UVDL QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER UVDL Quarterly Newsletter Fall 2014 Welcome! detection does not definitively rule out salmonellosis since the bacterium is shed intermittently. Consequently, a several-day pooled fecal sample is optimal to maximize detection. Hello everyone: Welcome to the first issue of the Utah Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (UVDL) newsletter. From this point forward, the laboratory intends to publish a newsletter quarterly. Diseases diagnosed at the laboratory, new tests or procedures and new personnel will be highlighted. In this edition, Dr. Johanna Rigas, and the new clinical pathology section, are introduced. Comments concerning the zoonotic potential of salmonellosis and information on pigeon fever in horses and elk follow. Should you have suggestions as to the content of future editions, please contact Dr. E. Jane Kelly ([email protected] or 435-6231402) Salmonellosis as a zoonosis By Dr. E. Jane Kelly Dr. Rigas’ bio By Dr. Tom Baldwin Salmonellosis in young calves and piglets has been diagnosed recently on multiple farms. As a potential zoonosis, veterinarians should caution clients to wear gloves and/or frequently wash hands when working with affected animals. Young children, the elderly and immunosuppressed individuals should not be around sick animals. The bacterium can spread on fomites, such as boots and bottles, making control difficult. The UVDL can culture feces, intestine, lymph node or other tissues/samples from diseased animals. Please remember that absence of Dr. Johanna Rigas initiated the clinical pathology section of the UVDL in the summer of 2013 when she started her appointment at Utah State University. The clinical pathology laboratory is a reference laboratory for veterinary practitioners and researchers in the state of Utah and surrounding region. Specifically, this laboratory provides hematology, biochemistry, hormone, and urine testing for veterinary samples. Dr. Rigas is also a specialist in the interpretation of cytologic specimens and fluid samples from veterinary species. UVDL QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER | Dr. Rigas completed her undergraduate training in cellular and molecular biology at Western Washington University in 1999. Based on biomedical research conducted at Oregon Health and Science University, she received a Master’s degree in biology at Portland State University in 2004. In 2008, she obtained a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree at Oregon State University College of Veterinary Medicine. Continuing on at Oregon State University, she completed a residency in veterinary clinical pathology and became board certified (ACVP) in 2011. From 2011 to 2013, she worked as a diagnostic veterinary clinical pathologist at Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine, and then as a clinician within the community practice section. She is now an adjunct faculty member at Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine and an assistant professor at Utah State University College of Veterinary Medicine within the Department of Animal, Dairy, and Veterinary Sciences. 2 Clinical pathology now at the UVDL by Tina Conrad The Utah Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory now has a Clinical Pathology service providing hematology, cytology, chemistry, endocrinology, and urinalysis tests. Hematology procedures include complete blood cell counts with differential, platelet count, plasma protein, and fibrinogen on large animal samples. Avian and reptile CBCs are available, as well as blood smear reviews, reticulocyte counts and fecal occult blood. Cytology exams are performed on tissue aspirates, discharges, imprints, scrapings, bone marrow aspirates and body cavity effusions. Cerebrospinal fluid and body fluid analyses include cell counts and protein concentration. Chemistry profiles available include large and small animal panels, an avian/reptile panel, liver and renal panels, a large animal/lipid panel that includes BHB and NEFA, and a bovine metabolic panel. Individual chemistry tests are also available including total bile acids, GLDH, SDH and Phenobarbital. Total T4, Free T4, and TSH are available. Baseline cortisol, ACTH stimulation and Dexamethansone suppression tests are performed as well as urine cortisol:creatinine ratios and progesterone. The clinical pathology service is available Monday through Friday, 8 AM to 5 PM, and all tests are run daily with less than a 24 hour turnaround time. Please see the sample submission and fee schedule at the UVDL website (http://www.usu.edu/uvdl/) under the Services section. Pigeon Fever in horses and farmed elk by Dr. E. Jane Kelly An increase in cases of pigeon fever in horses has been noted this year. Such upswings occur every few years so this is not necesssarily unusual. In addition to horses, pigeon fever has been diagnosed in farmed elk and one cow. The causative agent is the Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Infection with C. pseudotuberculosis may result in subcutaneous or intramuscular abscesses or disseminated disease. Infection occurs in many different species worldwide, including human beings (lymphadenitis). In horses, the bacterium causes an infection of the limbs called ulcerative lymphangitis, and in the dry, western and southwestern states, cellulitis and myositis. As seen this year, pigeon fever occurs in cattle also. In sheep and goats, C. pseudotuberculosis causes caseous lymphadenitis, a disease characterized by abscessed superficial lymph nodes as well as abscesses in various internal organs. UVDL QUARTERLY NEWSLETTER | In equine pigeon fever, peripheral abscesses form mainly in the pectoral muscles and ventral abdominal regions, but occur also on the legs and neck. Abscesses may be large and take months to resolve. Abdominal abscessation is less common. Fever and weight loss may accompany abscesses. Most cases of pigeon fever with only peripheral abscesses are not fatal. Prognosis is worse when there are internal abscesses. Definitive diagnosis requires isolation of C. pseudotuberculosis from abscesses or lesions. Samples taken by rubbing a swab on the inside wall of an abscess rather than simply inserted into the center are most effective. Pigeon fever may occur at any time of year, but most cases are diagnosed in the summer and fall. Infection is acquired through skin wounds, arthropod vectors, and fomites contaminated with the bacterium. In elk, a somewhat different clinical picture has emerged. Infection involves the head most often, less frequently legs and chest. As few cases have been documented, there is little understood about the epidemiology. There does seem to be a higher prevalence in the summer and fall, which correlates with fly season. Age or sex predilections have not been noted, although bulls with facial lesions seem to have a higher fatality rate. 3 In other species, infection is often acquired via bacterial contamination of wounds (e.g. shearing, intramuscular injections) and the same situation likely occurs in elk. Perhaps fighting amongst bull elk predispose to facial and head abscesses. Alternatively, elk may rub or scratch on feeders or other objects including fencing. One necropsied elk had foreign plant material within an abscess, suggesting local trauma predisposed to infection. One producer indicated that infection in two animals originated in the eyes. A possible explanation could be animals rubbing their heads against contaminated surfaces or transmission via insects attracted to the eyes. Photo courtesy of Utah Division of Wildlife Resources Testing fees for Tritrichomonas foetus, 2014 – 2105 by Tom Baldwin Testing fees for Tritrichomonas foetus for Fall 2014 – Spring 2015 are: Individual samples .......... $20 each Five sample pool ....... $35 per pool In addition, each submission incurs an $8 accession fee. Use of Biomed’s TF-Transit tubes is recommended, although samples placed in Biomed InPouch TF pouches may still be pooled.
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