Guidelines for reproducing and documenting sources

Guidelines for reproducing and documenting sources
The APA style with citation and reference examples
Student papers and other academic literature are often based on previously
published material. You must document the sources of this material because it is
important to acknowledge the contribution of other authors, and so your readers can
find the sources you are referring to.
Presenting others work as your own is regarded as plagiarism, and doing so will be regarded as
cheating when student papers are assessed!
If you refer to commonly known information and viewpoints, you do not need to cite the source.
For example, this may be information that you can easily find in a reference work. Cite the source if
you are in doubt.
As a general rule, you only cite sources that you yourself have read, not sources that you only have
knowledge of through a secondary source.
At the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, the APA style is mandatory to use in bachelor’s theses
and recommended to use in master’s theses.
Reference management
Reference management software are tools that will help you keep track of all your references, and
make it easier to insert references and generate a reference list in your documents.
At NSSS we use Reference Manager and Endnote. Contact the Library for more information, or the
IKT Department for installation.
Use and reproduction of tables, figures and photographs
In order to use a table or summary from a table/figure/photograph from another source, you must
obtain permission from the original author and copyright holder, and credit him/her/them. The
letter(s) giving such permission must be attached to the academic paper/scholarly work.
If the author/copyright holder has been deceased for 70 years or more, the table/figure/photograph
may be used without permission. Please note that you must still provide the name of the person who
created the table/figure/photograph. If it is difficult to know how long the author/copyright holder
has been deceased, you can contact the publisher.
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If the table/figure/photograph contains test items, you must also obtain permission from the holder
of the rights to/author of the study.
Each table/figure/photograph that is reproduced must be followed by a footnote on the page where
the table/figure/photograph appears. The footnote must credit the original author and copyright
holder. The source must not be entered in the reference list.
Figure reproduced from a journal article
Footnote. From Title of article, by E. N. Author and C. O. Author, 2000, Journal title, 50, p.22.
Copyright 2000 Name of copyright holder. Reproduced by permission.
Figure reproduced from a book
Footnote. From Title of book (p.103), by E. N. Author and C. O. Author, 1999, Place of
publication: Publisher. Copyright 1999 Name of copyright holder. Reproduced by permission.
Table reproduced from a journal article
Footnote. The data in column 1 is taken from Title of article, by E. N. Author and C. O. Author,
2010, Journal title, 50, p.22. Copyright 2010 Name of copyright holder. Reproduced by
permission.
Adapted table reproduced from a website (only a small portion of the table)
Footnote. From http://folk.uio.no/runeb/antioksidant_tabell.htm, 1999, Place of publication:
Publisher. Copyright 1999 Name of copyright holder. Adapted with permission.
Footnotes
Footnotes are used to provide additional information you do not wish to include in the running text
because the information is not a part of the reasoning being presented, but you feel it is important to
include it.
If the information you have placed in a footnote is truly important, you should consider whether it
should be incorporated into the running text. If not, you should consider whether you should
include the information at all.
We recommend using footnotes rather than endnotes because footnotes are more reader friendly.
Footnotes are placed at the bottom of the same page in which the footnote appears. It is preferable
to place a number after an individual word or sentence to refer to the footnote.
How do you cite?
You can reproduce previously published material as a quotation, and the source of the quotation
must be cited as a brief reference in the body of the text and as an entry in the reference list. The
quotation can be direct or indirect.
In-text citation of a direct quotation (verbatim)
Dreams are “the royal road to the unconscious” (Freud, 1900, p. 45).
In-text citation of an indirect quotation (rewording)
Freud (1900) argued that dreams lead us into our subconscious (p. 45).
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Reference list
Freud, S. (1900). The interpretation of dreams. London: Hogarth Press.
Direction quotations must be clearly set off typographically from the rest of the text. It is common to
use quotation marks or indentations, depending on the length of the quotation.
Quotations with fewer than 40 words must be incorporated into the text using quotation marks. If
the quotation is longer than 40 words, indent the quotation and place a blank line before and after
the quotation. Do not use quotation marks for the latter.
In principle, you must not make changes to the wording, spelling or punctuation of the direct
quotation. However, there are exceptions:
An error in the quotation – add [sic] after the error
“Injury prevention is importat [sic] to us.”
A quotation within a quotation – add single quotation marks before and after the
quotation
“Intent means that the offender has ‘intentionally and wilfully’ carried out an unlawful act.”
Omission of words – add space…space where the omitted words were
“Mountain climbing is an extreme sport … and should be prohibited.”
Your own emphasis – add [emphasis added] after the quotation
“Ritual planning documents are an absurdity.” [emphasis added]
Explanations – add the explanation in square brackets
“It [the Ministry of Culture] should never have approved from the plans from BK.”
The reference list
The reference list should look like this:

Double line spacing must be used between the entries in the reference list. For entries
consisting of more than one line, the second and subsequent lines must be indented.

The reference list is arranged alphabetically by author (or by title if it doesn’t have an
author).

Several works by the same author(s): the oldest work is listed first.

If the entry consists of an institution, association etc. or a title, ignore any initial articles such
as a,an, the.
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The order of the reference list will appear like this:
Bull, A. (2003). Jumping castle's mysteries. New York: Elsevier.
The history of medicine. (1992). London: Sage.
Iversen, K. (2000). Long laces and accidents on the athletics track. Oslo: Pax.
The Norwegian Trotter Association. (2001). The Black Beauty and gambling: How to win
the grand prize in harness racing. Oslo: The Trotter.
Citation and reference examples using the APA style
To find information about the author, title, publisher, etc. of a book or chapter in a book, you must
use the title page – not the book cover.
The number of authors determines how you reproduce a source:
Without an author – applies to all document types
Use the 2-3 first words in the title or the entire title if it’s short.
In the text: Title, year
(Take your hat off, 2005)
In the reference list: Title in cursive. (Year). Then follow the rules for each document type.
Take your hat off: Some moral considerations. (1993).
1 author – applies to all document types
In the text: Author, year
(Syversen, 2005)
In the reference list: Author. (Year). Then follow the rules for each document type.
Syversen, H. (2005).
2 authors – applies to all document types
In the text: Author & author, year
(Nilsen & Eide, 2012)
In the reference list: Author & author. (Year). Then follow the rules for each document type.
Nilsen, I. & Eide, A. (2012).
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3-7 authors – applies to all document types
In the text: Author, author & author, year
The first time you cite the book:
(Nilsen, Eide & Syversen, 2011)
Next time:
(Nilsen et al., 2011)
In the reference list: All authors. (Year). Then follow the rules for each document type.
Nilsen, A., Eide, H. & Syversen, C. (2011).
More than 7 authors – applies to all document types
In the text: Author et al., year
(Eide et al., 2006)
In the reference list: The first 6 authors … last author. (Year). Then follow the rules for each
document type.
Eide, H., Nilsen, A., Pedersen, G., Hansen, N., Gyearder, A., Syversen, N. … Hansen, H. (2006).
You’ll find examples on how to use the APA style on the following document types:
 Book without an author
 Book with author(s)
 Book with editor(s)
 Book with institution, association etc. as author
 Yearbook
 Electronic book
 Translated book
 Book with multiple volumes, refer to the entire work
 Book with multiple volumes, refer to one volume
 Chapter in a book
 Article from newspaper
 Article from newspaper on the Internet
 Article from journal
 Article from journal – supplement, special issue and abstract
 Article from journal on the Internet
 Article submitted to a journal, but still isn’t accepted for publishing
 Article published online ahead of print («E-pub ahead of print»)
 Article in press (not published yet)
 Contribution to a conference
 Document from the Internet
 Part of a document from the Internet
 Definition from a website
 Master’s Thesis
 PhD Thesis
 Compendium published by the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences
 Encyclopedia and dictionary
 Encyclopedia and dictionary on the Internet
 Video from YouTube
 Dvd
 Software
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




Blog post
Multiple sources at the same time
Sources by the same author(s) published in the same year
Personal communication, letter, e-mail, lecture, chat etc.
Secondary source
Book without an author
Use the 2-3 first words in the title or the entire title if it’s short.
In the text: Title, year
(Take your hat off, 2005)
In the reference list: Title in cursive. (Year). Place of publication: Publisher.
Take your hat off: Some moral considerations. (1993). Jongskollen: Thoms.
Book with author(s)
In the text: Author & author, year
(Nilsen & Eide, 2012)
In the reference list: Author & author. (Year). Title of the book in cursive. Place of publication:
Publisher.
Nilsen, I. & Eide, A. (2012). Almost at the top: How to get to the top? Oslo: Cappelen.
Book with editor(s)
The abbreviation for editor is stated in the book’s language.
Abbreviations for editor:
Redaktør/redaktører = Red.
Editor = Ed.
Editors = Eds.
In the text: Name of the editor(s), year
(Bale & Krogh Christensen, 2004)
(Williams, 2001)
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In the reference list: Name of the editor(s). (Abbreviation for editor.). (Year). Title of the book in
cursive (Edition). Place of publication: Publisher.
Bale, J. & Krogh Christensen, M. (Eds.). (2004). Post-Olympism?: Questioning sport in the twenty-first
century. Oxford: Berg.
Williams, J. M. (Ed.). (2001). Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (4th
ed.). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
Book with institution, association etc. as author
If the institution, association etc. has a well-known abbreviation of it’s name, put the abbreviation
in square brackets the first time and use only the abbreviation afterwards.
Use the full name in the reference list – not the abbreviation.
In the text: Name of institution, association etc., year
The first time you cite the book:
Next time:
(Norges idrettsforbund og olympiske komité [NIF], 2001)
(NIF, 2001)
(Vestfold fylkeskommune, 2005)
In the reference list: Name of institution, association etc. (Year). Title of the book in cursive. Place
of publication: Publisher.
Norges idrettsforbund og olympiske komité. (2001). Strategiplan for norsk idretts internasjonale
arbeid: 2002-2006. Oslo: NIF.
Vestfold fylkeskommune. (2005). Effektivisering i småskolen. Larvik: Liv forlag.
Yearbook
Yearbooks with an author/editor are treated as books with an author/editor, whereas yearbooks
without an author/editor are treated like a book without an author/editor.
In the text: Author, year
(The Football Association of Norway , 2008)
(Hagen & Nilsson, 2005)
In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the book in cursive. Place of publication: Publisher.
The Football Assocation of Norway. (2008). Annual report … Oslo: NFF.
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Hagen, N. & Nilsson, A. (Red.). (2005). The yearbook of Høydehuset. Hamar: Høydehuset.
Electronic book
In the text: Author, year
(Schwarz & Hunter, 2008)
In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the book in cursive. Retrieved date from URL
Schwarz, E. & Hunter, J. (2008). Advanced theory and practice in sport marketing. Retrieved the 28th
of August 2013 from http://www.tandfebooks.com/isbn/978-0-7506-8491-0
Translated book
Translator and information about the original edition must be included.
In the text: Author, year
(Bahr & Mæhlum, 2003)
In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the book in cursive (translated by Name of translator).
Place of publication: Publisher. (Original edition published in year).
Bahr, R. & Mæhlum, S. (Eds.). (2003). Clinical guide to sports injuries (translated by E. Matteson).
Campaign, Ill.: Human Kinetics. (Original edition published in 1990).
Book with multiple volumes, refer to the entire work
In the text: Author, year
(Olstad & Tønnesson, 1986-1987)
In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the book in cursive (x volumes). Place of publication:
Publisher.
Olstad, F. & Tønnesson, S. (1986-1987). Norwegian sports history (2 volumes). Oslo: Aschehoug.
Book with multiple volumes, refer to one volume
In the text: Author, year
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(Tønnesson, 1986)
In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the book in cursive: volume x. Title of the volume. Place
of publication: Publisher.
Tønnesson, S. (1986). Norwegian sports history: Volume 2. Public health, fitness, stars 1939-1986.
Oslo: Aschehoug.
Chapter in a book
Do not invert the name of the author(s)/editor(s) of the book – see the examples below.
In the text: Author of the chapter, year
(Martinsen & Moser, 2008)
In the reference list: Author of the chapter. (Year). Title of the chapter. In author of the book, Title
of the book in cursive (p. x-x). Place of publication: Publisher.
Martinsen, E. W. & Moser, T. (2008). Corporeality, exercise, mental health and mental disorders. In T.
S. S. Schilhab, M. Juelskjær & T. Moser (Eds.), Learning bodies (p. 165-191). København:
Danish School of Education Press.
Article from newspaper
You can add information to describe the contents of the article by using [square brackets] – see the
example below with the author Stokkan.
In the text: Author, year
(Leander, 2003)
(Stokkan, 2004)
In the reference list: Author. (Year, date). Title of the article. Name of the newspaper in cursive, p.
x.
Leander, S. (2010, the 20th of May). Extreme appetite for training. New York Times, p. 33.
Stokkan, M. (2012, the 3rd of April). Out of the shadow. [Interview with football coach Ole Gunnar
Solskjær]. The Times, p. 46.
Article from newspaper on the Internet
In the text: Author, year
(Halvorsen, 2013)
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In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the article. Name of the newspaper in cursive.
Retrieved date from URL
Halvorsen, O. J. (2013). Stay below these temperatures in the cold. DNAktiv. Retrieved the 18th of
January 2013 from http://www.dn.no/dnaktiv/article2543513.ece.dsf
Article from journal
Both the name of the journal and volume must appear in cursive.
If each issue begins with page 1, write the number of the issue in parentheses.
In the text: Author, year
(Fasting, Brackenridge & Sundgot-Borgen, 2004)
(Goksøyr & Olstad, 2004)
In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title på artikkelen. Name of the journal, volume in cursive, p-p.
Fasting, K., Brackenridge, C. & Sundgot-Borgen, J. (2004). Prevalence of sexual harassment
among Norwegian female elite athletes in relation to sport type. International Review for the
Sociology of Sport, 39, 373-386.
Goksøyr, M. & Olstad, F. (2004). Between "people educators" and "sensation seekers": A historical
perspective on media and football. Moving Bodies, 2(2), 19-32.
Article from journal – supplement, special issue and abstract
Both the name of the journal and volume must appear in cursive.
If each issue begins with page 1, write the number of the issue in parentheses.
In the text: Author, year
(Andersen, Engebretsen & Bahr, 2004)
(Seippel, 2001)
(Torsteinsen et al., 2010)
In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the article. Name of the journal, volume in cursive, p-p.
Andersen, T. E., Engebretsen, L. & Bahr, R. (2004). Rule violations as a cause of injuries in male
Norwegian professional football: Are the referees doing their job? American Journal of Sports
Medicine, 32(Suppl. 1), 62S-68S.
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Seippel, K. (Ed.). (2001). Sports [Special issue]. Sociology today, 31(1).
Torsteinsen, S. T. et al. (2010). The effect of exercise on the kinetics of blood flow in lower limb
arteries in humans [Abstract]. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 81(Suppl.), S15.
Article from journal on the Internet
Both the name of the journal and volume must appear in cursive.
If DOI is not available, the URL must be given.
In the text: Author, year
(Butler, Davis & Hamill, 2006)
(McWhirter & Pennington, 1994)
In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the article. Name of the journal in cursive. doi: (or
Retrieved date from URL)
Butler, R. J., Davis, I. S. & Hamill, J. (2006). Interaction of arch type and footwear on running
mechanics. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 34, 1998-2005.
doi: 10.1177/0363546506290401
McWhirter, J. P. & Pennington, C. R. (1994). Incidence and recognition of malnutrition in hospital.
British Medical Journal, 308, 945-948. Retrieved the 13th of December 2006 from
http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/308/6934/945
Articles submitted to a journal, but still isn’t accepted for publishing
You do not provide the name of the journal or publisher the article is submitted to.
In the text: Author, year
(Karlsen, 2009)
In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the article in cursive. Manuscript submitted for
publication.
Karlsen, H. (2009). The trolls in Hedals forest: Do they exist? Manuscript submitted for publication.
Article published online ahead of print («E-pub ahead of print»)
In the text: Author, year
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(Nauck & Lohrer, 2009)
(Owe, Nystad & Bø, 2008)
In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the article. Name of journal in cursive, in press.
Retrieved date from URL (or Retrieved date. doi: x)
Nauck, T. & Lohrer, H. (2009). Translation, cross-cultural adaption and validation of the German
version of the foot and ankle ability measure for patients with chronic ankle instability.
British Journal of Sports Medicine, in press. Retrieved the 14th of December 2009.
doi:10.1136/bjsm.2009.067637
Owe, K.M., Nystad, W. & Bø, K. (2008). Correlates of regular exercise during pregnancy: The
Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in
Sports, in press. Retrieved the 21st of August 2008 from
http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgibin/fulltext/120736626/PDFSTART?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
Article in press (not published yet)
In the text: Author, in press
(Syversen, in press)
In the reference list: Author. (in press). Title. Name of the journal in cursive.
Syversen, H. (in press). Rehabilitation of hamstring injuries in tennis. American journal of sports
medicine.
Contribution to a conference
In the text: Author, year
(Pedersen, 2003)
In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the contribution. In Author, Title of the book in cursive.
(p. x-x). Place of publication: Publisher.
Pedersen, K. (2003). Is it “uncool” to like nature?: Young people’s narratives on nature. In P. Becker
& C. Sack (Eds.), Sharing diversity and building up European networks: Proceedings of the 6th
European Conference of EOE. (p. 29-38). Czarnocin: European Institute for Outdoor
Adventure Education and Experiential Learning.
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Web document
Use the title if you don’t find an author.
Use n.d. (=no date) if you don’t find a year of publication.
In the text: Author, year
(Alert all passengers, n.d.)
(Hanson, 2002)
(Scheibeler, 2004)
In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the document in cursive. Retrieved date from URL
Alert all passengers. (n.d.). Retrieved the 25th of February 2005 from http://www.quacksforus.com
Hanson, U.C. (2002). What is a research article? Retrieved the 25th of February 2005 from
http://www.ki.se/content/1/c4/54/02/Vetenskapelighet.pdf
Scheibeler, E. (2004). Merchants of deception. Retrieved the 13th of December 2006 from
http://www.merchantsofdeception.com
Part of a web document
Use the title if you don’t find an author.
Use n.d. (=no date) if you don’t find a year of publication.
In the text: Author, year
(Harnack & Kleppinger, 2003)
(Tørisen, 2005)
In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title of the part/chapter (chapter x). In Title of the document in
cursive (chapter x). Retrieved date from URL
Harnack, A. & Kleppinger, E. (2003). Using Chicago style to cite and document sources. In Online!: A
reference guide to using Internet sources (chapter 7). Retrieved the 25th of February 2005
from http://www.dinahacker.com/resdoc
Tørisen, H. M. (Ed.). (The 24th of February 2005). How to get rid of old drugs. In
Felleskatalogen: Pasientutgave (chapter 16). Retrieved the 25th of February 2005 from
http://www.felleskatalogen.no/pasientutgave
Definition from a website
Use n.d. (=no date) if you don’t find a year of publication.
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In the text: Author, year
(Olympiatoppen, n.d.)
In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title in cursive. Retrieved dato from URL
Olympiatoppen. (n.d.). Definition of professional athletes. Retrieved the 8th of May 2009 from
http://www.olympiatoppen.no/olt/strategi/definitionofproffesional athletes
Master’s Thesis
In the text: Author, year
(Major, 2013)
In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title in cursive. Master’s Thesis from institution, place.
Major, D. H. (2013). Injury rate and injury pattern among elite World Cup snowboarders: A 6-year
cohort study. Master’s Thesis from the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo.
PhD Thesis
In the text: Author, year
(Steen-Johnsen, 2004)
In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title in cursive. PhD Thesis from institution, place.
Steen-Johnsen, K. (2004). Individualised communities: Keep-fit exercise organizations and the
creation of social bonds. PhD Thesis from the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo.
Compendium published by the Norwegian School of Sport Sciences
Compendiums (collection of articles and chapters) are published by the school for internal use only.
When citing from a compendium, refer to the articles or chapters.
Encyclopedia and dictionary
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If you refer to commonly known information and viewpoints, you do not need to cite the source.
Cite the source if you quote longer texts verbatim or clearly are «borrowing» reasoning from them.
Use title if you don’t find an author.
Use n.d. (= no date) if you don’t find a year of publication.
In the text: Author, year, p. x
(Nandrolone, 2003, p. 1220)
(Forkjørsvei, 1979, volume Er-F, p. 452)
(Haugen, 1971, volume 4, p. 278-283)
In the reference list: Author. (Year). In Title in cursive (edition, p. x). Place of publication: Publisher.
Nandrolone. (2003). In Dorland’s illustrated medical dictionary (30th ed., p. 1220). Philadelphia:
Saunders.
Forkjørsvei. (1979). In Aschehoug og Gyldendals store norske leksikon (Volume Er-F, p. 452). Oslo:
Kunnskapsforlaget.
Haugen, K. (1971). Water polo. In The Sport encyclopedia (Volume 4, p. 278-283). London: Sage.
Encyclopedia and dictionary on the Internet
If you refer to commonly known information and viewpoints, you do not need to cite the source.
Cite the source if you quote longer texts verbatim or clearly are «borrowing» reasoning from them.
Use title if you don’t find an author.
Use n.d. (= no date) if you don’t find a year of publication.
In the text: Author, year
(Psychology, n.d.)
(Tjønneland, 2009)
In the reference list: Author. (Year). In Title in cursive. Retrieved date from URL
Psychology. (u.å.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved the 28th of August 2013 from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psychology
Tjønneland, E. (2009). Ethics. In Store Norske Leksikon. Retrieved the 28th of August 2013 from
http://snl.no/etikk
Video from YouTube
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For easy retrieval, the author is the person who published the video.
In the text: Name of the one who published the video, year
(BadLipReading, 2013)
In the reference list: Name of the one who published the video. (Year). Title of the video in cursive
[Video file]. Retrieved date from URL
BadLipReading. (2013). The NFL: a bad lip reading [Video file]. Retrieved the 17th of January 2013
from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zce-QT7MGSE
DVD
In the text: Author, year
(Enoksen, 2003)
In the reference list: Author. (Year). Title in cursive [DVD]. Place of publication: Publisher.
Enoksen, E. (2003). Your personal trainer: More than 400 exercises [DVD]. Oslo: Norges
idrettshøgskole.
Software
Do not put the title of the software in cursive.
In the text: Title of the software (Version)
(Mat på data (5.0))
In the reference list: Title of the software (Version) [Software]. Retrieved date from URL
Mat på data (5.0) [Software]. Retrieved the 22nd of August 2013 from
http://matportalen.no/verktoy/mat_pa_data
Blog post
In the text: Screen name/author, year
(Chelsea Lee, 2013)
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In the reference list: Screen name/author. (Year). Title of the blog post in cursive. Retrieved date
from URL
Chelsea Lee. (2013). Alligators and academia: the importance of primary and secondary sources.
Retrieved the 18th of January 2013 from
http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2013/01/alligators-and-academia.htm
Multiple sources at the same time
Sometimes you want to cite multiple sources at the same time – sources by different authors, by
the same author(s) or by the same author(s) published in the same year.
Add letters (a, b, c etc.) after the year of publication in the reference list, when you have the same
author(s) published in the same year. The letters are used in the text to cite the sources.
In the text: Author, year
Different author(s):
(Andresen, 1988; Bergh, 2004; Syversen, 1999)
The same author(s):
(Syversen, 1999, 2000, 2002)
The same author(s) same year: (Syversen, 1999a, 1999c, 1999d)
In the reference list: See the different types of sources in this document for proper citation.
Sources by the same author(s) published in the same year
Sometimes you cite sources by the same author(s) published in the same year. You have to add
letters (a, b, c etc.) after the year of publication in the reference list. The letters are used in the text
to cite the sources.
In the text: Author, yearletter
(Syversen, 2012c)
In the reference list: Put the letters after the publication year.
Personal communication, letter, e-mail, lecture, chat etc.
When using personal communication etc., you only name the sources in the text. The sources can
not be found by others, and you do not include them in the reference list.
Remember that you must have permission from the sender to use letters and e-mails.
In the text:
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(Syversen, email, the 3rd of July, 2003)
Secondary source
Secondary sources are sources you found in another source (primary source).
In the text you name the original work and provide the citation for the secondary source. Only the
secondary source is included in the reference list.
In the text:
In Nygaard’s study (as cited in Syversen, 2003) he argues that…
In the reference list:
Syversen, H. (2003). How to make the best out of the talents. London: Routledge.
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Reference list
American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington: APA.
American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (6th ed.). Washington: APA.
Harnack, A. & Kleppinger, E. (2003). Using Chicago style to cite and document sources. In Online!: A
reference guide to using Internet sources (kapittel 7). Retrieved the 25th of February 2005
from http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/cite7.html
International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. (oktober 2004). Uniform requirements for
manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals: Writing and editing for biomedical journals.
Retrieved the 25th of February 2005 from http://www.icmje.org/
National Library of Medicine. (9. juli 2003). Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to
biomedical journals: Sample references. Retrieved the 25th of February 2005 from
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html
Raymon H. Mulford Library. (2004). Instructions to authors in the health sciences. Retrieved the
25th of February 2005 from http://mulford.meduohio.edu/instr/
Reference Manager 12. (2009). Retrieved the 16th of December 2009 from the Medical Library at
Oslo University Hospital Ullevål: http://www.ulleval.no/stream_file.asp?iEntityId=22122
Spangen, I. C. (25th of August 2004). Henvisning til kilder og utforming av litteraturliste. Retrieved
the 25th of February 2005 from http://www.jbi.hio.no/bibin/KoG/kat/kilder.htm
The University of Queensland Library. (June 2005). Vancouver style: "How to" guide. Retrieved
the 7th of September 2006 from http://www.library.uq.edu.au/training/citation/vancouv.pdf
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