ਓ ਅ ੲ ਸ

OORAA ( O )
AIRAA ( A )
EEREE ( E )
One of three VOWEL LETTERS
One of three VOWEL LETTERS
One of three VOWEL LETTERS
ਓ
ਅ
ੲ
Footprint
Alps
Eagle
SASSA ( S )
SHASHSHA ( SH )
HAAHA ( H )
ਸ
ਸ਼
ਹ
Square top
Square shot
Hook
KAKKA ( K )
KHAKHKHA ( KH )
KHAKHKHA ( KH )
H indicates that you exhale while
saying this letter
H indicates that you exhale while
saying this letter
ਕ
ਖ
Cod
Koffee
ਖ਼
Koffee bean
GAGGA ( G )
ਗ
Golfer
GHAGHGHA ( GH )
GHAGGA ( GH )
H indicates that you exhale while
saying this letter
H indicates that you exhale while
saying this letter
ਗ਼
Golfer hole
CHACHCHA ( CH ) CHACHCHA (CHH)
ਘ
Gully ( k at beginning of word )
JAJJA ( J )
H indicates that you exhale while
saying this letter
ਚ
ਛ
ਜ
Chairlift
Cheda
Junkyard dog
ZAZZA ( Z )
JHAJJA ( JH )
TAINKA ( T )
H indicates that you exhale while
saying this letter
Tongue curls back, underside of tongue
touches palate behind gum ridge
ਝ
ਟ
ਜ਼
Zapped dog
Just U2( c h at beginning of word)
Tank
THATHTHA ( TH )
DADDA ( D )
DHADDA ( DH )
Tongue curls back, underside of tongue
touches palate behind gum ridge
H indicates that you exhale
Tongue curls back, underside of tongue
touches palate behind gum ridge
Tongue curls back, underside of tongue touches
palate behind gum ridge
H indicates that you exhale
ਠ
ਡ
ਢ
Tea bag
Dolphins
Dog tounge ( t at beginning of word )
NAAHNA ( N )
TATTA ( T )
THATHTHA ( TH )
Tongue curls back, underside of tongue
touches palate behind gum ridge
The tip of the tongue touches the teeth
The tip of the tongue touches the
teeth (H indicates that you exhale )
ਣ
Nose
ਤ
ਥ
Tummy
Top Hat
DADDA ( D )
DHADDA ( DH )
NANNA ( N )
The tip of the tongue touches the
teeth
The tip of the tongue touches the teeth
(H indicates that you exhale )
ਦ
ਧ
ਨ
Dog
Dump out ( t at beginning of word )
Nipper
PAPPA ( P )
FHAFHFHA ( FH )
FAFFA ( F )
H indicates that you exhale while
saying this letter
ਫ਼
ਪ
ਫ
Pipe
Football
Football
BHABBA ( BH )
MAMMA ( M )
BABBA ( B )
H indicates that you exhale while
saying this letter
ਬ
ਭ
ਮ
Backwords
Big belly( p at beginning of word )
Missing
YAYA ( Y )
RAARA ( R )
LALLA ( L )
ਯ
ਰ
ਲ
Yak
Racetrack
Lobster
LALLA ( L )
VAVVA ( V/W )
RAAHRA ( R )
No English equivalent – halfway
between v and w
ਲ਼
Lobster
ਵ
VW
ਡ਼
Running 3
NGANGA ( NG )
KANNA ( a )
SIHAAREE ( i )
As ‘ng’ in ‘sing’
This vowel sign follows a letter
This vowel sign precedes a letter
ਙ
Number five (nasal n)
ਾ
ਿਾ
ei. Ball
ei. Hill
BIHAAREE ( ee )
AUNKAR ( u )
DULAINKAR ( oo )
This vowel sign follows a letter
This vowel sign is underneath a letter
This vowel sign is underneath a letter
ਾ
ਾ
ei. Put
ei. Soon
ਾ
ei. Feet
LAANV ( e )
DULAANV ( ai )
HORAA ( o )
This vowel sign is above a letter
This vowel sign is above a letter
This vowel sign is above a letter
ਾ
ਾ
ਾ
ei. May
ei. Cat
ei. Cone
KANAURAA ( au )
ADDHAK
BINDEE
This vowel sign is above a letter
This auxiliary sign is above a letter
This nasalization sign is above a letter
ਾ
ਾ
ਾ
ei. Cow
Stresses the sound of the letter that
follows it (double sound)
Adds a short nasal sound to the word
ei. Candy (used with vowels)
TIPPEE
PAIREE HAAHAA
PAIREE RAARAA
This nasalization sign is above a letter
This consonant sign is below a letter
This consonant sign is below a letter
ਾ
ਹਹ
ਰਰ
Adds a brief ‘h’ sound to the word
(short hand)
Adds a brief ‘r’ sound to the word
(short hand)
Adds a nasal sound to the word ei.
Link (used with consonants)
YANJA ( NJ )
(nasal sound)
ਞ
Knuckle
Flashcard Guide
Name of letter
BHABBA ( BH )
H indicates that you exhale
while saying this letter
Sound of letter
Tongue position or
aspiration (breathing) notes
ਭ
Big belly( p at beginning of word )
Memory aid
(For example, Imagine the letter as
a big belly. When you see it again,
you will think “big belly” this is the “b”)
Additional notes (For example,
this letter makes a different sound
at the beginning of a word)
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