Clinical Infectious Diseases

Clinical Infectious Diseases
15 October 2014
Volume 59
Number 8
i News
iii In the Literature
1049 Extensive Drug Resistance Acquired During Treatment of MultidrugResistant Tuberculosis
On the cover: Dog-Bite Recovery, ex-voto plaque,
polychrome terracotta, ca. 1690, Anonymous (Italian,
17th century). Santuario Madonna dei Bagni, Umbria.
Photo by Michael Grizzard.
As indicated by the letters “PGR” (Per Gratia
Ricevuto, or “for Received Grace”), an ex-voto is
created when an individual’s prayers for recovery
have been answered. Here, the victim apparently
recovered from a dog bite. Before 1885, when Louis
Pasteur’s preventive vaccine brought greater security
to the public from the presence of street dogs,
folkloric treatments of infection from rabies may
have “worked” because few supposedly rabid dogs
actually had the disease. Otherwise, dog bite
infections, usually polymicrobial, could have been
serious, but a shallow wound and proper cleansing
were likely to have been more influential to recovery
than the potions prepared by local chemists during
this period. In this case, however, the prayers to the
image of the Madonna in this sanctuary were given
credit for the patient’s recovery. The late 17thcentury date of the plaque is estimated by the style
of the clothes, with thigh-length breeches, high
boots, and padded jackets, characteristic of the time.
(Mary & Michael Grizzard, Cover Art Editors)
J. Peter Cegielski, Tracy Dalton, Martin Yagui, Wanpen Wattanaamornkiet, Grigory V. Volchenkov,
Laura E. Via, Martie Van Der Walt, Thelma Tupasi, Sarah E. Smith, Ronel Odendaal, Vaira Leimane,
Charlotte Kvasnovsky, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Ekaterina Kurbatova, Tiina Kummik, Liga Kuksa, Kai Kliiman,
Elena V. Kiryanova, HeeJin Kim, Chang-ki Kim, Boris Y. Kazennyy, Ruwen Jou, Wei-Lun Huang,
Julia Ershova, Vladislav V. Erokhin, Lois Diem, Carmen Contreras, Sang Nae Cho, Larisa N. Chernousova,
Michael P. Chen, Janice Campos Caoili, Jaime Bayona, and Somsak Akksilp; for the Global Preserving
Effective TB Treatment Study (PETTS) Investigators
Nearly 15% of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis cases developed resistance to the
fluoroquinolones, the second-line injectable drugs, or both during treatment for MDR tuberculosis. The
rate of acquired resistance was significantly lower in programs that met specific performance criteria.
1064 Editorial Commentary: Treatment for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis:
It’s Worse Than We Thought!
Charles L. Daley and C. Robert Horsburgh Jr
1066 Impact of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccination in Invasive
Pneumococcal Disease Incidence and Mortality
Zitta Barrella Harboe, Tine Dalby, Daniel M. Weinberger, Thomas Benfield, Kåre Mølbak,
Hans Christian Slotved, Camilla H. Suppli, Helle Bossen Konradsen, and Palle Valentiner-Branth
Introduction of PCV13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Danish childhood immunization
program has led to further reduction in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease shortly after the
vaccine’s introduction. A substantial population-level decline in pneumococcal-related mortality of nearly
30% among nonvaccinated persons was also observed.
1074 Impact of Infectious Disease Consultation on the Clinical and
Economic Outcomes of Solid Organ Transplant Recipients Admitted
for Infectious Complications
Bassem Hamandi, Shahid Husain, Atul Humar, and Emmanuel A. Papadimitropoulos
Infectious disease consultation for hospitalized solid organ transplant recipients is associated with
one-third the hazard rate for mortality at 28 days, along with decreased rehospitalization rates and no
significant impact on costs when the consultation occurred within 48 hours of admission.
1083 The Efficacy and Safety of Gentamicin Plus
Azithromycin and Gemifloxacin Plus
Azithromycin as Treatment of Uncomplicated
Robert D. Kirkcaldy, Hillard S. Weinstock, Page C. Moore,
Susan S. Philip, Harold C. Wiesenfeld, John R. Papp, Peter R. Kerndt,
Shacondra Johnson, Khalil G. Ghanem, and Edward W. Hook III
We evaluated 2 combinations of existing antimicrobials for treatment
of gonorrhea: gentamicin/azithromycin and gemifloxacin/azithromycin.
Both regimens were efficacious, but many participants experienced
gastrointestinal adverse events. These combinations may be useful
options for patients who cannot be treated with ceftriaxone-based
1092 Editorial Commentary: The Shifting Sands of
Gonococcal Antimicrobial Resistance
Peter A. Rice
1095 Increased Incidence and Characteristics of
Alveolar Echinococcosis in Patients With
Immunosuppression-Associated Conditions
Adrien Chauchet, Frédéric Grenouillet, Jenny Knapp, Carine Richou,
Eric Delabrousse, Charlotte Dentan, Laurence Millon, Vincent Di Martino,
Remy Contreras, Eric Deconinck, Oleg Blagosklonov,
Dominique A. Vuitton, and Solange Bresson-Hadni; for the FrancEchino
This is the first systematic study of the occurrence of alveolar
echinococcosis in patients with immunosuppression-associated
conditions. It demonstrates the increase in case incidence for the period
2002–2012 and describes the epidemiological and clinical characteristics
of these cases.
1105 Efficacy and Safety of Fosfomycin Plus Imipenem
as Rescue Therapy for Complicated Bacteremia
and Endocarditis Due to Methicillin-Resistant
Staphylococcus aureus: A Multicenter Clinical
Ana del Río, Oriol Gasch, Asunción Moreno, Carmen Peña, Jordi Cuquet,
Dolors Soy, Carlos A. Mestres, Cristina Suárez, Juan C. Pare, Fe Tubau,
Cristina Garcia de la Mària, Francesc Marco, Jordi Carratalà,
José M. Gatell, Francisco Gudiol, José M. Miró, and the FOSIMI
We performed a clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of
fosfomycin plus imipenem as rescue therapy for complicated methicillinresistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and infective endocarditis.
Blood cultures were negative 72 hours after the first dose in all patients.
1113 A Systematic Review: Can One Prescribe
Carbapenems to Patients With IgE-Mediated
Allergy to Penicillins or Cephalosporins?
Brittany Kula, Gordana Djordjevic, and Joan L. Robinson
Following an immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated reaction to a penicillin,
the chance of having a hypersensitivity reaction to a carbapenem is
approximately 4% and the chance of having an IgE-mediated reaction is
2%. Data on cross-reactivity between cephalosporins and carbapenems
are minimal.
1123 Transforming the Fight Against Tuberculosis:
Targeting Catalysts of Transmission
David W. Dowdy, Andrew S. Azman, Emily A. Kendall, and
Barun Mathema
Transmission of tuberculosis in communities is driven by
heterogeneities in human behavior, mycobacterial activity, and host
susceptibility. The only realistic way to achieve ambitious targets for
tuberculosis elimination is to tailor local interventions to these catalysts
of tuberculosis transmission.
1130 Increased Risk for Lymphoma Following
Hemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome
Jonas Klingström, Fredrik Granath, Anders Ekbom, Niklas K. Björkström,
and Hans-Gustaf Ljunggren
Incorporating Pathology in the Practice of
Infectious Disease: Myths and Reality
Jeannette Guarner
Clinicians and pathologists consult with infectious disease
pathologists for a variety of reasons, which are described in this article.
A better understanding of what pathologists can do and what clinicians
need is key to patient care.
Difficulties in Demonstrating Superiority of an
Antibiotic for Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in
Nonrandomized Studies
Kristen A. Stafford, Mallory Boutin, Scott R. Evans, and
Anthony D. Harris
This article describes the epidemiological challenges of randomized
superiority trials and the epidemiological issues in studies aiming to
demonstrate superiority of antibiotics in nonrandomized retrospective
database trials.
1148 Rosuvastatin Preserves Renal Function and
Lowers Cystatin C in HIV-Infected Subjects on
Antiretroviral Therapy: The SATURN-HIV Trial
Chris T. Longenecker, Corrilynn O. Hileman, Nicholas T. Funderburg, and
Grace A. McComsey
In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial, rosuvastatin 10 mg daily
improved estimated glomerular filtration rate and reduced plasma
cystatin C in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. Reductions in
cystatin C with statin therapy correlated with reductions in inflammatory
1157 Editorial Commentary: Cystatin C and Statins in
HIV Disease
Robert C. Kalayjian
1160 HIV Quality Report Cards: Impact of Case-Mix
Adjustment and Statistical Methods
Michael E. Ohl, Kelly K. Richardson, Michihiko Goto,
Mary Vaughan-Sarrazin, Marin L. Schweizer, and Eli N. Perencevich
Adjustment for characteristics of patients in care affects rankings of
care systems on the viral control measure of human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV) care quality. Prior to public reporting of HIV quality measures,
there must be consensus on optimal methods for case-mix adjustment.
1188 Higher Specificity of Tuberculin Skin Test
Compared With QuantiFERON-TB Gold for
Detection of Exposure to Mycobacterium
Angelico Mendy, Ahmed N. Albatineh, Edgar R. Vieira, and
Janvier Gasana
1189 Reply to Islam et al and Mendy et al
1168 Incidence and Risk Factors for Invasive
Pneumococcal Disease in HIV-Infected and
Non-HIV-Infected Individuals Before and After
the Introduction of Combination Antiretroviral
Therapy: Persistent High Risk Among
HIV-Infected Injecting Drug Users
Zitta Barrella Harboe, Mette Vang Larsen, Steen Ladelund,
Gitte Kronborg, Helle Bossen Konradsen, Jan Gerstoft,
Carsten Schade Larsen, Court Pedersen, Gitte Pedersen, Niels Obel, and
Thomas Benfield
HIV-infected adults have a substantially high-risk of invasive
pneumococcal disease compared to those without human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV) infection. The risk was reduced among HIV-infected individuals
who were on antiretrovirals and who had favorable markers of
immunosuppression, but not for HIV-infected injecting drug users.
1177 Pharmacokinetic Study of Raltegravir in
HIV-Infected Patients With End-Stage Liver
Disease: The LIVERAL-ANRS 148 Study
Caroline Barau, Joséphine Braun, Corine Vincent,
Stéphanie Haim-Boukobza, Jean-Michel Molina, Patrick Miailhes,
Isabelle Fournier, Jean-Pierre Aboulker, Daniel Vittecoq,
Jean-Charles Duclos-Vallée, Anne-Marie Taburet, and Elina Teicher; for
the Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida et les hépatites (ANRS)
148 Study Group
In end-stage liver disease, despite high exposure, raltegravir was well
tolerated. Raltegravir administration is suitable in this population. As no
pharmacokinetic interaction was evidenced between raltegravir and the
immunosuppressive regimen, it might be recommended in recipients of
liver transplant.
1185 Herpes Zoster and Stroke: Implications for
Therapy and Vaccination
Ann L. N. Chapman
1186 Feasibility of Universal HIV Testing in an
Outpatient Clinic
Sharon E. McMullen, David A. Pegues, Frances S. Shofer, and
Alexandra C. Sheller
1190 High Levels of Alcohol Consumption Increase
the Risk of Advanced Hepatic Fibrosis in
HIV/Hepatitis C Virus–Coinfected Patients:
A Sex-Based Analysis Using Transient
Elastography at Enrollment in the HEPAVIH
ANRS CO13 Cohort
Fabienne Marcellin, Perrine Roux, Marc-Arthur Loko, Caroline Lions,
Aurore Caumont-Prim, François Dabis, Dominique Salmon-Ceron,
Bruno Spire, and Maria Patrizia Carrieri; for the HEPAVIH (ANRS CO13)
Study Group
1192 Reply to Marcellin et al
Vincent Lo Re III, Janet P. Tate, Joseph K. Lim, David A. Fiellin, and
Amy C. Justice
1193 Measuring the Impact of Clostridium difficile
Infection With the NAP1 Strain on Severity and
Krishna Rao
1194 New “One Health” Strategies Needed for
Detection and Control of Emerging Pathogens at
Cantonese Live Animal Markets, China
Shou Su, Gregory C. Gray, JiaHai Lu, Ming Liao, Guihong Zhang, and
Shoujun Li
1197 Diagnostic Value of Eosinopenia in Non-Typhi
Salmonella Enteritis
Dimitrios Farmakiotis, Christos Ntouloulis, Nikolaos Mihailidis,
Efstratios K. Theofilogiannakos, Georgios Makavos, Antonios Bakas, and
Elpiniki Vassiliadou
1198 Reply to Farmakiotis et al
Claire S. Waddington, Thomas C. Darton, Brian Angus, and
Andrew J. Pollard
Sergey Y. Turin, Rachel E. Rosenfield, Melody Lee, Krishna Patel, and
Richard M. Novak
1187 Tuberculin Skin Test and QuantiFERON
Performance, and Testing of Populations at Low
Risk for Tuberculosis Infection
Shamim Islam, Jennifer Grinsdale, Laurel Bristow, and Julie Higashi
1199 The Opening and Closing of Empiric Windows:
The Impact of Rapid Microbiologic Diagnostics
Derek R. MacFadden, Jerome A. Leis, Samira Mubareka, and
Nick Daneman
1201 Evidence-Based Neonatal Infections
Peter F. Wright
1201 Medical Biotechnology
Dylan R. Pillai
Hypoglycemia in Patients Treated With Linezolid
Prabha Viswanathan, Dmitri Iarikov, Ronald Wassel, Alma Davidson, and
Sumathi Nambiar
Hypoglycemia was not previously known to be a linezolid-associated
adverse reaction. A case report describing symptomatic hypoglycemia in
a linezolid recipient prompted a review of the US Food and Drug
Administration Adverse Event Reporting System, which demonstrated a
relationship between linezolid and hypoglycemia. A warning with this
information was added to the linezolid package insert.
The electronic article listed above is freely available in this issue
of Clinical Infectious Diseases online (
content/current ).