
at change for
Hong Kong,
but not now
WASHINGTON
HONG KONG
Attorney general leaves
a legacy of reversing
secret trials of Bush era
In rare debate, students
press the city’s chief on
resistance to democracy
BY MATT APUZZO
BY MICHAEL FORSYTHE
AND ALAN WONG
After commandos and F.B.I. agents
snatched the man suspected of being
the ringleader in the 2012 attack on the
American diplomatic compound in
Benghazi, Libya, some Republican lawmakers urged the Obama administration to take him to Guantánamo Bay,
Cuba, for interrogation and a military
trial, sounding what has become a common refrain over the past several years:
that a civilian trial for a terrorist is,
among other things, too dangerous.
But on Monday, the defendant,
Ahmed Abu Khattala, was ushered into
a federal courthouse, and he pleaded not
guilty to new charges that make him eligible for the death penalty. And for all
the talk of security concerns, he appeared — as he had before — in open
court, not behind the bulletproof glass
reserved for particularly dangerous defendants. The hearing itself was routine,
which is what made it so remarkable.
Five years ago, the debate over
whether terrorists should be prosecuted in criminal courts was so contentious
that it made its chief advocate, Attorney
General Eric H. Holder Jr., a political liability. Republicans argued that F.B.I.
interrogation was not suited to wartime
intelligence gathering. By extension, civilian courtrooms were no place for ter-
KEVIN SUTHERLAND/EUROPEAN PRESSPHOTO AGENCY
Prison for Pistorius
Flanked by security officers, Oscar Pistorius left a courthouse in Pretoria, South Africa, on Tuesday after being sentenced to five years in prison for
killing his girlfriend, Reeva Steenkamp. Pistorius, a double-amputee athlete, said that he had shot and killed Ms. Steenkamp by mistake. PAGE 4
Under City of Light, darkness beckons
PARIS
Over 170 miles of tunnels
built centuries ago lure
adventurers and artists
BY AURELIEN BREEDEN
GARY CAMERON/REUTERS
Eric H. Holder Jr. came to office promising
to use the judicial system to fight terror.
rorists, who did not deserve the same
rights as common criminals.
But as Mr. Holder prepares to leave
office, his success in reversing the Bush
administration’s emphasis on trying terrorism suspects in secret prisons or at
offshore military tribunals may be one
of his most significant achievements.
While Mr. Holder did not end the argument — each new arrest brings fresh
statements of disapproval from critics
— the Justice Department can now
point to a string of courtroom victories
that his liberal supporters, as well as
many law enforcement officials, believe
has reshaped the government’s approach to prosecuting terrorism.
‘‘History will remember these years
as the time when we resolved one of the
most contentious debates in the post-9/
11 era: about whether our legal system
was equipped to handle national securiTERROR, PAGE 6
On a recent evening, a 31-year-old street
artist led a small group through a dark
tunnel off a disused train track in the
south of Paris. After crouching, crawling and sometimes wading through water, using headlamps to light their way,
they finally arrived in a chamber with
vaulted ceilings about 10 feet high.
The space was once used by a brewery to store bottles. It is now part of a
sprawling network of abandoned galleries below this city, where a secretive
community of street artists, history
buffs and other Parisians regularly
prowl. They are sometimes called cataphiles: lovers of the catacombs, as the
subterranean network is commonly
known.
Some seek peace and quiet from the
bustling city, others an unusual canvas
for their art, still others a place to party
with friends at a lower cost and in a
more jovial atmosphere than in the
clubs and bars above. Many cherish the
secrecy and, to some extent, exclusivity
of their endeavors.
‘‘My creations have a lot more value
here, because they are intended for a
limited audience that deserves to see
them,’’ said the artist who led the group
and declined to give his name, but went
by Nobad. ‘‘They went through the
trouble of coming here.’’
Nobad stencils European paintings
with a twist, like Gustave Courbet’s
PARIS, PAGE 4
DMITRY KOSTYUKOV FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES
Those who explore below Paris are sometimes called cataphiles: lovers of the catacombs.
A voice against sanctions is lost for Total
MOSCOW
BY ANDREW E. KRAMER,
STANLEY REED AND DAVID JOLLY
FRED DUFOUR/AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE
As chief of Total, Christophe de Margerie
had emphasized its commitment to Russia.
The head of the big French oil company
Total had gone to Moscow to criticize
Western sanctions against Russia. It
was his last public speech.
Christophe de Margerie, one of the
most powerful and colorful figures in the
energy industry, was killed a few hours
later when his business jet collided with
a snowplow late Monday night on a
foggy runway at Vnukovo International
Airport in Moscow. The accident — in
which officials contend that the
snowplow driver, who survived, was
drunk and the control-tower staff erred
— was still under investigation.
Mr. de Margerie, 63, had just finished
addressing a business alliance group at
INSIDE TO DAY ’S PA P E R
ONLINE AT INY T.COM
Oscar de la Renta dies at 82
Power shifts in a swing state
The doyen of American fashion, whose
career began in the 1950s of Franco’s
Spain, was the last survivor of a
generation of bold, all-seeing
tastemakers. WORLD NEWS, 6
A way of life is eroding as small towns
in Iowa hemorrhage younger residents,
a potent but unpredictable factor in a
closely fought race for the United
States Senate. nytimes.com/politics
E.U. seeks to retake climate helm
Controlling high-frequency trades
But leaders meeting to agree on climate
protection targets will need to finesse
deep divisions on how to generate and
distribute energy. BUSINESS, 16
Despite increased scrutiny, the
authorities find the practice difficult to
regulate because of the complexity of
the strategies used. nytimes.com/dealbook
Replace Ferguson? It’s not easy
Good Barolo for those who wait
Since Alex Ferguson retired, his two
successors as manager, David Moyes
and then Louis van Gaal, have not fared
well at Manchester United, Rob
Hughes writes. SPORTS, 15
Fighting Ebola, and the mud
Liberia’s impassable roads are
preventing effective diagnosis and
treatment as the Ebola crisis spreads,
Karin Huster writes. OPINION, 12
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The architect Frank Gehry is the subject of a major retrospective here, coinciding with the opening of his latest work, the Louis Vuitton Foundation, above. CULTURE, 9
HIS PARIS MOMENT
4 big banks fined in cartel cases
Bulgaria warned on banking laws
The European Commission fined four
major lenders $120 million for what it
deemed cartel behavior. BUSINESS, 16
A European agency urged Bulgarian
officials to give depositors access to their
accounts at a seized lender. BUSINESS, 17
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IN THIS ISSUE
No. 40,935
Business 16
Crossword 15
Culture 9
Opinion 12
Science 8
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the country house of the Russian prime
minister, Dmitri A. Medvedev.
‘‘We are committed to Russia,’’ Mr. de
Margerie told the group. ‘‘We want to
continue to invest in your country and
we are still ready to bring the best of
what we have,’’ he continued, according
to a transcript.
‘‘We are against sanctions,’’ Mr. de
Margerie said. ‘‘You have heard it. And
TOTAL, PAGE 18
After weeks of unprecedented protests
that have shaken this financial hub of 7.2
million, residents thought they had seen
it all. Then on Tuesday night something
even more extraordinary happened, on
live television: a polite debate between
students wearing black ‘‘Freedom
Now’’ T-shirts and top Hong Kong leaders over the future of democracy.
Five student leaders, hair disheveled,
faces cherubic, took on the officials —
who were old enough to be their parents
— in the frank discourse. They spoke
Cantonese, the prevailing local Chinese
dialect, with simultaneous translations
into English and sign language.
It was a remarkably civil and scholarly discussion, all the more so given
the generational divide. Each cited articles of Hong Kong’s Constitution,
chapter and verse, to back their points.
Even more remarkable was that it was
happening in Hong Kong, the former
British colony only a few miles from
mainland China, where such a freewheeling public political discussion has not
been heard in at least a quarter-century.
At issue was how Hong Kong would
choose its top leader, the chief executive, in elections set for 2017. For the first
time, all five million eligible voters may
cast ballots.
But the National People’s Congress in
Beijing, which is controlled by the
Chinese Communist Party and has final
say on how Hong Kong changes its Constitution, put restrictions on how people
can get a spot on the ballot that pro-democracy advocates say effectively excludes people who offend Beijing.
That sent people to the streets on
Sept. 28, and they have been there ever
since, erecting colorful tent cities on
some of Hong Kong’s busiest avenues.
Yet on Tuesday night, both the government and the students who have been
the driving force behind the protests
said they wanted to move forward.
Carrie Lam, 57, the second-highest official in Hong Kong, told the students
that the government was willing to submit a new report to Beijing acknowledging the surge of discontent that followed
the legislature’s decision on Aug. 31 on
the election guidelines.
In what appeared to be a further
softening, she also said the rules could
change in subsequent elections.
The students stuck with their demands to push for immediate changes
to Hong Kong’s election law. They want
the 2017 elections open to a wide range
of candidates. But Mrs. Lam’s offer did
spark some interest.
‘‘What is the next step?’’ Alex Chow,
24, secretary general of the Hong Kong
Federation of Students, asked after
hearing Mrs. Lam’s offer. ‘‘Do you have
a time frame? Do you have a road map
to see in which direction our constitutional development is going?’’
HONG KONG, PAGE 3
Made entirely from the nebbiolo grape,
this wine demands long aging. But
these days, restaurants often wait only
five to seven years. nytimes.com/dining
An opera singer strikes out
Joyce DiDonato, one of the world’s most
celebrated mezzo-sopranos, grew up a
Kansas City Royals fan, but she was not
picked to sing the national anthem at
the World Series. nytimes.com/baseball
STOCK INDEXES
TUESDAY
s The Dow 12:30pm 16,563.19
s FTSE 100 close
6,372.33
t Nikkei 225 close
14,804.28
OIL
chaumet.com
NEW YORK, TUESDAY 12:30PM
s Light sweet crude
$83.18
Hortensia Collection
+1.00%
+1.68%
–2.03%
+$0.84