Traveling Trunk Program Special Collections Library/Center for the Book

Traveling Trunk Program
Special Collections Library/Center for the Book
APS - Teaching American History Grant
The Civil War:
A Soldier’s Life
Created for the Traveling Trunk Program
by Deborah Uhrich
May 2010
Special Collection Library/Center for the Book
APS – Teaching American History Grant
Traveling Trunk Program
Special Collections Library/Center for the Book
APS
The Civil War:
A Soldier’s Life
Table of Contents
Trunk Overview
Trunk Checkout Procedure
Sample Checkout Form
Trunk Contents
Ideas for lessons & Teacher created lessons
Working with Primary Resources
Document and artifact analysis
Sample rubrics
Bibliography
Websites
Nonfiction and fiction
Nonprint
Additional Information
History of Hardtack
Recipe for hardtack
Various pictures of period/sites
Evaluation of Program
Traveling Trunk Program
Special Collections Library/Center for the Book
APS
The Civil War: A Soldier’s Life
Trunk Overview
A big part of the philosophy behind the trunk is to learn about primary sources and
to learn how to be a history detective. Throughout this process it is important for
students to recognize that documents and artifacts from our past need to be
handled with great care and respect for their preservation. Since the Civil War is a
part of the elementary and middle schools‟ standards, the use of this trunk allows
students a great opportunity to experience a hands-on approach to learning about a
soldier‟s life during the Civil War.
Some of the material in this trunk is authentic. Other documents and artifacts were
chosen because they are copies of original documents or replicas of artifacts from
the Civil War era. All the materials in this trunk need to be handled gently.
The teacher is responsible the materials in the trunk and for picking up the trunk
and returning it. All the trunks have wheels and a pull strap. However, remember
you must be able to lift it into and out of your vehicle.
We encourage teachers to be prepared to use the trunk as soon as it is checked out
so that they can get the maximum use of it before it is due back to the Center for
the Book. The Teacher Resource Book can be accessed through The Friends for
the Library website prior to picking it up.
http://www.friendsforthelibrary.org/center_trunks.html
-- To reserve a trunk, Contact: [email protected] Additional questions
can be emailed to this address.
Remember: Pick up the trunk at the Main Library on Copper & Fifth.
Hours are: Monday – Saturday 10:00 – 6:00
When you arrive to pick up the trunk go to the “alley” on the North side of the building to park.
Then proceed to the front of the library to the main doors and go 2nd floor to the Genealogy
section. A Librarian there will have you sign out the trunk and direct you to the service elevator
so that you will come out of the building where your car is parked
Traveling Trunk Program
Special Collections Library/Center for the Book
APS
A Soldier’s Life
Procedure for Checkout
Upper elementary and middle school
-- A trunk can be checked out for three weeks. If the trunk meets the needs of other social studies
teachers at your school, please share rather than having to checkout again.
-- The teacher checking out the trunk is responsible for the contents and its gentle handling,
bearing the responsibility for damaged and/or missing items. We do want the students have a great
hands- on experience with the contents. Inventory the contents often to assure that all Primary
Sources have not been misplaced.
-- The teacher is responsible for picking up the trunk and returning it.
---- The Trunk does have wheels and a pull strap. However, remember you must be able to lift it into and
out of your vehicle.
-- We encourage you to be prepared to use the trunk as soon as you check it out so that you can get the
maximum use of it before it is due back to the Center for the Book.
-- To reserve a trunk, Contact: [email protected] Additional questions can also be emailed
to this address.
Remember: Center for the Book is open Tuesday – Saturday 10:00 am – 6:00 pm
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Center for the Book
Traveling Trunk Checkout Form
Detach and leave with Special Collections Librarian
Name of Trunk ______A
Soldier’s Life: The Civil War _________________
School or Organization _____________________________________ Telephone __________________
Person checking out the Trunk _______________________________ Home Telephone #_____________
Email address: ___________________________________________________
Date checked out _________________________
Date Due ______________________________
Traveling Trunk Program
Special Collections Library/Center for the Book
APS
The Civil War:
A Soldier’s Life
Civil War Soldier’s Trunk
Books:
Uncommon Soldier
Letters from a North Carolina Unionist: John A. Hedrick to Benjamin S. Hedrick, 1862-1865
Letters to the Home Circle: The North Carolina Service of Pvt. Henry A. Clapp, Company F,
Forty-fourth Massachusetts volunteer Militia 1862-1863
Four Years in the Confederate Artillery: the Diary of Private Henry Robinson Berkeley
Out of the Briars, an Autobiography by A. H. Newton, D.D.
“Duty Called Me Here:” the soldier comrades of the National Museum of the Civil War Soldier
War Letters: Extraordinary Correspondence from American Wars
Civil War Recipes: Receipts from the pages of Godey’s Lady’s Book
Rebel Cornbread and Yankee Coffee
Drum Taps and Dixie: Memories of a Drummer Boy, 1861-1865
CDs
Songs of the Civil War
Mr. Lincoln’s War: Selected letters, photographs, and songs (GilderLehrman)
Artifacts:
Authentic gun powder container (no cap)
Confederate money 12pc & Union money 6 pc.
3 50cal. Minnie balls (replica)
Civil War Bullet Identification Guide
Introduction to small arms of the Civil War pamphlet
Union soldier kepi,
Confederate kepi,
Union soldier canteen
Confederate soldier canteen
One Union waist belt plate
One Confederate waist belt plate
3 Military Branch Insignias: Artillery, Infantry, Cavalry
1 hardtack
Recipe for Hardtack & history (Resource Bk)
Tin Penny Whistle
1 Hohner pocket pal harmonica
Jaw Harp
7 different flags flown during CW
Buffalo Soldier cards 1866- ,
2 Insignia - Buffalo S10thCalvary
2 wooden pencils
Famous women in CW playing cards
Bone toothbrush
Beeswax candle
8 Buttons, various
Primary Sources:
1 Original CW letter -civilian to VA, Calvary w/ typed version
War Between the States: Civil War: Jackdaw Study Guide with reproducible masters (no cy)
Broadsheet #1 A House Divides
Broadsheet #2 North Against South
Broadsheet #3 Presidents and Generals
Broadsheet #4 Rebuilding the Country
War Between the States: Civil War Timeline 1920-1865 Jackdaw Primary Source
Publication
Documents and descriptions
1 - Letter from Union Lieutenant George Herbert to his brother, April 22, 1962 (cy)
2 – Confederate recruiting notice, June 30, 1862 (no copy)
3 – Part of Robert E. Lee‟s Special Orders No. 191, September 9, 1862 (cy)
4a & 4b – Letter from Union Lieutenant George Herbert criticizing his superior officers,
November 26, 1862
5 – The Emancipation Proclamation, January 1, 1862 (no copy)
PD Compartment
6 – Pages from the Richmond Daily Dispatch, June 5, 1863 (no copy) PD Compartment
7 – Message from Confederate General Cobb to Governor Brown of Georgia the day
after the burning of Atlanta, November 16, 1864 (cy)
8 – Patriotic poster -----“Our Union Defenders” (no copy)
9 – The Civil War in photographs (no copy)
Maps
North and South Carolina – Colton, 1861
Panorama of the Seat of War – Birds Eye View North and South Carolina & part of
Georgia – Bachmann, 1861
Civil War - Young Soldiers 12 photos (17” x 22”) (no cys)
1. Union Drummer Boy
2. Teen-age Private, Georgia Infantry
3. 93d New York Infantry Drum Corps
4. Youngest Wounded Civil War Soldier
5. Twelve-year-old Shiloh Veteran
6. Union Colored-Infantry Drummer Boy
7. “Powder Monkey”
8. Youthful Confederate Cavalryman
9. Federal Soldier
10. Pvt. William S. Askew, 1st Georgia Regiment
11. Pvt. George Graffam, Maine Infantry
12. Private of Fourth Michigan Infantry
Civil War Recruiting Poster, 1863 (no copy)
Guilder Lehrman
I Take up my Pen: Letters from the War: Letters from the War.
Gilder Lehrman Collection (no cy)
Photo Analysis Worksheet
Study Activities for Photos
Recommended Reading List
Traveling Trunk Program
Special Collections Library/Center for the Book
APS
The Civil War:
A Soldier’s Life
Lesson Ideas
Letter Writing
Comparing
Across time periods:
different points of views
RAFTs
Respond to letter
Home identity - wife, mother, brother
Military identity
Priest - notification of death
Basic analysis strategies
Analysis sheets – example: APPARTS (Author, Place & Time, Prior knowledge,
Audience, Reason, The main idea, Significance)
Documents
artifacts
photos
Artifact Stations
Blind assignment
Give an artifact - Set them loose to find out as much information as possible
Women in the Military
Roles
Compare/Contrast
CW soldier to a modern soldier: weapons, food, clothing, what they carried
A Soldier’s life
Duty, amusements, gambling, writing, drawing (war art), music
Teacher Created Lesson Ideas and Lessons
A Soldier’s Life: World War I
Teachers, feel free to share your lesson by adding it to the
Resource Book
Civil War
Grade Level: 8th
Time required: 3 weeks
Historical Period: Civil War 1861-1865
Lesson summary: This lesson will introduce students to the Civil War experience through
primary documents, songs, videos, and “meetings” with important persons.
Procedures/Activities:
1. I will provide information on twelve events of the Civil War and hand out movie frame
notes. Students will fill in the information besides each frame and then draw a picture that
would correspond with the written words. At the conclusion of the lesson, students
engage in an A-B conversation to summarize the lesson in terms they would remember.
2. For each of the abovementioned Civil War events, students will have the opportunity to:
a. Meet Lieutenant Harry T. Buford aka Loreta Janeta Velazquez who fought at the battle of
Bull Run on the side of the confederacy. She was also the only Latina woman to disguise
herself as a man to fight in the Civil War.
b. Discuss and analyze the Emancipation Proclamation, the Gettysburg address and “meet”
Abraham Lincoln and ask him questions on the Civil War, his life and his assassination.
c. Read letters and look at photographs of soldiers who fought and died in the battle of
Antietam, Gettysburg, and Vicksburg.
d. Watch the last twenty minutes of the movie Glory to see the 54th Regiment„s attempt to
capture Ft. Wagner and understand African American involvement in the war.
3. Students will discuss if Sherman‟s total war was ethical.
4. Students will listen to Joan Baez “Night they Drove Old Dixie Down” and with a partner
fill in the song analysis worksheet. Students will discuss the view of the Southern
soldier.
5. Each student is then required to complete three activities from the tic-tac-toe (student
choice board). The activities on the tic-tac-toe were designed using multiple intelligences
to motivate students to show their fullest understanding
Strategies:
 Marzano‟s strategies: learning groups, summarizing
 Writing to learn: magic border, movie frames
 Working with primary documents (songs, photographs)



Differentiated Instruction: Student choice (tic-tac-toe)
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis & Application
Learning Modality: Visual, Kinestatic
Product:
Each student is required to complete three activities from the tic-tac-toe (student choice board).
The activities on the tic-tac-toe were designed using multiple intelligences to motivate students
to show their fullest understanding on some events of the Civil War.
Assessment:
Students will be assessed on their tic-tac-toe assignment as well as their movie frames.
Materials and Resources:
copies of Civil War letters as well as Civil War photographs (from the Gilder Lehrman
Collection www.gilderlehrman.org)
copies of written document analysis worksheet, photos& graphics analysis worksheet and song
analysis worksheet, Teaching With Documents.
http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/.
CD and copy of the lyrics of “Night They Drove Old Dixie Down”
pictures of Civil War events for timeline activity http://www.brainpop.com.
graphic novels of the Battle of Gettysburg
costumes to portray Abraham Lincoln and Harry T. Buford aka Loreta Janeta Velazquez.
Strategies for Differentiating in the Content Areas by Beverly & Troy Strayer for magic border
and movie frame templates.
Author of Lesson:
Sonja Chlapowski
Truman Middle School
Albuquerque Public Schools
Civil War
Assessment of ________________________________ Tic-Tac-Toe
Assignment: This tic-tac-toe is 100-point project. Each box is worth 30 points. You must also
complete a cover page, which is worth 10 points. Outline the boxes you plan to complete, when
the box is complete, lightly shade in the entire box – you must complete 3 boxes. This
assignment sheet must be turned in with your assignment to be graded.
1.
2.
Write a song to the music of
“In the Navy” by the Village
People, about life during the
Civil War. (Extra credit for
singing)
Watch the Brainpop episode
on “The Civil War” and
answer the 10 quiz
questions.
(Musical/Rhythmic,
Language Arts)
(Technological,
Language Arts)
4.
5.
With a partner, research the
battle of Gettysburg and
create a mobile that shows
the casualty rate, the dates,
and the key people of both
sides and other important
facts.
The 385 main battles of the
Civil War (1861-1865) took
place in 20 states, 5
territories, and D.C. Of all
these battles, 123 occurred
in Virginia alone. The next
highest number was in
Tennessee, with 38. What %
of the battles took place in
Virginia and Tennessee?
(Technology,
Interpersonal)
7.
Design your own Civil War
recruitment poster. Show at
least 10 causes of the Civil
War.
Read the letter or look at
the photograph and fill
out either the written
document analysis
worksheet or the photos
& graphics analysis
worksheet. Please
discuss different
aspects of the daily lives
of Americans during the
Civil War.
(Language Arts,
Interpersonal)
6.
Read “The Battle of
Gettysburg” Create a magic
border and show the facts
that you learned in pictures
as well as words. Be sure to
include at least 10 facts.
(Language Arts,
Intrapersonal)
(Math, Intrapersonal
Mathematical/Logical)
8.
9.
With a partner, create a
timeline by placing a
minimum of 20 pictures of
different Civil War events
under the corresponding
headings.
Free draw a map of the US
during the Civil War. Color
code to show North and
South. Label locations of
important battles.
(Bodily/Kinesthetic,
Social Studies))
(Visual/Spatial, Social
Studies)
3.
(Visual/Spatial, Social
Studies)
1.
Song
2.
Brain Pop Episode
3.
Primary Documents



Appropriate content
Accurate content
Has a rhythm (In the
Navy)
Words and music go
together
Has title
Correct spelling


Watch episode
Answer 10 questions
correctly

Has at least 10 of the
13 questions answered
Different aspects of the
soldiers’ life is
discussed on the back
page of document.



Possible points: 30
Earned points:
Possible points: 30
Earned points:
4. Mobile
5. Math Problem






Items are balanced and
hang from a central
point
Durable construction
Visually appealing
Accurate information
At least 20 items
Creative
Possible points: 30
Earned points:
7. Recruitment Poster






Shows causes of war
At least 10 items
Persuasive language
Has title
Attractive/colorful
visuals
Creative






Answer to question 1
Answer to question 2
Shows step by step
calculation
Has a title
Complete concluding
sentence
Correct spelling
Possible points: 30
Earned points:

Possible points: 30
Earned points
6. Battle of Gettysburg






Possible points: 30
Earned points:
8.
Picture Timeline
9.
Battle Map

Headings are written
in chronological order
A min of 20 pictures of
events are placed
correctly
Neatness

Map is accurate and
color coded
10 battle locations on
map
Clearly written key
and symbols
Has scale and compass
rose
Neatness
Has Title







Possible points: 30
Earned points:
Information is accurate
Spelling, grammar,
and mechanics
Describes assassination
Includes 10 pictures
Includes 10 words
Magic Border format
Possible points: 30
Earned points:
Name:
Period:
Due Date:
Possible points: 30
Earned points:
Civil War Movie Frame Graphic Organizer:
Dear Students,
In this activity, you are to fill in the information beside each frame to organize information about
some events of the Civil War. This movie frame will include pictures and written information.
Please be sure to arrange and present your events/causes chronologically.
You are to include the following information.
1. Confederate States of America
2. Short War
3. Battle of Bull Run
4. Battle of Antietam
5. Emancipation Proclamation
6. Battle of Gettysburg
7. 54th Regiment
8. Battle of Vicksburg
9. Gettysburg Address
10. Sherman‟s Total War
11. Lee Surrenders at Appomatox Courthouse
12. Abraham Lincoln‟s assassination
You will be graded the following way:
12 events are filled in and accurate
12 pictures are drawn and accurate
36 pts
36 pts
Correct spelling, grammar and punctuation
Neatness/Attractiveness
Total
16 pts
100 pts
12 pts
CIVIL WAR: Trench Warfare
Grade Level: 8th
Time Required: 3 class periods (maybe more if you allow students to complete assessments in
class)
Historical Period: Civil War
Lesson Summary: Students will become immersed in the world of Civil War Trench Warfare
through an in-depth look at the Petersburg Campaign. Students will then take on the role of a
Civil War soldier and write home from the trenches. Students will also make 3-D examples of
Civil War fortifications using Salt Dough.
Procedures/Activities:
VOCABULARY: Earth (Breast) Works, Abatis, Fraise, Trench, Zig-zags, Chevaux-de-frise
 Learn about trench warfare, specifically Petersburg through direct teaching and note
taking from the teacher and through watching the Civil War DVD Petersburg section.

Define specific terminology related to Civil War Fortifications.

Analyze Primary Source Images of Trench Warfare in the Civil War.

Combine knowledge into a RAFT Writing Prompt and a Salt Dough Map showing
important components of a fortification.
Strategies:
Vocabulary, Cornell Notes, RAFT Writing, Primary Source Image Analysis
Product:
3-D Salt Dough Map of the Battleground Landscape, RAFT Writing Prompt (see INFO SHEET)
Assessment:
Correct labeling of vocabulary in Salt Dough Map, Correct look of the landscape, Neatness,
Historical Accuracy in RAFT Writing Prompt (see RUBRIC)
Materials and Resources:
WEBSITE:
http://civilwarfortifications.com/dictionary/dictionary.html. .
DVD:
Civil War - Ken Burns
BOOK:
Hess, Earl J. Field Armies and Fortifications in the Civil War: The Eastern Campaigns, 18611864. University of North Carolina, 2005.
Hess, Earl J. In the Trenches at Petersburg: Field Fortifications and Confederate Defeat.
University of North Carolina, 2009.
IMAGES:
Author of Lesson: Rebecca Kennerly, Wilson Middle School, Albuquerque Public Schools
RAFT WRITING PROMT:
Role: Civil War Soldier
Audience: Family at Home
Format: Letter
Topic: What it is like being in the trenches at Petersburg
300 words minimum - 600 words maximum. Neatly handwritten in INK or TYPED.
SALT DOUGH MAP:
Make a 3-D map using Salt Dough.
Include the following items: Earth (Breast) Works, Abatis, Fraise, Trench, Zig-zags, Chevauxde-frise.
Use the salt dough to create the landforms and additional items to create the different obstacles.
Paint the entire map when you are done. Include typed labels next to each item on the map.
The Life of a Civil War soldier through Photos
Historic Time Period: Civil War
Grade Level: 5th grade
Lesson Summary: Students will understand the life of a civil war soldier after analyzing photos
of the time, and will write an I-am poem from the point of view of a civil war soldier.
Procedure:
Day 1:
If the students have not yet been exposed to photographs as primary documents the teacher will
start by choosing a photo from the Civil War era to analyze as a class.
The teacher will project a photo with an overhead projector. Students will only be shown a
quadrant of the photo to comment on. This can be done on power point or the teacher may
simply cover the other quadrants when they are not to be viewed. When the students finish their
brainstorming about the photo, the teacher will add the next quadrants and see what else can be
learned or what contradicts the earlier conclusions.
Students will then be given 4 different photos to analyze in 4 groups using the photo analysis
form. Each group will then demonstrate what they have learned about the battle and the era to
the rest of the class.
Students will end that day‟s lesson by writing a short response to the question; “What can I learn
from a photo that I might not have been able to learn by reading the Social Studies textbook?”
Day 2:
Before the lesson, arrange a gallery walk of photos of civil war soldiers around the room.
Give students paper and clipboards and assign partners. Review with students the meaning of an
adjective. Ask them to work with their partner to come up with a list of adjectives describing the
photos. Post the list on the wall easily viewable and usable for the next activity.
Day 3:
Print copies of photos civil war soldiers choosing those depicting every day life or battles. Each
student will spend time looking at all the pictures but will pick one photo as her/her inspiration.
If the lesson ends here, ask the student to fill in a lesson closure form explaining what they have
learned so far.
It is important that this be done in a two parts so that they will have to incorporate the photo
analysis worksheet of their photo before they may write the poem. Only after the photo analysis
has been done will the teacher will then explain the format of an I-am poem and give each
student the template. Students are then to write a poem from the perspective of a civil war
soldier.
Assessment: Photo Analysis Document form
I am Poem
Materials/Resources:
The Library of Congress has over 1,000 photographs of the Civil War in its American Memory
collection. It includes a search engine
http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/cwphtml/cwphome.html.
Another source of civil war photos:
http://ipart.com/cgi-bin/kids/imageFolio.cgi?direct=History/United_States/Civil_War
Photos depicting black participation in the civil war:
http://afroamcivilwar.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=23&Itemid=19
I am poem template:
http://ettcweb.lr.k12.nj.us/forms/iampoem.htm
Lesson closure form:
www.readingquest.org/pdf/closure_frame.pdf
Photo analysis form:
www.archives.gov/education/lessons/.../photo_analysis_worksheet.pdf
Author of lesson: Sharp Sharp, Chelwood Elementary School, Albuquerque, N.M.
The Life of a Civil War Soldier
Grade Level: 8th
Time Required: One 80-minute blocks, or two 45-minute blocks
Historic Period: American Civil War
Lesson Summary: As part of larger Civil War unit students will learn about the lives of civil
war soldiers using letters written by soldiers about their personal experiences during the war as
well as summary sheets about the lives of soldiers. Students will read the summary articles and
complete a Venn diagram and then read at least one letter from a confederate or union soldier.
Students will then use the information gained and apply it to a letter of their own using the Raft
format.
Procedures/Activities:
Activity 1


Have students read a summary article about the lives of Confederate and Union soldiers.
Then complete the Venn diagram based on the information read. (There are several
options for this, students could read individually or in partners; Group reading of the
articles; or separate the students into four groups and have each group read either the
Confederate or Union selection and complete the side of the Venn appropriate for them).
Draw the Venn diagram on the Board. Have students provide the information to fill in the
chart. Clarifying any topics or points as you fill in the chart. I always make sure to call on
every student and randomize the order which we fill in information.
Activity2



Have students read at least one Confederate letter and One Union letter. Compare and
contrast the experiences of each.
Fill out a primary source examination sheet
The letters you select are dependent on the level of students and what you would like
them to focus on.

Give your students options by selecting several letters for them to choose from. This will
help engage them in the activity
Product:
The final product for this lesson is a letter based on what one might have experienced as a solider
during the Civil War. Using the RAFT format you can help guide your students on how to
construct the letter. (I give this for homework but you could also extend the class time to have
them write it during class).
Strategies:
The strategies used to engage students include investigating the lives of confederate and Union
soldiers, using graphic organizers, analyzing and interpreting primary sources, whole group and
small group instruction/discussion, and application of knowledge through self selection of
product components.
Assessment: The letters will be evaluated based on a rubric created by the teacher based on the
needs of your individual classrooms. For my students this is a rubric that I use for all my RAFT
writings.
Materials and Resources:
I found so many websites from all over the country; you could easily customize this activity
based on what you want your students to learn below are a few books and websites that I liked.
Books:
 White, Daniel B, and Jack C. Davis. Dear Wife: Letters of a Civil War Soldier. Sulgrave
Press, 1992.

Norton, Oliver Wilcox. Army Letters, 1861-1865: Being Extracts from Private Letters to
Relatives. O.L. Deming, 1903.
Websites:
 "Gettysburg National Military Park Kidzpage." Gettysburg National Military Park
Kidzpage. Gettysburg National Military Park. 31 Mar 2008
http://www.nps.gov/archive/gett/gettkidz/letters.htm.

"Letters About The Civil War." Letters from the Front. 09 05 2002. 31 Mar 2008
http://www.civilwarhome.com/letters.htm .

"Letters from an Iowa Soldier in the Civil War." Civil War Letters. March 2008. 31 Mar
2008 http://www.civilwarletters.com/ .
Also attached



Rubric for Civil War Letters
Venn Diagram
“Johnny Reb” and “Billy Yank” readings from the Gettysburg National Military Park
Kidzpage
Author of Lesson: Sara LeGate, James Monroe Middle School, Albuquerque Public
Schools
Civil War Letters
Grade Level: 5th grade
Time Required:
Historical Period: Civil War
Lesson summary:
The purpose of this lesson is for students to be able to compare and contrast the soldiers‟
experiences in the North and the South. Essential Questions: Were the feelings expressed
(theme of letters) of Union soldiers dramatically different than that of Confederate soldiers in
the American Civil War? Did the soldiers have different reasons for fighting depending upon
which side of the conflict they were on?
Procedures/activities:
 This lesson should be after the students have already commenced a Civil War unit so that
they will have some background as to the causes of the war, general geography
knowledge of the United States, and some information about Civil War battles.

Day One: To build interest in the letters that the students will study, the teacher will
either read the Sullivan Ballou letter to his wife (7/14/1861) or play the excerpt of that
letter from Ken Burn‟s Civil War series. In addition, the teacher should have civil war
photos prominently displayed in the classroom and will play civil war music for a few
minutes at the beginning of each lesson. In order to engage the students‟ prior
knowledge, the teacher should then discuss with students the different reasons why
soldiers enlist to fight in a war. It would be helpful if students were able to share
personal anecdotes and reasons family members or family friends are fighting in our
current war.

Students will then be told of the objective of the lesson (see above). At that point, they
will be asked to write a Prediction Paragraph about what they expect to learn from these
letters. (Write to Learn, page 2-17)
Students will be divided into groups of 3-4 students. Each group will be given a civil
war letter from a soldier. The letters will include a sampling of Union and Confederate
letters including one from a conscripted soldier, and a letter from a former slave.



Students will be asked to read the letter and fill out the Letter Analysis form.
Groups will be asked to share their letter analysis. The teacher will fill out chart on an
overhead or chart paper listing each group‟s conclusions.

Day Two: Students will return to their groups of the previous day and will be given a
different letter to analyze. Groups who previously read Union letters will now read
Confederate letters, and vise versa. On this second day, students will only be looking in
their letter for the theme that they had identified in their analysis of the previous day‟s
letter. For example, if loneliness was the theme in yesterday‟s Union letter (for
example), will they find that same theme reflected in the Confederate letter?
Students will need to have access to the Letter Analysis form from the previous day in
case they have forgotten the theme.
Teacher will hold a general class discussion where groups can share whether they found
similar themes in the Union and Confederate letters.
Students will then be asked to write a letter from the point of view of a soldier in either
the Union or the Confederate armies. Students should be encouraged to use the letters as
models.

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Strategies:
 Students will be asked to use two different color highlighters to mark up their letters.
One color is to be for references to the soldier‟s reason for the war, and the other color is
for his general reactions to the war.
 Discussion to engage students‟ prior knowledge of soldier experiences in the current
war.
 Music and photos prominently displayed to encourage empathy.
Product:
Letter Analysis Form and Point of View Letter
Assessment:
Rubric to assess students‟ letter from the point of view of a Civil War soldier. As an alterative
assessment for ESL students, students may choose to draw a cartoon series with dialogue
balloons to express the same content.
Materials and Resources:
Dammann, Gordon E. and M.D. Alfred Jay Bollet. Images of Civil War Medicine: A
Photographic History. Demos Medical Publishing, 2007.
Henig, Gerald and Erick Niderost. A Nation Transformed: How the Civil War Changed
America Forever. Cumberland House Publishing, 2007.
Ross, Charles D. Trial by Fire: Science Technology and the Civil War. White Mane
Publishing Company, 2000.
Civil War Standard http://www.civilwarstandard.com/index.po . . .
Union & Confederate Military Leaders playing cards
Gilder Lehrman http://www.gilderlehrmanstore.org/. .
“I take up my pen”: a souvenir booklet of Civil War Soldiers‟ letters
Mr. Lincoln‟s War: selected letters, photographs & Songs --- CD
Civil War Documentary Photos.
Ken Burns Civil War series.
The Leadership and Learning Center, Write to Learn (2007)
http://www.nps.gov/archive/gett/gettkidz/letters.htm. .
Authors of Lesson:
Sharon Sharp, Chelwood Elementary School, Albuquerque Public Schools and
Alexis Lopez, San Antonito Elementary School, Albuquerque Public Schools
Letter Analysis
Please read the letter you have been assigned TWICE before attempting to fill out this form. Do
not quote the soldier‟s exact words, but rewrite in your own words.
Author of Letter:
Author‟s Home State:
Union or Confederate Soldier:
Date:
How soon after war started was letter written:
Soldier‟s reasons for fighting:
Soldier‟s general reaction to the war:
What general feelings or themes are conveyed in the letter:
Letter Writing: Civil War Soldier
Teacher Name: Mrs. Sharp/Lopez
Student Name: Â Â ________________________________________
CATEGORY
4
3
2
1
Format
Complies with all
the requirements
for a friendly
letter.
Complies with
almost all the
requirements for
a friendly letter.
Complies with
several of the
requirements for
a friendly letter.
Complies with
few of the
requirements for
a friendly letter.
Content
Accuracy
The letter
contains at least
5 accurate facts
about the topic.
The letter
contains 3-4
accurate facts
about the topic.
The letter
contains 1-2
accurate facts
about the topic.
The letter
contains no
accurate facts
about the topic.
Grammar &
spelling
(conventions)
Writer makes no
errors in
grammar or
spelling, after
being checked by
an adult.
Writer makes 1-2
errors in
grammar and/or
spelling, after
being checked by
an adult.
Writer makes 3-4
errors in
grammar and/or
spelling, after
being checked by
an adult.
Writer makes
more than 4
errors in
grammar and/or
spelling, after
being checked by
an adult.
Voice
Writer
demonstrates
thorough
understanding of
material through
the voice of his
writing. Clear
reflection of
main themes of
letters.
Writer
demonstrates
understanding of
material through
the voice of his
writing. Main
themes of letters
mostly reflected.
Writer
demonstrates
some
understanding of
material through
the voice of his
writing. Some
themes reflected.
Writer
demonstrates
limited
understanding of
material through
the voice of his
writing. Few, if
any themes
reflected.
The Civil War through THEIR eyes
Grade Level: 8th US History
Time required: Three Days
Historical Period: Civil War
Lesson Summary: A multimedia extravaganza of music, letters, and photographs
Activities - Day One:
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Instruct students that they will be assuming the role of Confederate or Union soldier and
writing a letter to a loved one.
Begin with selected songs from the Gilder Lehrman CD. (Keep it playing as the photos
are being viewed)
Continue with an assortment of images from the CD as well as passing around the larger
photos and Images book.
Ask for reactions and take questions.
Listen to letters read aloud from the CD.
More Photos and discussion of conditions within their camps.
Continued letters.
More reactions and questions.
End with more images and letter on page 35 of I take up my pen.
Play When Johnny comes marching home during any final question, reaction, or
discussion.
Activities - Day Two:
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Begin with review of conditions and what they remember from yesterday‟s images.
Pass out copies of Soldiers Biographies from Gilder Lehrman packet.
Instruct students to write a biography of a soldier.
Play music and have images runs constant.
Pass Image book around along with photos and images from CD-ROM
Activities - Day Three:



Play music – share images from CD-ROM
Write letters home.
Have student share their letters.
Strategies:
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
Listening Skills
Speaking Skills
Creativity
Writing Skills
Imagination
Time Management
Critical Thinking
Product:

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
Short biography of Soldier
Letter home to loved one
Presentation of letters
Assessment:


Biography (Required Elements of: DOB place of birth, rank, family history, affiliation,
and interesting facts)
Letter home (Required Elements of: Greeting, ending, date, battle name, half page in
length, in cursive)
Materials and Resources
 Gilder Lehrman packet _ Mr. Lincoln‟s War
 Gilder Lehrman
http://www.gilderlehrmanstore.org/. .
“I take up my pen”: a souvenir booklet of Civil War Soldiers‟ letters
Mr. Lincoln‟s War: selected letters, photographs & Songs --- CD
 Dammann, Gordon E. and M.D. Alfred Jay Bollet. Images of Civil War Medicine: A
Photographic History. Demos Medical Publishing, 2007.
Author: Patrick Logan, Jefferson Middle School, Albuquerque Public Schools
A Soldier’s Life: A Photographic Examination of Civil War Soldier
Grade Level: Middle School United States History
Time Required: One Block Schedule class or Two 45 minute classes
Lesson Summary:
Using images from students will gain perspective and understanding into the people who
fought both sides of the war. Helping them to understand the hardships, adversities faced, and
sacrifices of the men and women who fought.
Students will examine and analyze images of everyday soldier life from the Civil War.
The final product will be the creation of a RAFT journal or letter entry from the perspective of a
solider or family member of a soldier demonstrating their knowledge of Civil War life.
Objectives:
 To examine the everyday lives and experiences of soldiers during the Civil War and create a
journal or letter based on what they have learned.
Key Terms:
1. Photograph
2. Matthew Brady
3. Camp
4. Battle
Strategies
1. Primary Source Analysis
2. RAFT writing Strategy
3. Class Discussion
4. Group and Independent work
Historical Background for the Teachers:
Today we record almost every major and minor event of our lives on film. Everyday
images of the Iraq War make it into the news almost instantaneously. Every War since the Civil
War has been captured on film, preserving forever the major and the everyday events of each
conflict.
At the outbreak of the Civil War photography was a relatively new technology. It is the
time period around the Civil War that it becomes main stream and gains popular use. It is the
photographic records of the Civil War that makes it unique in our history and provides us with
valuable insight into the time period, the war, and the people.
Anticipatory Set:
1. Put up a picture of a Civil War Soldier on the board
2. Ask students to write down their observations about what they see.
3. Discuss with students what they see and how it might be related to their lives.
Procedures:
Activity 1: Whole Group Examination of Photos
1. Put a photo on the overhead and give the students 5 minutes to look at it.
2. While students are examining the photo hand out a copy of the photo analysis sheet to
each student.
3. Complete the Photo Analysis worksheet as a class.
4. Repeat this process one or two more times with other photos so that students feel
comfortable with the process.
Activity 2: Examining Photos in small groups
1. Find 10(this number can vary too) photographs and print copies of each one.
2. Put together enough sets of the photos for each group. (I have 3 per group so I needed 10
sets.)
3. Break students into groups and give them a set of photos and a stack of Photo Analysis
sheets.
4. Each Group should examine 5 photos and fill out the analysis sheets for the Photos.
Assessment:
1. Photo Analysis Sheets
2. RAFT (this can be done in class or as homework)
 Have students do a RAFT writing assignment as a Civil War Soldier or a Family
member.
 Use the RAFT Rubric
(www.ndsion.com/faculty/vandenbrul/documents/RAFTRubri1.doc) to grade each
student’s work.
 To save time and paper copy the RAFT WRITING SHEET and RAFT RUBRIC back
to back on paper for each student.
Example Assignment:
ROLE
Civil War Solider
Family Member
AUDIENCE
Family Member back
home
Civil War Solider
FORMAT
Letter
Letter
TOPIC
Experiences in battle
or Camp Life
Missing their loved
one, rumors about the
horrors of war
Extensions:
Have students compare their letters to that of real soldiers from the Civil War. Doing a VENN
diagram of the similarities and differences between the two.
Lesson Plan- The Life of a Civil War Soldier. TAH Rio Grande Valley
http://www.riograndevalleytahgrant.org/index.php?option=com_mtree&task=viewlink&link_id=
395&Itemid=73
Great sites to find a variety of photographs:
http://redirect.civilwarphotography.com/
http://redirect.civilwarphotography.com/
http://www.archives.gov/research/civil-war/photos/
http://www.wildwestweb.net/cwphotos.html
National Archives Photo Analysis Worksheet
http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/worksheets/photo.html
Author of Lesson: Sara LeGate
James Monroe Middle School
Albuquerque Public Schools
Student Name: _________________________________
ROLE (Who are you writing as?)AUDIENCE (Who are you writing to?)FORMAT (What are you writing)TOPIC (What are you writing about?)_____________________________________________________________________________________
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Civil War
Grade Level: 8th
Time required: 2 class periods
Historical Period: Civil War 1861-1865
Lesson summary: This lesson will introduce students to the experience of ordinary soldiers and
their families through primary documents.
Procedures/Activities:
6. I will hand out a letter and a photograph to each group.
7. Students will read the letter or look at the photograph and fill out either the written
document analysis worksheet or the photos & graphics analysis worksheet. By doing this
they will discuss different aspects of the daily lives of Americans during the Civil War.
8. Students will then think like a reporter. They will write down questions they will ask
when interviewing a person from one of the pictures or the author of the letter. By
answering their questions, students will restate the essence of what they have learned,
thus they summarize.
9. Each group will share their letter or photograph with the rest of class and discuss what
they have learned about the hardships, the personal beliefs and the graphic realities of the
Civil War.
Strategies:
 Marzano‟s strategies: learning groups, summarizing
 Writing to learn: thinking like a reporter (5W, 1H), summarizing
 Working with primary documents (photographs/letters)
 Differentiated Instruction: Student choice
 Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis & Application
 Learning Modality: Visual
Product:
Students will read several letters from ordinary soldiers and their families and fill out a document
analysis worksheet as well as write questions for their interview of one person or persons from
the Civil War photographs or the author of the letter.
Assessment:
Students will be assessed on their document analysis worksheet, their group participation, and
their thinking like a reporter questions and summarization.
Materials and Resources:
Copies of Civil War letters as well as Civil War photographs from the Gilda Lehrman
Collection www.gilderlehrman.org. .
Copies of written document analysis worksheet and photos and graphics analysis
worksheet. (Teaching with Documents, National Archives and Records
Administration)
Author of Lesson: Sonja Chlapowski
Truman Middle School
Albuquerque Public Schools
Traveling Trunk Program
Special Collections Library/Center for the Book
APS
The Civil War:
A Soldier’s Life
Bibliography
Websites:
Buffalo Soldiers National Museum
http://www.buffalosoldiermuseum.com/
The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History
http://www.gilderlehrman.org/institute/. .
Military and War: Women‟s Roles (About.com: Women‟s Roles)
http://womenshistory.about.com/od/militarywar/Military_and_War_Womens_Roles.htm
Women's Military and War History: women who fought in the military officially and
unofficially, women who served in support roles, plus how women's roles changed for
women who stayed home. Covers from Revolutionary War through 1990s.
Stages of a Historical Research Project
http://dohistory.org/on_your_own/toolkit/research.html
Teaching With Documents (National Archives)
http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/
Teaching with Historic Places (National Register of Historic Places)
http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/twhp/topic.htm
Teaching with Historic Places has developed more than 130 classroom-ready lesson plans
that together cover major themes of American history. All are available on the Web. For more
information on our lessons or our program, contact TwHP. You can also view the entire
collection according to location, time period, skill, U.S. History Standard, and Social Studies
Standards.
Books: Non fiction
Beller, Susan Provost. The Civil War. New York: Benchmark Books, c2003.
Part of the Letters from the Homefront series. Presents the history of the Civil War, including
sections on the role of women in American society at the time and on the great impact of the
war on American medicine, through excerpts from letters, speeches, newspaper articles, and
other documents of the time. Includes illustrations, bibliographic references and index.
Bergeron, Arthur, Jr. “Duty Called me Here”: The Soldier Comrades of the National Museum
of the Civil War Soldier. Pamplin Historical Park, 2000.
This book was printed by and is sold at Pamplin Historical Park near Petersburg, VA. It covers
the story of the "soldier comrades" whose voices visitors hear while going through the National
Museum of the Civil War Soldier. As its author/editor, I believe that many who are interested in
the life of the common soldier during the American Civil War will enjoy the book
Carroll, Andrew, ed. War Letters : extraordinary correspondence from American wars, foreword
by Douglas Brinkley. New York : Scribner, c2001.
Carroll writes, "the first, unfiltered drafts of history." His rich sample testifies to the universal
and poignant themes of love and honor, courage and rage, duty and fear and mortality. The
playful and heartfelt voices grant us the personal perspective all too often lost in news reports
and government statements.
Civil War Poetry : an anthology, edited by Paul Negri. Mineola, NY : Dover, c1997
Presents over seventy-five poems inspired by the American Civil War, including selections
from Walt Whitman, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Julia Ward Howe, and many others.
Civil War Recipes: Receipts from the Pages of Godey's Lady's Book, edited by Lily May
Spaulding. University Press of Kentucky, 1999.
Motivated by their interests in cooking and history and the search for a plum-pudding recipe
like Grandma's, this mother-son team has compiled a cookbook that is rich in Civil War
information. Drawn from a 19th-century women's magazine, the recipes were usually
submitted by middle-class readers from the rural North and South, and were intended for
"common dishes of every day" rather than grand occasions. The authors have added facts
about Confederate and Union army rations, customary cooking utensils, and food substitutions
frequently used by Southern cooks. Recommended menus, or "bills of fare," for each month,
and dates of each recipe's appearance in Godey's are also included
Dammann, Gordon E. Images of Civil War Medicine: A Photographic History, by Gordon E.
Dammann and Alfred Jay Bollet. Demos Medical Publishing, 2007.
Dr. Gordon Dammann and Dr. Bollet have created a pictorially illuminating and fascinating
chapter in medical history, featuring 250 rare archival photographs in a comprehensive visual
encyclopedia of medical care during a seminal event in American history.
Field, Ron and Alexander Bielakowski. Buffalo Soldiers : African American troops in the US
forces, 1866-1945. Published Oxford ; New York : Osprey, 2008.
Chronicles the history of African-American soldiers in the U.S. Armed Forces from 1866 to
1945, describing acts of heroism and the roles they played in combat.
Fisher, Garry. Rebel Cornbread and Yankee Coffee : authentic Civil War cooking and
camaraderie. Crane Hill Publishers, c2001.
Describes the supply systems, rations, and cooking equipment of the Federal and Confederate
armies as well as the ways soldiers spent their spare time, and presents seventeen recipes drawn
from Union and Confederate soldiers' letters and memoirs, and lyrics and music for five foodrelated soldiers' songs.
Four Years in the Confederate Artillery: a diary of Private Henry Robinson Berkeley, edited by
William H. Runge. Virginia Historical Society, 1961.
An autobiography of a Civil War soldier in the format of a wartime diary of a well-educated
young Virginian who served in the Confederate Army during the Civil War, enlisting first in the
Hanover Artillery and later transferred with his comrades into the Kirkpatrick Battery, Army of
Northern Virginia.
Goldensohn, Lorrie, ed. American War Poetry: An Anthology. Columbia University, 2006.
Riches abound in this stylistically varied anthology. Arranged by war, the book begins with
the Colonial period and proceeds through Whitman admiring Civil War soldiers crossing a river
to end with Brian Turner, who published his first book in 2005, beckoning a bullet in
contemporary Iraq. Many voices, by turns elegiac, outraged, rhetorical and ecstatic are
represented, including Sitting Bull's pithy and mournful final song, Charles Simic's haunted
memories of learning chess in 1944 and Walter Macdonald's disconcerting comparison between
trucking pigs and flying soldiers to Vietnam. The difficulty, as with any anthology, is in the
criteria for inclusion and exclusion. Goldensohn acknowledges her need to include some poems
whose historical merits outweigh their literary ones.
Herbert, Janis. The Civil War for Kids The Civil War for Kids: A History with 21 Activities.
Chicago Review Press, 1999.
The book provides a look at the Civil War and its leaders and includes activities such as battle
reenactments and recipes for soldiers' rations. The contributions of women, African Americans,
and even children are described. Sidebars provide biographical and other information about
individual soldiers and events. Maps and black-and-white reproductions are scattered
throughout. A lengthy resource list of historical sites, museums, and Web sites is appended
Letters from a North Carolina Unionist John A. Hedrick to Benjamin S. Hedrick, 1862-1865.
North Carolina Dept. of Cultural Services, 2001.
Letters to the Home Circle: the North Carolina Service of PVT Henry A. Clapp, Co. F, Fortyfourth Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, 1862-1863, edited by John R. Barden. North
Carolina Dept. of Cultural Resources, 1998.
Lewis, J. Patrick. The Brothers' War : Civil War voices in verse. Washington, D.C. :
National Geographic, c2007
Presents poems that adopt the voices of soldiers, commanders, and slaves and other civilians
during the Civil War, pairing each poem with a period photo, and includes facts on the
conflict. Including photographs by Civil War photographers.
McPherson, James M. Fields of Fury: The American Civil War. Atheneum, 2002.
A concise, accessible, and appealing history in an attractive format. In 41 well-written one or
two page chapters, McPherson summarizes the major facts of the war and relates anecdotes
that bring to life the conflict's participants, from the commanders in chief to the soldiers on the
front lines. Interspersed with accounts of the principal battles are discussions of other
important issues, such as slavery, how the war was financed, the roles of African Americans
and women, life on the home front, treatment of prisoners of war, and the effects of
Reconstruction.
McPherson, James M. For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War. Oxford
University Press, 1998.
This powerful commentary by today's premier Civil War historian is truly compelling in its
depth and intensity. McPherson has extrapolated and quoted from over 25,000 letters and 249
diaries of more than 1000 Union and Confederate soldiers. The documentation is impressive and
is successful. Many of the letters tell of the loneliness, depression, discouragement, exhaustion,
pain, hunger, and lack of sanitation. The written words of these young soldiers are simple in
expression but poignant in emotion.
Miller, Delavan S. Drum Taps in Dixie: Memories of a Drummer Boy, 1861-1865. Cornell
University Library, 2010.
Moore, John Hammond. The Confederate Housewife : Receipts & Remedies, Together with
Sundry Suggestions for Garden, Farm, & Plantation. Summerhouse Press, 1997.
This receipt book provides for the first time a comprehensive, grass roots picture of what many
Confederate housewives faced during those tumultuous years. Substitutes abound, as do ways
to preserve food, care for crops and animals, make straw hats and squirrel-skin shoes, and cure
everything from cancer to small pox to ingrown toenails.
Moore, Kay. If you Lived at the Time of the Civil War, by Kay Moore and illustrated by Anni
Matstick. New York: Scholastic, 1994.
Describes conditions for the civilians in both North and South during and immediately after
the war. An elementary level book with limited information in a question and answer format.
Murphy, Jim. The Boys' War: Confederate and Union Soldiers Talk About the Civil War.
Sandpiper, 1993.
Making extensive use of the actual words--culled from diaries, journals, memoirs, and letters-of boys who served in the Union and Confederate armies as fighting soldiers as well as
drummers, buglers, and telegraphers, Murphy describes the beginnings of the Civil War and
goes on to delineate the military role of the underage soldiers and their life in the camps and
field bivouacs. Also included is a description of the boys' return home and the effects upon
them of their wartime experiences. Boys 16 years and younger, Murphy states, made up
perhaps as much as 10-20 percent of the total number of soldiers who served in the Civil War.
Little did these boys realize that they would become like young Pvt. Henry Graves, who was
able to " 'look on the carcass of a man with pretty much such feeling as I would do were it a
horse or hog.' "
Newton, A.H., DD. Out of the Briars: An Autobiography and Sketch of the Twenty-ninth
Regiment Connecticut Volunteers. Mnemosyne Publishing Co., Inc., c1969.
Told as see through the eyes of a black man before, during and after the Civil War. This book
gives the reader first hand accounts of his options and interactions during the 19th century.
One feels as if he is sitting before you and telling about his life as a black man, soldier, and
Christian; also hear of his first hand encounter with President Lincoln.
Ray, Delia. Behind the Blue and Gray: The Soldier's Life in the Civil War. Puffin, 1996.
The story of the Civil War as seen from the perspective of common soldiers who served in
Union blue and Confederate gray; coverage is from the first shots fired upon Fort Sumter to
the long trek home at war's end. Ray is an excellent narrator and has chosen many informative,
perceptive personal accounts upon which to base her work. The fears, horrors, boredom, and
simple, transitory pleasures of these young men are brought into sharp focus by the many firstperson writings. Especially moving is the chapter concerning medical care--primitive at best-and the prisoner of war camps--inhumane at worst
Wakeman, Sarah Rosetta. An Uncommon Soldier: The Civil War Letters of Sarah Rosetta
Wakeman, alias Pvt. Lyons Wakeman, 153rd Regiment, New York State Volunteers,
1862-1864. Oxford University Press, 1996.
As the debate on the role of women in the military continues, an interesting historical footnote
has been brought forth: the publication of the only known surviving set of letters of one of the
estimated 400 women who disguised themselves as men to fight as soldiers in the Civil War.
Born on a farm in New York in 1843, Wakeman was the oldest of nine children. Few details of
her family life are known, nor what exactly precipitated her flight into the army, but glimpses of
this strong-minded woman are provided throughout: "I am as independent as a hog on the ice. If
it is God's will for me to fall in the field of battle, it is my will to go and never return home."
War Letters: Extraordinary Correspondence from American Wars, edited by Andrew Carroll.
Scribner, 2002.
Carroll writes, "the first, unfiltered drafts of history." His rich sample testifies to the universal
and poignant themes of love and honor, courage and rage, duty and fear and mortality. The
playful and heartfelt voices grant us the personal perspective all too often lost in news reports
and government statements. Taken together, they remind us that, despite the playful good
cheer, the human cost of war is far too high. A remarkable contribution to the understanding of
war and its impact, and a powerful tribute to those undone by it.
Whitman, Walt. Civil War Poetry and Prose. New York: Dover Publications, c1995.
A superb selection of poems, letters and prose from the war years. "O Captain! My Captain!",
"When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd", "Adieu to a Soldier", many other letters and
prose works.
Books: fiction
Denslow, Sharon Phillips. All Their Names Were Courage, a novel. Greenwillow Press,
1998.
In 1862, as William Burd fights in the Civil War, he exchanges letters with his sister, Sallie,
who is also writing to Confederate and Union generals asking about their horses in order to
write a book.
Hama, Larry. The War is On!: Battle of First Bull Run. Osprey Publishing, 2007.
(Graphic History)
On July 21, 1861, two inexperienced armies of a divided nation clashed for the first time in
Manassas, Virginia. As the 35,000-strong Union forces began their long-awaited campaign to
capture Richmond, the public gathered to watch what they thought would be a colorful
pageantry. Neither the citizens nor the soldiers could conceive of the long war that lay ahead.
Culminating in a stalwart defensive fight by Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson's Virginia Brigade,
the Battle of Bull Run marked the Confederacy's first victory. By the day's end, after ten hours
of fierce fighting, soldiers on both sides were shocked by the violence and destruction they had
encountered. As the Union army retreated they took with them any notion that the war's
outcome would be decided quickly. This book vividly evokes the real-life experiences of the
men on the battlefield in graphic novel format and includes eight additional pages of
background information detailing the key players, the experience of the forces, and the
aftermath of the battle.
Hughes, Pat. Seeing the elephant : a story of the Civil War by Pat Hughes ; pictures by Ken
Stark. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2007.
Ten-year-old Izzie wants to join the war like his older brothers and go into battle against the
Confederate Army, but when he meets a Rebel soldier in a hospital, he begins to see things
differently.
Paulsen, Gary. Soldier's Heart : Being the Story of the Enlistment and Due Service of the Boy
Charley Goddard in the First Minnesota Volunteers. Delacourt Press. 1998.
In spare, almost biblical prose, Gary Paulsen writes of the horrors of combat in a Civil War
novella that puts a powerful, more contemporary spin on Stephen Crane's classic The Red
Badge of Courage. Based on the life of a real boy, it tells the story of Charley Goddard, who
lies his way into the Union Army at the age of 15. Charley has never been anyplace beyond
Winona, Minnesota, and thinks war would be a great adventure. And it is--at first--as his
regiment marches off through cheering crowds and pretty, flag-waving girls. But then comes
the battle.
Polacco, Patricia. Pink and Say. New York : Philomel Books, c1994.
Say Curtis describes his meeting with Pinkus Ayles, a black soldier, during the Civil War, and
their capture by southern troops. Illustrated.
Wisler, G. Clifton. Mr. Lincoln's Drummer. New York : Puffin Books, 1997.
A fictional account of the courageous exploits of Willie Johnston, an eleven-year-old Civil War
drummer, who became the youngest recipient of the Congressional Medal of Honor.
Music – CD:
Songs of the Civil War by Various Artists. Sony, August 13, 1991.
Partial contents: Ashokan Farewell, No More Auction Block For Me Sweet Honey In The
Rock, Lincoln & Liberty, Dixie's land, The Southern Soldier Boy, Aura Lee, Rebel Soldier,
Follow the Drinking Gourd, Battle Hymn of the Republic, When Johnny Comes Marching Home.
Movies – DVD:
The Civil War, a film by Ken Burns, starring: David McCullough, Sam Waterston Director: Ken
Burns. Alexandria, VA : PBS Video, 1990.
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Hardtack History and Recipe
Hardtack is the most famous American Civil War staple food. Hard as a rock, this cracker was
easily made by large contract baking companies to the bane of many a Civil War soldier. As
Mike Bilbo states, it is more aptly called "digestible leather". It was also affectionately known
by the men as "angel cakes, teeth dullers or ammo reserves". But it was also issued, and stored
by the men for marching. Carrying a piece of hardtack around in your haversack would serves as
a good living history discussion piece for the public. Rumor is, some hardtack made during the
Civil War was re-issued and used during the Spanish American war almost 35 years later!
Hardtack Recipe by Kathy Kleiman (MCHA Co. E)
6 parts flour
1 part water
Knead dough until thoroughly mixed. Roll out on a floured surface until about 1/8 inch
thick (or there abouts). Cut into squares--there is an actual size piece of hardtack
pictured in Hard Tack & Coffee by Billings (p. 114 in my edition), seems to be about 2
3/4 by 3 1/2 inches. His piece of hardtack was small and I've seen larger ones. Probably
due to whatever
contractor made the hard tack.
Pierce the hard tack 13 times with the tip of a knife, making sure hole goes all the way
through the dough. The Tinsmiths sutler makes a hardtack "cookie" mold that is just
great for this. They advertise in the CW News.
Bake at 325 for at least an hour, turning over the hard tack once. Check to see that it is
cooked through completely. Take out & let cool overnight to get that real hard & dry
feeling. Some people bake at 300 for a couple of hours, just to get it real dry. The
finished hard tack will still look pale.
Hardtack History
Civil War Biscuits Still Produced (sent by Mike Bilbo on 8/21/2000 to our unit)
ASSOCIATED PRESS MILTON, Mass. (AP) -- Hardtack crackers, once a staple for hungry Union soldiers
in the Civil War, are dry as a bone, hard as a brick - and all of a sudden
selling like hot cakes over the Internet. G.H. Bent Co., a 199-year-old cracker-maker in this Boston
suburb, wouldn't sell much of the stuff at all if it weren't for Civil War re-enactors -- who spend their
weekends re-creating battle scenes in meticulous detail and go online to
stock up on boxes of the biscuits.
"Since this Internet thing, it's exploded," said Gene Pierotti, 71, the retired former owner of Bent, whose
son runs the company now. "It's amazing because it keeps the history alive."
When Pierotti bought the company in 1944, the company had stopped making hardtack. Instead, it made
its sister cracker, the Bent's Cold Water Cracker, which has sold on trains and ships since 1801. It also
supplied American troops in the war of 1812 and fed the Navy in the 1940s and '50s.
Then, about 40 years ago, an employee at Old Sturbridge Village, a replica of a 19th century village in
central Massachusetts, called Pierotti and asked if he knew that Bent was one of the Union army's top
suppliers of hardtack rations during the Civil War.
Pierotti didn't know that, but his company started making the flour-and-water biscuits again anyway. It
was far from a top-shelf item, selling only about 140 boxes each year through 1999.
Last December, an enthusiastic Civil War re-enactor named Mike Thorson found out about the cracker,
and gave it a rave review on the Internet site for his re-enactment unit, the 33rd Wisconsin Volunteer
Infantry. Word spread among roughly 50,000 Civil War buffs, and business boomed. Sales are projected
at 4,000 boxes this year. Still, hardtack accounts for only about 2 percent of Bent's business.
Bent is not the only company that makes hardtack. Nabisco also sells the biscuits in the Northeast under
the name Crown Pilot Crackers, and Mechanical Baking Co., in Pekin, Ill., makes the biscuits as well. And
each year, the 33rd Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry uses industrial size ovens to make its own large batch.
The ovens at the G.H. Bent Co. are roaring to fill hardtack orders for re-enactors like Ken Callaway, who
tries to replicate every detail of the battlefield -- down to the food in his pockets. When the 30- year-old
social studies teacher from Chesterton, Ind., joined the 19th Indiana Volunteer Infantry three years ago,
he had no difficulty finding an authentic uniform for
the company. Filling his stomach was a different story.
He tried making the hardtack biscuits that soldiers kept in their pockets for weeks a time. They "didn't
turn out so good," he said. A commercial biscuit was too hard, he said. But he found Bent's hardtack
authentic enough to get him -- and his audience -- closer to the battlefield history he tries to recreate. "If I
try on a small level to replicate the experiences they had, I feel better about talking about it," Callaway
said. "It's the only hardtack I use now."
Contents copyright 2000 Las Vegas Sun, Inc.
G.H. Bent Co.: http://www.bentscookiefactory.com
Mechanical Baking Co.: http://www.mechanical-bakery.com
33rd Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry: http://www.amtma.com/33dwis.html
Hard Tack Bread
Recipe from the Civil War
Ingredients:
5 cups flour
1 cup water
1 tbs salt
Mix all ingredients thoroughly. Knead dough and roll out till it is 1/2
inch thick. Cut dough into 3x3 squares, and poke a 3x3 series of holes
in the center, evenly spaced. Bake in preheated oven, 425
degrees until dry and lightly golden brown. Be sure to keep dry.If they
get damp; they will get moldy quickly and cannot be eaten. If you have
any weevils or maggots throw them in for added nutritional value!
Hard Tack Bread
Recipe from the Civil War
Ingredients:
5 cups flour
1 cup water
1 tbs salt
Mix all ingredients thoroughly. Knead dough and roll out till it is 1/2
inch thick. Cut dough into 3x3 squares, and poke a 3x3 series of holes
in the center, evenly spaced. Bake in preheated oven, 425
degrees until dry and lightly golden brown. Be sure to keep dry.If they
get damp, they will get moldy quickly and cannot be eaten. If you have
any weevils or maggots throw them in for added nutritional value!