Pat Sekel, Ph. D., CALT, QI National LETRS Trainer

Orthographic Awareness Enhances Reading Comprehension
Pat Sekel, Ph. D., CALT, QI
National LETRS Trainer
[email protected]
ORTHOGRAPHIC
AWARENESS
Being aware of the patterns and
sequences of letters in words
Why Is Orthographic Awareness
Important?
• Increases awareness of sequences of letters
and patterns of letters in words when reading
and spelling
• Orthographic processing skill predicted
significant proportion of the variance in word
recognition after the variance accounted for
by phonological processing measures
[Berninger & Wolf 2010]
Why Is Orthographic Awareness
Important?
Common Core State Standards
• Reading: Foundational Skills (k-5)
– “…important components of an effective,
comprehensive reading program designed to
develop proficient readers with the capacity to
comprehend texts”
Four Brain Processors That
Affect Reading Ability
Context
Processor
Comprehension
(Seidenberg & McClelland,
1989)
Vocabulary
Phonemic
Awareness
Phonological
Processor
speech output
Fluency
Meaning
Processor
Phonological
processing
input
Phonics
Orthographic
Processor
writing output
reading input
From LETRS® Module 1
Ehri’s Phases of Word-Reading Development
early
sight-word
learning
letter
knowledge
incidental
visual cues
partial
phoneme
awareness
phonemegrapheme
correspondence
reading
fluently
by sound,
syllable,
morpheme,
whole word,
families,
and
analogies
complete
phoneme
awareness
Pre-alphabetic
Early Alphabetic
Later Alphabetic
LETRS Mod 1
Consolidated Alphabetic
Phonics
Mapping
Speech
To Print
Alphabetic
Principle
Phonemic Awareness
Phonological
Awareness
Adapted From Pat Sekel
“Ph”
Iceberg
Of
Decoding
Phoneme Awareness IS Important
“. . . teaching children to manipulate
phonemes in words was highly effective under
a variety of teaching conditions with a variety
of learners across a range of grade and age
levels and that teaching phoneme awareness
(PA) to children significantly improves their
reading more than instruction that lacks any
attention to PA.”
National Reading Panel – Results of a rigorous
scientific studies meta-analysis.
Phonological Awareness
rhyme, alliteration, sentence, word, onset-rime, phoneme awareness
Phoneme Awareness
Ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual speech sounds
Phoneme
Segmentation
scat = /s/ /k/ /ă/ /t/
Phoneme Blending
/s/ /k/ /ă/ /t/ = scat
Phonics
Mapping
Speech
To Print
Alphabetic
Principle
Phonemic Awareness
Phonological
Awareness
Adapted From Pat Sekel
“Ph”
Iceberg
of
Decoding
The Alphabet – Original Principle
•
•
•
•
“Visual Codification of Speech”
Thank you, Greeks – vowels
Number of alphabets
Relatively independent of speech
Alphabetic Principle
•
•
•
•
The “Cipher”
Builds on phonemic Awareness
Bridges PA and phonics
Understanding that speech is mapped onto
print
PA Linkage to Phonics = Alphabetic Principle
When students understand the sound to letters
(phoneme to grapheme) relationships that create written
language – they learn to read and spell more quickly and
accurately.
/g/ /r/ /ē/ /n/
g r ee n
Alphabetic Principle
•
•
•
•
Not born knowing it
Decoding = grapheme  phoneme
Encoding = phoneme  grapheme
Highly developed oral language, but not
understand the “AP?”
Activities to reinforce the Alphabetic Principle
Make beginning sound cards and distribute one or two
cards to each child.
• Write a spelling pattern, or rime, on a chart eight to ten
times.
• Invite children to make real words by adding their
beginning sound to the spelling pattern.
• Invite children to make silly words.
• Consider how some words could be changed to make
new words.
(adapted from Cunningham, Hall, & Sigmon, 1999)
Written Word Work for Alphabetic Principle
“Soundable” words
• Increases phonemic awareness
• Understanding of how letters spell sounds
(alphabetic principle)
• Students “see” how language is structured
Sight Words or somewhat “Unsoundable” words
• Increases knowledge of orthographic patterns
• Provides practice in another modality to provide
deeper processing of words for reading
Written Word Work for Alphabetic Principle
Attention to meaning and transferable “chunks”
• Increases understanding of how meaning,
sound, and spelling work together in English
• Helps increase the generative, deeper
knowledge of English needed to
independently decode and spell words
Elkonin Boxes
•Count the sounds in the word
with the child.
•Draw one box for each sound.
•Use chips to represent sounds
at first.
Elkonin Boxes
•Count the sounds in the word
with the child.
•Draw one box for each sound.
•Use chips to represent sounds
at first.
•Insert the letter(s) for each
sound.
f
i
sh
Sight Word Practice
• Have students practice word several times,
ensuring they fully process the word each
time
• Highlight the relevant features or chunks
• Never ask to “write word three times”
• Cover word & have them write from memory
Phonics
Mapping
Speech
To Print
Alphabetic
Principle
Phonemic Awareness
Phonological
Awareness
Adapted From Pat Sekel
“Ph”
Iceberg
of
Decoding
Phonics Instruction
• “In fact, the automaticity with which skillful
readers recognize words is the key to the
whole system…The reader’s attention can
be focused on the meaning and message
of a text only to the extent that it’s free
from fussing with the words and letters.”
Marilyn Adams
Orthographic Awareness
Development
1. Pre-Alphabetic Phase
• Appropriate Activities
Phonological Awareness (tasks carried out orally!)
Alphabet Recognition
Vocabulary Building
Activities to Reinforce Pre-Alphabetic Growth
• “A thousand hours of lap time…”
• Experiment with writing media
• “I can make my mark.”
• Nursery rhymes
• Model reading
• Semantic word listing
• Kinds of dogs
• Things found on a farm
2. Early Alphabetic Reading
• Decoding Strategies
Systematic
Explicit
Multisensory
Cumulative
Activities to Reinforce Early Alphabetic
Growth
Show relationships between sounds & letters to
build phonological fluency
Phoneme-Grapheme
Mapping
• Increases awareness & understanding of the
relationship between the sounds heard in a
word and the letter or letter patterns required
to represent those sounds
Kathi Grace – Sopris West
Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping
This activity is multisensory in nature for
students. As students hear sound, they
move a chip to visually mark the sound’s
location in the word.
Phoneme-Grapheme Mapping
• Map each word in the sound boxes.
• Each box stands for one phoneme.
• Complete the first as an “I do”:
chick
ch
i
ck
This technique is developed into a complete word study curriculum by
Kathi Grace & is published by Sopris West Educational Services,
Longmont, Colorado.
1
3. Mature Alphabetic Phase
•
•
•
•
Associations for basic sound spellings known
Simple words can be deciphered
Automaticity and efficiency
“Chunks” of orthography are recognized – this
is moving students from phonological
decoding to orthographic fluency
Activities that Support the Mature
Alphabetic Student
• Automatic Instant Recognition of
previously read words
• Word sorts – Open and Closed
• Reading Worksheets for Meaning
Automatic Instant Retrieval
A.I.R.
• Daily activity
• Three one minute activities
• Consistent repetition
• Easy practice to build automaticity and
fluency
Instant Letter Recognition
Hierarchy of Skills
• Capital Letters - Consonants
• Capital Letters - Vowels
• Capital Letters - Mixed Practice
• Lower Case Letters - Consonants
• Lower Case Letters - Vowels
• Lower Case Letters - Mixed Practice
• Mixed Capitals and Lower Case Letters
• Cursive Letters - only after practiced in
handwriting
Procedure for Instant Letter Recognition
Alphabet
Activity One
• Practice first line with students. Students name
letters as teacher touches each letter.
• Teacher starts one minute timer and says, “Ready
read.”
• Students name letters as teacher touches each letter
on each row.
• If chart is completed in less than one minute, go to
top of chart and read down the columns again;
repeat across until time is called.
Automatic Instant Recognition – Activity 1
i
p
n
s
t
a
t
n
a
p
s
i
s
p
a
t
i
n
t
i
s
a
n
p
a
n
p
t
i
s
Activity Two
Phoneme Segmentation
• When children learn to distinguish individual
sounds, they are better able to remember
which letters make those sounds and relate
them when they can see them.
Adams (1990)
Activity Two
Phoneme Segmentation & Blending
• Auditory Activity - Separates the two
orthographic timed reading to “flush
the brain”
• One Minute Only
– Set timer
• Hierarchy to skill
Hierarchy of Activity 2
Segmentation & Blending
No counters are used – All auditorily presented
• Words with 2 or 3 phonemes
• Words with 3 or 4 phonemes
• Words with final blend
• Words with initial blend
• Words with mixture of three, four, and five
phonemes
Procedure for Phoneme
Segmentation/Blending
• Teacher dictates word to students and cues
students to segment into sounds. Students
do NOT echo word in this activity.
• Teacher says, “Ready, (dictate word).”
• Give visual cue to keep students together
• Students give segmented phonemes about
1 second apart
– (b) (l) (o) (t)
• STOP after one minute
Activity 3 – Automatic Instant Recognition
Words & Phrases
• One minute activity
• Use words that have been introduced and
practiced during reading practice
• Words moving from phonological to
orthographic fluency
Procedure for Automatic Instant
Recognition
• Teacher practices by having students read aloud the
first row.
• Teacher starts one minute timer and says, “Ready,
read.”
• Students read words as teacher touches each word
in each row.
• If chart is completed in less than one minute, teacher
goes to top of chart and points to random words on
the chart.
• STOP after one minute; chart CWPM; look for 10%
increase in naming/chart.
RAPID RECOGNITION CHART
blank
clock
click
block
blink
bling
bling
blink
block
click
clock
blank
blink
bling
clock
blank
click
block
block
click
blank
clock
bling
blink
click
blank
bling
blink
clock
block
Advanced AIR Activities Options
• When students become proficient with alphabet
naming [Chart 1]:
• Chart 1 moves to real words, previously practiced
– Pronounce vowel sounds within the words & use
Chart 1 again as Chart 3 and read words
– Chart 1 = previously practiced words & Chart 3 = sight
words; phrases from selection about to be read
• Chart 2 remains PA
– Begin phoneme manipulation tasks such as deletion
or substitution
w = (w)
1. swim
2. swam
3. swing
4. swell
5. sweet
sweep
twin
tweed
twig
wick
wood
wing
wept
twelfth
wilt
Ideas??
• Locate picture on page
• ‘7 Up’ words in sentence with word from page –
make it random!
• Locate word with particular sound/hand jive
• Word with most/least sounds/phonemes
• Multiple meaning word
• Rhyming words
• Names
4. Orthographic Phase
•
•
•
•
Fluency in word recognition
Read by analogy more
Study of word structures
Begins when students begin to ‘read to learn’
Activities to Reinforce the Orthographic
Phase
• Teach Six Syllable Types & what vowels
commonly say in each
• Teach regular syllable division patterns
• Practice Orthographic ‘Chunking’ to become
“mentally flexible” to break a word & arrive at
an approximate pronunciation, then use
context to resolve ambiguity & confirm word
• Listing of word families [colony, colonization,
colonize, colonist, etc.]
Activities to Reinforce the
Orthographic Phase
• Teach students to become ‘Word Detectives’
or ‘Word Conscious’
• Syllable sorts  word making
• Highlight orthographic patterns &/or
morphemes in selection before reading it
tas tic fan
cum ber cu
Pre-reading Activity: Highlighting graphemes
When you earn money, you can spend it or save it. When
you save money, you feel safe about saving it because you know it
has a certain value. You know it will keep its value over time. The
dollar you earned last summer will be worth a dollar when next
summer rolls around. What we use for money must have stability.
Developing Metacognitive Skills; Neuhaus Education Center
Alphabetic Spelling Principles
Forces that shape English spellings
• Phonetic – spell words the way they sound
(sit, pan)
• Semantic – spell words alike that share
meaning (hymn, hymnal; crumb, crumble;
electric, electrician)
• Etymological – spell words to reflect their
origins (church, machine, school)
• Accident – historically, letters transposed,
inserted, “just because” (island, guest)
Our Spelling is Based upon…
Morphophemic Principles
– Jumped
– Folded
– Sailed
Decoding and Spelling
ARE Important
“They [researchers] know that without decoding
one cannot comprehend. We need to decode the
words in order to assign meaning to words,
sentences, and texts.”
“The patterns useful in decoding are reinforced by
spelling and vice versa.”
Marcia K. Henry, “Unlocking
Literacy: Effective Decoding &
Spelling Instruction,” 2003
Related Websites
www.Voiceofliteracy.org Literacy researchers
inform practitioners
[email protected] Susan Ebbers’
Vocabulogic biweekly blog sign-up
www.readingteachersnetwork.org Neuhaus
Education Center’s offering of freebees for
teachers. [Generates 5 AIR charts with 6 of
your words instantly!]
www.wordlistgenerator.net Creates over 2,000
words of various syllable types & printable!
In Closing…
• Orthographic Awareness begins early in
literacy development
• Linking speaking with listening & reading
with writing, deepens students’
connections of print to meaning
• Differentiate instruction & teach
diagnostically & prescriptively
In Closing…
Thank you for your time and attention.
Pat Sekel, Ph.D., CALT, QI
[email protected]
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