Clinical Infectious Diseases 15 October 2014 Volume 59 Number 8 i News iii In the Literature ARTICLES AND COMMENTARIES 1049 Extensive Drug Resistance Acquired During Treatment of MultidrugResistant Tuberculosis On the cover: Dog-Bite Recovery, ex-voto plaque, polychrome terracotta, ca. 1690, Anonymous (Italian, 17th century). Santuario Madonna dei Bagni, Umbria. Photo by Michael Grizzard. As indicated by the letters “PGR” (Per Gratia Ricevuto, or “for Received Grace”), an ex-voto is created when an individual’s prayers for recovery have been answered. Here, the victim apparently recovered from a dog bite. Before 1885, when Louis Pasteur’s preventive vaccine brought greater security to the public from the presence of street dogs, folkloric treatments of infection from rabies may have “worked” because few supposedly rabid dogs actually had the disease. Otherwise, dog bite infections, usually polymicrobial, could have been serious, but a shallow wound and proper cleansing were likely to have been more inﬂuential to recovery than the potions prepared by local chemists during this period. In this case, however, the prayers to the image of the Madonna in this sanctuary were given credit for the patient’s recovery. The late 17thcentury date of the plaque is estimated by the style of the clothes, with thigh-length breeches, high boots, and padded jackets, characteristic of the time. (Mary & Michael Grizzard, Cover Art Editors) J. Peter Cegielski, Tracy Dalton, Martin Yagui, Wanpen Wattanaamornkiet, Grigory V. Volchenkov, Laura E. Via, Martie Van Der Walt, Thelma Tupasi, Sarah E. Smith, Ronel Odendaal, Vaira Leimane, Charlotte Kvasnovsky, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Ekaterina Kurbatova, Tiina Kummik, Liga Kuksa, Kai Kliiman, Elena V. Kiryanova, HeeJin Kim, Chang-ki Kim, Boris Y. Kazennyy, Ruwen Jou, Wei-Lun Huang, Julia Ershova, Vladislav V. Erokhin, Lois Diem, Carmen Contreras, Sang Nae Cho, Larisa N. Chernousova, Michael P. Chen, Janice Campos Caoili, Jaime Bayona, and Somsak Akksilp; for the Global Preserving Effective TB Treatment Study (PETTS) Investigators Nearly 15% of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis cases developed resistance to the ﬂuoroquinolones, the second-line injectable drugs, or both during treatment for MDR tuberculosis. The rate of acquired resistance was signiﬁcantly lower in programs that met speciﬁc performance criteria. 1064 Editorial Commentary: Treatment for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis: It’s Worse Than We Thought! Charles L. Daley and C. Robert Horsburgh Jr 1066 Impact of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Incidence and Mortality Zitta Barrella Harboe, Tine Dalby, Daniel M. Weinberger, Thomas Benﬁeld, Kåre Mølbak, Hans Christian Slotved, Camilla H. Suppli, Helle Bossen Konradsen, and Palle Valentiner-Branth Introduction of PCV13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Danish childhood immunization program has led to further reduction in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease shortly after the vaccine’s introduction. A substantial population-level decline in pneumococcal-related mortality of nearly 30% among nonvaccinated persons was also observed. 1074 Impact of Infectious Disease Consultation on the Clinical and Economic Outcomes of Solid Organ Transplant Recipients Admitted for Infectious Complications Bassem Hamandi, Shahid Husain, Atul Humar, and Emmanuel A. Papadimitropoulos Infectious disease consultation for hospitalized solid organ transplant recipients is associated with one-third the hazard rate for mortality at 28 days, along with decreased rehospitalization rates and no signiﬁcant impact on costs when the consultation occurred within 48 hours of admission. 1083 The Efﬁcacy and Safety of Gentamicin Plus Azithromycin and Gemiﬂoxacin Plus Azithromycin as Treatment of Uncomplicated Gonorrhea Robert D. Kirkcaldy, Hillard S. Weinstock, Page C. Moore, Susan S. Philip, Harold C. Wiesenfeld, John R. Papp, Peter R. Kerndt, Shacondra Johnson, Khalil G. Ghanem, and Edward W. Hook III We evaluated 2 combinations of existing antimicrobials for treatment of gonorrhea: gentamicin/azithromycin and gemiﬂoxacin/azithromycin. Both regimens were efﬁcacious, but many participants experienced gastrointestinal adverse events. These combinations may be useful options for patients who cannot be treated with ceftriaxone-based therapy. 1092 Editorial Commentary: The Shifting Sands of Gonococcal Antimicrobial Resistance Peter A. Rice 1095 Increased Incidence and Characteristics of Alveolar Echinococcosis in Patients With Immunosuppression-Associated Conditions Adrien Chauchet, Frédéric Grenouillet, Jenny Knapp, Carine Richou, Eric Delabrousse, Charlotte Dentan, Laurence Millon, Vincent Di Martino, Remy Contreras, Eric Deconinck, Oleg Blagosklonov, Dominique A. Vuitton, and Solange Bresson-Hadni; for the FrancEchino Network This is the ﬁrst systematic study of the occurrence of alveolar echinococcosis in patients with immunosuppression-associated conditions. It demonstrates the increase in case incidence for the period 2002–2012 and describes the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of these cases. 1105 Efﬁcacy and Safety of Fosfomycin Plus Imipenem as Rescue Therapy for Complicated Bacteremia and Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A Multicenter Clinical Trial Ana del Río, Oriol Gasch, Asunción Moreno, Carmen Peña, Jordi Cuquet, Dolors Soy, Carlos A. Mestres, Cristina Suárez, Juan C. Pare, Fe Tubau, Cristina Garcia de la Mària, Francesc Marco, Jordi Carratalà, José M. Gatell, Francisco Gudiol, José M. Miró, and the FOSIMI Investigators We performed a clinical trial to evaluate the efﬁcacy and safety of fosfomycin plus imipenem as rescue therapy for complicated methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and infective endocarditis. Blood cultures were negative 72 hours after the ﬁrst dose in all patients. 1113 A Systematic Review: Can One Prescribe Carbapenems to Patients With IgE-Mediated Allergy to Penicillins or Cephalosporins? Brittany Kula, Gordana Djordjevic, and Joan L. Robinson Following an immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated reaction to a penicillin, the chance of having a hypersensitivity reaction to a carbapenem is approximately 4% and the chance of having an IgE-mediated reaction is 2%. Data on cross-reactivity between cephalosporins and carbapenems are minimal. VIEWPOINTS 1123 Transforming the Fight Against Tuberculosis: Targeting Catalysts of Transmission David W. Dowdy, Andrew S. Azman, Emily A. Kendall, and Barun Mathema Transmission of tuberculosis in communities is driven by heterogeneities in human behavior, mycobacterial activity, and host susceptibility. The only realistic way to achieve ambitious targets for tuberculosis elimination is to tailor local interventions to these catalysts of tuberculosis transmission. BRIEF REPORT 1130 Increased Risk for Lymphoma Following Hemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome Jonas Klingström, Fredrik Granath, Anders Ekbom, Niklas K. Björkström, and Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren INVITED ARTICLES 1133 MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY Incorporating Pathology in the Practice of Infectious Disease: Myths and Reality Jeannette Guarner Clinicians and pathologists consult with infectious disease pathologists for a variety of reasons, which are described in this article. A better understanding of what pathologists can do and what clinicians need is key to patient care. 1142 ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE Difﬁculties in Demonstrating Superiority of an Antibiotic for Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in Nonrandomized Studies Kristen A. Stafford, Mallory Boutin, Scott R. Evans, and Anthony D. Harris This article describes the epidemiological challenges of randomized superiority trials and the epidemiological issues in studies aiming to demonstrate superiority of antibiotics in nonrandomized retrospective database trials. HIV/AIDS 1148 Rosuvastatin Preserves Renal Function and Lowers Cystatin C in HIV-Infected Subjects on Antiretroviral Therapy: The SATURN-HIV Trial Chris T. Longenecker, Corrilynn O. Hileman, Nicholas T. Funderburg, and Grace A. McComsey In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial, rosuvastatin 10 mg daily improved estimated glomerular ﬁltration rate and reduced plasma cystatin C in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. Reductions in cystatin C with statin therapy correlated with reductions in inﬂammatory biomarkers. 1157 Editorial Commentary: Cystatin C and Statins in HIV Disease Robert C. Kalayjian 1160 HIV Quality Report Cards: Impact of Case-Mix Adjustment and Statistical Methods Michael E. Ohl, Kelly K. Richardson, Michihiko Goto, Mary Vaughan-Sarrazin, Marin L. Schweizer, and Eli N. Perencevich Adjustment for characteristics of patients in care affects rankings of care systems on the viral control measure of human immunodeﬁciency virus (HIV) care quality. Prior to public reporting of HIV quality measures, there must be consensus on optimal methods for case-mix adjustment. 1188 Higher Speciﬁcity of Tuberculin Skin Test Compared With QuantiFERON-TB Gold for Detection of Exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Angelico Mendy, Ahmed N. Albatineh, Edgar R. Vieira, and Janvier Gasana 1189 Reply to Islam et al and Mendy et al 1168 Incidence and Risk Factors for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in HIV-Infected and Non-HIV-Infected Individuals Before and After the Introduction of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy: Persistent High Risk Among HIV-Infected Injecting Drug Users Zitta Barrella Harboe, Mette Vang Larsen, Steen Ladelund, Gitte Kronborg, Helle Bossen Konradsen, Jan Gerstoft, Carsten Schade Larsen, Court Pedersen, Gitte Pedersen, Niels Obel, and Thomas Benﬁeld HIV-infected adults have a substantially high-risk of invasive pneumococcal disease compared to those without human immunodeﬁciency virus (HIV) infection. The risk was reduced among HIV-infected individuals who were on antiretrovirals and who had favorable markers of immunosuppression, but not for HIV-infected injecting drug users. 1177 Pharmacokinetic Study of Raltegravir in HIV-Infected Patients With End-Stage Liver Disease: The LIVERAL-ANRS 148 Study Caroline Barau, Joséphine Braun, Corine Vincent, Stéphanie Haim-Boukobza, Jean-Michel Molina, Patrick Miailhes, Isabelle Fournier, Jean-Pierre Aboulker, Daniel Vittecoq, Jean-Charles Duclos-Vallée, Anne-Marie Taburet, and Elina Teicher; for the Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida et les hépatites (ANRS) 148 Study Group In end-stage liver disease, despite high exposure, raltegravir was well tolerated. Raltegravir administration is suitable in this population. As no pharmacokinetic interaction was evidenced between raltegravir and the immunosuppressive regimen, it might be recommended in recipients of liver transplant. CORRESPONDENCE 1185 Herpes Zoster and Stroke: Implications for Therapy and Vaccination Ann L. N. Chapman 1186 Feasibility of Universal HIV Testing in an Outpatient Clinic Sharon E. McMullen, David A. Pegues, Frances S. Shofer, and Alexandra C. Sheller 1190 High Levels of Alcohol Consumption Increase the Risk of Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis in HIV/Hepatitis C Virus–Coinfected Patients: A Sex-Based Analysis Using Transient Elastography at Enrollment in the HEPAVIH ANRS CO13 Cohort Fabienne Marcellin, Perrine Roux, Marc-Arthur Loko, Caroline Lions, Aurore Caumont-Prim, François Dabis, Dominique Salmon-Ceron, Bruno Spire, and Maria Patrizia Carrieri; for the HEPAVIH (ANRS CO13) Study Group 1192 Reply to Marcellin et al Vincent Lo Re III, Janet P. Tate, Joseph K. Lim, David A. Fiellin, and Amy C. Justice 1193 Measuring the Impact of Clostridium difﬁcile Infection With the NAP1 Strain on Severity and Mortality Krishna Rao 1194 New “One Health” Strategies Needed for Detection and Control of Emerging Pathogens at Cantonese Live Animal Markets, China Shou Su, Gregory C. Gray, JiaHai Lu, Ming Liao, Guihong Zhang, and Shoujun Li 1197 Diagnostic Value of Eosinopenia in Non-Typhi Salmonella Enteritis Dimitrios Farmakiotis, Christos Ntouloulis, Nikolaos Mihailidis, Efstratios K. Theoﬁlogiannakos, Georgios Makavos, Antonios Bakas, and Elpiniki Vassiliadou 1198 Reply to Farmakiotis et al Claire S. Waddington, Thomas C. Darton, Brian Angus, and Andrew J. Pollard Sergey Y. Turin, Rachel E. Rosenﬁeld, Melody Lee, Krishna Patel, and Richard M. Novak 1187 Tuberculin Skin Test and QuantiFERON Performance, and Testing of Populations at Low Risk for Tuberculosis Infection Shamim Islam, Jennifer Grinsdale, Laurel Bristow, and Julie Higashi 1199 The Opening and Closing of Empiric Windows: The Impact of Rapid Microbiologic Diagnostics Derek R. MacFadden, Jerome A. Leis, Samira Mubareka, and Nick Daneman BOOK REVIEWS ELECTRONIC ARTICLE 1201 Evidence-Based Neonatal Infections e93 Peter F. Wright 1201 Medical Biotechnology Dylan R. Pillai Hypoglycemia in Patients Treated With Linezolid Prabha Viswanathan, Dmitri Iarikov, Ronald Wassel, Alma Davidson, and Sumathi Nambiar Hypoglycemia was not previously known to be a linezolid-associated adverse reaction. A case report describing symptomatic hypoglycemia in a linezolid recipient prompted a review of the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System, which demonstrated a relationship between linezolid and hypoglycemia. A warning with this information was added to the linezolid package insert. The electronic article listed above is freely available in this issue of Clinical Infectious Diseases online (http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/ content/current ).
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