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- Internationalisering
Dansk Olie og Gas
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HÅNDBOG
Dansk Olie og Gas
- internationalisering
Håndbog for små og mellemstore virksomheder,
der overvejer at etablere sig på offshore olie- og
gasmarkeder i udlandet
Maj 2010
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Side 45
Markedsundersøgelse
og analyse
Danske kompetencer og udvalgte offshore
olie- og gasmarkeder (engelsk)
Offshore Center Danmark og Danperform Consulting
Dansk Olie & Gas
Internationalisering
Håndbog for små og mellemstore virksomheder,
der overvejer at etablere sig på offshore olie- og
gasmarkeder i udlandet
Maj 2010
Forfatter: Sigurd Bløndal,
Danperform Consulting
Godkendt af: Projektkoordinator
Mahmoud Redda, Offshore Center Danmark
Synopsis
Denne håndbog beskriver på en overskuelig måde
muligheder og udfordringer for danske virksomheder,
der overvejer at etablere aktiviteter inden for offshore
olie- og gassektoren i udlandet.
Håndbogen er ét af en række målrettede initiativer for
at internationalisere og professionalisere dansk
offshoreindustri - forankret i udviklingsprojektet
"Dansk Olie & Gas - Internationalisering".
Udover den trykte håndbog offentliggøres supplerende materiale i form af rapporter om udvalgte eksportmarkeder samt den endelige rapport, som kan
downloades på www.offshorecenter.dk.
Udgiver
Offshore Center Danmark
Niels Bohrs Vej 6
6700 Esbjerg
Telefon 36 97 36 70
www.offshorecenter.dk
Ophavsretten for "International Offshore Oil & Gas
Håndbogen" ligger hos Offshore Center Danmark og
centrets medlemmer.
Alle rettigheder forbeholdt.
Oplysninger indeholdt i dette dokument er ejet af
ovennævnte parter og er udleveret uden ansvar for fejl
eller udeladelser.
Ingen dele må reproduceres eller anvendes, undtaget
som tilladt i henhold til kontrakt eller anden skriftlig
tilladelse.
Indholdsfortegnelse
Forord - En hel verden foran dig.......................................7
Udvikling og udfordringer for dansk offshore. .............9
Dine eksportpartnere.......................................................36
Offshore Center Danmark – OCD......................................36
Dansk Offshore Industri – DOI...........................................36
Eksportrådet....................................................................37
Industrialiseringsfonden for Udviklingslandene – IFU..........37
Eksport Kredit Fonden – EKF............................................37
Dansk offshore på nye markeder. .................................11
Hvem handler det om?.....................................................11
Du skal være forberedt.....................................................12
Spændende markeder ud
over landets grænse.........................................................12
Sådan er vi kommet frem til denne håndbog. .............38
Nyttige adresser................................................................39
Norge. ..................................................................................14
Grønland..............................................................................17
Brasilien...............................................................................23
Angola..................................................................................26
Markedsundersøgelse og analyse................................45
Danske kompetencer og udvalgte offshore
olie- og gasmarkeder (engelsk)
Nigeria..................................................................................29
Download Specifikke landeraporter på:
www.offshorecenter.dk
Mikroanalyse – "Intern effektivitet". .............................33
Implementering af strategier..........................................34
Bliv større udadtil. .............................................................35
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
Forord - En hel verden foran dig
Med “International Offshore Oil & Gas Håndbogen” ønsker Offshore
Center Danmark at fokusere på de mange muligheder, danske virksomheder har for at skabe vækst ved at se mod udlandet.
Der er nemlig fortsat masser af aktivitet i den internationale offshoreindustri – og nogle lande har så meget gang i offshoreaktiviteterne,
at der ganske enkelt ikke er nok lokale leverandører at råde over.
Andre lande har behov for teknikker, som danske virksomheder er
eksperter i.
Det giver muligheder for danske virksomheder. Det gælder blot om at
have gjort hjemmearbejdet ordentligt, at fokusere på de rette markeder samt at have overskud til at etablere sig på nye markeder.
Håndbogen er ét af en række initiativer for at internationalisere dansk
offshoreindustri – forankret i udviklingsprojektet “Dansk Olie og Gas
– Internationalisering”. Formålet med denne håndbog er at pointere
de muligheder, der ligger ude i verden for små og mellemstore virksomheder - SMV’er - der allerede har etableret sig på det danske
offshore olie- og gasmarked, og som måske allerede er i gang med
internationale projekter.
I håndbogen finder du værktøjer til udvikling af virksomheden, resultater fra markedsundersøgelse af SMV’er
blandt Offshore Center Danmarks medlemmer og
undersøgelser fra de fem lande, der af Offshore
Center Danmark er udpeget som særligt interessante.
Fokus i denne håndbog har været på
offshore olie- og gasaktiviteter inter-
nationalt og knyttes på den måde til leverandørernes behov for nye
udfordringer. Udviklingsværktøjer, der beskriver, hvordan man kan
forberede virksomheden til vækst, er dog uden industrielle grænser
og for den skyld ikke begrænset aktører i internationalt humør, og kan
bruges ved alle overvejelser om virksomhedsudvikling.
Internationaliseringsprojektet er udført i samarbejde med Dansk Offshore Industri, Eksport Kredit Fonden, Industrielfonden for Udviklingslandende, Udenrigsministeriet - hvor hovedaktøren er Eksportrådet,
Esbjerg Erhvervsudvikling samt Danperform Consulting. Repræsentanter fra disse organisationer samt Offshore Center Danmark indgår
i en styregruppe, der agerer som rådgivere for projektet.
Endvidere har netværksgruppen International, bestående af medlemmer af Offshore Center Danmark, været en meget vigtig sparringspartner og inspirationskilde til projektet bag denne håndbog.
Disse organisationer har været med i internationalgruppen:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Crew Supply
Danperform Consulting
Dansk Scanning A/S
DAT A/S
Hydropower A/S
HH Consult A/S
IAT Base & Energy
ISC Consulting
Jacob Albertsen A/S
JEVI A/S
Kursuscenter Vest
Ocean Team Scandinavia A/S
Olesen & Jensen A/S
Rolf Schmidt Industriplast A/S
Tschudi Shipping A/S
Svitzer Safety Services A/S
Sencon A/S
Markedsundersøgelsens resultater indeholder besvarelser fra de 98
organisationer, der deltog i undersøgelsen. Disse spørgsmål var fordelt i følgende kategorier:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Kernekompetencer
Kernemarkeder
Geografisk område
Industrielt område
Erfaring med eksport
Virksomhedsudvikling
Klyngesamarbejde
Vækststrategier
Eksportstrategier
Besvarelserne viser virksomhedernes kompetencer inden dette
område, samt deres holdninger til videre vækst og udvikling.
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
Efterfølgende er der i håndbogen en beskrivelse af de fem markeder, der har været undersøgt: Norge, Grønland, Brasilien, Angola og
Nigeria, samt enkelte udtalelser fra danske aktører i udvalgte lande.
Markederne er beskrevet med hensyn til SMV’ernes behov for information, om det ville være til deres fordel at overveje indtræden på
bestemte markeder.
Når virksomheden har undersøgt mulighederne på de udenlandske
markeder og kommet frem til, at det kunne være lukrativt at operere
der, er det tid til at finde vejen derhen. Der kan de forskellige organisationer, der har været nævnt som medlemmer af projektets styregruppe, være en rigtig god sparringspartner. Disse har skrevet deres
historie som succesfulde værktøjer på vejen ud i verden. Håndbogen
indeholder også en grundig beskrivelse af, hvordan man kan benytte
disse organisationer.
Hele markedsundersøgelsen inklusive analyse samt rapporter fra de
fem markeder er tilgængelige som bilag til håndbogen via download
på www.offshorecenter.dk.
Projektgruppen vil gerne rette en særlig tak til de mange, der har afsat
deres tid og videnskab undervejs i projektets forløb. Førnævnte styregruppe samt internationalgruppen har ydet den største indsats i
projektet med vigtig rådgivning, deltagelse i den eksplorative undersøgelse, supplerende materiale, forelæsninger og erfaringshistorier.
Associerende professorer ved Syddansk Universitet, Svend Ole
Madsen og Villy Søgaard takkes for deres vigtige indsats til metoder
omkring markedsundersøgelse samt gode råd omkring strategier til
projektudviklingen.
Eksportrådgivere ved ambassaderne i Norge og Sao Paulo får en
særlig tak for udmærket samarbejde ved fremstilling af markedsrapporter fra deres områder. Også tak til Jens K Lyberth og Ellen Lerch
Høj Arnskjold ved Grønlands arbejdsgiverforening for sparring og
fremskaffet mandskab til udførsel af markedssituationen der samt
informationsmateriale.
Udvikling og udfordringer for dansk offshore
I takt med udvikling af nye og mere effektive teknologier har nye virksomheder fået fodfæste i branchen og har medvirket til at udvikle
specialteknikker og bidrage med yderligere ekspertise. Antallet af
nicheprægede virksomheder inden for offshoresektoren er steget
markant, og danske leverandører har oparbejdet unikke kompetencer på en række vigtige forretningsområder, herunder olie- og
gasindvinding fra vanskeligt tilgængelige felter, optimeret udnyttelse af felterne, konkurrencedygtige platformløsninger og teknikker
til indvinding på ultradybe felter - alt kombineret med stor omkostningsbevidsthed og fokus på sikkerhedsmæssig- og miljømæssig
bæredygtighed.
Danske aktører har eksempelvis opnået internationalt ry for effektivitet i udvinding af disse værdifulde naturressourcer, blandt andet
ved overtagelse af brønde, der af andre operatører er opgivet eller
betragtet som alt for kostbare og besværlige at udnytte. Siden har
danske operatører været i stand til at udnytte felterne og drive dem
som indbringende forretning.
Danske leverandører står dog over for en betydelig udfordring på
hjemmemarkedet. Produktion fra Nordsøen havde således sit højdepunkt i år 2004 for olie og år 2005 for gas, siden er produktionen
faldet gradvist.
Udvikling og
Produktion
Afvikling og
Sanering
Efterforskning og
Prøveboringer
Efterforskning,
Overfladeundersøgelse og
Seismistiske operationer
Efterforskning
og Produktion
Transport og
Distribution
Raffinering
Transport og
Markedsføring
Downstream
Potentialet for vækst er således begrænset på hjemmemarkedet,
hvis man udelukkende ser på mængden af produceret olie og gas.
Andre faktorer som teknisk udvikling, prisudsving og general efterspørgsel vil naturligvis have indflydelse på, hvordan leverandørerne
skal strukturere og udvikle deres virksomheder. Efterspørgslen efter
optimale produkter og tjenester inden for denne industri er meget
høj, hvilket har ført til at mange af disse virksomheder fokuserer på
udvikling af produktsortiment med avanceret konkurrencedygtighed. Disse kompetencer kan eksporteres til internationale markeder, og på verdensplan ser udviklingsmulighederne helt anderledes
positive ud.
Denne håndbog har til formål at påpege potentialer, hovedsageligt
inden for upstream aktiviteter (udvinding; se figur) for leverandører til
olie- og gasindustrien blandt Offshore Center Danmarks medlemmer - på fem internationale markeder. Håndbogen omfatter også
en analyse af de danske virksomheders kompetencer, som kan eksporteres til disse udenlandske markeder. De markeder, der har været
analyseret - Norge, Grønland, Brasilien, Angola og Nigeria - anses
for at være interessante for danske leverandører inden for industrien
under hensyn til geografisk afstand og historiske forbindelser, eller på
grund af vækstmuligheder inden offshore olie- gassektoren.
Upstream
Den 8. juli 1962 gav den danske regering skibsreder A.P. Møller eneretsbevilling på efterforskning og indvinding af olie og gas fra Danmarks undergrund. Det blev starten på snart 50 års erhvervseventyr,
som med årene er blevet større og større, og fra at være koncentreret
om få leverandører til få olieselskaber er industrien med årene vokset
til at være en af de største industrier i Danmark målt på omsætning.
Markedsføring
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
10
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
Dansk offshore på nye markeder
På trods af gode forretningsmæssige resultater må den danske offshore olie- og gasindustri stadig konstatere, at branchen internationalt set lever relativt anonymt. Hos den internationale olie- og gasindustri er de danske kompetencer til dels ukendte. Denne relative
anonymitet medfører, at gode forretningsmæssige potentialer kun
vanskeligt lader sig udnytte.
fundet og kontraheret som leverandør. En af grundene til dette er et
manglende målrettet samarbejde hos den danske offshore olie- og
gasindustri om eksport og salg af deres unikke kompetencer.
Målet med denne håndbog er en målrettet udbredelse af kendskabet
til danske offshore olie/gas kompetencer i alle relevante internationale sammenhænge og fora, med henblik på øget eksport af dansk
offshore olie- og gasteknologi.
Indholdet i denne håndbog har særlig fokus på små og mellemstore
virksomheder - SMV’er - der i en eller anden grad har opnået succes på det danske marked for offshoreteknologi. Det vil sige, at virksomheden i forvejen tilbyder produkter, rådgivning eller service, der
efterspørges i branchen. Spørgsmålet er blot: hvordan kommer virksomheden videre med disse kompetencer?
Dansk offshore olie- og gasindustri har de sidste 20 år opnået unikke
kompetencer på en række vigtige områder, herunder: olie- og gasindvinding fra vanskeligt tilgængelige felter samt teknik til effektiv
udnyttelse af felterne, konkurrencedygtige platformløsninger, alt
kombineret med stor omkostningsbevidsthed og fokus på sikkerhedsmæssig- og miljømæssig bæredygtighed. Disse kompetencer
er i for ringe udstrækning kendt og solgt i udlandet. Dansk offshore
køber sig ind på de internationale markeder, men bliver for sjældent
Hvem handler det om?
Med håndbogen håber vi, du og virksomheden føler jer bedre klædt
på til - på et kvalificeret grundlag – at træffe de rigtige beslutninger om
at satse på internationale markeder.
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
11
Du skal være forberedt
De fleste virksomheder vil gerne vokse yderligere og opnå øgede
markedsandele. Faktisk er det afgørende for virksomhedens fremtid
løbende at søge nye udfordringer, ikke mindst i kølvandet på en
global finansiel krise og fordi virksomhedens nuværende marked kan
have ændret sig. Derfor er det vigtigt at være i stand til at indtage nye
markeder.
Der findes forskellige måder til udvikling af virksomheden, hvor hovedområderne i værdikæden forklares efterfølgende:
• Leverandørsiden
• Produktionskapacitet
• Markedet
Spændende markeder ud over landets grænse
Ifølge markedsundersøgelsen ønsker omkring 80% af de adspurgte
virksomhedsledere at føre virksomheden videre ud i verden. Norge
fremhæves som det land, hvor de fleste har interesse i at eksportere
til - primært på grund af kort geografisk afstand samt sammenfaldende kulturer. De fleste af respondenterne nævner således kultur
som den væsentligste udfordring, når man forsøger at markedsføre
sine produkter i udlandet.
Hvis man følger ”Destination stien” på illustrationen, kan man begynde med at kigge ud over landets grænser og undersøge, om
der er potentiel marked derude for virksomhedens produkter. Det
har i forvejen, fra Offshore Center Danmarks side, været besluttet at
sætte fokus på Norge, Grønland, Brasilien, Angola og Nigeria. Landeanalyserne kan indikere, hvilke af disse markeder kan være mest
tiltrækkende, og hvilke kompetencer der efterspørges i disse lande.
Destination stien
Mængde
Ønsket
markedsandel
KS
Klyngesamarbejde
Strategier implementeret
SI
Intern effektivitet
IE
Ekstern analyse
EA
Nuværende
markedsandel
Denne håndbog indeholder værktøjer til SMV’erne til brug for udvikling af virksomheden. I første omgang handler det om at undersøge,
hvor markedsmulighederne ligger og efterfølgende finde ud af, om
virksomheden har kompetencer til at opfylde efterspørgslen. Senere
skal der implementeres strategier, som matcher virksomhedens
kompetencer og markedets efterspørgsel. Uden implementering af
de tilpassede strategier kommer virksomheden ikke videre. Det indebærer også, at hele organisationen er med i disse nye strategier, dvs.
at medarbejderne kender virksomhedens mål og hvordan målene
opnås. Medfølgende graf kan vise vejen og bruges til formulering af
organisationens milepæle:
Handling proces
Status quo
Nu
12
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
Fremtid
Tid
Source: S Bløndal
Fakta ark 2010
Danmark
Norge
Grønland
Brasilien
Nigeria
Angola
Målingsenhed
Olie - reserver 1) (eksl. DK4))
1,26
6,68
12,18
36,20
9,50
billion bbl
Produktion pr. dag
0,29
2,47
2,40
2,17
2,02
million bbl/day
10
8
19
42
14
Naturgas - reserver 1)
3,78
81,70
13
184
10
trillion cubic feet
Årlig produktion
30
3.500
466
1.204
24
billion cubic feet
13
23
28
153
42
1)
R/P ratio 2)
R/P ratio
1)
1)
Antal indbyggere 2)
5.500.510 4.660.539
57.600
198.739.269
149.229.090
12.799.293
BNP pr. indbygger USD
36.000
58,600
35.400
10.200
2.400
8.900
I danske kroner 6)
207.317
337.466
203.862
58.740
13.821
51.253
-4,30%
-1,00%
1,50%
-0,20%
5,00%
-0,60%
Geografisk størrelse 1000 m
43.094
323.802
2.166.086
8.514.877
923.768
1.246.700
Korruption omfang indeks (CPI) 5)
9,3
8.6
NA
3.7
2.5
1.9
Måling ud af 180 lande
6/180
11/180
NA
75/180
130 /180
162/180
BNP realvækst
2)
2
1) www.eia.doe.gov 2) www.cia.gov 3) www.upstreamonline.com 4) www.ens.dk 5) www.transparency.org 6) www.nationalbanken.dk (05/05/2010)
US-Trillion = DK - Billion / US - Billion = DK - Milliard
En tønde råolie eller andre petroleum produkter (forkortet bbl) er 158,97 liter (42 US gallon eller 35 Imperial gallon)
Ovenstående ”fakta ark” indikerer størrelsen på disse markeder, forventet tid til udløb af ressourcer m.m. Disse udregninger kan benyttes
som vurdering af, hvor mange år en dansk leverandør kan forvente
at sælge sine produkter til olie- og gasindustrien i bestemte lande, og
hvor store investeringer det kan betale sig at binde sig an med.
R/T ratio kan ændres ved opdagelser af nye bekræftede ressourcer.
Man skal være opmærksom på, at nye markeder man ikke kender,
også bringer en del usikkerhed. Disse faktorer er blandt andet:
•
•
•
•
Et fremmed og dermed muligvis usikkert politisk klima
En anden forretningskultur og andre sædvaner
Økonomisk usikkerhed
Juridisk usikkerhed
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
13
Norge
Med sine knapt 5 million indbyggere betegnes Norge som det rigeste land i verden, ikke mindst på grund af indtægter fra olie- og gasindvindingen i Nordsøen. Man forventer, at Norge kan fastholde sin
produktion det kommende årti, men der skal investeres i forskning
og nye prøveboringer, hvis man skal gøre sig håb om at oppebære
produktionen yderligere. Norge har heller ikke i samme grad som i
Danmark haft behov for at udnytte marginale felter, og netop på dette
område har danske leverandører betydelig
ekspertise.
Norge råder formentlig også over de største gasreserver i verden,
idet man vurderer, at der i Barentshavet nord for Norge findes felter
med over totusind billiarder Nm3 gas – hvilket betyder enorme
udviklingsmuligheder til gavn for leverandører i branchen.
Olie- og gassektoren er et varmt politisk emne i Norge. Ikke kun på
grund af sektorens store betydning for den norske økonomi, men
også på grund af de konsekvenser, øgede olie- og gas aktiviteter
kan have på de arktiske områder og den overordnede miljømæssige
situation. Udvikling af regioner som Barentshavet og Norskehavet
bør ske i samarbejde med Rusland i et forsøg på at skabe den bedste
miljøovervågning og olienødsituationsberedskab i verden.
14
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
Norge
SWOT analyse - Norge
Styrker
Svagheder
► Kort fysisk og kulturel afstand til markedet
► Nogle siger, at de resterende ressourcer er knappe
► Lang historie af danske leverancer til Norge
► Regeringens dilemma i forbindelse med miljø- og fort-
satte olie- og gasproduktion.
► Som olie- og gasnation, så er Norge meget transparent
( lavt niveau af korruption)
► Veletableret marked med stor national betydning
► Etablerede teknologier, som er kendt over for danske leverandører
► Vekselkursen mellem NOK og DKK (danske produkter og tjenesteydelser bliver dyrere)
► Lavere investeringsniveau og outsourcing af projekter
► Etablering af virksomhed er forholdsvis nem og ikke præget
af bureaukrati
Muligheder
Trusler
► Gasproduktionen kunne overtage i det lange løb
► Usikkerhed om, hvilke områder der skal åbnes for udforskning
► Regerings vilje til åbning af nye forskningsområder
► Miljøorganisationer forsøger at forhindre yderligere udforskning
► Niveauet i olieprisen (hvis over 70 USD)
► Øged kost fokus blandt operatører og førende leverandører,
der tvinger projekter til lave omkostningsniveauer.
► Tilstedeværelsen af det danske eksportråd i forbin-
delse med den danske ambassade, som styrer og fremmer danske selskaber i Norge
► På grund af gamle rigge og andre anlæg; vedligehol-
delse og fjernelse af disse vil være et voksende marked i de kommende år
► Forøgelse af værdien af den norske krone over for den danske krone
► Niveauet i olieprisen (hvis denne er under USD 60)
► Operatørernes krav der gør det vanskeligere at træde ind på
markedet
► Teknologiske udfordringer
► Lokal konkurrence
► Faldende værdi af den norske krone over for den danske krone
► Fremtidige fagområder
► Teknologiske udfordringer
Gennem grundig evaluering og overvågning af de forskellige norske
kystområder vil regeringen beslutte, hvilke områder bør forblive råoliefrie, og hvilke der bør åbnes for industrien.
Ifølge nuværende prognoser med udregning af det såkaldte R/P ratio - der indeholder forventede ressourcer divideret med nuværende
årsproduktion - forventes det, at olien i Norge slipper op om 8 år, og
at gasproduktion kan holde de kommende 22 år. Produktionen kan
dog forlænges, både på grund af udsigten til nye og endnu uudnyttede felter samt teknisk udvikling og effektivisering af udvindingen.
Markedet
Achilles leverandør
At være kvalificeret som Achilles leverandør er ikke et absolut
krav, hvis du ønsker at blive leverandør til den norske olie- og
gasindustri. Omkostningerne forbundet med at være kvalificeret kan også forekomme store for nogle virksomheder. Dog kan
netop Achilles kvalifikation være en måde at lette adgangen til
kontrakter inden for olie- gasindustrien, idet nogle af de vigtigste
aktører i branchen nøje holder øje med, leverandøren er kvalificeret i Achilles. I den forstand kan kvalifikation i Achilles systemet
forkorte processen for at vinde leverandør kontrakter.
Norge har en stor, men moden og stærkt konkurrencepræget upstream olie- og gassektor, hvor mange af de vigtigste nationale og
internationale operatører og leverandører er placeret. Downstream
markedet er lille, åben for konkurrence og dereguleret. Levering til
upstream aktiviteter, der er forbundet med eksploration (udforskning) og udvinding af olie og gas, repræsenterer klart det største potentiale i den norske olie- og gasindustri. Men debatter om at udvikle
nye og fjerntliggende områder i nord kan også medføre en lukrativ
foretning inden for raffinering og distribution i de kommende år.
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
15
Olieproduktion har været den dominerende produktion på den norske kontinentalsokkel siden starten i begyndelsen af 1970erne. I de
seneste år har produktion af naturgas overtaget en stigende del af
den samlede produktion i Norge, og skøn for den fremtidige produktion forudsiger, at gas kan blive det vigtigste produkt hentet fra
den norske undergrund. Troen på naturgas i Norge betyder, at flere
af de største internationale olie- og gasproducerende virksomheder
har langsigtede investeringsplaner for den norske kontinentalsokkel for at blive befriet fra deres afhængighed af andre mere usikre
markeder.
Den norske stats intervention i olie- og gasindustrien kan ses som
både styrke og svaghed. Selvom meget er påvirket af den norske
stat og regeringens beslutninger vedrørende udforskningslicenser,
har den norske olie- og gasindustri altid været kendt som en retfærdig og juridisk forsvarlig industri, der ikke har bøjet sig for korruption
og andre former for svindel. Den sikkerhed giver et godt grundlag for
den norske olie- og gasindustri at komme til tops og forblive en af de
mest attraktive oliebrancher i verden.
Ekspertudtalelser om, hvornår de eksisterende olie- og gas ressourcer vil løbe tør, er forskellige, og skøn ligger i intervallet fra 8 til 40
år. Mulighederne er store, hvis industrien formår at udvikle mere effektive metoder til at udvinde olie i forhold til i dag. Også de nordlige
regioner omkring områder som Lofoten og det arktiske hav repræsenterer store, men stadig usikre muligheder for den norske olie- og
gasindustri, hvor det også er en stor udfordring at overbevise de
lokale indbyggere og politikere, at miljøet ikke vil blive påvirket.
16
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
Grønland
Råstofdirektoratet har beskrevet en række arbejdsopgaver, serviceydelser mv. som vil udgøre de forventelige erhvervsmæssige muligheder for virksomheder i forbindelse med olie- og gasaktiviteter og
minedrift i Grønland. Listerne skal ikke opfattes som udtømmende,
men indikerer, hvor der er muligheder for at opnå kontrakter.
Grønland
Det er karakteristisk for alle påtænkte råstofprojekter, at de vil kræve
deres egen infrastruktur i form af lokale vejanlæg, udskibningsfaciliteter, bygninger til administration, vedligehold og inkvartering af
medarbejdere og i nogle tilfælde en airstrip. I opbygningsfasen vil
efterspørgslen således være meget bredere end traditionel offshoreteknologi, det giver mulighed for mange typer leverandører. På enkelte projekter er det imidlertid uafklaret, i hvilket omfang det er det
grønlandske hjemmestyre eller for eksempel olieselskabet, som skal
være ansvarlig for anlæggelsen af infrastruktur.
Hjemmestyret har desuden besluttet, at licenshavere skal ansætte
arbejdskraft fra Grønland eller Danmark, såfremt kvalificeret arbejdskraft er til rådighed. Licenshaver skal som udgangspunkt benytte sig
af grønlandske virksomheder, med mindre disse ikke er teknisk eller
økonomisk konkurrencedygtige.
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
17
Råstofdirektoratet vurderer, at erhvervsmulighederne for blandt andet grønlandske virksomheder primært vil være i opgaver vedrørende serviceydelser til de internationale olie- og gasselskaber. Råstofdirektoratet har selv defineret en række erhvervspotentialer, som vedrører de definerede
faser i olie- og gasaktiviteterne: efterforsknings-, udbygnings/konstruktions-, produktions- og afviklingsfasen i tabellerne nedenfor.
Aktiviteter i efterforskningsfasen (min. 10 år)
Transport
Aktiviteter i udbydningsfasen (3-5 år)
Transport
►
Helikopterservice
►
Transport af mandskab og materiel
►
Flytransport af mandskab og materiel
►
Charter af både
►
Charter af både
►
Kran- og truckarbejde
Anlæg
►
Anlæg
►
Montering af produktionsudstyr
►
Opførsel af indkvarteringsmuligheder
Opførsel af lejre
Serviceydelser
Serviceydelser
►
Mandskabsservice
►
Mandskabsservice
►
Catering
►
Catering
►
Havneydelser
►
Havneterminalopgaver
►
Varehandel
►
Uddannelse af personale
►
Etablering af telekommunikation
►
Hotelvirksomhed
►
Etablering af telekommunikation
►
Affaldshåndtering
►
Vandforsyning
Sikkerhed
►
Hydrografisk og meteorologisk dataservice
►
Beredskabstjeneste
Administration
Sikkerhed
►
Hydrografisk og meteorologisk dataservice
►
Beredskabstjeneste
►
Kontrol af sikkerhed, sundhed, miljø og kvalitet af produk-
tionsfaciliteter
Administration
►
Myndighedsbehandling
►
Miljørådgivning
►
Myndighedsbehandling
►
Fiskerilicenskontrol
►
Miljørådgivning
►
Kommunikationsvirksomhed
►
Fiskerilicenskontrol
►
Advokatvirksomhed
►
Revisionsvirksomhed
18
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
Aktiviteter i produktionsfasen (30-50 år)
Transport
Administration
►
Myndighedsbehandling
►
Miljørådgivning
►
Sø-og lufttransport til og fra produktionsfacilitet
►
Fiskerilicenskontrol
►
Charter af både
►
Kommunikationsvirksomhed
►
Advokatvirksomhed
►
Revisionsvirksomhed
Anlæg
►
Montering af produktionsudstyr
►
Vedligeholdelse af elektriske installationer
►
Måling af produktionsfacilitet
►
Vedligeholdelse af hovedgenerator og tubine
►
X-mas Tree service (ventilenhed placeret på brøntop
►
Single anker loading
►
Kranservice
►
Vedligeholdelse af ventiler, kompressorer og pumper
Serviceydelser
Aktiviteter i afhandlingsfasen (3-5 år)
Transport
►
Sø-og lufttransport til og fra produktionsfacilitet
►
Charter af både
Anlæg
►
Ingen
►
Catering
►
Havneservice
►
Uddannelse af medarbejder
►
Forsyning af produktionsfaciliteter
►
Catering
►
Drift af nærlager
►
Havneydelser
►
Varehandel
►
Varehandel
►
Vask og forsyning af arbejdstøj
►
Vagt- og adgangsforhold
►
Kemikalieforsyning
►
Gasforsyning
►
Etablering af telekommunikation
Sikkerhed
►
Hydrografisk og meteorologisk dataservice
►
Beredskabstjeneste
►
Kontrol af sikkerhed, sundhed, miljø og kvalitet af produk-
tionsfaciliteter
►
Sikkerhedstræning
►
Offshore sygeplejeservice
►
Vedligeholdelse af redningsflåde
Serviceydelser
Sikkerhed
►
Beredskabstjeneste
►
Kontrol af sikkerhed, sundhed, miljø og kvalitet af produk-
tionsfaciliteter
►
Sikkerhedstræning
Administration
►
Myndighedsbehandling
►
Miljørådgivning
►
Kommunikationsvirksomhed
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
19
Adgangen til markedet
Den grønlandske mineral- og kulbrintelovgivning fastslår, at grønlandske virksomheder har en vis fortrinsret til opgaver i relation til råstofudvinding, for så vidt de er konkurrencedygtige på pris og kvalitet.
Der er derfor en vis “forhåndsbarriere” for adgangen til dette marked.
Det vurderes dog, at der vil være mange opgaver, som ikke kan løses
af grønlandske virksomheder, eller hvor grønlandske virksomheder
vil søge samarbejdspartnere for at kunne byde på opgaver.
I både opbygnings- og driftsfaser på forskellige projekter, vil der
efterspørges en række underleverancer, som kan være specialiserede, og hvor der vil være behov for ydelser, som ikke kan leveres fra
Grønland - for eksempel vedrørende udstyrsleverancer, vedligehold,
forskellige miljøydelser mv. På disse områder vil der være potentiale
for danske virksomheder.
Operatørerne på både mineral-, olie- og gasområdet vil fokusere på
leveringssikkerhed og driftssikkerhed og vil derfor normalt ikke være
motiverede for at skifte leverandør.
Især på infrastrukturløsninger, byggeri, lettere service (catering, forsyning m.v.) til råstofområdet kan der på længere sigt komme flere
lokale udbydere, som opbygger den efterspurgte kompetence og
kapacitet.
Der er fortsat usikkerhed om markedets størrelse og dermed om,
hvor mange projekter, der reelt kommer i drift. Leverandørerne må
derfor leve med usikkerhed om deres forretningsgrundlag, hvilket er
en udfordring og kan fordyre processen med at komme ind og ud af
markedet.
Substituerende eller komplementerende ydelser
Købernes markedsmagt
Der er få eller ingen reelle muligheder for at erstatte behovet for leverancer til råstofområdet med andre løsninger. I det omfang, der sker
en fortsat udvikling af råstofsektoren, vil der også være efterspørgsel
efter leverandører til sektoren. Denne situation forventes ikke at ændre sig på længere sigt.
Leverandørernes markedsmagt
På en række nicheområder (udstyr, lokal transport mv.) er der få og
relativt velkendte aktører, og de nuværende leverandører på disse
markeder behøver normalt ikke at frygte helt nye aktører.
20
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
Operatører på råstofområdet vil indledningsvist være bundet af, at
lokale leverandører har en fortrinsret.
I det omfang grønlandske leverandører ikke kommer i betragtning,
vil markedet være mere åbent. På mineralområdet er mange projekter beliggende så afsides, at der reelt ikke er geografiske fordele
for lokale entreprenører. Det gælder særligt i opbygningsfasen, hvor
meget materiel vil skulle sejles til mineområdet. Her vil leverancer fra
store dele af Europa og Nordamerika kunne komme ind i billedet.
I en driftsfase vil køberens markedsmagt begrænses af, at der på
nuværende tidspunkt er få leverandører at vælge imellem.
Konklusion på markedsanalysen
På længere sigt vil et stigende antal opgaver på råstofområdet tiltrække flere leverandører og dermed øge muligheden for, at operatørerne kan skifte leverandører - det gælder både for projekter i
etableringsfasen og i driftsfasen.
Rivalisering om markedet
Markedet for leverancer til råstofsektoren er pt. lille, men forventes
at vokse. Det nuværende marked er derfor præget af få aktører og
dermed begrænset konkurrence.
Der er store krav til leverandørerne om kapacitet og sikre logistikløsninger for at kunne agere på markedet. For de virksomheder, som
har kapacitet, må det på nuværende tidspunkt vurderes, at der er
begrænset rivalisering om markedet.
Der er et stort potentiale for råstofudvinding i Grønland, men det er
fortsat usikkert hvor mange projekter, der bliver realiseret og på hvilke
tidspunkter. Usikkerheden kan betyde, at konkurrenter vil tøve med
at etablere sig på det grønlandske marked, fordi etableringsomkostningerne vurderes som høje.
På nuværende tidspunkt må markedet for leverancer til råstofsektoren fortsat regnes som usikkert.
En række af de potentielle mineprojekter vil størrelsesmæssigt ligne
den nuværende mineaktivitet, men hvis der inden for eksempel en
femårig tidshorisont sker en realisering af både en række planlagte
mineprojekter og etablering af yderligere olie- eller gasaktiviteter, vil
der være tale om en voldsom forøgelse af markedet. En sådan udvikling vil betyde et kraftigt kapacitetspres på både kvalificeret arbejdskraft og leverandørsiden til sektoren og vil derfor åbne for et meget
stort marked.
For projekter i opbygningsfasen vil markedet især være inden for
anlæggelse af veje, bygninger, havnefaciliteter, transportopgaver levering og servicering af entreprenørudstyr m.v. I en driftsfase vil de
mest oplagte markedsmuligheder være inden for transport, vedligeholdelse/servicering af materiel, interne serviceopgaver, sikkerhedsog kvalitetssikring, generelle entreprenøropgaver m.v.
Kilde: COWI rapport, juni 2009
Ved kraftig øget aktivitet på råstofområdet, kan det forventes, at et
stigende antal lokale aktører bliver aktive og får kapacitet til at levere
til markedet, men ved åbning af flere store mineprojekter og evt.
Alcoa-projektet, vil det største problem være manglende kapacitet til
at etablere og servicere sektoren.
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
21
SWOT analyse - Grønland
Styrker
► Nogle af verdens største olieselskaber har allerede fået tildelt licenser til undersøgelsesboringer. I den forbindelse ventes 18 milliarder kroner at blive investeret inden for en tiårig periode
► Grønlandske virksomheder er vant til at arbejde sammen med danske virksomheder
► Danskere har generelt godt kendskab til grønlandske
forhold og konkurrencemæssige fortrin i forhold til andre
virksomheder
► Et marked i vækst giver mulighed for nye leverandører
► Det grønlandske samfund er moderne med et stabilt
politisk system og velfungerende transport og
kommunikations infrastruktur
Svagheder
► Manglende infrastruktur egnet for olie- og gasaktiviteter vanskeligt at servicere offshore installationer
► For danske virksomheder er der lang transport.
Det øger CO2 udledningen
► Isforekomster, perioder med lange mørkeperioder
samt generelt barsk klima
► Leveomkostninger er høje i forhold til andre områder
med olie- og gas offshore aktiviteter
► Manglende CO2 kvoter – operatører må købe kvoter
på det globale marked for CO2 kvoter
► Højt omkostningsniveau – gør det mere vanskeligt
at opnå profitable projekter
► Små lokalsamfund i fjerne egne med lang transporttid
til nærmeste by
► Meget begrænset arbejdsstyrke – 28.243 personer
pr. januar 2009
Muligheder
Trusler
► Gode projektmuligheder inden for danske offshorevirksom
heders kernekompetencer, eksempelvis forsynings- og
serviceskibe, transport af olie og gas samt boreteknologi
► Prisudviklingen. Stigende og faldende oliepriser kan have
enorm indflydelse på olieselskaberne nuværende og
fremtidige investeringsplaner
► Eksport af specialviden til Grønland
► Miljømæssige temaer, globalt pres på at reducere CO2
udledning
► Investeringer i teknologi til opsamling og lagring af CO2 for at
imødekomme fremtidens øgede fokus på miljømæssige
faktorer – dansk ekspertise
► Behov for teknisk og akademisk ekspertise samt
specialudstyr
► Nye krav til miljø- og produktionsmæssige
teknologier tilpasset forholdene på Grønland
►
I forbindelse med kommende, positive prøveboringer bliver der et enormt behov for produktionsfaciliteter og infrastruktur. Behov for den danske arbejdsstyrke af specialuddannede
samt ekspertise. Det er mest sandsynligt, at produktion
installationer bliver konstrueret uden for Grønland og siden bugseret frem til produktionsstedet
► Hvad gør Grønlands hjemmestyre for at tiltrække
virksomheder. Mulighed for favorable skatteforhold?
► Investeringer i gasledninger til Canada eller transport af LNG. Største vækst i efterspørgslen efter gas de seneste år
(afhænger af mængden af udvundet olie og gas)
► Behov for udenlandsk arbejdsstyrke på grund af
Grønlands beskedne arbejdsstyrke
22
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
► Vil Grønland blive fritaget for at leve op til nye klimaaftaler?
► Miljøorganisationer – grønlandske farvande er hjemsted
for mange sjældne dyrearter
► Mulighed for konflikt mellem lokale fiskere/jægere og
olieselskaberne
► Bliver oliefelterne kommercielt bæredygtige? Olie og gas, tung olie eller let olie
Brasilien
Brasilien
Den brasilianske olie- og gassektor har udviklet sig voldsomt siden
1997, hvor det statslige olieselskab Petrobras mistede sit monopol.
Over de efterfølgende 12 år har de fleste store multinationale olieselskaber engageret sig i Brasilien, som blev nettoeksportør af olie i
slutningen af 2007.
I 2007 opdagede Petrobras det første store præ-salt oliefelt, Tupi feltet, med anslået 5-8 milliarder tønder olieækvivalenter. Opdagelsen
kan potentielt gøre Brasilien den 5. største olienation i verden, med et
skøn på op til 114 milliarder tønder oliereserver.
31. august 2009 sendte den brasilianske regering et nyt regulerende
forslag til senatet, som - hvis det bliver vedtaget - vil ændre hele markedets struktur i præ-salt området. Hvor nationale og internationale
olieselskaber hidtil har budt på koncessionsrunder vi de fremover
vinde retten til at drive det specifikke område, og eje den olie, de
finder til gengæld for at betale afgifter til den lokale stat.
det nuværende koncessionsrundesystemet. En væsentlig faktor for
de nye love er oprettelsen af et nyt statsligt olieselskab, Petrosal, som
har til formål at forvalte præ-salt reserverne.
Det nye regulativ vil indføre fire nye lovgivninger, som - hvis det bliver
vedtaget - vil indføre en “fælles produktionsordning”, der erstatter
Forventningerne til den brasilianske olie- og gassektor er meget optimistiske, ikke mindst på grund af Petrobras investeringsplan på
Markedsforventninger
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
23
USD 200 - 220 milliarder i perioden 2010-2014, blandt andet 63
skibe og platforme.
Det forventede brasilianske output for 2009 er 2,51 mio. boe/d op fra
2,18 millioner i 2008. Med en forventet 7,5% årlig stigning i produktionen, vil Petrobras producere 5,18 mio. boe/d i 2020 i gennemsnit.
Muligheder for danske leverandører
Da det ultradybe Tupi felt i præ-salt området har forårsaget de største
investeringsplaner i landets historie, har det også gjort Brasilien til et
af de mest interessante og lovende markeder for den danske offshore industri. Markiedet er ganske enkelt så stort, at Brasilien får stor
behov for at benytte udenlandske virksomheder for at kunne udnytte
oliereserverne. Som en måde at illustrere de muligheder og trusler for
danske leverandører og underleverandører som ønsker at komme
ind på det brasilianske marked, har det danske generalkonsulat i Sao
Paulo, udarbejdet en simpel SWOT-analyse:
SWOT analyse - Brasilien
Styrker
Svagheder
►
Enorme reserver (høj R/P - ratio)
►
►
Førende O & G udvikling i global sammenhæng
•
Red Tape infrastruktur
►
Ingen restriktioner på erhvervsetablering
•
Ineffektiv regering
•
Komplekse skatteforhold
•
Langsom toldbehandling
►
Bureaukrati:
Geografisk afstand fra DK
Muligheder
Trusler
►
Valutaudvikling
►
Offentlig adgangsbarriere
►
Repetro told regime
►
Monopol virksomhedskultur
►
EKF låneordning
►
Høje toldsatser
►
Betydelige lave renter
►
Korruption
►
Behov for veluddannet arbejdsstyrke
►
Kultur og sprogforskel
►
Lokal agent
►
Juridiske rammer og krav
►
Dansk konsulat serviceydelser
►
CADFOR
►
Petrobas leverandør liste
►
Infrastruktur i udvikling
►
Udvindingsindustrien i vækst
►
Enorme investeringer i brasilianske skibsværfter
►
Petrobas miljøpolitik
24
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
”Tænk globalt – handl lokalt”
Interview mellem Peter Efland, Vicekonsul i Sao Paulo, og Niels Husted, administrerende direktør hos danske Rocktec, der er leverandør
til den brasilianske offshore olie- og gasindustri.
Hvilke barrierer ser du som de mest betydningsfulde for danske virksomheder med interesse i at etablere aktiviteter i
Brasilien?
“Det afhænger i høj grad af, hvilke typer produkter eller serviceydelser, man som virksomhed udbyder. Vores erfaring er, at det er meget
vanskeligt at komme i gang. Det tog nogle år at få udpeget nøglepersoner og beslutningstagere og præsentere dem for vores løsninger.
I vores tilfælde havde vi den fordel at tilbyde unikke løsninger, som lokale leverandører ikke kunne matche. Så i vores tilfælde var det
mere et spørgsmål om at skabe opmærksom om vores virksomhed og at etablere netværk med de konstruktører og skibsarkitekter, der
designer skibe og platforme”, fortæller Niels Husted, Rocktec”.
”Vi lykkedes med vores forehavende fra det øjeblik, skibsarkitekterne – som er underleverandører til Petrobras eller til et lokalt skibsværft
- begyndte at indarbejde Rockwool i deres register over udbydere af isolation. Når først du når dertil, er du langt, og det vil være vanskeligt
for konkurrenterne at tilbyde andre løsninger, idet det vil kræve, at allerede definerede specifikationer skal ændres.
Samtidig er det vigtigt for os at have ører og øjne åbne på værfterne. Her er kodeordet ”personlig kontakt”. Vi har en lokal person i Rio
med opgaven at fokusere på at netværke med værfterne”.
Hvad er Rocktecs erfaring med Petrobars forhandlerliste?
”I første omgang troede vi, det var nødvendigt med en CRCC-godkendelse, så vi brugte tid og kræfter på at få en – hvilket er en langtrukken proces med et utal af dokumenter og indviklede procedurer. Endeligt, efter mere end et år, fik vi vores CRCC-godkendelse, men vi
fandt siden ud af, at ingen nogen sinde spurgte efter den”.
”Vi forsynede flere af Petrobras platforme uden at skulle fremvise godkendelsen. Oprindeligt havde vi brug for yderligere 3-4 forskellige
dokumenter, som skulle fornys hvert år, og Petrobras indviklede regler foreskrev, at vores direktør hver gang skulle underskrive dokumenterne, desuden skulle dokumenterne bekræftes af en notar i Danmark. Det betød i realiteten, at en af virksomhedens topfolk hvert
år skulle til notaren og have bekræftet disse dokumenter”.
”Det var ikke nogen populær proces, så vi besluttede ikke at forny dokumenterne - og ingen har nogensinde bedt om at se
dokumenterne. Det er muligt, at situationen afhænger af, hvilke produkter, virksomheden udbyder, men vores erfaring er, at den slags
tilladelser er overvurderede og unødvendige”.
Har du et godt råd til danske virksomheder med interesse i at levere til den brasilianske offshore olie- og gassektor?
”Hvis du ikke i forvejen har et godt netværk af kontakter, gælder det om at alliere sig med en lokalkendt agent, som kan åbne nogle døre
for virksomheden. Eksempelvis kan man prøve at udpege en lokal agent eller en lokal virksomhed til at vise dig rundt og introducere dig
til industrien.
Hvis virksomhedens produkter er relevante, vil det ikke være vanskeligt at skabe kontakt til eksempelvis konstruktionsvirksomheder”.
”På det økonomiske område er det værd at bemærke, at import direkte til skibsværftet ikke er pålagt afgifter. Det opfattes muligvis som
konkurrenceforvridning, men for os er det fint nok. Vi oplever, der er et ønske om lokal repræsentation, og nogle gange er det nødvendigt
at fakturere gennem Rocktec for at give ordren et lokalt indtryk”.
”Den eneste kontakt til Petrobras, vi hidtil har haft, er til CENPES, som arbejder med design og specifikationer i projekterne. Med selve
Petrobras har vi stort set ikke haft direkte kontakt – det er lidt som at forsøge at sømme en budding fast til væggen - som en politiker på
et tidspunkt formulerede det”.
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Angola
Råolie har været kommercielt udnyttet i Angola, siden de første
onshore forekomster blev opdaget i 1955. Den angolanske olieindustri er derfor 10 år ældre end den danske. Sektoren er vokset hurtigt
siden da - især efter 1980 fremmet af den vellykkede tiltrækning af
store udenlandske investeringer og teknologisk ekspertise fra de
store internationale olieselskaber. Produktionen forventes at komme
mere og mere fra dybtvands offshore felter, med højere produktionsomkostninger og mere udfordrende teknologiske krav, eftersom
fladere og mere udnyttede områder tættere på kysten gradvist
aftager i udbytte.
Angolas olieindustri synes at være en attraktiv investeringsmulighed,
der tilbyder udenlandske selskaber gunstig geologi, lave driftsomkostninger, og konstruktiv fremgangsmåde for virksomhederne fra
den angolanske regering.
Påviste oliereserver i Angola er tredoblet i de sidste år og omkring
90% af Angolas regeringsindtægter kommer fra salg af olie. De
fleste af reserverne er beliggende i Angolas offshoreblokke. Angolas
råolieproduktion er mere end firedoblet i løbet af de seneste to årtier
og ligger nu omkring to millioner tønder pr. dag. Angola udgør over
16% af den forventede vækst i globale mængder fra 2005 til 2010.
Angolas nationale olieselskab, Sociedade Nacional de Combustíveis
de Angola (Sonangol), blev oprettet i 1976 og blev eneforhandler for
efterforskning og produktion i 1978. Sonangol arbejder med udenlandske virksomheder, både gennem joint ventures og ”production
share agreements”, med finansiering af sin andel af produktionen
ved hjælp af oliestøttede aftaler.
De førende udenlandske olieselskaber, der opererer i Angola er
ChevronTexaco, og Exxon Mobil, franske Total, britiske BP, UK/
hollandske Shell, og Italiens Agip/Eni Oil Company. Det mest aktive udenlandske olieselskab i Angola er ChevronTexaco (60% af
den nuværende produktion) og Total (36%). Maersk Oil Angola og
partnere har i 2006 indgået ”Production sharing agreements” med
SONANGOL, hvor Mærsk Olie og Gas er den udpegede operatør og
ejer 50% af arbejdsinteresserne.
Fina Petroleos de Angola raffinaderiet i Luanda, et joint venture mellem Sonangol, Total og private investorer, råder over kapacitet for
rensning af 39.000 tønder råolie pr. dag. Raffinaderiet producerer
næsten alt af Angolas interne efterspørgsel af benzin, petroleum og
flybrændstof, samt et lille mængde af produkter til eksport. Angola
er ved at udvikle en ny 200.000 tønder/d raffinaderi i kystbyen Lobito
der forventes at begynde operation nu i år (2010).
CIA faktabogen viser at Angola råder over gasreserver på 269,8 billion kubikmeter pr. 01/01/2009. Hovedparten af naturgas, der er
produceret i Angola, er ”flared gas”, og resten injiceres på ny til olieudvinding eller brugt i produktionen af flydende gas.
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Angola
Angolas olie sektor er en vigtig drivkraft for landets økonomiske vækst
og den politiske stabilitet. Offshoreområdet oplevede ikke mange
afbrydelser i hele borgerkrigsperioden og tiltrak store udenlandske
investeringer. Hele den angolanske olieindustri er med meget få undtagelser drevet af udenlandske selskaber. Mangel på lokale tjenesteydelser skaber nogle særlige udfordringer til olieindustrien. Disse
udfordringer manifesterer sig som huller i den industrielle service, der
er til rådighed i Angola, som på den anden side kan ses som muligheder for udenlandske aktører at komme ind på markedet.
I denne forbindelse er de fem vigtigste muligheder blevet udvalgt
som de største potentialer:
høje priser. Konsekvensen er, at mange af virksomhederne inden for olieindustrien sender udstyr og maskiner ud af landet for
ordentlig reparation.
• Der er potentialer på området for elektrisk udstyr og elektronik
for virksomheder, der er eksperter i proceskontrolsystemer,
instrumentering, industrielt telenet og elektriske installationer,
der arbejder med nedlukninger af enheder, modernisering af
informations- og proceskontrol systemer, kontrolrum ergonomi
og industriel arkitektur, industrielle analysatorer eller automatisering af olie og gas transportnet, osv.
• I forhold til hydraulik, pneumatik, pumper og tilbehør er situationen tilsvarende til det ovennævnte i relation til elektrisk udstyr
og elektronik, hvor alle produkter importeres til Angola.
• HSSE forordninger i Angola er strenge og svarer angiveligt til
Nordsøen. Angolanske Miljøservices (Essa) er den vigtigste institution, der fokuserer på faglig uddannelse, der specifikt vedrører arbejdssikkerhed i olieindustrien. Essa er en af de Sonangol datterselskaber og leverer de fleste af de grundlæggende
uddannelser. De vigtigste muligheder for intervention er den
praktiske del af uddannelse og uddannelse af undervisere.
Udenlandske investeringer anses for afgørende for Angolas genopbygningsproces, og fremme af udenlandske investeringer er en vigtig
prioritet for den angolanske regering. De lovgivningsmæssige rammer for den private sektor er blevet forbedret i de seneste par år, samt
fremmet og støttet af det lokale erhvervsliv.
• Fabrikation og konstruktion er det største område efterspurgt
af olieindustrien, der opererer i Angola. Det er en sektor, hvor
udenlandske investeringer har store potentialer. De fleste variationer af fabrikation kræver højt specialiserede og tekniske
færdigheder, der i øjeblikket ikke er til stede i Angola.
Dette skaber en mulighed.
En række nyetablerede uafhængige angolanske virksomheder er på
udkig efter joint-venture partnere med ekspertise. Derudover inviterer
Sonangol udenlandske virksomheder til at deltage i de hastige voksende olierelaterede aktiviteter, forudsat at de opfylder krav om at involvere angolanere i disse aktiviteter. Disse krav er beskrevet mere
detaljeret i publikationen “Doing Business in Angola”.
• Der er en betydelig efterspørgsel efter forebyggende vedligeholdelse inden for angolansk olieindustri, men nuværende
udbud er præget af begrænset kapacitet, konkurrence og
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SWOT analyse - Angola
Styrker
Svagheder
►
Ekstrem vækst i påviste oliereserver
►
Højere brønd udviklingsomkostninger
►
Forventet stor vækst i produktion i de nye offshore-blokke
►
Et fremspirende marked, gunstig for nye aktører
►
Tekniske vanskeligheder for arbejde i dybt og ultradybt
vand
►
Skatteregimet er forholdsvis attraktivt sammenlignet med andre afrikanske olieproduktionslande
►
Mangel på infrastruktur
►
Dyr business start-up og høje leveomkostninger
►
MOG har allerede investeret betydeligt i landet
►
Logistiske udfordringer
Muligheder
Trusler
►
Gode projektmuligheder inden for centrale danske
olieindustrikompetencer
►
Politiske institutioner kan være ustabile og ikke “testede”
►
►
Bureaukrati og korruption er stadig en udfordring
Eksport af ”knowhow” til den hurtige udvikling i landet
►
►
Dominans af Sonangol og dets datterselskaber
Operativ platform for adgang til nabolandene samt muligvis Brasilien pga. sprog og historiske relationer
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Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
Nigeria
Nigerias eksport af olie og naturgas har gjort det muligt for landet at
levere varehandel og betalingsbalanceoverskud i de seneste år, og
olie- gassektoren er dermed et væsentligt bidrag til kampen mod
fattigdom i landet. 80% af Nigerias energiindtægter betales til regeringen, 16% dækker driftsomkostninger, og de resterende 4% går til
investorerne.
Europæiske investeringer er stigende, og virksomheder, der er interesseret i langsigtede investeringer og joint ventures, er i stand til at
finde potentiale i det store, nationale marked. Det er dog væsentligt
at forberede sig godt ved at lære om lokale forhold, kultur og gældende forretningspraksis. Desuden er det afgørende at etablere en
lokal tilstedeværelse samt vælge samarbejdspartnere omhyggeligt.
Den største trussel mod Nigeria ligger i dets skrøbelige, politiske og
økonomiske situation. Mange politiske intriger tager afsæt i Nigerias
føderale politik, ligesom landets stabilitet udfordres af konflikter mellem folkeslag – som eksempelvis den aktuelle strid med de marginaliserede minoriteter, der bor i Niger River Delta.
De første olieforekomster blev opdaget i Nigeria i 1956 på Oloibiri i
Niger Delta området efter et halvt århundredes udforskning. Opdagelsen blev gjort ved Shell-BP, der på det tidspunkt var eneforhandler. Af de 606 oliefelter i Niger Delta området er 355 onshore, mens
de resterende 251 er offshore. Af disse er 193 i øjeblikket operationelle, mens 23 er blevet lukket eller opgivet som følge af dårlige
perspektiver eller udtørring af brøndene. Uden for Niger Delta er i alt
28 sonderende olieboringer blevet udført - der alle viser perspektiver
i forskellig grad.
Nigeria er verdens ottende største eksportør af råolie og producerede omkring 2,4 millioner tønder pr. dag i 2009, men pga. urolighederne er der forventet nogen grad af reduceret produktion i 2010. I
1977 oprettede Nigeria det statslige National Petroleum Corporation
Nigeria
(NNPC). På det tidspunkt var det NNPC’s primære funktioner at føre
tilsyn med regulering af Nigerias olieindustri, med sekundært ansvar
for ”upstream” og efterfølgende udvikling.
CIA anslår, at Nigeria havde anslået 5.215 trillion m3 af påviste naturgasreserver i januar 2009, som gør Nigeria til indehaveren af en
af de største naturgasreserver i verden. En betydelig del af Nigerias
naturgas er udviklet til LNG. Nigerias mest ambitiøse naturgasprojekt
er Nigeria Liquefied Natural Gas (NLNG) faciliteterne på Bonny Island.
Partnere, herunder NNPC, Shell, Total og Agip afsluttede første fase
af anlægget i september 1999. der hidtil investeret 3,8 milliard dollar
i anlægget.
Siden opdagelsen af olie i Nigeria i 1956 har regeringen gennem sine
organer som nigerianske National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC)
samt Ministeriet for olieressourcer og Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA), iværksat en række politikker, aftaler og regler
for kontrol og tilsyn med olieindustrien for den samlede økonomiske
udvikling af landet.
Nigeria er meget afhængig af råolie til sin valutaindtjening. The National Energy Policy, godkendt af Energi Kommissionen i Nigeria i 2003,
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Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
29
erklærer at nationen skal fremme lokale og udenlandske virksomheder til fuld deltagelse i både opstrøms og nedstrøms aktiviteter i
olieindustrien.
Investeringsmuligheder findes i etablering af produktionsanlæg til
produktion af de fleste inputenheder til oliefeltsoperationer, f.eks. olie
samt brøndboringer, ler, kemikalier og materialer, rør bolte og møtrikker, skruer, pakninger, ventiler og andre tilbehør, pander og plast,
herunder andre komponenter.
Muligheder findes også for entreprenørvirksomheder og aktører der
råder over tekniske anlæg og som er villige til at etablere sig lokalt for
at styrke nigerianske deltagelse i operationer, aktiviteter og vækst
i olie- og gasindustrien. Nigeria har indført olie og gas politik med
følgende mål:
• Forøget oliereservekravsgrundlag og produktivitet gennem
energisk efterforskning og sikring af en fornuftig udnyttelse af
ressourcerne.
• Privatsektors deltagelse i alle facetter af branchen gennem attraktive finanspolitiske foranstaltninger. Regeringen er i seriøse
overvejelser om at sælge sine aktier i joint venture-drift.
• Erhvervelse af rimelig markedsandele for råolie og dens derivater samt selvforsyning af raffinering.
• Udvide udnyttelsen af naturgas.
En ikke-nigeriansk virksomhed kan investere og deltage i driften af
en virksomhed i Nigeria. Men en udenlandsk virksomhed, der ønsker
at etablere forretninger i Nigeria, bør tage alle nødvendige skridt til at
opnå lokalt indhold af den nigerianske filial eller datterselskab som
en særskilt enhed i Nigeria til dette formål. Indtil det er indarbejdet,
kan den udenlandske virksomhed ikke drive forretning i Nigeria eller
udøve enhver af de beføjelser, af en registreret virksomhed.
Hele rapporten fra Nigeria, der findes på www.offshorecenter.dk, påpeger detaljeret oversigt over mulighederne inden opstrøms området.
Den nigerianske olie- og gassektor giver store muligheder for udenlandske investorer med knowhow og teknisk kapacitet til at bidrage
med merværdi i fælles ventures. Men Nigeria er et vanskeligt marked
at operere i, og grundig forberedelse og undersøgelse er nøglen til
succes sammen med passende risiko forvaltning og afhjælpning.
En af de allervigtigste faktorer for at sikre en vellykket entré på det
Nigerianske olie- og gasmarked er at danne et joint venture sammen
med det rette lokale firma. Mange nigerianske forretningsaktiviteter
efterspørger dansk knowhow og teknologi, og søger at danne joint
ventures.
Styrker
Svagheder
►
Veletableret olie og gas industri siden 1956
►
Mangel på infrastruktur
►
Business klima gunstigt for nye entreer
►
Nødvendighed at bruge lokal partner
►
Statslig interesse for internationale aktører
►
Logistiske udfordringer
►
Ingen restriktioner for hjemsendelse af overskud
►
Dyr business opstart og høje leveomkostninger
Muligheder
Trusler
►
Bred vifte af nye projektmuligheder for danske kompetencer i olie og gasindustrien
►
Politiske institutioner er skrøbelige og ustabile
►
►
Bureaukrati og korruption er stadig en stor udfordring
Eksport af viden til et udviklingsland
►
►
Sikkerhedsspørgsmål i Niger Delta området
Operativ platform til andre afrikanske markeder
30
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
Etablering af forretning i Nigeria
Eigil Jensen, ISC Consulting
Før man overvejer at gøre forretninger i Nigeria, skal man vurdere sit
engagement med hensyn til investeringshorisont, risikovurdering
og de specielle udfordringer, der vil være tilstede, når man ønsker
at starte et firma i et ustabilt og fjerntliggende land.
Der er mange nigerianske forretningsfolk, der ønsker at etablere
kontakt til udenlandske firmaer, for derved at opnå viden og erfaringer, som kan bidrage til at udvide deres forretninger. Ved at træne
personer i de nødvendige kvalifikationer får man en stabil og god
arbejdskraft.
Hvordan kan man forberede sit engagement til et godt samarbejde
mellem to så forskellige kulturer?
Herunder er givet nogle forslag i tilfældig rækkefølge, før man starter et bindende økonomisk samarbejde:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Forretningskonceptet - WIN/WIN
Tidshorisonten
Kulturelle forskelle
Arbejdsmoral
Risici
Korruption og bestikkelse
Samarbejdspartneren i Nigeria
Det er vigtigt, at den forretningside, man ønsker at starte med et
nigeriansk firma, kan tilføre det nigerianske firma viden og kompetence, som kan udvikle firmaet, og give et positivt afkast til de
involverede partnere. Ved at skabe en WIN/WIN situation for de
involverede partnere opnår man et tillidsforhold, der bliver den bærende kraft i udviklingen af forretningsideen.
I Nigeria er der vedtaget en lov vedr. - Local Content, som angiver
den lokale investeringsdel, og hvor stor en andel af den lokale arbejdskraft, der skal være beskæftiget. Loven blev revideret i 2006,
og jo større lokal ejerandel i firmaet, jo større forståelse vil man møde
fra myndighedernes side. Målet fra myndighedernes side er 45% i
2006 stigende til 70% i 2010.
Vil man etablere et godt samarbejde er det vigtigt at parterne er
åbne overfor hinanden og at de ikke tilbageholde forretningshemmeligheder. Ved at udnævne en lokal partner som daglig leder, får
man større gennemslagskraft over for de firmaer, man ønsker at
handle med.
Et niche marked er det letteste at starte, både med hensyn til konkurrence og succes, da man ikke skal overveje konkurrence fra
eksisterende firmaer. Det betyder dog ikke, at man skal afholde sig
fra forretninger på grund af konkurrence, idet markedet er så stort,
at der vil være plads til yderligere spillere.
Nigeria er det største olie producerende land I Afrika, myndighederne viser interesse for nye internationale spillere, og i de kommende år vil der blive brug for knowhow inden for olieindustrien og
dertil knyttede virksomheder.
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31
Tid er penge, men i Afrika gælder der en anden regel med hensyn til
forretningsudvikling. ”Skynd jer langsomt”, det er vigtigt for de afrikanske partnere at lære personerne bag virksomheder at kende og
på den måde danne sig et indtryk af det fremtidige samarbejde.
Der er eksempler på firmaer med kort investeringshorisont og stor
forventning til afkast, som har dikteret deres betingelser over for
deres lokale partner og på den måde har skabt en kortvarig og
dårlig forretning.
Samarbejdspartneren skal udvælges med omhu, idet der er mange
eksempler på tvivlrådige forretningsforbindelser også i Nigeria. En
omhyggelig undersøgelse af partnerens baggrund og erfaringer er
vigtig. Hvilke erfaringer har firmaet med de produkter, som I repræsenterer? Hvordan er firmaet omdømme generelt?
Efter disse indledende undersøgelser kan man nu begynde de
egentlige forhandlinger og udfærdige en aftale (Memorandum of
Understanding) mellem firmaerne, hvor man udveksler fortrolige informationer firmaerne imellem. Når man er færdige med at udveksle
oplysninger, og har fået detaljerne på plads omkring investering,
firmakonstruktion m.m. kan man udfærdige en kontrakt firmaerne
imellem.
Assistance til screening af den lokale partner kan opnås gennem Investeringsfonden for Udviklingslandene - IFU, der samtidig tilbyder
økonomisk engagement i firmaet, enten som lånekapital eller som
kortvarig indskyderkapital. Normalt kan finansieringen fra IFU ikke
overstige 30% af den totale investering, ved mindre virksomheder
og investeringsbeløb kan der opnås op til 50% medfinansiering fra
IFU.
En anden vigtig parameter er forståelse for den kultur man møder.
Afrikanere har ikke den samme stresstærskel som europæere, man
løber ikke efter klokken, og det kan være frustrerende, at deadlines
og mødetidspunkter ikke bliver overholdt.
Det lokale samfund vælger en Chief, som er ansvarlig for det lokale
samfund. Chiefen deltager i politiske møder, han tager vare på det
lokale samfunds problemer, sørger for at der bliver etableret vandforsyning, elektricitet m.m. Chiefen er det lokale samfunds repræsentant i det politiske arbejde. Ved etablering af et firma i et lokalt
samfund er det en god ide at kontakte Chiefen for at bede ham om
at hjælpe til med at promovere firmaet overfor myndighederne.
I Nigeria lever kristne og muslimmer side om side, dog ikke uden
problemer, og der har været mange uroligheder og sammenstød
specielt i den nordlige del af landet. Der er mange stammer i Nigeria, og specielt i sumpen i Niger deltaet har der været mange
uroligheder.
Det er derfor vigtigt at gøre sig klart, at det er et meget udsat land
med hensyn til sikkerhed, og man bør evaluere risikoen for firmaets
engagement i det område, man har udvalgt til forretningen.
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Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
Har man besluttet sig for at etablere forretning, er det en god ide
at have en repræsentant fra firmaet, som kan rapportere om vigtige nøgletal og budgetter samt være sparringspartner til det lokale
firma og den lokale direktør, for at hjælpe med at opfylde målsætningerne for investeringen. Især ved etableringen og opbygning af
firmaet er dette vigtigt. Det er dog vigtigt at understrege, at firmaets
repræsentant er en sparringspartner til den lokale direktør og at den
lokale direktør er lederen overfor de ansatte.
Lokale ansatte er meget vigtige i forretningen både med hensyn
til Nigeriansk lovgivning, men også for at skabe en god forståelse
og forbindelse til myndighederne. Man møder en positiv respons
fra myndighederne såfremt man kan vise at man kan ansætte og
opkvalificere lokal arbejdskraft.
Den politiske ustabile situation, de forskellige stammers rivalisering
og fattigdom blandt hovedparten af indbyggerne er de største udfordringer, man møder som udenlandsk firma og investorer i landet.
Muhammed krisen, fugle influenza, malaria og drikkevandet er andre eksempler.
Opsøg ikke lokale barer eller restauranter, vær så usynlig som muligt i det lokale samfund, da der er høj kriminalitet.
De fleste nigerianere lever for mindre end 1 USD om dagen, og man
møder mange tiggere og folk, som tilbyder forskellige services for
at tjene nogle penge.
Har man en forretning i Nigeria, må man fra tid til anden regne med
at skulle betale mindre beløb for ydelser, som kan fremme forretningsgangene. Mindre beløb op til 10 USD er, hvad man kan forvente at skulle betale til folk i forskellige administrative funktioner.
En anden sag er korruption. I mange større firmaer er nigerianske folk beskæftiget i den administrative del, hvor bestikkelse kan
fremme en sag. Den kan stærkt frarådes at benytte korruption som
middel til opnåelse af forretningsfordele, som er ulovligt både i Danmark og Nigeria. Den lokale partner kan i hvert tilfælde vurdere situationen.
Ved start af firma kan man evt. leje sig ind hos etablerede firmaer i Nigeria. Ved at leje faciliteter hos disse firmaer og dele kontor kan man
samtidig nyde godt at den ekspertise, som allerede er opnået.
Det er også vigtigt at networke med allerede etablerede firmaer for
at skabe sig viden om de markedsforhold man vil betjene. Det er
også en god ide at samarbejde med allerede etablerede firmaer
om produktpakker, således at man kan løfte større opgaver i samarbejde.
De ovenfor nævnte betragtninger kan give en fornuftig start på firmaets forretningside i et spændende land som Nigeria. Det er ikke
mere end 50 år siden, den første olie blev fundet i Nigeria, og i dag
er Nigeria den 11. største olieproducerende land i verden.
Mikroanalyse – “intern effektivitet”
En væsentlig del af forberedelserne på at engagere sig internationalt
skal ske internt i virksomheden. Virksomhedens ledelse skal gennemgå virksomhedens kompetencer til videreudvikling – også kaldet Intern effektivitet. Man kommer ingen veje kun med den gode
fornuft. Derfor er det vigtigt at analysere virksomhedens indre status
og finde de områder, der skal være forberedt til fremtidens vækst.
Denne model viser hovedområderne i virksomheden og er med til
at definere velfungrende områder uden behov for ændringer – og
hvor virksomhed har behov for en styrkelse for at være strategisk og
organisatorisk stærk nok til internationalt engagement.
Konkurrencefordele
Hvis man skal identificere konkurrencefordele, skal der refereres til
virksomhedens ressourcer og kapaciteter. Disse inkluderer alle de
finansielle, fysiske, HR og organisationsegenskaber, der kan bruges
til virksomhedens udvikling.
Disse ressourcer og kapaciteter visualiseres i nedenstående faktabokse:
HR/Menneskelige ressourcer
Her skal man være meget opmærksom på, at de medarbejdere, som
har med kommunikation til udlandet at gøre, har beskæftiget sig med
viden om kulturen i de lande, man vil eksportere til. Kulturel forståelse
er et af de væsentligste områder, man støder på i begynderfasen, når
der skal trædes ind på et nyt udlandsmarked. Den erfaring virksomheder der har historie med eksport, er en væsentlig ressource, der
sjældent er dokumenteret som egenskaber.
Organisatoriske ressourcer
Eftersom virksomheden vokser og modnes, efterlader den historie,
relationer og forhåbentligt tillid m.m. Disse egenskaber lægger
grundlaget for endvidere udvikling og gør den faktisk i stand til at påtage sig mere komplicerede opgaver, herunder vækst internationalt.
Fysiske ressourcer
De maskiner og faciliteter, virksomheden råder over, eller har adgang til, kontribuerer som ”non-human” egenskaber, der har været
udviklet og justeret til fremstilling af virksomhedens kernekompetencer.
Finansielle ressourcer
Uden penge kommer man ikke langt. Det er afgørende i denne branche at sikre en solid økonomi med en væsentlig egenkapital samt
adgang til yderligere finansiering indtil virksomheden opnår tilfredsstillende andele på nye markeder.
Menneskelige ressourcer
Fysiske ressourcer
►
Erfaring
►
Maskiner
►
Viden
►
Produktionsfaciliteter
►
Dømmekraft
►
Bygninger tilhørende driften
►
Risikovillighed
►
Individuel visdom
Organisatoriske ressourcer
Finansielle ressourcer
►
Historie
►
Soliditet
►
Relationer
►
Tillid
►
►
Aktiver
• Omsægningsaktiver
• anlægningsaktiver
Kultur
►
Rapporteringsstruktur
►
Ledelseskontrolsystemer
►
Passiver
• Fremmedkapital
• Egenkapital
►
Bonusordningspolitik
►
Adgang til kapital
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
33
Implementerering af strategier
Når virksomheden har undersøgt muligheder i udlandet og effektiviseret virksomheden internt, kan man gå i gang med implementering
af strategier til videreudvikling og eksport (se illustration på side 12).
Det betyder, at man skal sætte sig mål og beskrive, hvordan virksomheden skal videreføres. Et vigtigt punkt i den proces er at sikre
sig, at alle medarbejdere er med på vognen - det vil sige, at hele
organisation kører i samme retning. International ekspansion er ikke
kun ledelsens privatsag.
Et godt værktøj at benytte er det såkaldte ”Vækststrategimodel”
udviklet af matematikeren Igor Ansoff i 1957 og udbygget konstant
siden hen.
produkter - leverancer - teknik
Ny
Nuværende
Ny
marked - efterspørgsel - kunder
Nuværende
Markedspenetration
Prokuktsudvikling
Nuværende produkter
sælges nuværende marked
Produkt og teknologiudvikling
til nuværende marked
Markedsudvikling
Diversificering
Nuværende produkter
præsenteres til nye markeder
Produkt- og teknologiudvikling
for avanceret konkurrence på
det nye marked
Kilde: Baker & Hart (2007), Product strategy and management
34
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
Modellen viser de måder, virksomheden udvikler sine produkter og
markeder. Det kan godt være, at man synes ens virksomhed kører
med alle disse strategier, men SMV’er skal passe på ikke at beskæftige sig med alt for varierende strategier ad gangen. Det vil sige, at
hvis man f.eks. har meget kompetent produkt eller produktlinje, der
har forudseende muligheder på andre markeder, så skal der satses
på markedsudvikling.
Det samme gælder, hvis man synes virksomheden er veletableret på
ens nuværende marked, så skal man køre med enten Markedspenetration, hvor man forsøger at sælge flere eksisterende produkter
til nuværende kunder og/eller man kan udvikle nye produkter og løsninger til sine trofaste kunder, altså Produktudvikling.
En mere kompliceret strategi er den, der hedder: Diversifikation, hvor
man udvikler nye produkter til nye markeder. Den strategi indeholder
normalt større risici samt omkostninger udover de andre.
Der findes en masse værktøjer til strategiimplementering i firmaet og
disse skal man undersøge og analysere inden de er implementeret i
virksomheden. Det sker nemlig alt for tit, at man bruger tid på at implementere strategier, der ikke har noget med formålet at gøre.
Bliv større udadtil
Meget har været skrevet om klynger. Dette fænomen har fået større
opmærksomhed i takt med, at flere og flere får øje på fordelen ved
samarbejde mellem organisationer. SMV’er i udvikling og særligt
dem, som har besluttet at fokusere på fremmede markeder, kan
meget nemmere opnå sine mål gennem samarbejdsaftaler mellem
eksempelvis andre leverandører.
Ifølge markedsundersøgelsen udarbejdet blandt Offshore Center
Danmarks medlemmer er kun 26% deltagere i klyngegrupper. 58%
viser dog interesse i at deltage i sådan slags samarbejde, hvor igen
flertallet synes virksomheder med supplerende produkter kunne
være mest tilegnet.
Ifølge vores undersøgelse af det brasilianske marked viser det sig, at
man øger mulighederne for at træde ind på markedet markant gennem brug af en agent, der opererer som virksomhedens talsmand
lokalt og præsenterer dens produkter til aktører på det brasilianske
marked. For en mindre leverandør i Danmark kan det være for kostbart at hyre agent, der kun beskæftiger sig med dens tjenesteydelser.
Derfor kan det være en fordel at begynde dannelse af en klynge, der
har som fælles formål at hyre agent i Brasilien, som markedsfører
klyngens virksomheders varer og/eller tjenester. Her er man også
kommet i gang med at samarbejde med fælles tilbud i projekter, man
ikke kunne overskue som en mindre leverandør i Danmark.
Offshore Center Danmark betegnes også som en form for klynge,
hvor medlemmerne opnår en fordel ved eksempelvis brug af virksomhedsoplysninger på www.offshorecenter.dk siden, hvor man
finder forskellige oplysninger og kontaktpersoner til nytte for virksomheder i udvikling og/eller eksport. Endvidere kan man deltage i
forskellige interessegrupper og dermed være medlem af klynge der
fokuserer på bestemt interesseområde.
Med henvisning til undersøgelsen er halvdelen af virksomhederne,
der allerede deltager i klyngesamarbejde, tilfredse. Undersøgelsen
understreger dog behovet for et meget struktureret samarbejde,
hvor fokus er på medlemmernes individuelle behov. Man skal også
være meget opmærksom på, at intet samarbejde kører af sig selv.
Som medlem af sådan en gruppe skal virksomheden udnævne en
kompetent person, der er med i udviklingen og bidrager med nye
projekter til medlemsvirksomhederne.
En klynge er som en organisation, der består af mennesker med
samme mål, men måske forskellige holdninger til, hvordan man skal
opnå dem. Derfor er det vigtigt at overveje, hvordan samarbejdet
skal foregå.
Et eksemplar på en virksomhedsklynge inden offshore branchen ville
være: Offshore Consortium Esbjerg – www.oce-dk.com
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
35
Dine eksportpartnere
Som nævnt tidligere i håndbogen har Internationaliseringsprojektet
fået en værdig sparring af nogle organisationer, der beskæftiger sig
med støtte til virksomheder i international udvikling. Her beskrives
hvordan din virksomhed kan få nytte af deres tjenester.
OCD
DOI
Eksportrådet
Offshore Center Danmark – OCD
Offshore Center Danmark arbejder til fremme af hele den danske
offshoreindustri og er en oplagt indgang for SMV’er, der søger udfordringer ud over dansk grænseområde.
• Mange muligheder for at netværke med andre offshorevirksomheder. Offshore Center Danmarks medlemmer tæller
både store og små inden for offshore, og der arrangeres en
lang række kurser, konferencer og events, hvor medlemmerne
får muligheder for at netværke med hinanden og skabe nye
kontakter
• Mulighed for deltagelse i ERFA-grupper. Der findes p.t. 5
ERFA-grupper under Offshore Center Danmark : HSSEQ
(Health, Safety, Security, Environment and Quality), Faste og
Mobile Offshore Anlæg, Internationalisering, Offshore Vindmøller samt Dekommissionering. I grupperne mødes gruppemedlemmerne ca. hvert kvartal for at informere hinanden om
igangværende aktiviteter samt diskutere aktuelle problemstillinger. Der er desuden ofte gæsteforelæsere samt besøg på
forskellige virksomheder
• Mulighed for deltagelse i specielle arrangementer (konferencer, seminarer, kurser etc.) til reduceret pris
• Mulighed for deltagelse i, og opdateret information om aktuelle
udviklingsprojekter under Offshore Center Danmark. Vores
igangværende projekter kan ses på http://www.offshorecenter.dk/Projects.asp.
• Medlemmer kan selv komme med projektforslag. Offshore
Center Danmark kan fungere som projekt koordinator og
desuden være behjælpelig med at finde støtte ordninger til
udviklingsprojekter
• Mulighed for at få artikler og annoncer i Offshore Center Danmark ’s nyhedsmagasiner, ON/OFF
• Mulighed for assistance fra Offshore Center Danmark til koordinering af offshore arrangementer (konferencer, work shops,
kurser etc.)
• Mulighed for at trække på Offshore Center Danmark ’s kompetencer inden for rådgivning, netværk til branchen samt støtteordninger til udviklingsprojekter på offshore området
• Opførelse i virksomhedsdatabasen som er en del af www.
offshorecenter.dk. Her er mere end 400 danske virksomheder
inden for offshore relaterede brancher listet, men kun medlem-
36
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
IFU
EKF
mer af Offshore Center Danmark opnår fordelen at få medtaget
oplysninger om deres kompetencer, ydelser og certificeringer.
• Banner på www.offshorecenter.dk – siden besøges dagligt af
mange danske og udenlandske interessenter. Medlemmer af
Offshore Center Danmark opnår bl.a. fordel ved eksponering
med logo, linket direkte til deres hjemmeside
• Profilering nationalt og internationalt. Offshore Center Danmark har mange tiltag omkring profilering af dansk offshore og
i særdeleshed medlemmernes kompetencer
Kontakt: www.offshorecenter.dk
Dansk Offshore Industri – DOI
Som medlem af Dansk Offshore Industri er du også medlem af hele
Dansk Industri netværket. Virksomheder kan være tilknyttet DI på
to måder: enten som medlem eller som associeret. Herudover kan
du vælge mellem mere end 100 medlemsforeninger. F.eks. kan virksomheden være i DI International Business Network, der hjælper dig
videre på det globale marked. Det fokuserer på at give dig og din
virksomhed aktuel viden om det globale marked via konferencer, seminarer, fremstød og faglige netværk.
Medlemmer:
• får rådgivning, service og adgang til netværk
• dækkes af DI’s overenskomster
• tilmeldes konfliktfond, barselsfond og uddannelsesfond
• får DI’s feriepengegaranti
Associerede:
• får rådgivning, service og adgang til netværk - på lige fod med
medlemmer
• dækkes ikke af DI’s overenskomster
• har adgang til DI’s barselsfond
Kontakt: www.doi.di.dk
Eksportrådet
Eksport Kredit Fonden – EKF
Eksportrådet, en selvstændigt enhed under Udenrigsministeriet,
opererer som serviceorganisation for virksomheder med planer for
eksport. Der køres forskellige programmer, alt efter virksomhedens
behov.
Efterfølgende programmer er kun til at give indblik i Dansk Eksportråds tjenester, hvor man kan vælge imellem 17 forskellige d.d.
I international handel kan finansiering være et konkurrenceelement
på samme måde som pris, kvalitet og ekspertise. Finansiering af
eksport kan være nødvendigt, fordi det kan være vanskeligt at
rejse kredit eller tilstrækkelig likviditet til kontant betaling for købere
i vækstmarkeder med svage finansielle sektorer. Eksportfinansieringen kan være løsningen, der sikrer, at forretningen bliver gennemført.
Eksportforberedelse:
Programmet forbereder din virksomhed bedst muligt til eksport. Det
består af individuel rådgivning, der sætter fokus på interne forhold i
din virksomhed. Forløbet munder ud i en skræddersyet handlingsplan, herunder en konkret aktivitetsplan.
Eksportstart:
Skal du i gang med internationalisering, herunder eksport og sourcing? Eller vil du udvide din eksport? Så tilbyder Danmarks Eksportråd programmet Eksportstart.
Markedsanalyse:
Overvejer din virksomhed at bevæge sig ud på nye markeder, kan
du få hjælp hos Eksportrådets rådgivere. Så kan du træffe vigtige
beslutninger på et solidt grundlag, og du er velforberedt til de første
samtaler med nye samarbejdspartnere og kunder.
Eksport Kredit Fondens vigtigste opgave er at sikre dansk erhvervsliv konkurrencedygtige finansielle vilkår på internationale markeder.
Som de eneste i Danmark tilbyder EKF at forsikre mod ekstraordinære risici, som det private marked ikke kan eller vil dække.
Eksportører og finansielle institutter, der har risici i forbindelse med
forretninger med udlandet, kan forsikre sig hos EKF mod kommercielle og politiske risici.
EKF’s produkter tilpasses til kundens specifikke behov. Produkterne anvendes typisk ved projekteksport, investeringer eller salg
af varer på kredit.
Kontakt: www.ekf.dk
Kontakt: www.eksportrådet.dk
Industrialiseringsfonden for
Udviklingslandene – IFU
IFU er en investeringsfond, der rådgiver og investerer med danske
virksomheder i Afrika, Asien og Latinamerika. Formålet er at bidrage
til den økonomiske og sociale udvikling i investeringslandene. IFU har
sammen med danske virksomheder investeret over 80 mia. kr. i mere
end 650 projektselskaber i 79 udviklingslande.
Investeringerne sker på et kommercielt grundlag i form af aktiekapital
og lån til projektselskaber. Da IFU har tæt kontakt til internationale og
lokale finansielle institutioner er fonden i stand til at bistå med en
samlet finansieringsløsning for den danske virksomhed.
IFU kan via hovedkontoret i København og regionale kontorer i Kina,
Indien, Sydafrika, Kenya og Ghana rådgive om politiske, juridiske og
erhvervsmæssige forhold i udviklingslande. IFU tilbyder derudover at
deltage i projektselskabernes bestyrelse.
Kontakt: www.ifu.dk
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
37
Sådan er vi kommet frem til denne håndbog
Dette projekt om internationalisering af den danske offshore olie- og
gasbranche har stået over for udfordringen med at finde de danske
kompetencer og matche dem med efterspørgslen på de fem udvalgte internationale markeder. Et væsentligt fundament for projektet har været markedsundersøgelse imellem danske organisationer
inden Offshore Center Danmark på den ene side, og undersøgelsen
af markedsmulighederne på de fem internationale markeder på den
anden side.
Den ene side
Målgruppen, der blev valgt som deltagere i undersøgelsen imellem de
danske leverandører, er SMV’er inden for Offshore Center Danmark.
Den anvendte metode til indsamling af information skete gennem
web-baseret markedsundersøgelsesprogram, der gav respondenterne mulighed for at besvare ud fra deres egne præmisser, inden for
en på forhånd fastlagt tidsfrist. En gruppe der opfyldte kriteriet blev
udvalgt af Offshore Center Danmark repræsentanter, og fik tilsendt
etweb-link via e-mail. 98 organisationer tog udfordringen op med at
38
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
besvare spørgeskemaet, hvor resultaterne har været analyseret og
forklaret, støttet af forskellige relevante grafer.
Visse fejl kan forekomme, der vedrører samplefejl dvs. udvalgte deltagere, adspurgte der ikke reagerer præcist eller ikke reagerer på
enkelte spørgsmål og konstruktionsudviklingsfejler, hvor spørgsmål
ikke er tilsyneladende nok til den udvalgte gruppe af respondenter.
Alle mulige fejl, der kan forekomme er blevet begrænset så meget
som muligt i udformningen og distributionsprocessen.
Den anden side
Det ville ikke have været muligt at fremstille dette projekt uden en meget kompetent styregruppe, der består af repræsentanter fra Udenrigsministeriet, ambassaderne (UM), Industrialiseringsfonden for udviklingslandende (IFU), Eksport Kreditfonden (EKF), Dansk offshore
industri (DOI) og Esbjerg Erhvervsudvikling (EEU). Udover det har
ansatte ved Offshore Center Danmark (OCD) og fra konsulentvirksomheden Danperform (DP) styret og fremstillet projektet.
Nyttige adresser
Norge
Grønland
The Royal Danish Embassy
Martin Amdi Pedersen
Export Advisor, Oil and Gas
Telf.: +47 2254 0791
E-mail: [email protected]
The Norwegian Toll system
Web site: www.toll.no
Råstofdirektoratet
Telf.: +299 34 68 00
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.bmp.gl
NUNAOIL A/S
Web site: www.skatt.no
Adresse: Tuapannguit 38
Telf.: +299 328703
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.nunaoil.gl
The Danish Embassy Website
Grønlands Arbejdsgiverforening
Web site: www.amboslo.um.dk
Telf: +299 321500
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.ga.gl
The Norwegian Tax Authorities
The Danish Trade Council
Web site: www.eksportraadet.dk
Olje- og Energidepartementet
Web site: www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/oed.html?id=750
Oljedirektoratet
Web site: www.npd.no
Norsk Industri
Web site: www.norskindustri.no
Brasilien
Danish Consulate General
Adresse: Rua Oscar Freire 379, cj. 31 Cerqueira Cesar
01426-900 São Paulo – SP - Brasil
Telf.: +55 11 2127 0750 Fax: +55 11 3068 9867
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.gksaopaulo.um.dk/en
Norsk Offshore
Web site: www.offshore.no
ANP – Agência Nacional do Petróleo
Adresse: Rua Senador Dantas, 105, 13. And.
20031-201 Rio de Janeiro – RJ – Brasil
Telf.: +55 21 3804 1000
Fax: +55 21 3804 0100
Web site: www.anp.gov.br
IBP – instituto Brasileiro do Petróleo
Adresse: Av. Alm. Barroso, 52, 26 and.
20031-000 Rio de Janeiro – RJ – Brasil
Telf.: +55 21 2532 1610
Fax: +55 21 2220 1596
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.ipb.org.br
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
39
Angola
ONIP - Organização Nacional da Indústria do
Petróleo Petrobrás – Petróleo Brasileiro S/A Av.
Adresse: República do Chile, 65, 601-Q
20035-900 Rio de Janeiro – RJ – Brasil
Web site: www.petrobras.com
Petrobras site for international suppliers:
Web site: www2.petrobras.com.br/portugues/ads/
ads_CanalFornecedor.html
Industrialiseringsfonden for Udviklingslandene
(IFU), Cape Town
Contact Person: Anders Aeroe
Adresse: 32 Belmont Avenue, Oranjezicht 8001, Cape Town, South
Africa 14 Doing Business in Angola – Advice to Danish offshore
companies
Telf.: +27 21 465 5701
Fax: + 27 86 685 5602
Email: [email protected]
Web site: www.ifu.dk
MME - Ministério de Minas e Energia
Adresse: Esplanada dos Ministérios – bloco U – 8 and.
70065-900 Brasília – DF – Brasil
Telf.: +55 61 319 5452 / 319 5555
Fax: +55 61 321 5628
Web site: www.mme.gov.br
BNDES – Banco Nacional d
Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social
Adresse: Av. Repúblico do Chile, 100, 19 and.
20139-900 Rio de Janeiro – RJ – Brasil
Telf.: +55 21 227 8238 / 8288
Fax: +55 21 2262 8123
Web site: inter.bndes.gov.br/english/
Av. Graça Aranha, 1/5º andar - Centro
Adresse: 20030-002 Rio de Janeiro - RJ – Brasil
Telf.: 55 21 2563 4615
Fax: 55 21 2563 4616
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.onip.org.br
The Norwegian Embassy in Luanda
Adresse: Rua de Benguela 17, Bairro Patrice Lumumba, Luanda
Telf.: (+244) 222 449936/ 222 447522 / 222 447922
Fax: (+244) 222 446248
Emergency telephone: (+244) 923 640 194
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.noruega.ao/info/embassy.htm
The Angolan Embassy in Stockholm
Consular Section:
Adresse: Skeppsbron 8, 111 30 Stockholm
Tel: +46(8)24 28 90
Fax: +46(8)34 31 27
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.angolaemb.se/
The Angolan Investment Promotion Agency (ANIP)
Contact: Mr. Ari Carvalho, Head of Office
Adresse: Edificio do Ministerio da Industria,
9th Floor, Rue Cerqueira Lukoki No 25
Luanda
Email: [email protected]
Fax: +244 222 332956 / 39 33 81
Fatima Freitas Advogados
Contact Person: Chindalena Lourenco
Adresse: Rua Major Kanhangulo 290 - 1st floor, Luanda
Email: [email protected]
Telf: +244 222 372 030/057/092
Fax: +244 222 372 017
The Swedish Embassy in Luanda
Adresse: Rua Garcia Neto, Luanda
Telf.: +244 222 44 07 06, +244 222 44 07 07
Fax: +244 222 44 34 60, +244 222 44 34 76
Emergency telephone: +244 923 406 985
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: http://www.swedenabroad.se/
pages/general____27387.asp
40
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
Nigeria
CDE Centre for the Development of Enterprise
Adresse: 52 avenue Herrmann-Debroux
1160 Brussels
Tel: + 32 2 679 18 11
Fax: + 32 2 675 26 03
http://www.cde.int/index.aspx
Lagos, Generalkonsulat
Royal Danish Consulate General
Adresse: Maersk House 121 Louis Solomon Close
P.O.Box 72554
Victoria Island, Lagos,Nigeria
Tlf.: 1 280 6101
Fax: 1 262 6495
E-mail: [email protected]
Embassy of Sweden
Adresse: Plot 1520, T.Y. Danjuma Street
Asokoro District, Abuja
P.M.B. 569 Garki
Abuja FCT Nigeria
Telf.: +234 9 314 39 36
fax: +234 9 314 33 98
E-mail: [email protected]
abuja-visum/foreign/[email protected]
IFC Nigeria, Lagos
Solomon Quaynor, Country Manager
International Finance Corporation
Adresse: Maersk House, 1st Floor
Plot 121 Louis Soloman Close
Off Ahmadu Bello Way
Victoria Island
Telf: (234 1) 271-8738-9 / 262-6455-64
Fax: (234 1) 279-3618-9
Nigerian Liquefied Natural gas
Nigeria LNG Limited,
Adresse: C & C Towers, Plot 1684 Sanusi Fafunwa Street,
Victoria Island, P.M.B. 12774 (Marina), Lagos, Nigeria.
Tel: +234-1-2624190-4, 2624556.
Fax: +234-1-2616976.
Web site: www.nigerialng.com
email: [email protected]
IFU - The Industrialisation Fund for Developing Countries & OCD
Offshore Centre Denmark
African Petroleum (AP) PLC
Adresse: AP HOUSE, 54/56 BROAD STREET, P.O. BOX 512
LAGOS
P.M.B. 12690 MARINA, LAGOS
Tel: 234 - 1 - 2600050 – 7,
Fax: 234 - 1 - 2634341
Web site: www.applcng.com
Agip Nigeria PLC
National Agip Oil Company Limited
Operator of the NNPC / NAOC / Phillips Oil Joint Venture
Nigeria Agip Oil Co. Ltd
Adresse: PC 23 Engineering Close, Victoria Island
Lagos, Nigeria
Tel: 234-1-2613862, 2613884, 26221107
Chevron Nigeria Limited
Operator of the NNPC / Chevron Joint Venture
Adresse: 2, Chevron Drive
Lekki Peninsula,
P.M.B. 12825, Lagos, Nigeria
Web site: www.chevron.com/about/careers/
Elf Petroleum Nigeria Limited (EPNL)
leading Oil and Gas exploration and production company and a subsidiary of Total Group.
Web site: www.careers.total.com
ExxonMobil
Web site: www.exxonmobilafrica.com/Africa-English/PA/Operations/AF_OP_Nigeria_Jobs.asp
Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited
Mobil House
Adresse: 1, Lekki Expressway, Victoria Island
P. M. B. 12054
Lagos, Nigeria
Linkso Nigeria Limited
Adresse: 293 Akin Olugbade street
Victoria Island
Lagos, Nigeria
Tel: 234-1-2616615, 2622330
Fax: 234-1-2623375, 2616818, 2627911
Email: [email protected]
Service provider for the Nigerian oil and gas industry
Web site: www.linksong.com/job_opportunities/index.php
National Association of Independent
Petroleum Exploration Companies
Adresse: 180, Moshood Olugbani Street,
Victoria Island Annex,
Lagos, Nigeria.
Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC)
Adresse: NNPC Towers, Herbert Macaulay Way, Central Business
District Garki,
FCT - Abuja, Nigeria
Telf,: +234-9-523-9141 Fax: +234-9-234-0029.
NNPC - Opportunities
Web site: www.nnpc-nigeria.com/
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
41
Nigeria Petroleum Development Company Ltd (NPDC)
United Geophysical (Nigeria) Limited
Adresse: 62/64, Sapele Road,
P.M.B 1262,
Benin City Edo State,
NIGERIA.
Telf.: 234-52-251907, 2518
Fax: 234-52-259514, 255498
Nigeria Petroleum Development co. Ltd
Nigerian Office
Adresse: 7 Remi Fani Kayode Avenue
G.R.A. Ikeja
Lagos, Nigeria
Telf.: +23 (0)1 496 0701
Fax: +23 (0) 1 493 4892
E-mail: [email protected]
Web site: www.unitedgeophysical.com
Oando Plc www.oanoplc.com
emerged Nigeria's second largest company in the downstream sector of the oil industry
Careers at Oando Web site: www.oandoplc.com/careers.htm
Oando jobs recruitment [email protected]
Oil and Gas Career Opportunities Oil&[email protected]
Paradigm Geophysical (Nigeria)
Adresse: Block 15, Plot 23 Admiralty Way
Lekki Phase 1
Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria
Telf.: 2708471-3
Fax: +234-1-270-8469
Schlumberger Oilfield Services
Adresse: 17/19, Idowu Taylor Street
Victoria Island, Lagos, Nigeria
Telf.: 234 1 2615275, 2612681, 2619200, 2614442, 2612679
Fax: 234 1 262 3669
Web site: www.oilfield.slb.com/content/careers/index.asp
Shell Nigeria
Shell Nigeria Exploration and Production
Company Limited (SNEPCO)
The leader in Nigeria's Oil and Gas Sector
Shell Nigeria - Jobs & Career Opportunities
Adresse: Texaco Nigeria PLC
8 McCarthy Street
Lagos, Nigeria
Telf.: 234-1-2600540-9
Web site: www.texaco.com/texaco/abouttexaco/careers.htm
Total Nigeria PLC
Total House
Adresse: 4 Afribank St, Victoria Island
Lagos, Nigeria
Telf.: 234-1-2621780-3
Fax: 234-1-262-1810
Total Upstream activities are carried out by
three subsidiaries companies in Nigeria, EPNL and
TUPNI for oil/gas and Total LNG Limited for gas.
Website:www.careers.total.com/careersFO/careers/home?$DTO_
SESSION$LANGUE_0=EN
IFU - The Industrialisation Fund for Developing Countries & OCD
Offshore Centre Denmark
42
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
Nigerian Petroleum Exchange (NipeX)
An electronic one-stop transaction centre
that improves on value procurement in the industry
and institutionalize a world-class contracting process in Nigeria.
Adresse: No. 30, Oyinkan Abayomi Drive (former Queens Drive)
Ikoyi, Lagos, Nigeria.
Telf.: +234 1 7731135, 7937911, 4615110
Web site: www.nipex.com.ng
Society of Petroleum Engineers (Nigeria Council)
# 4 Moscow Road
Adresse: P. O. Box 4668
Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Telf.: 234-84231138, 234-8037940204
E-mail: [email protected],
[email protected], [email protected]
Web site: www.spenigeria.spe.org
IFU - The Industrialisation Fund for Developing Countries
& OCD Offshore Centre Denmark
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
43
44
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
Marketing Research
and Analyses
Danish competences and selected offshore
oil & gas market
May 2010
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Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
45
46
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
Contents
The International Offshore market................................48
Marketing research..........................................................48
Danish Suppliers..............................................................48
Competitive advantage....................................................49
Future prospective...........................................................49
Core Competences..........................................................49
Export...................................................................................50
Export methods...............................................................50
Export’s share of turnover.................................................50
Prime markets abroad......................................................50
Business Culture..............................................................62
Final Considerations.........................................................62
Brazil ....................................................................................64
Current market situation...................................................64
Market expectations........................................................64
Opportunities for Danish suppliers....................................65
Business Culture..............................................................66
Greenland............................................................................67
Product expertise..............................................................52
Market opportunities........................................................67
SWOT.............................................................................70
PEST...............................................................................71
Product selection/Industrial expertise...............................52
Cluster co-operation........................................................52
Angola..................................................................................74
Methods of expansion......................................................54
Business environment......................................................75
SWOT.............................................................................76
Export interest.................................................................54
Desired export countries..................................................54
Challenges in foreign countries.........................................54
Challenges within the organisation....................................54
Expansion strategies........................................................55
Expansion expectations...................................................55
Growth strategy...............................................................56
Nigeria..................................................................................77
Business environment......................................................77
SWOT.............................................................................79
Sources for Information...................................................80
Marketing strategy. ..........................................................57
Intensive growth...............................................................57
Integrative growth............................................................57
Diversification growth.......................................................57
Growth area.....................................................................58
Opportunities abroad.......................................................58
The five markets researched..........................................57
Norway.................................................................................60
Political Environment .......................................................60
The Economy..................................................................60
The Market......................................................................60
Achilles............................................................................61
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
47
The International Offshore Market
Since the beginning of offshore activities within the Danish area in
the North-Sea a lot of water has flowed under the bridge, or in reformed expression; a lot of Oil & Gas has been pumped to ashore.
The days where Danish suppliers within the industry, were learning
to serve this sector are long gone and now they are considered to
utilize advanced techniques that optimize the production, not only
within Danish fields, but also internationally. Danish operators have
acquired international reputation for efficiency in extraction of these
valuable natural resources, sometimes by taking over wells that have
been considered obsolete and still being able to operate them as
remunerative business.
Production in the North-Sea area had its peak of oil production in
2004 and gas in 2005, when it began to decline gradually. When
considering only this factor, indications on potentials for domestic
growth for suppliers within the industry are reduced. Other factors
like technical developments, price variations and demand in general
do also have impact on how suppliers have to structure and develop
their businesses. The demand for optimal products and services
within this industry is very high, which has lead many of the firms to
focus on development on product range with advanced congeniality. Fortunately many have developed paralleled products, suiting
other industries specifically for windmill operations, which have well
established roots in Denmark and good future potentials, both in
environmental and political sense.
This handbook has its purpose to point out potentials, mainly in upstream activities, for suppliers to the Offshore Oil & Gas within Offshore Centre Denmark (OCD), on five international markets. It also
include analyzes of suppliers competences which can be exported
to these foreign markets. The markets that have been analyzed are:
Norway, Greenland, Brazil, Angola and Nigeria. These are considered to be of interest for Danish suppliers within the industry because
of both considerably convenient distance and historical connections, or because of growth opportunities within the Offshore Oil &
Gas sector.
upstream
Exploration &
Production
Exploration SurveyingAerial Survey and Seismic
Operations
Transportation &
Distribution
Transportation &
Distribution
downstream
Refining
Decommissioning
& Rehabilitation
Marketing
Source: www.oilandgasforum.net
48
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
Exploration &
Appraisal Drilling
Development & Produktion
Marketing research
In order to find which competences the suppliers have developed, a
marketing research has been conducted, where member organisations within Offshore Center Danmark, have had the opportunity to
respond. This research also includes questions that provide information on which markets are of main interest and what kind of methods
might be used for the purpose of international expansion.
The target group that was chosen to participate in the research is
small and medium sized member organisations within Offshore Centre Denmark, hereafter called SME’s (Small and Medium sized enterprises). The method used for collecting information, was through
web based marketing research program, which gave respondents
the opportunity to reply from their own premises, within a pre-organised deadline. A web-link was sent by e-mail to the chosen group,
using the mentioned pre-selected participants, by Offshore Centre
Denmark representatives. Ninety-eight organisations took the challenge to respond to the questionnaire, which results have been analysed and explained, supported by various relevant graphs.
Some errors can occur, which relates to sampling error i.e. selected
participants, respondents not coping precisely or not responding to
some questions and construct development error were questions
are not apparent enough to the selected group of respondents. All
possible failures that can occur have been limited as much as possible in the designing and distribution process.
Danish Suppliers
When firms consider expanding their market area, they do, whatever advanced methods are used, search for information on those
markets and compare potentials with the firm’s existing capability
to match the criteria of demand. The market for offshore Oil & Gas
supplies and services is more complicated than most other ones due
to advanced requirements for quality and safety. Most orders have
to fulfil pre-described qualifications, before taken into consideration.
These requirements are not made to sort-out preferred customer.
First and foremost these are to ensure safety for the many personnel that have decided to take on the assignment to work within the
industry, where situations can be dangerous. Secondly; the special
requirements are because of very high cost in relation to product
failure. An object installed somewhere within oil & gas operations
that fail because of rare quality or any installations or services conducted without proper prescribed qualifications can easily result in
huge expenses and operation stop. Thirdly, there are very strict environmental requirements demanded from oil & gas operators, which
if causing pollution in the very delegate offshore surroundings, exceeding agreed emission combined with the operations, will result
in great penalties.
Competitive advantage
To identify competitive advantage, managers can refer to the firm’s
resources and capabilities. The resources and capabilities include all
the financial, physical, human and organisational assets which can
be used for the firm’s development. The best way to visualise these is
to identify them in the following boxes:
Future prospective
Human resources:
► Experience
► Knowledge
► Judgment
► Risk taking propensity
► Individual wisdom
Physical resources:
► Machines
► Manufacturing facilities
► Risk taking propensity
► Buildings related to operations
Organisational resources:
In order to maintain and develop suppliers’ competences within the
offshore oil & gas industry, these organisations have to be able to
grow. The necessary expansion will mainly be directed to international markets as the domestic oil & gas market is not foreseen to
provide sufficient opportunities in the becoming future. But what can
Danish players within the industry offer that can’t be bought locally on
other international markets? With the purpose of finding reliable and
structured information on suppliers’ competences, it was decided to
conduct empirical research among members within Offshore Centre
Denmark, providing goods or services to the industry, excluding the
operators. The research will shed a light on what the suppliers can
provide to international markets. But it isn’t enough to offer outstanding goods and services; you have to know how to enter these markets and how to establish long term business relationship abroad.
Therefore has this research included questions directed against how
and to which degree the organisations are operating abroad and cooperational matters.
Core Competencies
Respondents to our marketing research were offered to identify
which characteristics their products or services have. With reference
to Mr. Philip Kotler a renowned scientist and author within the world
of marketing, the following should characterise products/services
Core Competency:
• Provides potential access to a wide variety of markets (can be
applied to different industries)
• Makes a significant contribution to the perceived customer
benefits of the end product (win/win)
• Difficult for competitors to imitate (competitively unique)
Mark boxes showing the best identification of the core competencies
for your products/services. You may mark all that are relevant.
► History
Provides potential access to a wide
variety of markets (can be applied
to different industries)
18%
► Relationships
► Trust
35%
8%
► Organisational culture
Difficult for competitors to imitate
(competitively unique)
► Reporting structure
► Management control systems
Makes a significant contribution to
the perceived customer benefits of
the end product (win/win)
Other
39%
► Compensation policies
Financial resources:
► Debt
► Equity
► Retained earnings
The results indicate need for improvements among suppliers within
the organisation in order to be more competent when considering
entry into International markets. If you cannot identify your products
and/or services with these three characteristics, it might reduce your
potentials of growth.
► Capital access
► Etc.
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
49
Export
On average 35% of the organisations employing up to 60 people, do
not export their goods or services. All organisations with more than
60 employees, replying to this survey, have some degree of export
activities.
Export’s share of turnover
The following table shows how the 59 respondent to this question
divide export as a share of total turnover. Almost half, export only
between 1 – 30% of their sales.
Does your company/organisation already export your goods/services?
How much, measured in percentage, does export count for,
seen as a total of turnover from company/organisation?
100,00%
81 -100
5%
91 -100%
No. of employees
41 - 60
60,00%
21 - 40
Yes
71 - 80%
3%
61 - 70%
3%
40,00%
64,29%
11 - 20
81 - 90%
35,71%
72,73%
27,27%
Percentage of turnover
100,00%
61 - 80
No
10%
51 - 60%
5%
41 - 50%
5%
31 - 40%
7%
21 - 30%
12%
41 - 20%
15%
1 - 10%
24%
0%
1 - 10
61,90%
10%
38,10%
0%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
5%
10%
15%
20%
100%
Prime markets abroad
Export methods
When asking for which methods are practiced among respondent it
appears that 1/3 sell their products and services through other native
companies. Organisations that only use this source for export do not
develop expertise for export and are most often bounded their customer’s buying decisions. A slightly larger number do however export directly to customers abroad, which indicates more knowledge
of the foreign customer needs. In order to develop further sales in
foreign markets a more developed method of export is needed. Only
18% have made commitments in the form of either Joint Venture or
Direct Investments as part of their export strategy
Around two third (65%) of the responding member organisations
within Offshore Centre Denmark receive more than half of their income from Denmark. This fact leaves the remaining one third, relying on export as the main source of income. In a foreseen declining
domestic market, the result shows that there is a great need within
many of the member organisations to implement International growth
strategies.
Despite hear saying, that it can be difficult to enter our neighbour
market in Norway, this market is the most occupied of the five foreign
ones by Danish suppliers within Offshore Centre Denmark. Surprisingly though, this market only covers 1 – 10% of half of the respondents turnover.
Which export methods are practiced within your company/organisation?
Indirect export (through other native
companies)
38%
6%
4%
Licensing (foreign companies
producing your products with
permission)
Joint Ventures (Joint ownership with
foreign investor, of subsidiary
abroad)
0%
34%
Direct investment (Your company´s
own subsidiary in a foreign country)
None
Other
50
Market share Norway
Direct export (directly to particular
customers abroad)
9%
9%
25%
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
91 - 100%
81 - 90%
71 - 80%
61 - 70%
51 - 60%
41 - 50%
31 - 40%
21 - 30%
11 - 20%
1 - 10%
None
0%
6%
2%
4%
2%
4%
10%
14%
49%
10%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
Brazil is by most of the organisations, undiscovered market where
70% have no activities in this expanding market within offshore oil
& gas.
Due to obvious connections with Greenland, it is not surprising that
app. half of respondents have some activities there, though it does
not count for high share of turnover or between 1 – 10%. The 12%
of respondents receiving all (91 – 100%) turnovers are Greenlandic
native member organisations within Offshore Centre Denmark.
Market share Brazil
Share of company’s turnover in Brazill
91 - 100%
81 - 90%
71 - 80%
61 - 70%
51 - 60%
41 - 50%
31 - 40%
21 - 30%
11 - 20%
1 - 10%
None
0%
Market share - Greenland
91 - 100%
81 - 90%
71 - 80%
61 - 70%
51 - 60%
41 - 50%
31 - 40%
21 - 30%
11 - 20%
1 - 10%
None
5%
5%
20%
12%
4%
4%
38%
42%
70%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
The same applies for Nigeria and Angola, as with market share in
Brazil, where 73 – 80% of respondents respectively, do not have any
operations there.
Market share - Nigeria
91 - 100%
81 - 90%
71 - 80%
61 - 70%
51 - 60%
41 - 50%
31 - 40%
21 - 30%
11 - 20%
1 - 10%
None
5%
5%
18%
73%
Market share - Angola
91 - 100%
81 - 90%
71 - 80%
61 - 70%
51 - 60%
41 - 50%
31 - 40%
21 - 30%
11 - 20%
1 - 10%
None
5%
5%
10%
80%
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
51
Product Expertise
Most of the members within the organisation describe their role within
the industry as manufacturing or supplying physical products. This
share is tightly followed by service providers, which of many are the
same organisations servicing their products. The third most occupied product expertise is consultancy, which makes sense within the
Oil & Gas industry, where security, design and planning are essential
Cluster co-operation
The business life gradually perceives the importance of structured alliance when approaching large scale customers, which often are too
large or using complicated purchasing channels for a single player to
cope with. This is one of the reasons, why popularity of Cluster relationships has been increasing over the past. It was therefore relevant
to ask respondents about their position towards it.
One fourth of the organisations are already members of such a consortium group, which gives an indication of developed business society. It is obvious that some kind of relationships between these
actors, will never apply to all the organisations, but it is however quite
clear that this form for extended market opportunities will escalate in
the near future.
Which of the following areas explains your industry role?
Other
Training & Education (Develop the skills and/or
knowledge of individuals)
Support Organisation (A public organisation
supporting either a community …
Service (Service provider)
Research & Development (Research is
discovering, interpreting, and then …
Operator (Develop and produce
from an energy source)
Is your company/organisation a member of a consortium group,
which has the purpose of increasing prospective for e.g. joint-orders?
Manufacture/Supply (Manufacturing or
supply of a material or product)
Installation (Install equipment or structures)
Engineering (Concerned with the
design, building, and use of engines, …
Design (Formulation of ideas into a plan )
26%
Consultant (Offer expert advice
on a professional basis)
Product selection/Industrial expertise
74%
No
Yes
As with the former question on product expertise, the respondents
could mark all relevant boxes, which results in 296 answers from the
almost 100 respondents to the survey. Respondents mark therefore
three possible answers on average as relevant expertise within their
organisations.
The following comments show some attitudes
towards cooperation:
Which of the following areas explains product selection/industrial
expertise of your company/organisation?
• We normally work as an independent company. But co-operation could be attractive
Other
General Information
Communication
Promotion & Accessories
Leasing/Renting of premises
Accommodation
Design & Engineering
Leasing and/or Renting of Tools/Equipment
Office supplies
Transport and Logistics
Accountancy, Financial, Insurance & Tax
HSEQ services
Recruitment
Safety Consultancy
Technical Consultancy
Business Consultancy
Catering
Construction
Courses & Training
Maintainance services
Safety systems
Control systems
Geological equipments
Instruments
• We are a part of a JV in Qatar, but would be interested to join
up with other companies elsewhere in the world
• Establishment of relevant networking
• We are starting a joined establishment in Vietnam
• If the opportunity is attractive enough
• Cannot be answered with a yes or a no. We would be open for
negotiations if conditions are acceptable.
0%
52
2%
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
4%
6%
8%
10%
The result shows that, the majority of respondents are interested in
being member of a consortium group, with the purpose of increasing
knowledge and potentials for further growth.
If No (we are not member of a consortium group),
is your company/organisation interested in joining
or establishing one?
42%
Exactly half of respondents that employ experience with cluster
groups consider their participation as either successful or moderately successful. In the light of how cluster cooperation can increase
growth potentials within a certain industry, the results are not satisfactory. It seems that there is a need within the Offshore Industry
to work on this subject, where nature of different clusters would be
optimized and at the same time, participants will learn how to benefit
from well driven clusters.
Is your company/organisation a member of a consortium group,
which has the purpose of increasing prospective for e.g. joint-orders?
No
58%
Yes
17%
Very successful
Moderate
29%
Rather unsuccessful
Disappointing
There are different aspects on what kind of cooperation is of interest among the respondents. The following shows which are most desired:
14%
33%
Other
8%
A very relevant comment on cooperation between organisations
with, the same customer target was welcomed here.
What kind of a cluster/consortium group would be the most desirable
for your company/organisation?
Companies/organisations with:
2%
Similar/same products
9%
13%
11%
Supportive products
Similar marketing experience
More advanced marketing
experience
11%
54%
Employing export experience
Other
Offshore Center Danmark
Dansk Olie og Gas - Internationalisering
53
Methods of Expansion
Export interest
Challenges in foreign countries
Almost eighty percent of respondents that are not exporting at current do want to expand their businesses to foreign markets, as shown
in the following graph.
Participants were asked about challences they could expect to meet
when entering International markets. It is obvious that Culture plays
a large role and points out the importance to learn how businesses
are conducted in the foreign country, a firm or other kind of organisation has decided to enter. It is also very relevant to see that Economic
situation is of high concern, which indicates e.g. economic growth
and the country´s ability to offer opportunities for new businesses in a
particular market. Law and regulations which often include different
degree of bureaucracy and complications on how to comply with it,
ranks as the third most awareness as foreign market challenge.
Does your company/organisation consider/plan to export your
goods/services?
7%
14%
Yes
No
Further comments
Which EXTERNAL challenges do you consider to be of major
importance when trying to expand your market abroad?
79%
challenge
challenge
challenge
challenge
Some further comments were like: “We have a strong urge to export
some of our products - Mainly to newer markets”
challenge
Network connections
Tariffs
Desired export countries
Protection of domestic industries
Norway is most popular as the most desired export market, where
50% prefer Norway as their 1st choice as export market. The second
1st priority is Germany (13%), followed by Qatar as the 1st choice by
almost 12% of respondents.
Restrictions for foreign entrants
Currency fluctuations
Corruption
Laws and regulations
Political environment
Desired geographical markets for export?
Economic situation
choice
Language
choice
Culture – business and in general
choice
0%
10%
20% 30% 40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
choice
choice
60,00%
50,00%
Challenges within the organisation
40,00%
30,00%
A lack of competent personnel within the member organisations
appear as the greatest barrier for market expansion, where 96% of
respondents choose this availability as the most important one. Financial resources were chosen as the 2nd barrier, where 88% considered it as challenging. These were followed by Marketing & sales,
Knowledge on market expansion and Mobility of personnel, scoring
80%, 77% and 78% respectively. It is also remarkable to consider
that 64% of respondents place Human resources and Marketing &
sales as their 1st challenge towards market expansion abroad.
20.00%
10.00%
0,00%
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Which INTERNAL challenges do you consider to be of major importance when trying to expand your market abroad?
challenge
challenge
challenge
challenge
challenge
0%
An additional comment referring to a concrete problem facing many
organisations: “finding the clients – this is our biggest problem”. Here
a screening of a market within a particular industry could help to
locate the important buyers. In terms of export, the different Trade
Councils within the Danish embassies around the world can be of
assistance, as well as consulting bureaus employing knowledge on
individual markets and growth strategies.
Expansion strategies
Using presumed indications on how organisations can be prepared
for expansion, the respondents were asked to choose 1 – 4 possibilities. Less than 1/3 of respondents consider their organisations
prepared in the way as described below:
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
120%
Expansion expectations
It can be difficult to foresee the organisation’s future growth, but nevertheless a well driven one should have made growth plans and to
which degree. Three questions were asked about how much the
organisations within Offshore Centre Denmark, expect to expand the
next three, five and 10 years.
The following chart show how 54 respondents foresee future growth
within 3 years.
In terms of turnover, how much do you expect your
company/organisation to grow in the next 3 years?
25%
Preparation for future expansion (domestic and/or international).
How is your company/organisation prepared for:
20%
15%
17%
26%
10%
27%
30%
5%
0%
010%
11 - 21 - 31 - 41 - 51 - 61 - 71 - 81 - 91 - 101 - 151 - 201 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 150% 200% 300%
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55
This chart shows how the same respondents expect the organisation to grow within the becoming 5 years.
In terms of turnover, how much do you expect your
company/organisation
to grow
theyou
next
3 years?
In terms of turnover, how
muchindo
expect
your
company/organisation to grow in the next 5 years?
16,00%
14,00%
Growth strategy
The answers towards which growth strategy the organisations expect to use are almost divided 50/50 between organic growth and a
mixture of growth through internal expansion and acquiring or merger
with others. This indicates that the organisations are confident towards own ability to expand (meaning; gradually increasing turnover
and profits), which include both advantages and disadvantages. A
large barrier that often follow merger with other organisations, is their
culture and personnel perspective of the other one. This includes
most often a great challenge to the management.
12.00%
10.00%
Which of the following statements fit to the strategy
for future expansion of your company/organisation?
8,00%
6.00%
4.00%
Through organic
growth
2,00%
47%
51%
0,00%
010%
11 20%
21 30%
31 40%
41 50%
51 60%
61 - 71 70% 80%
81 - 91 - 101 - 151 - 201 - 301 90% 100% 150% 200% 300% 500%
Both through organic
growth and
acquisitions/mergers
2%
As can be expected it can be difficult to predict growth that cover
the becoming 10 years, but nevertheless 1/3 of 52 respondents, do
expect between 100% to 1.000% growth within this period.
In terms of turnover, how much do you expect your
company/organisation to grow in the next 10 years?
20,00%
18,00%
16,00%
14,00%
12.00%
10.00%
8,00%
6.00%
4.00%
2,00%
0,00%
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Through
acquisitions/mergers
Marketing Strategy
Intensive growth
Integrative growth
In order to grow, organisations have to decide, which markets they
expect to focus on. Igor Ansoff (1918-2003 often called; the father of
modern strategic thinking) presented a matrix that focus on present
and potential products and markets.
Backward, forward or horizontal growth can often contribute to organisations sales and profits. However, integrating can also mean
competing in a different business that extends the organisation’s
core competences. So the question becomes if the organisation is
capable of being a top market player in its core business, when at the
same time it use resources on developing other business units.
Looking at the result from respondents it shows that very few prefer
integrating backward and forward, which might indicate that the majority prefer to expand within their own area of expertise.
Products - supplies - technology
New
Present
Market penetration
Market development
Which of the following statements fit to the strategy for future
expansion of your company/organisation?
3%
Backward integration (aquisitions of
suppliers - upstream)
16%
New
Market - demand - customers
Present
Product development
Diversification
Forward integration (acquisitions of
distribution - downstream)
31%
16%
Source: Baker & Hart (2007), Procct strategy and management
None of the above
Other
34%
The questions shown in the graph refer to this matrix, in a revised
version, that can be of assistance for organisation leaders to identify
which marketing strategies might fit their product selection, organisational structure and marketing opportunities.
App. 1/3 of the respondents uses market development strategy,
where organisation’s current products are used to develop new markets. The same number of respondents is using product development strategy where new products are developed to increase market share among their existing customer. This is a good sign, as one
of the vital thing to secure the organisations future existence, is to
present new products and innovations that can benefit their customers. Around 1/5 are using market penetration and diversification
strategies as a way to expand.
Horizontal integration
(acquisition/merger with e.g.
competitors)
Diversification growth
This kind of growth strategy can be used when good opportunities
can be found outside the present businesses e.g. when the industry
is highly attractive and the company has the mix of business strengths
to be successful. The responses show that majority of respondents
follow the most secure strategy to develop new products that can
be applied to the organisation’s existing competences and markets.
Which of the following statements fit to the strategy for future
expansion of your company/organisation?
Which of the following statements fit to the strategy for future
expansion of your company/organisation?
3%
20%
18%
19%
Current products to current markets
(portfolio management)
Current products to new markets
(market expansion - geographically
and/or industrially)
New products that have
technologial or marketing synergies
with existing product lines
New products unrelated to the
current product line
8%
70%
31%
31%
New products to current markets
(productdevelopment/innovation)
New business units with no
relationship to the current
technologies, products or markets
Other
New products to new markets
(product and market development/
innovation)
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57
Growth area
Different reasons drive organisations to seek for new market opportunities. Some factors include more convenience by searching
opportunities in domestic markets, like challenges to comply with
language, culture, volatile currencies, political situation, legal uncertainties, redesign of products and etc. Other factors like decline in
demand on domestic markets, prospective of economies of scale
and industry expertise, encourage organisations to seek opportunities abroad.
In this perspective it is not surprising to see that more than 1/3 of
respondents within Offshore Oil & Gas industry choose the strategy
of growth within their own industry on international markets. 20% of
respondents, currently exporting are seeking growth on additional
foreign markets.
In relation to future growth, which methods fit to the growth
strategy of your company/organisation?
2%
20%
Seeking growth, within the same
industry, on domestic
markets (domestic growth)
25%
16%
Seeking growth, within the same
industry, on international
markets (establishing export
activities)
Seeking domestic growth on other
industrial markets (than the
existing ones)
17%
36%
Seeking international growth on other
geographical markets
(than current export markets)
Other
Opportunities abroad
Various reasons lie behind the decision why the countries researched
have been chosen. One dominating reason is that Oil & Gas is extracted offshore in all these countries. Greenland is though not actual
at present, but seismic researches offshore Greenland have resulted
in positive expectations. Each country’s profile will be explained in the
handbook, which should be of good use for member organisations
within Offshore Centre Denmark. The researches are done in cooperation with Danish trade councils in Norway and Brazil, and the
Greenlandic employers association. Researches from Angola and
Nigeria have been conducted on behalf of Offshore Centre Denmark
in a good co-operation with The Danish Industrial development fund
(IFU) and other reachable stakeholders.
The researches conducted are based on archives, electronic or
physical, supported with empirical studies. The information provided
is therefore considered to be reliable facts, without generalising on
different beliefs about these markets prospective.
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The five markets researched
Norway
Brazil
Greenland
Angola
Nigeria
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59
Norway
Political Environment
Last year (2009) was election year and the political parties in Norway
were all taking a stand on the topic of oil and gas activities on the
Norwegian continental shelf. The oil and gas sector is a hot political
topic, not only because of the sectors huge importance with regards
to its contribution to the Norwegian economy, but also because of
the implications that increased oil and gas activity might have on the
Arctic regions and the overall environmental situation.
The Environment and the Norwegian States´ wish to expand oil and
gas activities in the Northern and Arctic areas, are two very hot and
conflicting political topics which have much of the election campaign
focus for most political parties. The largest political party in Norway,
Arbeiderpartiet (AP) – the workers party, wants to keep value creation, employment, and competences of the oil and gas sector at a
high level and suggests that extraction efficiency is increased through
intensified research and the use of CO2 injection. They say that the
exploration activity must be increased and interesting geographical
areas must be opened to the oil and gas industry.
The development of regions like the Barents Sea and the Norwegian
Sea should be done in cooperation with Russia in an effort to create
the best environmental surveillance and oil emergency preparedness in the world. Through thorough evaluation and monitoring of the
different Norwegian coastal areas, the government will decide which
areas should remain petroleum free and which should be opened to
the industry.
Norway
In the quest to find new areas of exploration for the oil and gas industry, the sitting government faces a lot of disagreements and protesting from local inhabitants, political parties, environmental interests,
and business interests. Especially the fishermen in the Northern areas have given their opinion on the possible invasion of oil companies
in their waters. Not only have they protested against any oil and gas
activity coming to their waters, but they have also claimed that the
seismic tests carried out during 2009 have damaged the population
of fish in the area. This has resulted in huge payments from the oil
and gas companies in order to get accept of the fishermen to do the
research
The oil price has been developing positively from a sector point of
view and is now at a level well above the “investment freezing point”
rising above 85 USD at the end of March 2010. Current unemployment figures might though dampen continuous rise. Growth of the
global manufacturing sector accelerated in March, with the latest
expansions in output and new orders emanating from a broad base
of nations. At 56.7, up from 55.4 in February 2010, the JPMorgan
Global Manufacturing PMI rose to its highest level since May 2004.
The headline PMI has remained above the no-change mark of 50.0
for nine consecutive months (Source: JPMorgan Global Manufacturing PMI).
This is good news for the industrial production sector, which has
been suffering the most during the financial crisis. The magic level of
50 indicates if manufacturing is expanding or decreasing.
The Economy
The Market
The latest macro economical analysis of the Norwegian economy
states that Norway has reached the bottom and economic indicators are pointing in a positive direction. Expansive financial politics
together with low interest rates and a maintained high level of oil
investments have carried Norway through the crisis in very strong
position compared to most other countries, resulting in projections
of GDP growth of almost 3% in 2010.
Norway has a major, but mature and highly competitive upstream oil
and gas sector, featuring most of the key national and international
operators and suppliers. The downstream oil segment is small, open
to competition and deregulated. Supplying to the upstream activities connected to finding and extracting the oil and gas resources
presents by far largest potential in the Norwegian oil and gas industry,
but with talk of developing new and remote areas in the North, supplying the downstream oil and gas segment within refining and distribution could prove to be a lucrative business in the coming years.
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Oil has been dominating the production on the Norwegian continental shelf since production began in the early 1970s. During recent
years production of natural gas has taken up an increasing part of the
total production of petroleum products in Norway and estimates for
future production predict that gas will become the main petroleum
product extracted from the Norwegian underground. This belief in
the natural gas resources of Norway means that several of the largest international oil and gas producing companies have long-term
investment plans for the Norwegian continental shelf in order to be
freed from their dependence of other more uncertain markets.
which is an increase from the year before and actually every year
since 1994. (See also graph on www.eia.doe.gov)
Achilles
Achilles Joint Qualification System (JQS) is a unique collaboration
between Norwegian and Danish oil and gas operators and management contractors. The participating organizations use the system to
provide information and to select suppliers and contractors when
buying goods and services. Those buyers not subject to the EC procurement directives are actively using the system as a joint vendor
database.
Norway Total Oil Production and Consumption, 1988-2008
Thousand Barrels per Day
4000
Production
3500
3000
2500
2000
Net Exports
1500
1000
Consumption
500
0
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
Being qualified by the Achilles is not an absolute demand if you wish
to become a supplier to the Norwegian oil and gas industry and of
course the expense connected to being qualified can seem large to
some companies. However, the qualification can be a way to ease
access to oil and gas contracts. For some of the main players in the
industry a preliminary evaluation of different supplier bids on a project
can sometimes be done upon whether or not the supplier is qualified
by Achilles. In that sense being qualified the Achilles can shorten the
process of winning supplier contracts and should be viewed as a
good investment.
Year
Source: EIA
The States´ intervention in the Norwegian oil and gas industry can
be viewed as both strength as well as weakness. Altough highly influenced by the Norwegian State and the government in decisions
concerning exploration licenses, the Norwegian oil and gas industry
has always been known as a fair and legally sound industry, not giving in to corruption and other kinds of fraud. This security provides a
great foundation for the Norwegian oil and gas industry to come out
on top and remaining one of the most attractive petroleum industries
in the world.
Expert opinions on when the existing oil and gas resources will run
dry various a lot and actual estimates lie in the range from 8 to 40
years. The opportunity is great if the operators succeed in developing
more efficient ways of extracting the oil compared to today. Also the
Northern regions around areas like Lofoten and also the Arctic Sea
represent great but still uncertain possibilities for the Norwegian oil
and gas industry, but there is a major hurdle to overcome in convincing the local habitants and politicians that the environment will not
be harmed.
Estimated proven reserves from January 2009 is 6,7 billion barrels
of oil and 81,7 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of natural gas (www.ogj.com).
The average production of oil measured from 2008 was about 2,47
million bbl/day.
The natural gas production accounted to 3,5 Trillion cubic feet (Tcf),
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61
Business Culture
Greetings are casual and follow no ritual. A handshake, eye contact
and a smile are enough when doing business in Norway. Although
Norwegians are relatively informal they will often introduce themselves using their surnames. People move to first names quickly but
until that occurs one should address people with “Herr” (Mr.) or “Fru”
(Mrs.) plus the surname.
When presenting one-self be sure not to appear too over confident
or self-promoting. A cornerstone of Norwegian culture is egalitarianism, embodied in what is called “Jante’s Law”. Jante’s Law teaches
people to be modest and humble. This is seen through most people’s
refusal to criticize others and the awareness not to flaunt their wealth
or financial achievements.
Cultural Dimensions - The 5D Model of professor Geert Hofstede
100
80
60
Scores
Meeting & Greeting
40
20
0
Denmark
Norway
PDI
IDV
MAS UAI
LTO
Communication
Final Considerations
If one were to sum up the Norwegian communication style it would be
informal, transactional and direct. Due to the influence of egalitarianism, Norwegian business culture lacks airs and graces. On the whole
people are generally easy going and informal in business dealings
and communication. However, informality does not offer anyone a
license to act unprofessionally. It is important to always remain polite
and respectful when doing business in Norway.
With economic challenges still playing a significant role within the oil
and gas industry, focus from Danish companies, who are interested
in winning contracts on the Norwegian continental shelf, should be
on building long-term relations and not so much on making deals her
and now. The sector is “holding its breath” and not many projects are
carried out right now. But future expectations and the right development of the oil price could boost the activity quickly and that is why
building relations for tomorrow is so important.
Although business is transactional in nature, there is still the need to
build trust and confidence. This is achieved through building rapport
but at the same time providing lots on background information on
yourself, experience, qualifications and that of your company. Relationships develop slowly.
Norwegians are straight-talkers and not very emotive. They have no
difficulty disagreeing with people or speaking their minds within a
business context as this is viewed as separately to personal life. Criticisms and the like are more often than not based on facts rather than
opinion. They are scrupulous about honesty in communication, often
to the point of pointing out the negatives in their own proposals in
greater detail than the positives.
Specific market opportunities for Danish suppliers in existing production areas on the Norwegian continental shelf:
• Environmental technologies like Carbon Capture and Storage
(CCS)
• Removal of old rigs in fully exploited oil fields
Meetings & Negotiating
• Exploration technology and reservoir characterisation
Punctuality is imperative when doing business in Norway. If delayed
always call ahead to warn people. Business meetings will have a
small amount of small talk but quickly get down to the business at
hand. Try and mirror the tempo the hosts are working at. If presenting, ensure you back up arguments or concepts with concrete facts
and figures neatly organized in charts. Norwegians are analytical
thinkers and this helps them reach conclusions easily. Avoid hype or
exaggerated claims in your presentation when in meetings or doing
business in Norway.
• Enhanced recoveries
(Soruce:http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/etiquette/doing-business-norway.html)
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• Cost-effective drilling and intervention
• Integrated operations and real time reservoir management
• Gas technologies
• Supply of skilled workers on project basis
Specific market opportunities for Danish suppliers in future production areas on the Norwegian continental shelf:
Danske Rigger & Stilladsservice has supplied their expertise within
mounting scaffolds in difficult and dangerous conditions such as the
Norwegian offshore, and oil and gas industries.
(For more information go to www.drs-aps.com)
• Onshore or sea level operated robots
• Transportation of Liquid Natural Gas (LNG)
Fugro Denmark provides geotechnical and geo-scientific products
and services for the oil and gas industry to help determining the contents of fossil fuels hidden deep in the Norwegian continental shelf.
• Subsea processing and transportation
(For more information go to www.fugro.no)
• Deep water and subsea production technology
Nordisk Højtryk provides high pressure equipment and pumps for
the offshore industry as well as chemical injection systems for the oil
and gas industry.
• Environmental facilities in the new northern regions
(For more information go to www.nh-as.dk)
• Environmental technologies like Carbon Capture and Storage
(CCS)
Ropenhagen A/S (former Usha Martin Scandinavia) supplies steel
wires to amongst other, the Norwegian oil and gas industry.
• Removal of old rigs in fully exploited oil fields
(For more information go to www.ropenhagen.eu)
• Exploration technology and reservoir characterisation
Scan Con has provided high quality manning solutions for offshore
operators in Norway and other countries.
• Enhanced recoveries
(For more information go to www.scan-con.dk)
• Cost-effective drilling and intervention
Semco Maritime A/S is one of the larger players in the supplier segment and offers a lot of different products and services to companies
within the Norwegian oil and gas, and offshore industries.
• Integrated operations and real time reservoir management
(For more information go to www.semco.dk)
• Gas technologies
• Supply of skilled workers on project basis
Danish companies within environmental technologies and services
will have a strong position in the future development areas in the far
Northern regions of Norway. Existing Norwegian companies within
this field have described themselves as falling behind international
companies, because of the lack of government attention to these
technologies for many years. Great potential lies within this part of
the supply business and Danish companies have to be ready to react
to this expected demand.
Denmark is also represented by some larger players in the offshore
industry. Companies like DONG Norge, Maersk Oil & Gas Norge,
Rambøll Oil & Gas, Semco, Danfoss and others are all represented in
the Norwegian offshore industry through subsidiaries.
Common to all Danish companies who have had success in the Norwegian oil and gas industry is that delivering quality products and
services has been one of the most important values within each company. The offshore, and oil and gas businesses set strict and very
high standards for suppliers and therefore all companies who are
serious about becoming regular suppliers to these industries should
seriously consider acquiring the certifications such as ISO and Achilles.
Furthermore estimates show that a great deal of maintenance has
to be done to existing oil rigs and other installations over the coming
years and also more oil fields are abandoned creating a demand for
removal of old rigs and connected installations. Danish companies
have had great success within these areas of expertise in the past
and this will represent a great opportunity for companies within these
areas.
A number of Danish companies have had great success for many
years supplying quality products and services to the Norwegian oil
and gas industry. Some of these successful examples are:
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Brazil
wards social spending on areas such as poverty relief, education
and infrastructure. Last, but not least, the government controlled
Petrobras will be issued USD 50bn of new capital.
Brazil
The proposed regulatory framework would have important implications for the development of Brazil’s oil sector. The emphasis upon
Petrobras as the sole operator in the pre-salt basin would surely slow
the pace of development of new projects, especially considering the
company’s already-aggressive development plans for pre- and postsalt oil reserves. The rules would also increase the government take
of profits from oil production, possibly reducing the incentive for private companies to participate. In addition, PSA structure proposed
in the legislation would give non-operating partners little influence
over project decisions. As of September 2009, the new regulations
were still being debated, and a final form had not yet emerged.
(http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/Brazil/Oil.html)
The latest news from April 2010 is that the law enforcement has not
been passed through the parliament. It was put on hold as a discussion on new kind of proposal on how the royalties shall be distributed
between the country´s states and the federal government. Furthermore, it is discussed now, if the law enforcement should be disclosed
before or after president election in October 2010.
Market expectations
The Brazilian Oil & Gas sector has evolved dramatically since the
Petrobras monopoly ending with market de-regulation in 1997. Over
the next 12 years, most major multinational oil companies have entered Brazil, which became a net oil exporter in late 2008.
In 2007, Petrobras discovered the first major pre-salt oil field, the Tupi
field, with an estimated 5-8 billion barrels of oil equivalent. The presalt discoveries can potentially make Brazil the 5th largest oil nation
in the world, with 114 billion barrels of oil reserves.
As of early September 2009 a new law proposal has been sent by
the Brazilian Government to the senate which will change the entire
market structure of the pre-salt area if passed.
Traditionally, national and international oil companies bidding at concession rounds would win the right to operate the specific field, own
the oil they might find and pay royalties to the local state.
The new regulative will introduce four new laws, which if passed, will
introduce a “shared production” regime to replace the concessionsbased system. Essential to the new laws is the creation of a new state
oil company, Petrosal, which will have the objective of managing the
pre-salt reserves. Furthermore, a fund will be created to manage
the government’s revenues from the reserves, directing them to-
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The expectations for the Brazilian Oil & Gas sector are very optimistic,
not least led by a revised investment plan of Petrobras from 174,5
billions to invest between USD 200 - 220 billions from 2010-2014,
including 63 new vessels and platforms.
The expected Brazilian Oil & Gas output for 2009 is 2.61 million boe/
day up from 2.4 million in 2008. With an expected 8.75% annual
increase in production, Petrobras will produce an estimated average
of 5.18 million boe/day by 2020.
Brazil’s Oil Production and Consumption
3000
Thousand Barrels per Day
Current market situation
2500
Consumption
200
1500
Production
1000
500
0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
Year
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
Source: EIA Short Energy Outlook, September 2009.
Opportunities for Danish suppliers
As the ultra-deep oil fields in the pre-salt area has caused the largest investment plans in the history of the country, it also makes Brazil one of the
most interesting and promising markets for the Danish offshore industry. As a way to illustrate the opportunities and the threats for Danish suppliers and sub-suppliers entering the Brazilian market, the Consulate General has prepared a simple SWOT analysis:
Strengths
► Huge reserves (high R/P ratio)
Weaknesses
► Bureaucracy:
► Leading O&G development in global comparison
• Red Tape infrastructure
• Goverment incfficiency
• Complex tax system
• Slow custom clearance
► No restrictions on business establishments
►
Geographical distance from Denmark
Opportunities
Threats
►
►
Economical benefits:
• Brazilian Real
• Brazilian Real 63% strong than USD over a five year
period
Oct. 2004-Oct. 2009
►
►
• Closed economy (entry barrier, WEF 87th)
• High tariffs
• Corruption
• IBP
• Oil price volatillity
- Investment uncertainty
- Purchasing price fluctuations
Financial Aspects:
• The Danish Export Credit Fund
- Export loan agreement (20 billions)
- Re-insurance agreement
• Considerable low interest rates
Cultural difference:
►
►
►
Expected domestic expenditure:
• Infrastructure development projects
• Petrobras investment plan 2009-2013
• USD 5 billion in investment cap to close within two
years
• Industrial
• Downstream oil refining and processing technology
• Upstream deepwather components. 71 PDE companies operating in brazilian shipyards
• Prospective business areas described by Danish
Trade Council (appendix 3)
• petrobras focus on environmentally sound production
processes
Cultural difference:
• Language difficulties
• Hierarchy decision process
• Understanding of time
Supplier market openings:
• Local company agent
• Danish Consulate Incubator service
• Trade fair like Rio Oil &Gas and Brasil Offshore
• CADFOR
• Petrobras Vendors list
Financial Aspects:
• Difficulties acquiring new investors
• Brazil in need of educated workforce
►
Economic disadvantages:
►
Monopoly business culture:
• Local industrial protection
• Global/local content percentage 40/60
• Petrobras market dominance
• Difficulty of getting on Petrobras Vendors list
►
Legal Framework:
• Difference in legal framework
• Red tape when sitting up a local company
• Non - tariff barriers such as needs for legal
authorization
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65
Business Culture
Greetings in Brazil are relaxed. Handshakes are used for greetings
between men, and a woman is greeted by either a handshake, or if
the event is more informal, one or two kisses on the cheeks (used
interchangeably).
Brazilians present themselves either by first name only, or a combination of first and surname. Although Brazilians are quite informal in
communication, it is common good practice to use Mr. and Mrs./
Miss. plus the surname, until the Brazilians themselves move to use
first name.
Communication
Brazil has a very strong group culture, and it is important that nothing
is done to appear to embarrass a Brazilian. It is fine to argue, but be
careful not to sound too aggressive. The direct Scandinavian form of
communication can lead to loss of face in Brazil.
This being said, communication does not rely on strict rules of protocol. Anyone who feels they have something to say will generally
add their opinion. Expect to be interrupted while you are speaking or
making a presentation. In Brazil it is considered acceptable to interrupt someone who is speaking.
Brazilians are emotional people, and personal opinions are often accepted on even level as objective analysis. If presenting, don’t be
afraid to demonstrate an opinion, but it is advised to be able to back
it up with facts.
When dealing with Brazilian companies, expect many questions
about your company since Brazilians are more comfortable doing
business with people and companies they know. In the same line,
Brazilians prefer face-to-face meetings to written communication as
it allows them to know the person with whom they are doing business.
Relationship building and personal contact is very important for Brazilians. Wait for your Brazilian colleagues to raise the business subject. Never rush the relationship building time.
Even though face-to-face, oral communication is preferred over written communication, when it comes to business agreements, Brazilians insist on drawing up detailed legal contracts.
Business Meetings & Negotiations
Brazilian business meetings are informal but respectful. Meetings are
often started with casual conversation and small stories to break the
ice. However, the informal and extroverted atmosphere should not
be seen as an excuse to act unprofessionally.
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Brazilians take time when negotiating. Do not rush them or appear
impatient. Expect a great deal of time to be spent reviewing details.
Brazilian business is hierarchical. Decisions are made by the highest-ranking person. Brazilians negotiate with people not companies.
Be careful about changing your negotiating team or you may have to
start over from the beginning.
In São Paulo and Brasilia it is important to arrive on time for meetings. In Rio de Janeiro and other cities it is acceptable to arrive a few
minutes late for a meeting.
Do not appear impatient if you are kept waiting. Brazilians see time
as something outside their control and the demands of relationships
takes precedence over adhering to a strict schedule.
Cultural Dimensions - The 5D Model of professor Geert Hofstede
100
80
60
Scores
Meeting & Greeting
40
20
0
Denmark
Brazil
PDI
IDV
MAS UAI
LTO
Greenland
estimates that occupational opportunities, among other Greenlandic companies will mainly be in tasks related services to international
Oil and Gas companies. BMP itself has defined a series of business
potentials, which relates the defined phases of oil and gas activities:
exploration, development/construction, production and settlement
phase.
Greenland
Activities in the exploration fase (max 10 years)
Transport
►
Helicopter service
►
Air transportation of personnel and merchandise
►
Boat charter
►
Crane and truck utilities
Installations
(Cowi report, with permission from The Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum in Greenland
www.bmp.gl)
Market opportunities in the mining area
Mining and oil and gas exploration is highly specialized work performed by companies with extensive experience and expertise in
these areas. However, there are many tasks that will be commissioned from outside.
BMP (The Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum) has described a
number of tasks, services, etc. which will provide business opportunities for enterprises in mining activities and oil and gas activities. The
lists should not be construed as exhaustive, but indicates the indication for which there are opportunities to obtain contracts.
It is characteristic for all proposed mining projects, that they will require their own infrastructure, especially local roads, shipping facilities, buildings for administration, maintenance and housing of personnel and in some cases an airstrip. Opportunities and conditions
for use of local labour.
The Greeenlandic Self-Government has, through the mining law
decided that licensees must employ manpower from Greenland or
Denmark, where skilled labor is available. Licensee must in principle
take advantage of Greenlandic companies except if these are not
technically or economically competitive. Employment assignments
in the various phases of Oil & Gas extraction.
The oil industry is a part of an international working environment, using highly skilled labour without commitment to its origin. The BMP
►
Establishment of camps
Services
►
Personnel service
►
Catering
►
Port services
►
Accommodation
►
Establishment of telecommunication
►
Waste management
►
Water supplies
Security
►
Hydrographic and meteorological data service
►
Emergency service
Administration
►
Authority Treatment
►
Environmental Consulting
►
Fishing License Verification
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Activities in the construction fase (3 - 5 years)
Transport
►
Transport of personnel and equipment
►
Boat charter
Activities in the production fase (30-50 years)
Transport
►
Maritime and air transportation to and from the production facility Charterhouse of both
Equipment
Installations
►
Installation of production equipment
►
Installations of production equipment
►
Maintenance of electrical installations
►
Construction of accommodation
►
Measurement of production facility
►
Maintenance of the main generator and turbine
►
X-mas Tree service (valve unit located on well top)
Services
►
►
Single anchor loading
Personnel service
►
►
Crane service
Catering
►
►
Maintenance of valves, compressors and pumps
Port services
►
Merchandise trade
►
Establishment of telecommunication
Security
Services
►
Catering
►
Port services
►
Training of staff
►
Hydrographic and meteorological data service
►
Supply of production facilities
►
Emergency service
►
Operation of nearby stock
►
Control of security health, environment and quality of pro
duction facilities
►
Merchandise trade
►
Wash and supply of workwear
►
Guard and accessibility
►
Chemical supply
►
Gas supplies
►
Establishment of telecommunications
Administration
►
Authority treatment
►
Environmental consulting
►
Fishing license verification
►
Communications agency
►
Corporate lawyer
►
Audit activities
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Security
►
Hydrographic and meteorological data service
►
Emergency service
►
Safety control, health, environment and quality of produc-
tion facilities
►
Safety training
►
Offshore nursing service
Activities in the decommissioning fase (2-3 years)
►
Maintenance of life saving equipment
►
Administration
►
Authority treatment
►
Transport of personnel and equipment
►
Environmental consulting
►
Boat charter
►
Fishing license verification
►
Communication unit/bureau
►
Legal activities
►
Audit activities
Administration
►
Authority treatment
►
Environmental consulting
►
Fishing license control verification
►
Communications agency
►
Legal activities
►
Audit activities
Transport
Equipment
►
None
Services
►
Catering
►
Port services
►
Merchandise trade
Security
►
Safety control, health, environment and quality of produc
tion facilities
►
Safety training
►
Emergency service
Administration
►
Authority treatment
►
Environmental consulting
►
Fishing license verification
►
Communication agency
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Market analysis
Substitute or complementary services
By applying the Five Forces model (Michael E. Porter 1979) the opportunities within this area can be analysed.
Short term:
There are little or no real opportunities to substitute the need for supplies of raw materials area with other solutions. To the extent that
there is a continued development in the mining sector, there will also
be a demand for suppliers to the industry.
Market entry
Short term:
The Greenland mineral-and hydrocarbon legislation says that Greenlandic businesses have a certain preference for tasks related to mining, as long they are competitive in price and quality. There is therefore a certain “pre-barrier” to enter this market
Longer term:
This situation is not expected to change over time.
It is estimated however that there will be many tasks that cannot be
solved by the Greenlandic companies or where the native companies will seek foreign partners to bid for tasks.
Short term:
In a number of niche areas (equipment, local transportation, etc.),
few and relatively well-known actors have established themselves.
These should normally not fear new entrants.
Operators of both mineral and oil and gas will focus on supply security
and reliability and will usually not be motivated to switch suppliers.
Many of the actors in the mineral industry and oil-gas industry are
non-Greenlandic and will therefore be dependent on a wide range of
support services from local or international contractors.
In both the construction phase and operational phases of various
projects, a series of subcontracts will be sought, where these special
services can not be supplied from Greenland, for example for equipment supplies, maintenance, various environmental benefits, etc.. In
these areas there will be a market for Danish companies.
Market Access for deliveries to the mining sector happens mainly in
special forums. Two annual fairs are held in Canada, where exploration companies, operators, contractors and others meet, present
skills and conclude on agreements.
A great deal of demanded services will be within infrastructure (ports,
roads, airstrip, energy, etc..) But on individual projects, it is unclear
to what extent it is the Greenlandic Self-government or, for example, mine operators who will be responsible for the construction of
these.
If the Greenlandic government, is the customer, market rules will be
in accordance with the infrastructure policies.
Longer term prospective:
Conditions for access to this market is expected in principle, not to
change significantly in the coming years. However, it is expected that
actors who gain experience within the market and with the International operators, will gain easier market access.
Suppliers´market power
Long term prospect:
Especially in infrastructure solutions, construction, light-service (catering, supply, etc..) The mining area can foresee increased competences from local suppliers.
There is still uncertainty about market size, ie. how many projects
will appear. Suppliers must therefore expect uncertainty about their
business base, which is a challenge in that market entry or exit, is
expensive.
Buyers´ market power
Short term:
The buyers (operators in the mining area) will initially be bound by the
local suppliers preference.
As far as Greenlandi cvendors do not come into consideration, the
market will be more open. On the mineral field, many projects located
so remote consequence in that there are no geographical advantages for local contractors. This applies particularly in the construction phase, where a great volume of material shall be sailed to the
mining area. Here, deliveries from most parts of Europe and North
America could come into the picture.
In an operational phase, the buyer’s market power is limited by the
fact that there are currently few suppliers to choose from.
Long term prospective:
In the longer term, an increasing number of tasks in the mining area
will attract more suppliers and thereby increase the possibility for
operators to switch providers. This applies for both, the projects in
the construction phase and the operation phase.
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Market rivalry
Short term:
The market for supplies to mining sector is currently small, but is expected to grow. The current market is characterized by few players
and thus limited competition.
The suppliers face great demand of capacity and reliable logistics
in order to act in the market. For those companies which have the
capacity, it is currently estimated that there are limited rivalry on the
market.
would mean sharp capacity constraints for both skilled labor and
supplies and will therefore open for a very large market.
For projects in the construction phase, the market will be particularly
in road constructions, buildings, port facilities, transport services delivery and servicing of earthmoving equipment etc.
In an operational phase, the most obvious market opportunities lie
within transportation, maintenance/servicing of equipment, internal
services of general construction tasks, etc..
Long term prospective:
There is great potential for mining development in Greenland, but it
remains uncertain how many projects are realized and at what time.
The uncertainty can mean that competitors will be reluctant to settle
in Greenland because of high estimated establishment costs.
With a sharp increase of operations within the mining area, it is likely
that an increasing number of local players become active and
build up a capacity to supply the market. But with opening
of several large mining projects and possible the Alcoa
project, a lack of capacity to establish and service
the sector can occur.
Conclusion on market
analysis
At this point the market for supplies
to the mining sector will continue
to be counted as unsafe.
A number of potential mining projects will be similar in
size as the current mining
activity. These include
Black Angel, Nalunaq
Gold Mine, Kring formulas and ruby mine at
Fiskenæsset. Development of these projects
will mean a quiet growth
in the market for services and supplies for the
mining area.
However if e.g., within a
five-year period , the Alcoa
plant, Malmbjerget, the Iron
project at Isua and establishment of an oil & gas field, there
market will be changed dramatically. Such a development
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SWOT offshore Greenland
(Analyses done in co-operation with the Greenlandic Employers
Association)
Strengths
►
Some of the world’s largest oil companies have been
signed exploration and exploitation licenses. Expected DKK 18 billion investment in the next 10 years.
►
Greenlanders used to work with Danish companies.
►
Danes have relatively good knowledge of Greenlandic conditions, competitive advantage compared to other companies from other countries.
►
An emerging market, favorable for new entrees.
►
A modern society with save political environment and transport and communication infrastructure at place.
Weaknesses
►
Lack of infrastructure suitable for the offshore industry.
Difficult to service the research and production facilities.
►
Long distances to markets, > More CO2 emissions
►
Ice conditions, darkness, harsh working environment
►
Living costs are high compared to other oil and gas
extraction locations.
►
Lack of carbon dioxide quotas (leads to more costs as the company has to buy a quota on the market for carbon emissions)
►
The cost level, High costs of field development gives a challenge to justify profitable operations.
►
►
Investment in carbon capture and storage technology to comply with increased focus on the environmental factors (Danish knowledge)
►
Need for technological and academic expertise as well as special equipment
►
New demand for environmental and production technology suitable for Greenlandic conditions.
►
In the case of a possible test drilling there is an enormous need for production facilities and infrastructure. Danish specialized workforce and expertise needed. Most likely scenario that production facilities will be constructed out of Greenland and then towed to the production site.
►
(What is the Greenlandic government doing to attract companies? Favorable fiscal terms?)
►
(Investment in gas pipes to Canada, or investment in lique
fied natural gas carriers) Most demand growth for gas in recent years. (depends on the amount of gas and oil)
►
Need for workforce from other countries due to a small labor force
Threats
►
The oil price development, increases/decreases in the oil price can have a huge effect on current and future invest
ment plans of most oil producing companies.
►
Environmental issues, pressure to reduce CO2 emissions
►
Will Greenland get an exemption from the new climate agreement?
Sparsely populated areas in remote locations, long
distances to nearest towns
►
Environmental organizations – Greenlandic waters a home for rare animals
Small labor force (28.243 people, January 2009)
►
Possible conflicts between local fishermen/hunters and the oil companies
►
Will the oilfields be considered commercially viable? Oil or gas, heavy oil or light oil?
Opportunities
►
Good project opportunities within the key Danish compe-
tences in oil industry, such as ships for service and supply, oil and gas transport, drilling technology.
►
Export of know how to Greenland
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Further considerations:
Governmental influence and/or significance of the state’s role. Tax
environment: Will the Greenlandic exploitation evolve in the same
way as in Norway, with less private influence and more governmental
involvement?
PEST offshore Greenland
Political
Greenland is a modern, democratic, self-governing and politically
stable society, strongly associated to Denmark in areas including
common currency, jurisdiction and defence.
Historical Background:
Before the introduction of Home Rule in 1979, the Greenland population was only involved in the government of the country to a limited
extent. With the establishment of the Home Rule Government, it became possible for Greenland to assume legislative and executive
power regarding Home Rule matters.
Greenland achieved Self Government 21. June 2009. Fields of responsibility that the Government of Greenland has the possibility of
taking over if requested are for example, the natural resource area,
police and prosecution service, the administration of justice, alien and
border controls, the field relating to company law, accounting and
auditing, financial regulation and supervision among other fields.
With the introduction of Self Government, 21.June 2009, the Government of Greenland took over the responsibility of the natural resource area and thereby the administration of oil and gas extraction
in Greenland.
Policies concerning oil and gas research in Greenland.
There is a strong national consensus that Greenland’s oil and gas
potential should be developed in order to diversify the economy. To
stimulate exploration activities, a licensing policy has been issued
including licensing rounds in 2002, 2004 and 2006. An open door
procedure for other areas is in force. According to the Government
of Greenland’s Coalition Agreement for 2009-2013 the exploitation
of the non-living resources is accepted as an important potential,
though not at the expense of the environment.
The Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum deals with all companies applying for exploration licenses in Greenland in a “one-door” process,
normally making it unnecessary for applicants to contact other departments within the Government of Greenland.
Licenses are granted on terms very similar to the well-known terms
applying in countries around the North Sea. There is, however, a
pressure from the government that as many jobs, created within carbohydrates extraction, should be occupied by the local work force.
Economical
Currently the Greenlandic economy is borne by the public service
sector, fisheries and fishing industries, construction sector, and trade
in goods and services. Nearly 30% of the economic activity is financed by the Danish state in the form of a block grant. The prospect
of rising global prices of carbohydrates in the long term has awakened a new interest in the potential of exploiting Greenland’s natural
resources. According to Dr. Fatih Birol, the chief economist at the
International Energy Agency, higher oil prices are likely in the foreseeable future as there is a rapid increase in demand and stagnation, or even a decline, in supply of oil and gasses. That the rate of
decline in oil production is now running at nearly twice the pace as
calculated just two years ago. (The Independent August 3, 2009)
This makes Greenland an attractive place for searching for oil as it
is one of the few areas where there is still a potential for gigantic oil
discoveries and significant chances of finding commercially viable
fields with significant amounts of recoverable carbohydrates.
Greenland has a great investment potential within a number of
sectors, and the government has implemented schemes to promote trade in order to make it easy and attractive for foreign firms
to establish themselves and invest in Greenland.
Demand from the oil business
As most of the companies that have the resources to invest in oil
exploration are big international organizations the direct effect on
employment or demand in the start up phase will mainly be in the
service sectors; Hospitality, trade and transport. As most of the
oil companies will use their own resources and employers in the
establishment of oil and gas producing facilities.
Economic impact of CO2 quotas and the arctic environment:
Greenland is obliged in accordance with the Kyoto agreement. In
2001 Greenland came to an agreement with Denmark about the
ratification of the Kyoto agreement on behalf of Greenland as a
part of the Kingdom of Denmark.
If Greenland is to buy CO2 quota it will result in an increase of
the overall costs of production in the country regardless of which
kind of production that might be. Currently Greenland’s CO2 emissions are 674.000 tons in 2007 which is an increase from the
Kyoto agreement’s base year 1990. That year the emissions were
625.000 tons and Greenland has made a commitment to reduce
its emissions by 8% until 2012. It is obvious that Greenland cannot
stand by its commitment. Greenland has, however, implemented
renewable energy resources in the form of hydropower plants that
support the biggest towns with electricity, but this effort is not
sufficient to support the obligations of Greenland to reduce CO2
emissions.
The Government of Greenland has a vision that Greenland will not
have to meet its obligations in limiting its CO2 emissions according
to the coalition agreement of the current Government. Greenland
will have to purchase CO2 quotas on the market depending on the
outcome of special Greenlandic arrangements in future climate
agreements, and therefore companies that want to invest in the
oil research and exploitation possibility in Greenland will have to
include this cost factor into their assessment of the return on the
investment. It is expected that Greenland’s CO2 emissions will
increase from 600-2500% the coming years.
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The costs of purchasing CO2 quotas have to be added to already
higher unit cost in Greenland than in other areas. To produce one
barrel of oil in the Middle East costs USD 10, in the North Sea the
costs are USD 30 and it expected that the costs in Greenland will be
even higher, regardless of the CO2 costs due to the icy conditions,
the harsh weather and long distances from towns to the oilfields and
to the markets.
Neighbouring areas such as the North Sea have already secured
themselves significant CO2 quotas. The oil companies situated in
those areas can produce without the economical burden of having to
purchase quotas. Greenland would have to buy quota for the entire
production while the other players in the market do not have to purchase quotas at all. This will serve as a barrier for a start of production
and will make Greenland’s competitive position skewed.
Purchasing of quotas
Because Greenland is not a part of the EU, Greenland does not have
direct access to the EU market for CO2 quotas. This means that
Greenland and its companies do not have access to the EU’s internal
CO2 market, but hypothetically Denmark could purchase quotas on
the internal market and then resell them to Greenland. This is not a
likely scenario as Denmark is currently struggling with its own emission problems.
There are two other possibilities of acquiring quotas. First one being
purchasing unused CO2 quotas from primary the east, so called ‘Assigned Amount Units’. The second one is to invest in climate projects
in underdeveloped countries; this can be a direct investment or purchasing of a certificate.
The former Climate and Energy Minister of Denmark Connie Hedegaard has guaranteed that Denmark will not use Assigned Amount
Units to meet its climate obligations. As Denmark still has the responsibility of ratifying agreements on climate changes on behalf of
Greenland this statement is an obstacle for companies that wish to
purchase those quotas on the markets. (www.klimadebatten.dk)
The price of quotas is expected to only get higher in the future as
pressures for reducing CO2 will most likely increase and the demand
for those quotas will accelerate. To what extent Greenland can get
an exemption from the CO2 obligations after the year 2012 will determine Greenland’s competitive capability in regards to other oil and
gas exploiting areas and to what extent an investment will be made
in the sector. Decisions made at the UN climate conference COP15
in Copenhagen in December, can become a determining factor for
establishment of oil and gas activities in Greenland.
Socio-cultural
The Greenlandic culture and current industrial base is attached to the
nature and the environment, which could lead to more environmental
protectionism. Greenland has a limited amount of people in the labour force or 32.080 people. (2008, 15 to 62 years born in Greenland
and others that live in towns) The unemployment rate is at 4,7%
(2007 numbers only available for towns).
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Big investments in the oil and gas sector will most likely change the
composition of the labour force. More people will choose to leave the
fisheries industry for more lucrative oil and gas related jobs. The same
applies for educated people that will be attracted by relative well paid
jobs in the oil and gas sector and that will eventually create a need for
qualified workers in the public and the private sector. This will in turn
put pressure on the Greenlandic educational sector as more people
choose to seek education within the field of oil and gas extraction and
the supporting businesses.
Therefore it is believed that the educational sector will grow considerably if resources will be allocated to the sector. The Greenlandic
education system is official and completely financed by the Greenlandic Government. The Government has therefore to be supported
in its efforts to educate the people in line with the new fields of employment. The supporting businesses such as the hospitality sector,
transport, and trade are believed to create most local employment
on land.
One can expect that the effect on local employment of oil and gas
exploitation will not be as significant as on land activities such as mining and aluminium production as the international oil companies will
primarily import their own workforce.
Technological
The technological challenges of the Greenlandic oil and gas extraction potential arise as a result of other challenges concerning the
players, the future goals, and the surroundings of the sector.
►
Technology that locates the oil fields with more precision so that test drilling will be limited to fields with more likeli
hood of being commercially viable. For example more ad
vanced seismic research methods.
►
Technology, that makes it cost efficient to extract from and manage oilfields in a harsh environment and to export the oil or gas in an effective and efficient manner long distances.
►
Technology that minimizes CO2 emissions, with capture and storage.
►
Technology, that secures coexistence between local fishing industries and production companies.
►
Investment in technology concerning rescue on sea with long distances to hospitals, and investment in technology for recovering vast amounts of oil from the sea if released from shipwrecked tankers or from production facilities.
►
Furthermore the projects in Greenland are of such a cha
racter that special attention must be paid to security and environmental issues as well as developing efficient ways of servicing remote production facilities.
With reference to an exploratory research on culture in Greenland, it
appears that knowledge in English is not very common among the
general population. Most programs on TV are Danish broadcasts
or Danish subtitled foreign episodes. The majority of newspapers
and magazines are of Danish origin. There are three dialects spoken
in Greenland; East, West and North district dialect. Increased technology has contributed to the acceleration of communications with
other Inuit societies abroad. The Danish culture is therefore the most
dominated “foreign” culture in Greenland.
The society is to a considerable degree, divided between the Greenlanders and Danes, and “the ones between”. With reference to a
survey made by the research institute “Arctic living conditions” (www.
arcticlivingconditions.org), where knowledge in Danish and satisfaction with the mixture between income and fishing capture and the
importance of Greenlandic way of living, is measured, these result in
the following estimate shown in the following chart, made with reference to G. Hofstede´s researches on cultural dimensions:
Cultural Dimensions - The 5D Model of professor Geert Hofstede
80
70
60
Scores
50
Denmark
40
Greenland
30
20
10
0
PDI
IDV
MAS UAI
LTO
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Angola
Crude oil has been commercially exploited in Angola since its discovery onshore in 1955, which makes the Angolan oil industry a decade
older than the Danish oil industry. The sector has grown rapidly since
then, and especially after 1980, facilitated by the successful attraction
of large foreign investments and technological expertise from the major
international oil companies. Production is expected to come increasingly from deep-water offshore fields, with higher production costs and
more challenging technological requirements, as shallower, more mature fields closer to shore gradually decline.
Angola
Angola’s oil industry appears to be an attractive investment opportunity,
offering foreign companies favourable geology, low operating costs,
and constructive business approach from the Angolan government.
Proven oil reserves in Angola have tripled in the last seven years and
approximately 90% of Angola’s government revenues come from the
sale of oil.
According to the Oil and Gas Journal (OGJ), as of January 2010 Angola
has proven oil reserves of 9.5 billion barrels while statements made by
the Angolan oil minister in December 2009 put total reserve numbers
as high as 13.1 billion barrels. The majority of Angola’s oil reserves are
located in offshore blocks, in part because onshore exploration was
limited as a result of the civil war. However, there are some proven reserves onshore around the northern city of Soyo and also, in the disputed Cabinda Province
(U.S. Energy Information Administration).
The proven number ranks it as number 18th on the world’s scale. The
majority of the reserves are located in Angola’s offshore blocks. Angola’s crude oil production has more than quadrupled over the past two
decades. Oil production was on average 1.82 million bbl/day in 2009,
but the country is actually bounded by a recent production quota of
between 1.52 and 1.66 million bbl/day, since it became a member of
the OPEC countries in 2007. As a consequence Angola´s daily production is 200.000 bbl/day below capacity (which is around 2, 1 million
bbl/day).
Angola’s Oil Production and Consumption, 1999 - 2009
2000
Total Production *
1750
1500
1250
Crude Production Net Exports
1000
750
500
* Total Production includes all liquids
250
Consumption
0
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Year
Source: EIA International Energy Annual; Short - Term Energy Outlook
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Angola’s national oil company, Sociedade Nacional de Combustiveis
de Angola (Sonangol), was established in 1976 and made the sole
concessionaire for exploration and production in 1978. Sonangol
works with foreign companies through both joint ventures and Production Sharing Agreements, funding its share of production through
oil-backed borrowing.
The top foreign oil companies operating in Angola are US-based
ChevronTexaco and ExxonMobil, France’s Total, UK’s BP, UK/Dutch
Shell, and Italy’s Agip/Eni Oil Company. The most active in Angola
is ChevronTexaco (60% of current output) and Total (36%). Maersk
Oil Angola and partners have in 2006 entered Production Sharing
Agreements with SONANGOL where Maersk Oil is designated operator and holds a 50% working interest.
The Fina Petroleos de Angola refinery in Luanda, a Joint Venture between Sonangol, Total and private investors, has a crude oil processing capacity of 39,000 bbl/d. The refinery produces almost all of Angola’s domestic requirements of gasoline, kerosene and jet fuel, as
well as a small amount of products for export. Angola is developing
plans for a new 200,000 bbl/d refinery, SonaRef, in the coastal city of
Lobito. The project was initially to be built in partnership with Sinopec
but the Chinese company withdrew as a result of disagreements
regarding the market for products. Sonangol is now proceeding with
the SonaRef project but the project completion date is now slated for
2014-2015. The new refinery will be able to process heavy crudes,
such as those found in the Kuito and Dalia fields. In the interim, the
expected demand increases will continue to be met by product imports Angola has proven natural gas reserves of 9,6 trillion cubic feet
as of January 2010. The majority of natural gas produced in Angola is
flared; the remainder is re-injected to aid in oil recovery or processed
in the production of liquefied petroleum gas.
The Angolan oil sector is a major driver for the country’s economical growth and related political stability. The oil sector, operating offshore, did not experience many disruptions throughout the period
of civil war and was able to attract substantial foreign investments.
The entire Angolan oil industry is with a very few exceptions operated
by foreign companies. Absence of a local service industry creates
some specific challenges to the oil industry. These challenges manifest themselves as gaps in the industrial service available in Angola,
which on the other hand can be seen as the opportunities for the
foreign players to enter the market.
In this relation five key opportunities have been selected
as the ones with the biggest potential:
►
HSSE regulations in Angola are strict and supposedly similar to the North Sea. The Angolan Environmental Services (Essa) is the main institution, which focuses on professional training specifically related to work safety in the oil industry. Essa is one of the Sonangol subsidiaries and provides most of the basic training. The main opportunities for intervention are the practical part of training and training of trainers.
►
Fabrication and construction is the largest area of demand by the oil industry operating in Angola. It is a sector where foreign investments are highly feasible. Most aspects of fabrication require highly specialized and technical skills that are currently not present in Angola, thus creating an
opportunity.
►
There is a substantial demand for preventive maintenance within the Angolan oil industry, but the current supply suffers from limited capacity and competition and related high
prices. As a consequence, many companies within the oil industry frequently send equipment and machines out of the country to have them adequately repaired.
►
The area of electrical equipment and electronics offers opportunities for companies – experts in process control
systems, instrumentation, industrial telecommunications networks and electrical installations; those working
with unit shutdowns, modernisation of information and process control systems, control room ergonomics and industrial architecture, industrial analysers or automation of oil and gas transport networks, etc.
►
In relation to hydraulics, pneumatics, pumps and acces-
sories the situation is similar to the one described above in relation to electrical equipment and electronics with no domestic fabrication and all the products being imported to Angola.
Additionally there are some ongoing and upcoming projects in
Angola providing concrete opportunities within all the above
listed fields.
Foreign investment is considered crucial to Angola’s reconstruction
process and the promotion of foreign investment is a major priority of
the Angolan government. The regulatory framework for the private
sector has been improving over the past couple of years, so does the
promotion and support of local business sectors.
A number of recently established independent Angolan companies
are looking for joint venture partners with expertise. Additionally, Sonangol invites foreign companies to participate in the rapidly growing
oil related activities, provided they fulfill the related requirements of
involving Angolans in these activities.
Business environment
Foreign investment is considered crucial to Angola’s reconstruction
process and the promotion of foreign investment is a major priority of
the Angolan government.
The regulatory framework for the private sector has been improving
over the past couple of years, so does the promotion and support
of local business sectors. The government has recently introduced
some changes aimed at eliminating duplications and ambiguities
with the approval of several laws, such as the company and private
investment laws. The new Foreign Investment Law was passed in
1995. In 2004, a new Petroleum Activities Law came into force. It
seeks to standardise future production sharing agreements, streamline the licensing process for granting rights to engage in exploration
and production activities, and clarify the roles of the Ministry of Petroleum, Sonangol and operating companies.
Taking the next step and enforcing these laws would result in more
effective supporting and promoting of the private sector.
In Angola, most international oil companies are currently involved in
social responsibility programs including health, education and development activities. Under some contracts the partners in a particular
block are obliged to devote a percentage of the block’s revenues to
fund such corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities.
Most companies note that they plan their CSR activities in consultation with the Angolan authorities. Some also sub-contract at least a
portion of such activities.
Related to the companies’ corporate social responsibility programs
is the drive towards local content. Despite positive contribution to
GDP and exports, oil projects in developing countries typically have
very high import intensity and very few linkages with local business.
The Angolan authorities have expressed a wish to see more local
personnel in international oil company activities. Direct references to
local content in the new petroleum law include the following:
• Support the professional education of Angolans
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• The companies operating in Angola must include Angolan citizens at every level of staff providing they possess the required
expertise: payment and other conditions shall be the same.
Although the linkages have started to grow, the integration between
domestic and foreign business remains limited to very low skilled
activities, such as catering and cleaning. The lack of domestic skilled
labour is today too big to and this is understood by both - international companies as the Angolan government.
SWOT - Angola
Strengths
►
Extreme growth in proven oil reserves
►
An emerging market, favourable for the new entrees
►
Tax regime is relatively attractive compared with other African oil producing countries
►
Big investments from Danish operator Maersk Oil
Weaknesses
►
Higher costs of field development
►
Technical difficulties working in deep and ultra-deep
waters
►
Lack of infrastructure
►
Expensive business start-up and high living costs
►
Logistical challenges
Opportunities
►
Good project opportunities within the key Danish competences in oil industry
►
Export of know-how to the fast developing country
►
Operational platform for access to the neighbouring
Afri can markets
Threats
►
Political institutions are untested and unstable
►
Bureaucracy and corruption remain a challenge
►
Domination of Sonangol and its subsidiaries
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Market strategy
A proposed market strategy for Danish company (to be considered
as an advice only) is to go to Angola as a consortium consisting of
a group of a few companies. This solution should help minimizing
the start-up costs and related risks and offer more comprehensive
technological solutions. As establishing good local contacts are crucial for the future success, setting up a local representative office in
longer term is a must.
Business contracts may in many cases be made abroad, contacting
the head offices of the international companies – 1st tier service providers in Angola. Here all the existing contacts or business relationships with these international companies become handy.
Knowledge of Spanish/Portuguese helps to mingle in the local business circles and to come in contact with potential business partners
and particularly representatives of the governmental institutions - although communication within the oil industry and related authorities
happens in English.
Nigeria
Nigeria’s economy is struggling to leverage the country’s vast wealth
in fossil fuels in order to displace poverty that affects a large part of its
population. Nigeria’s exports of oil and natural gas have enabled the
country to post merchandise trade and current account surpluses
in recent years. Reportedly, 80% of Nigeria’s energy revenues flows
to the government, 16% cover operational costs, and the remaining
4% go to investors.
Nigeria
European investments are increasing and companies interested in
long-term investment and joint ventures, especially those that use
locally available raw materials, are able to find opportunities in the
large national market. However, to improve prospects for success,
potential investors must educate themselves extensively on local
conditions and business practices, establish a local presence, and
choose their partners carefully.
The major threat to Nigeria in terms of its security situation lies in its
fragile political and economic unity. Much of the political intrigue in Nigerian politics is contained within the framework of Nigeria’s federalist politics, however, destabilizing influences exist within the country
and one of the most serious of these is the ongoing conflict with the
marginalized minorities who live in the Niger River Delta.
Oil was discovered in Nigeria in 1956 at Oloibiri in the Niger Delta after
half a century of exploration. The discovery was made by Shell-BP,
at the time the sole concessionaire. Of the 606 oil fields in the Niger
Delta area, 355 are onshore while the remaining 251 are offshore.
Of these, 193 are currently operational while 23 have been shut in
or abandoned as a result of poor prospects or total drying up of the
wells. Outside the Niger Delta, a total of 28 exploratory oil wells have
been drilled all showing various levels of prospects.
According to Oil and Gas Journal, Nigeria had an estimated 36,2 billion barrels of proven oil reserves as of January 2009.
Nigeria is the world’s eighth largest exporter of crude oil and the
country is a major oil exporter to the United States. In 2008, Nigeria’s
total oil exports reached an estimated 1,9 million bbl/day, from its
Thousand Barrels per Day
3000
Production
Net Exports
1000
Consumption
500
The Oil and Gas Journal estimates that Nigeria had an estimated 184
trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of proven natural gas reserves as of January
2009, which makes Nigeria the seventh largest natural gas reserve
holder in the world and the largest in Africa. A significant portion of
Nigeria’s natural gas is processed into LNG. Nigeria’s most ambitious
natural gas project is the USD 3.8 billion Nigeria Liquefied Natural
Gas (NLNG) facility on Bonny Island. Partners including NNPC, Shell,
Total and Agip completed the first phase of the facility in September
1999.
Business environment
Nigeria’s refining capacity is currently insufficient to meet domestic
demand, forcing the country to import petroleum products. Nigeria
is trying to privatize state entities by selling NNPC’s four oil refineries, petrochemicals plants, and its Pipelines and Products Marketing
Company (PPMC).
2000
1500
In 1977, Nigeria created the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC). At that time, the NNPC’s primary function was to oversee the regulation of the Nigerian oil industry, with secondary responsibilities for upstream and downstream developments.
There are eighteen international oil companies operating in the country. Some of them are new entrants who have an interest in the deep
offshore blocks in partnership with other operators. The oil majors
account for about 99% of crude oil production in Nigeria.
Nigeria Total Oil Production and Consumption, 1988-2008
2500
annual daily average total production of 2,17 million bbl/day of noncrude petroleum.
0
1990
1992
1994
1996
1998
2000
2001
2002
2004
2006
2008
Year
Source: EIA International Energy Annual; Short - Term Energy Outlook
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Since the discovery of oil in Nigeria in 1956, the government, through its
agencies like Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC), Ministry
of Petroleum Resources and Federal Environmental Protection Agency
(FEPA), has put in place a number of policies, agreements and regulations for the control and supervision of the oil industry for the overall economic development of the country.
The requirements of Local Content are specific only to the Oil and Gas
industry. There is supposed to be a gradual goal achievement where
the quantum of composite value added to or created in, the Nigerian
economy through the utilization of Nigerian resources and services in the
petroleum industry increase, resulting in the development of indigenous
capabilities, within acceptable quality health, safety and environmental
standards.
cubic feet respectively, numerous investment opportunities abound
in upstream operations of the petroleum industry as categorized below:
• Surveying - plan metric data and sea bottom survey
• Civil works - mud pit construction, concrete works at rig sites,
site surveys preparation of drilling locations, supplies of cement, chemicals, sands, gravel, iron rods, labour, road mat,
timber, etc.
• Seismic data acquisition and interpretation – such as data
on soil, land, rock samples together with geological and geochemical studies.
Nigeria is very dependent on crude oil for its foreign exchange earnings.
The National Energy Policy, approved by the Energy Commission of
Nigeria in 2003, states that the nation shall encourage indigenous and
foreign companies to fully participate in both upstream and downstream
activities of the oil industry.
• Drilling operations - field transportation and equipment for rig
movements,
• general and specialised service such as casing running, • cementation, welding, diving and catering provision of mud and other chemicals.
Investment opportunities exist in the establishment of manufacturing
facilities to produce most of the inputs for oilfield operations e.g. oil well
drilling clays, chemical and materials, pipes bolts and nuts, screw gaskets, valves and other accessories, pans and plastics including other
components.
• Crude oil - construction and maintenance of crude oil storage
tanks and pipelines.
Opportunities also exist for engineering construction and contracting
companies willing to establish locally to boost the Nigerian content in the
operation, activities and growth of the oil and gas industry. Nigeria has put
in place a petroleum and gas policy with the following objectives:
• Increasing oil reserve base and productivity through vigorous exploration and ensuring judicious exploitation of the
resource.
• Allowing for private sector participation in all the facets of the
industry through attractive fiscal measures. Government is
giving serious consideration to selling its equity shares in joint
venture operation.
• Acquiring reasonable market shares for the crude oil and its
derivatives and achievement of domestic refining self-sufficiency.
• Expanding the utilisation of natural gas.
A Non-Nigerian may invest and participate in the operation of any
enterprise in Nigeria. However, a foreign company wishing to set up
business operations in Nigeria should take all steps necessary to obtain local content of the Nigerian branch or subsidiary as a separate
entity in Nigeria for that purpose. Until so incorporated, the foreign
company may not carry on business in Nigeria or exercise any of the
powers of a registered company.
With proven oil and gas reserves of 36.2 billion barrels and 184 trillion
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• Exploration and production of oil and gas products
• Manufacturing of consumable materials in exploration such as
explosives, detonators, steel casting, magnetic tapes etc.
• Search for development of local substitutes for items such as
medium pressure valves, pumps, shallow drilling equipment,
drilling mud, bits fittings, drilling cement etc.
The overall investment opportunities in the downstream sector
include:
• Domestic production and marketing of Liquefied Natural Gas
(LNG).
• Domestic manufacturing of LNG cylinders, valves and regulators, installation of filling plants, retail distribution and development of simple, flexible and less expensive gas burners to
encourage the use of gas instead of wood.
• Establishment of processing plants and industries for the production of:
• refined mineral oil, petroleum jelly and grease
• bituminous based water/damp proof building materials e.g. roofing sheets, floor tiles, tarpaulin
• building of asphalt storage, packaging and blending that may export these products.
• Establishment of chemical industries e.g. distillation units for
the production of Naphtha and other special boiling point solvents used in food processing.
• Linear alkyl benzene, carbon black and polypropylene producing industries.
• Development of Phase II in Nigeria’s Petrochemical Program
(Phase III to commence later).
The Nigerian oil and gas market is complex – but with large opportunities for the Danish company who understands to team up with
the right local partner and mitigate existing risks. Nigeria has a poor
reputation in terms of corruption and security, but to a large extent
this can be successfully mitigated thus creating opportunities with
limited competition for the Danish company.
• The Nigerian Liquefied Natural Gas (NLNG) projects.
• Small-scale production of chemicals and solvents e.g. chlorinated methane, Formaldehyde, Acetylene etc. from natural
gas.
• Crude oil refining with efficient export facilities. Companies
with the technology can undertake turnaround maintenance
of refineries.
• Large scope for small-scale joint venture manufacturing concerns with foreign technical partners. Such ventures can start
warehousing arrangements that will ensure continuity of supply at competitive prices.
• Products transportation and marketing associated with products distribution
Sum Up
There exists many investment opportunities in the natural gas sector
of the Nigerian petroleum industry. Government’s aspirations for the
gas sector include creating new industries out of the old oil industry;
capturing economic value and generating as much revenue from gas
as from oil by 2010. In view of the large potentials of this sector fiscal
incentives have been put in place to promote the gas industry:
The Nigerian oil and gas sector provides large opportunities to foreign
investors with know-how and technical capacity to contribute with
added value in joint ventures. However, Nigeria is a difficult market to
operate in and thorough preparation and investigation is the key to
success together with proper risk management and mitigation.
One of the most important single factors to ensure a successful entrance on the Nigerian oil and gas market is to form a JV together
with the right local company. Many Nigerian business operations are
in demand for Danish know-how and technology and are looking to
form JV’s. The right local business will have a thorough understanding of the market and access to specific business opportunities that
can materialize together with Danish know-how and technology.
Also, because of the official legal requirements of Local Content a JV
with a local business is a necessity. However, it is important to stress
that any potential local partner must go through a careful due diligence, checking the legal status and the historical business performance. Additionally, it is important to further investigate references and
previous track record of the company.
In this relation IFU has 40 years of experience in establishing JV’s in
difficult markets, such as Nigeria, and identifying and screening local partners. The experience from more than 1000 JV’s with Danish
companies in difficult markets shows that sound business can be
conducted in such places. IFU can contribute with share- or loan
capital, together with knowledge about how to establish a business
and mitigate risks.
SWOT - Nigeria
Strengths
►
Biggest African oil producer
►
Well-established oil and gas industry from 1956
►
Business climate is favourable for the new entrees
►
Governmental interest in the new international players
►
No restrictions for repatriation of profits
Weaknesses
►
Lack of infrastructure
►
Necessity of a trusted local partner
►
Logistical challenges
►
Technical difficulties working in deep and ultra-deep
waters
►
Expensive business start-up and high living cost
Opportunities
►
Wide range of project opportunities within the key Danish competences in oil industry
►
Export of know-how to the developing country
► Operational platform for access to the neighbouring
African market
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Threats
►
Political institutions are fragile and unstable
►
Bureaucracy and corruption remain a challenge
►
Safety issues in Niger Delta
As the SWOT reveals the Nigerian oil and gas market is complex – but
with large opportunities for the Danish company who understands
to team up with the right local partner and mitigate existing risks.
Nigeria has a poor reputation in terms of corruption and security, but
to a large extent this can be successfully mitigated thus creating opportunities with limited competition for the Danish company.
Sources for Information
http://www.offshorecenter.dk/
http://www.offshorebase.dk/
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/cabs/index.html
http://www.offshore-mag.com/index.html
http://www.ogj.com/index.html
http://www.upstreamonline.com
http://www.energycurrent.com/
http://www.offshorewestafrica.com/index.html
http://www.nnpcgroup.com/
http://www.nigcontent.com/
http://www.sonangol.co.ao/wps/portal/ep
http://www.petrobras.com.br/en/
http://dk.nanoq.gl/Emner/Erhverv.aspx
http://www.ga.gl/
http://www.offshore.no/
http://www.statoil.com/en/Pages/default.aspx
http://www.achilles.com/en/uk/
http://www.iso.org/iso/home.html
http://www.globalpolicy.org/security-council.html
http://www.bakerenergy.com
http://danperform.com/
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Niels Bohrs Vej 6 • 6700 Esbjerg • Denmark
Tel. +45 36973670 • [email protected] • www.offshorecenter.dk
Projektpartnere
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