Observations are facts derived from the environment by using the five senses. Ex: The book is yellowish.
In inferences are conclusions or predictions based on your observations. Ex: The rock is old.
Your senses can be extended (made more precise) by using instruments. Ex: The book is 22cm.
Classification is organizing observations in a meaningful way. Ex: The book is science fiction.
Mass- the amount of _______________in an object.
Volume- the amount of _____________ an object occupies.
The __________ of any given substance will remain the same regardless of the size, shape, or mass of the sample.
As the pressure increases, the density of a substance will _____________.
As the temperature increases, the density _____________.
Water expands when it ______________ causing density to ______________.
Most changes are _____________, which means that they are predictable (repeating pattern).
Dynamic Equilibrium means ________ are occurring but overall they __________ out.
Most substances are densest as a _____________.
Water is densest at _____ degrees Celsius, when it is a ____________.
Objects more dense than water ____________, less dense will _____________.
Because the Earth bulges slightly at the equator and is slightly flattened at the poles it is called an __________
The equatorial diameter is _____________ than the polar diameter.
A person would weigh slightly _______ at the poles because he/she is __________ to the center of the Earth.
The best model of the Earth’s shape is a ___________.
Evidence for a round earth: photos from space (best evidence), ships disappear slowly over the horizon, Earth’s shadow
on the moon is curved (lunar eclipse), Polaris = latitude, gravity measurements are difference.
The altitude of Polaris (North Star) above the horizon is the same as the observer’s _____________.
Polaris is located above the Earth’s __________ of _____________.
You can only see Polaris in the __________ hemisphere –always have to look _______ to see Polaris.
As a persons latitude increases, the altitude of Polaris ___________.
If you’re at 90°N, then Polaris is ___ above the horizon- If you are at 0° then Polaris is ___°
_____________ Lines run left to right (horizontal) but measures distances ________ and
________ of the equator.
_____________ Lines run up and down (vertically) but measure east and west of the Prime
Approximate latitude of NY is ____ to 45°N, 72 to ____°W.
Longitude is based on earth’s rotation of 15°/hr and the sun’s apparent motion.
If you travel west time becomes less, if you travel east, time will increase!
The closer the isolines (contour, isobar, isotherm) the
______________ the slope (gradient).
Contour lines always bend at a stream forming a “V” that points in
the opposite direction of flow.
Contour Interval – the elevation increase between two contour lines,
Ocean/ sea level = 0.
Streams always flow from _________to_________ elevation.
Hydrosphere = water (oceans) Lithosphere = Crust
(continental/oceanic) Atmosphere = Layers of gasses.
Apparent diameter of objects (sun, moon) gets larger when
____________ to earth.
The red shift (Doppler Effect) and cosmic background radiation is
evidence for the Big Bang Theory
38. Light from distant galaxies show a shift to the __________ end of the visible
spectrum, which is evidence that the universe is _______________.
39. Our sun is a medium size (Main
Sequence) star in the galaxy called the
_________ __________.
Most stars spend a majority of their life
as an average _________ ________
star. P. 15
Our sun will eventually swell up to be a red giant then shrink down into a
white dwarf.
Star get their energy from _________ _________(4 hydrogen into 1 helium)
The theory of the formation of the universe is called the _______ ________
44. The inner Terrestrial (rocky) planets are composed of ____________and have __________ average density.
45. The outer Jovian (gaseous) planets are composed of __________ and have _________ average density.
46. Stars like the Sun appear to move at ______ per hour because the earth _________ 15 degrees per hour.
47. The only star that does not appear to move is ____________ because it is located directly above the Earth’s
48. The earth ____________ from west to east (24 hours) at a rate of ___ degrees per hour.
49. The earth ____________ around the sun (365 1/4) days.)
50. All celestial objects appear to move from ________ to ________.
51. The moon has phases because it _________ around the __________.
52. Eclipses only occur at the __________ and full moon phases.
53. A lunar eclipse is when the _________ is blocked out.
54. A solar eclipse is when the __________ is blocked out.
55. Earth’s seasons are caused by 1. ___________________
2.___________________ of the Earth’s Axis
3.___________________ of the Earth’s Axis
56. Evidence of Earth’s revolution around the Sun is the changing ___________ and _______________ throughout the year,
57. Summer solstice is on __________.
 The ___________ hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun.
 The direct (perpendicular) rays of the sun hit the tropic of ____________.
 Sun rise is _______ of east, and sunset is ________ of the west.
58. Winter solstice is on ________.
 The _______ hemisphere is tilted towards the sun.
 The direct (perpendicular) rays of the sun hit the Tropic of ____________.
 Sun rise is _______ of east, and sunset is ________ of west.
59. Equinoxes are ________ and ________.
 The direst (perpendicular) rays hit the _______________.
 The sun rise____________ and sets ____________ on the equinoxes.
60. Duration of insulation = ________hours on the equinox.
61. The three important locations that receive the direct/perpendicular rays of the sun are:
62. Greatest angle of insolation/perpendicular/vertical rays of the Sun (overhead sun) can only occur
between _______°N & _______°S.
63. The maximum duration of insolation is ______ hrs.
64. The greatest duration of insolation can only occur at _____°N or _____°S
65. The largest angle of insolation is ______ degrees.
66. As the sun’s angle of insolation increases, the sun’s intensity __________.
67. The equator always has ______ hours of daylight.
68. The higher the altitude of the sun, the ______________ the shadow.
69. Shadows are the longest at _________ (time of day). And the shortest at __________.
Noon shadows are the shortest in NY on ________(date). Longest on _______(date)
In NY, an observer must always look ________ to see the sun at noon.
The sun is _________ at an observer’s zenith in NY.
Winds, ocean currents and anything else moving across Earth are deflected (curve) because of the __________
Foucault’s pendulum and Coriolis effect is evidence that the Earth ____________.
Changing Seasons ands Constellations is evidence that the Earth __________.
The Earth is closer to the sun during the __________ season.
Preihelion – earth is __________to the sun.
Aphelion – earth is __________ to the sun.
The closer a planet is to the sun, the _____________ its velocity as its orbits.
The closer a planet is to the sun, the _____________ the gravitational attraction.
Gravity is greatest when the mass of objects are ____________ and the distance between them is __________.
Tides are caused by the __________ gravitational attraction.
There are ________ high tides, and _________ low tides per day (12 hours apart)- a cyclic pattern.
Our solar system is located ¾ the way down one of the spiral arms of our galaxy- the ___________ ________.
A ___________ is a cluster of 100-200 billion stars.
The following is in __________ size and age order: Universe, Galaxy, Solar system, Earth.
____________ model is earth centered. Everything revolves around the earth.
____________________ model is sun centered. Planets revolve around the sun.
All planets orbit in ________________ (shaped) orbits with the ___________ at one foci.
The farther from the Sun the ____________ the orbital path.
As the distance between foci increases, the eccentricity ___________.
The more ________ the orbit the less eccentric/elliptical it is.
The closer the eccentricity is to 0 the more ___________, the closer it is to 1 the more ___________ the orbit is.
The earth’s orbit is extremely round, almost perfect, but it is slightly elliptical, see ESRT pg 15.
The color __________ absorbs, while _________ reflects energy.
Smooth/shiny surfaces __________ more radiation, and rough dull surfaces ____________more radiation.
______________ transfers energy by direct contact (molecules collide).
Convection- heat transfers due to ____________ differences. (gases and liquids.)
Hot air and liquids __________ because they are ________ dense and _________.
When air is heated it becomes ____________ dense and _____________.
Radiation – transfer of energy in the form of electromagnetic _____________.
Electromagnetic energy is categorized based on __________________. (pg 14 ESRT)
103. The portion of the sun’s electromagnetic energy that reaches the Earth’s surface with the maximum intensity is
____________ _______________.
104. The ozone is found in the ________ layer of the atmosphere and absorbs harmful rays known as __________.
105. When electromagnetic waves are bent due to density differences its called ____________.
106. As the amount of aerosols in the atmosphere increases, the amount of the insolation reaching the earth
Earth received mainly short wave __________ _________ during the day and later reradiates this energy back
into space as ______________waves (heat energy).
108. Infrared heat energy is absorbed by two gases _____________ and ____________ (green house gasses).
109. As the amount of Carbon dioxide increase, the temperature of the earth ______________.
110. Objects radiate the most amount of energy when their temperatures are _______________.
111. Energy moves from the source to sink, or from ____________ to _____________.
112. Most of the energy that drives surface process come from the ____________.
113. _______________ energy is energy of motion.
114. _______________ energy is stored energy or “energy of position”..
115. There is NO _____________ change during a phase change.
116. Use the ESRT to see which process release energy and which processes gain energy (front page.)
117. __________________ is heat energy that is re-radiated by the
118. Land heats up _________ than liquid water because it has a
__________ specific heat.
119. The higher the specific heat the ______________ it takes to heat
up and cool down.
120. Good absorbers of radiation are also good
121. The hottest time of the year is _____________(approx date), which
is after the angle of insolation (6/21)
122. Hottest part of the day is ____________(approx time) which is after the greatest angle of insolation (noon).
123. As altitude increases, air pressure ______________.
124. Air Pressure or Barometric Pressure is caused by weight of the air (Barometer measures Air Pressure.)
125. As altitude increases, the amount of water vapor _______________.
126. The greatest amount of water vapor is found in the _________________ (layer of atmosphere.)
127. The greatest atmospheric pressure occurs in the ________________ (layer of the atmosphere.)
128. As temperature increases, density of air ________________.
129. As temperature increases, air pressure ________________________.
130. As moisture content increases (humidity), air pressure _________________.
131. AS temperature increases, the moisture holding capacity of the air ________________.
132. High pressure systems are associated with ___________ weather conditions.
133. Low pressure systems are associated with __________ weather conditions.
134. In Low pressure systems Lows blow ______________ and _______________ ____________ (L.I.C.C.)
135. In high pressure systems winds blow ___________ and ____________ (H.O.C.)
136. At the center of a low pressure center, air ___________ and ___________ (Low-CO)
137. At the center of a high pressure center air ____________ and ____________ (High-DI)
138. The highest pressure is ____________ and __________. Air pressure is lowest when it is ____________ and
139. Winds blow due to difference in _____________ ________________.
140. The more closely spaced the isobars the ______________ the wind speed.
141. Wind blows from regions of ___________ to ______________ pressure.
142. Winds are named for the direction the _______________________.
143. Weather patterns (in the U.S.) move from ____________ to _______________, because we are located in the
___________ planetary wind belt.
144. (
145. Fronts are associated with ___________ pressure. Clouds and precipitation.
146. A front is a boundary between 2 air masses.
147. When warm air rises, it ______________, _______________ and ______________. (R.E.C.C.)
148. In order for clouds to form, the air needs to be __________ and __________ __________ must be available.
149. The closer the air temperature is to the dew point the _____________ the relative humidity and the greater the chance
for ________________.
150. Air mass characteristics (temp. moisture) are determined by the ______________ _____________.
151. The mT air mass that affect NY’s weather is ______________ and ____________ and forms over the _____________
of ____________.
152. cP air masses are ______________ and _________ and form over ___________________.
153. Relative humidity – a percentage of the amount of moisture in the air to the maximum amount it can hold.
154. Saturation – When the air is holding the ______________ amount of water it can hold.
155. Dew Point temperature – Temperature at which _____________ occurs (air is saturated.)
156. When the air temperature equals the dew point temperature relative humidity is _____________.
157. When the air temperature approaches the dew point temperature relative humidity is __________.
158. Precipitation ___________ pollution and ___________ atmospheric transparency.
159. Dry, hot and windy conditions _____________ the rate of evaporation.
160. Tornadoes – short lived (a minute or less) small in size- get in the basement!
161. Hurricanes – Low Pressure systems- last days, very large, high winds, - evacuate – stock pile food/ water, batteries,
162. Hurricanes get their energy from warm ocean water mT air mass, die over land,
know hurricane track.
163. The rate of evaporation increases when surface area __________________.
164. As particle size increases, permeability __________________.
165. Porosity (percentage of empty pore spaces) does not depend on
166. ___________________particle retain the most water after infiltration.
167. As the slope of the land increases, runoff _______________.
168. Runoff __________________ when a surface is impermeable, saturated, steeply
169. In order for infiltration to occur the ground needs to be ____________ and
170. If the rate of precipitation is greater than the rate of infiltration, _____________ will
171. Capillarity (movement of water upward against gravity) increases when particle size
172. Transpiration- process by which living plants release water vapor to atmosphere.
173. The amount of Ep (potential evapotranspiration) depends on ______________.
174. Large bodies of water _______________ temperatures.
175. During the day there is a _____________ breeze. At night a ____________ breeze develops.
176. Continental climates = ___________ temperature range. Cooler ___________ and warmer ___________.
177. Marine climates = ___________ temperature range. Cooler ____________ and warmer ___________.
178. The windward side of a mountain is __________ and _______. The leeward side is
_________ and ___________. (Label the diagram, what happens to the air as it rises and sinks on either side of the
179. Ocean currents are caused by ______________., and are deflected due to the __________ __________.
180. As latitude increases, temperature _________________.
181. As elevation increases, temperature __________________.
182. ___________________________ is the force behind all erosion.
183. ___________________________ is the primary agent of erosion.
184. Stream velocity depends on _______________ and _________________.
185. The size of the particle transported depends on the stream’s __________________.
186. Heavy-dense-round particles settle ________________ in water.
187. Graded bedding (vertical sorting) ___________ sediments are on the bottom.
188. Glacial sediments are _______________, scratched and form _________________ shaped valleys.
189. Stream deposits are _____________, round, and form _____________ shaped valleys.
190. Rocks are classified based on ____________________.
191. Igneous rocks form from the _______________ (crystallization) of molten material (lava or magma.)
192. Igneous exhibit intergrown/interlocking mineral crystals.
193. Vesicular texture – gas pockets (porous). An example would be the rock ___________________.
194. If an igneous rock cools extremely fast, the rock will exhibit a _____________ texture.
195. When an igneous rock cools fast, __________________________ crystals form.
196. When an igneous rock cools slowly, __________________________ crystals form.
197. Intrusive = _____________ ground.
198. Extrusive = _____________ ground.
199. Mafic rocks are _____________ with a _____________ density.
200. Felsic rocks are _____________ with a _____________ density.
201. Clastic sedimentary rocks are formed by the _____________ and _____________ of sediments.
202. Bioclastic – form from the compaction and cementation of _____________ _____________.
203. Crystalline sedimentary rocks form from the _____________ of water and _____________ of dissolved mineral from
a solution.
204. Only rock type to contain fossils - _____________.
205. Metamorphic rocks from pre-existing rocks that have been altered due to _____________ and/or _____________.
206. _____________ rocks may be foliated (banding.)
207. Key words for Metamorphic rocks are ; foliation, re-crystallize, distorted structure.
208. Mineral properties such as cleavage and hardness depend on the __________________________ of the molecules.
209. The most common mineral is _____________ (composed of silicon and oxygen.)
210. Cleavage- the tendency for a mineral to break along _____________,_____________ surfaces.
211. Hardness – the _____________ to being _____________.
212. Weathering- Break down of rocks at the earth’s surface into _____________.
213. Sediments – broke down pieces of rock.
214. Soil- mixture of weathered rock (sediments) and organic remains that cover bedrock.
215. Chemical weathering dominates in _____________ and_____________ climates.
216. Physical weathering dominates in _________ and ____________________ climates. (Good For Frost Wedging)
217. As the particle size decreases, the rate of weathering will ________________.
218. When particles are broken into smaller pieces, the surface area ______________.
219. Sediments are classified based on their ______________ _________. (i.e. .02cm particles are sand)
220. Erosion- _____________ of sediments
221. ________________ is the ultimate force behind erosion.
222. ________________ is the primary agent of erosion.
223. Dissolved mineral are carried in ______________.
224. Silt/Clay colloids are carried by _______________.
225. Sand/ Pebbles slide and bounce along the bottom.
226. As the velocity increases, the size of the sediments a stream can transport _______________.
227. As the slope/gradient of a stream increases, the size of the sediments a stream can transport ____________.
228. As the discharge (an amount of water in a stream) increases, velocity will _______________.
229. The velocity of a stream is greatest on the ______________ of a meander (bend).
230. Erosion occurs on the _____________ of a meander where velocity is ______________.
231. Deposition occurs on the ____________ of a meander where velocity is ______________.
232. ______________, ______________, ______________, particles are the first to settle out of water as the water slows
down. (Sorting Sediments)
233. Sediments transported by water are ____________ and ____________ due to abrasion.
234. Streams erode a _____ shaped valley.
235. Sediments deposited by glaciers are ______________, (all mixed up in size and shape.)
236. Glaciers erode a ____ shaped valley.
237. After a glacier has moved through an area the bedrock is ____________ and ____________ with parallel glacial
striations (scratches).
238. Wind deposits consist of fine grained well sorted particles (sand) particles exhibit a pitted/frosted appearance and cross
bedded layers.
239. Residual soil- developed from the bedrock below it- ______________ mineral composition as bedrock below.
240. Transported soil- transported from another location- ______________ mineral composition than bedrock below.
241. ______________ drift moves sand along the beach in the direction of the ocean current.
242. Folds, faults, ______________ provide evidence that the earth’s crust has moved.
243. Earthquake is a sudden movement along a fault, usually happens at _________ ___________.
244. ______________ (tidal wave) caused by underwater earthquake.
245. Fossils of marine life found at high elevation are evidence of ______________.
246. Evidence of continental drift (pangea) – The puzzle like appearance of the continents (South America/Africa) South
America and Africa have same: fossils, rock layers. Climactic evidence (i.e. glacier in Africa?)
247. Mid-Ocean ridges (spreading center) are areas where ______________ ______________ s being created as tectonic
plates move apart.
248. ______________ plate boundary – Two plates move apart.
249. ______________ - two plates move toward one another.
250. Proof of sea floor spreading -1- the age of the ocean floor is ______________ at the mid ocean ridges and gets
______________ as you move away in either direction. 2. There is also a matching pattern of earth’s ______________
polarity on either side of the ridge.
251. Inferences about Earth’s interior come from the study of ______________ ______________.
252. Earthquakes and volcanoes happen in the same spot, near ______________ ______________.
253. ______________ are not associated with plate boundaries –magma burns through plate = a series of islands (Hawaii).
254. Continental crust is ______________ with a density of ____________ and is composed of ______________.
255. Oceanic crust is ______________, with a density of ____________ and is composed of ______________.
256. When a continental plate collides with an oceanic plate the ______________ plate subducts because it
______________ dense.
______________ Boundary – Plates slide past each other (San Andres Fault).
Subduction zones/Trenches are where ______________________ is destroyed. (Recycled).
______________ ______________ in the asthenosphere (mantle) cause the plates to move.
P- Waves travel ______________ than S- waves.
P waves travel through ______________ & ______________, but S- waves through ______________ only.
We can infer that the outer core is ______________ because ____ waves cannot penetrate it.
One seismic station can determine the ______________ to the epicenter.
As the distance from the epicenter increases, the time lag between the P sand the S wave ______________.
You need ______________ seismic stations to plot an epicenter. (Where three circles meet).
Undisturbed strata – bottom layer is ______________, top layer is ______________.
Intrusions are faults are ______________ than the rock they effect.
An ______________ is a buried erosional surface. Means missing time/gap in rock record.
An arid landscape has ______________ slopes with ______________ angles.
A humid landscape has ______________ slopes with ______________ angles.
A landscape is determines by the climate, bedrock, and geologic structures.
Stream Drainage patterns – ______________ pattern for MTs – dendritic pattern for ______________, Plateaus have a
rectangular or ______________ pattern.
273. Uranium – 238 dates ______________ rocks.
274. Carbon – 14 dates ______________, once living objects.
275. The half-life of a radioactive element _______________________ be changed.
276. The half-life of an element is the amount of time it takes for ______ of the parent atoms to decay into daughter atoms.
277. Half Life never changes NO Matter What! Radioactive elements decay forever!
278. To be a useful index fossil, as species must have lived for a ______________ period of time over a ______________
geographic area.
279. Layers of volcanic ash are good time markers because they are deposited ______________ over a ______________
280. In NY, fossils of corals reveal VY was once under a warm shallow sea (NY was near the equator.)
281. Geologic time is divided into units based on ______________ evidence.
282. In general, life has evolved from the ______________ to the ______________.
2. Relax – You’ve already completed 15% of the exam.
3. Be sure to answer every question. At the end, if you have no idea, take a guess. Don’t leave any questions
4. Don’t panic. Take your time. You have three hours to do the exam.
5. Read introductory paragraphs and study diagrams before looking at questions. Underline key words.
6. Use a straight-edge to read graphics, to mark points on a graph and the measure distances.
7. Do all math calculations twice (It’s very easy to hit the wrong button on the calculator.)
8. Read all choices before deciding on an answer, sometimes a question has a good and better answer. Always
choose the better answer.
If you are not sure of an answer, try to eliminate choices that you think are clearly wrong and narrow down
your choices. Then make your most careful guess.
10. Remember the question doesn’t always say, “according to the ESRT . . . etc”. You have to ask yourself, “Is this
something I am expected to know or do I have to look it up?”
11. Check your test a second time, but only change an answer if you made an obvious mistake. Your first choice is
usually correct.
12. Look up formulas, even if you think you know them. Substitute information from the question into the
formula. There are formulas on the front page of the ESRT.
13. Skip over hard questions that are stumping you. MAKE SURE that you go back to them later. Something else
in the test may give you a clue to the harder problems.
14. A good night sleep is as important as the above 282 items. Have a healthy meal for dinner the night before.
15. Relax, you’ve seen all this stuff before (although it may be asked slightly different.)