Notemaking with Forkner Shorthand. Teacher's Manual, Fleming, Louise, Patterson, Diane,... Canada, 1990, 0176035478, 9780176035471, . .

Notemaking with Forkner Shorthand. Teacher's Manual, Fleming, Louise, Patterson, Diane, Nelson
Canada, 1990, 0176035478, 9780176035471, . .
This curriculum guide is intended to provide classroom teachers with an easily adaptable consumer
education program that is appropriate for use with students in grades K-adult. In the first part of the
guide, various consumer educational concepts are listed by grade and then by subject area.
Discussed next are the suggested scope and sequence of the consumer education materials
presented. The next section of the guide, an activities section, consists of learning activities dealing
with the following areas: a value system for consumer education, decision-making procedures, the
rights and responsibilities of consumers, and the role of the consumer in our economic system.
Within each area, activities are grouped by grade level and are explained on activity sheets
containing a title, competency number, grade level, suggested procedures, as well as handouts and
supplemental materials. Concluding the guide is a list of consumer educational resources and
materials. (MN)
This consumer curriculum guide is divided into 10 component areas: basic economics in the
marketplace, credit, consumer law/protection, banking skills, comparison shopping, advertising,
responsible budgeting, insurance, taxes, and conservation of energy and resources. Each
component is accompanied by a goal statement that identifies key concepts and interrelationships
which should be achieved. The remainder of each of the components is comprised of an outline that
provides specific objectives, suggested sample activities, and sample resources. (LRA)
Intended to supplement the fifth grade textbook "Young Consumers" (part of the "Law in Action
Series" by West Publishing Company, 1980), this guide contains 22 lessons each of which includes
a classroom visit from a community resource person. The guide is a product of the Urban Consumer
Education Project, a cooperative program between the St. Louis Public Schools and the Missouri
Attorney General's office. The lessons were developed and field tested by the 40 fifth-grade
teachers and 40 community resource persons who participated in the project. Community persons
give presentations on a variety of topics including advertising, how to save money riding the bus,
crime, ways to conserve energy, consumer problems, contracts, filing a complaint, insurance,
utilities, police department, using the telephone wisely, fraud, toy safety, and reading food labels.
Each lesson includes the following information: consumer objectives; skill objectives; a listing of
related lessons from the text "Young Consumers"; a listing of presentation materials needed by the
teacher and resource person; vocabulary words to know; pre-visit activities for the teacher to do with
the students; an outline of the resource person's classroom presentation; and follow-up activities
that the teachers can use to reinforce the lesson's consumer and basic skills objectives. Also
included in the guide is a supplement containing materials such as worksheets and discussion aids
which can be used with each lesson and a description of additional community resources in the St.
Louis area. (RM)
This consumer education module is designed to increase seventh and eighth grade urban student
awareness of what it means to be a consumer. The seven units in the module are intended to help
students think of themselves as consumers, identify appropriate consumer behavior and the
consumer viewpoint in some topical areas, and gather information and write about it in a regular
newspaper for the community. An introductory section contains information on the development of
these instructional materials. Unit 1 contains seven activities on appropriate consumer behavior. The
second unit provides activities to help students learn more about their local area as a place where
consumers live and function. The skills required to start and run a community newspaper are
covered in the four activities of unit 3. Two activities designed to help students write about the
consumer interest are presented in the fourth unit. Units 5-7 contain a total of fourteen activities on
consuming entertainment and medical services and supermarket shopping; activities include field
trips, discussions, writing articles, and conducting interviews. Appendixes contain student
compositions, an issue of a student newspaper, consumer-oriented articles, a health newsletter, and
information on selecting a doctor. (MN)
This guide is designed to help educators develop a comprehensive and integrated family and
consumer sciences educational program for all grades. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the family
and consumer sciences program in Connecticut. Chapter 2 describes the various program elements
local districts should consider when reviewing, modifying, or developing program offerings, such as
program overview, program goals, core topic areas, integrative components, and program structure.
Chapter 3 describes a curriculum development process that addresses factors influencing
curriculum development, recommended steps in the curriculum development process, integration of
Future Homemakers of America/Home Economics Related Occupations into the curriculum, and
current perspectives on teaching and learning that affect curriculum development. Chapter 4
provides guidance and tools to assist with the tasks of organizing program topics and selecting
student competencies at middle/junior and high school levels. Chapter 5 focuses on integrating
academics, offering new planning structures such as tech prep and applied academics programs,
and providing experience-based learning initiatives. Chapter 6 addresses promotion of gender
equity and valuing and affirming of diversity. Sample and example materials are provided throughout
the guide. The chapters list a total of 117 resources. Appendixes include statewide educational
goals for students and performance measures and standards for applied education programs. (YLB)
This annotated directory lists selected informational and educational resources in the subject areas
predominant in corporate education efforts. Organized by categories of nutrition, economics, energy,
environmental consumer and citizenship education, this list is intended to help provide a balance of
resources and perspectives for the classroom teacher when introducing controversial issues. Most
of the annotations include descriptions of specific materials available, as well as addresses of the
organizations and costs of the materials described. Not all of the sources listed provide curriculum
materials; those that do are marked with an asterisk. (DC)
This publication suggests classroom activities and resources on inflation for use in secondary and
adult/community education. Objectives are to enable students to: identify and analyze varying points
of view and policy proposals on inflation; apply the decision-making process to various alternatives
regarding inflation; and achieve a broader understanding of the options available to consumers as
they participate to influence change regarding the inflation problem. For each topic related to
inflation the following is provided: an objective, suggested learning activities, classroom materials
needed, teacher resources, and suggested evaluation procedures. Although student worksheets are
provided for many of the activities, publisher available materials are required for some of the
activities. The activities in which the students are involved are many and varied. Some examples
follow. Students take an Inflation Attitude Survey. They survey their parents or adult members of the
community using the instrument and compare the opinions of adults with those of the students.
Students read, summarize, and report on current newspaper and magazine articles. They research,
either by group or individually, the prices of 10 common food items. Other activities involve students
in role playing a 30-minute television panel discussion of what individuals and groups can do to help
counter inflation, in completing a worksheet entitled "My Plan to Counter Inflation Costs", in viewing
and discussing filmstrips, and in listening to mini-lectures. Pre- and posttests, a glossary of terms,
and an index of organizations are included. An annotated bibliography cites materials representing a
variety of points of view regarding inflation. Books, journal articles, pamphlets and reports, films,
video cassettes and filmstrips, and simulations are included. The publication concludes with several
position papers on inflation. (Author/RM)
This curriculum guide provides a useful framework for an 11-unit competency-based course in
consumer education, one of the semester courses required for a Type B vocational consumer and
homemaking education program in Missouri. Both unit and specific objectives are provided for each
unit. The cross-reference table of instructional materials in each unit presents the teacher with a
planning tool. For each competency covered in a unit, the correlated specific objective(s),
transparency master(s), handout(s), assignment sheet(s), job sheet(s), and test items are indicated.
Each unit also contains these materials: information sheets with a content outline, transparency
masters, assignment sheets, answers to assignment sheets, job sheets (with evaluation criteria
checklists), a unit test, and answers to test. The unit topics are: making informed choices; managing
income; meeting personal grooming and clothing needs; meeting transportation needs; meeting
housing needs; furnishing and maintaining a home; arranging for professional services; conserving
resources; obtaining financial assistance; planning for the future; and recognizing the citizen's role in
our economy. (YLB)
This document is a six-unit curriculum guide for a high school (grades 9-12) course in clothing
instruction. The units contain one to three lessons on the following topics: (1) psychology of clothing
and appearance (role of clothing and clothing choices, personal grooming); (2) design principles
(line and design, color); (3) construction preparation (patterns, fabrics, and notions; sewing tools and
equipment; and construction preliminaries); (4) construction projects (construction and projects, and
evaluation of projects); (5) clothing care and maintenance (laundry; dry cleaning, pressing, repairs);
and (6) clothing consumerism (effective consumer skills). Each unit contains the following:
objectives, concepts, competencies, learning activities, assessment and evaluation questions
related to competencies, teacher background information, transparency masters, student activity
guides, and teacher keys. The document concludes with 17 pages of clothing and textiles laboratory
management techniques and other suggestions by teachers. (KC)
These four consumer citizenship curriculum guides for social studies, English, science, and
mathematics incorporate consumer education into these subject matter areas in grades 8-12. Each
guide is organized around 10 main component/goals. They are basic economics in the marketplace,
credit, consumer law/protection, banking skills, comparison shopping for goods and services,
advertising and our society, responsible budgeting, insurance, taxes, and conservation of energy
and resources. Each specific objective under the goals lists performance indicators and suggested
evaluation for each one. A taxonomy provides the teacher with consumer knowledge related to the
performance indicator. Suggested learning experiences provide activities directly or indirectly related
to the specific objectives. Learning experiences for the gifted and slow learner follow the social
studies, English, and science guides. A section for the gifted in mathematics follows the
mathematics guide. Appendixes include the Consumer Citizenship Curriculum Guide Grid,
descriptions of the slow learner and gifted child, and a partially annotated list of selected resources.
This revised curriculum gives information on the skills and knowledge students should acquire
through a business education program. The competencies listed reflect the skills that employers see
as necessary for success in clerical and accounting occupations. The handbook is organized in
seven sections that cover the following: (1) the concept of competency-based curriculum and the
role of vocational educators in curriculum planning, implementation, and evaluation; (2) the scope,
sequence, and hierarchy of business education competencies; (3) competencies and tasks for
employability skills and skills in the areas of keyboarding, the free enterprise system, financial
recordkeeping/accounting, and business management; (4) course descriptions to assist school
districts in developing their vocational programs; (5) a curriculum analysis matrix to be used in
determining competencies for specific business education courses; (6) a sample skills card for
evaluating and recording student progress; and (7) information on resources and specific materials
available in Alaska and the rest of the nation. (KC)
The primary goal of the Oregon nuclear age education curriculum is to develop in students the
knowledge and skills needed to meet the challenges of living in a nuclear age. This curriculum is
developed around five general themes, each corresponding to a specific unit. The general goals for
the units are: (Unit 1) to increase students' exposure to the world outside themselves, to other
cultures, and to the natural and physical world; (Unit 2) to increase students' critical thinking skills
and understanding of how people make decisions and form attitudes; (Unit 3) to promote skills of
constructive communication and conflict resolution; (Unit 4) to increase students' knowledge of
nuclear technology and their understanding of its benefits and limitations; and (Unit 5) to increase
students' understanding of armed conflict and modern weapons issues. This is a K-12 curriculum,
but many of the topics in units 4 and 5 are more appropriate for older children. For the most part, the
lessons should be integral parts of existing curricula. Care has been taken to provide teachers with
examples of what might be done to promote nuclear age education in nearly all subject areas. The
units are not designed to be taught in sequence and can be integrated into the curriculum whenever
the teachers wishes. Whenever possible, lessons and activities should involve students in direct,
first-hand experiences. The lessons presented can be adopted directly, adapted to a particular
school's needs, or taken as suggestions of what might be developed. A bibliography lists 30
curriculum materials, 50 books, pamphlets, articles, 50 teaching resources, 21 organizations, 9
sources for nuclear statistics, and 11 supplements and bibliographies. (JB)
Physics/science education in the communicative conception is defined as the continuous transfer of
the knowledge and methods of physics into the minds of individuals who have not participated in
creating them. This process, called the educational communication of physics/science, is performed
by various educational agents-teachers, curriculum makers, textbook designers, university teachers
and does not mean only a simple transfer of information, but it also involves teaching and instruction
at all levels of the school system, the study, learning, and cognition of pupils, students and all other
learners, the assessment and evaluation of learning outcomes, curriculum composition and design,
the production of textbooks and other means of educational communication and, in addition,
university education and the further training of teachers. The educational communication is carried
out by the curriculum process of physics/science, which is a sequence of variant forms of curriculum
mutually interconnected by curriculum transformations. The variant forms of curriculum are as
follows: conceptual curriculum, intended curriculum, project (written) curriculum, operational
curriculum, implemented curriculum, and attained curriculum.
As the shift from industrial arts to technology education takes place, there is a tendency to merely
change the name of a course and not to change the course content. In order to make the change to
a technology education curriculum teachers need to be able to conceptualize and design new
courses. One of the intervention strategies for increasing the likelihood of renewal and improvement
in technology education has been through teacher education programs and curriculum courses for
preservice technology teachers. Most preservice teachers study curriculum development with
respect to industrial arts/technology education, yet, evidence of what they study about curriculum is
lacking. Although recent publications in the field of curriculum have focused on the variety of ways in
which educators design curriculum (Eisner, 1979; Eisner
Using data collected from a pre-training survey, post-training survey, and telephone follow-up
survey, this study analyzes the impact of the Money Smart financial education curriculum upon the
financial opinions and behaviors of course participants during the survey period. The data indicate
that Money Smart financial education training positively affected consumer behaviors and that
behavior changes were demonstrated many months after completing the training. Among the
significant findings were that participants were more likely to open deposit accounts, save money in
a mainstream deposit product, use and adhere to a budget, and have increased confidence in their
financial abilities when contacted six to twelve months after completing the Money Smart course
than they were before taking the course. The following are appended: (1) The FDIC's
Implementation of Money Smart; (2) Survey Instruments; (3) Development of the Survey
Instruments; (4) Procedures for Implementing the Surveys; (5) Summary of Survey Sites; (6) Call
Design for Telephone Follow-up Survey; (7) Statistical Details; (8) Research Limitations; (9)
References; and (10) Statistical Tables. (Contains 35 illustrations, 27 exhibits, 30 tables, and 27
Designed to build up concepts presented in the Master Curriculum Guide volume "A Framework for
Teaching the Basic Concepts," this collection of teacher guidelines and classroom lessons focuses
on how economic concepts and an economic way of thinking can be incorporated into various units
in consumer education courses or in courses at the secondary level that contain units on consumer
education. Material is divided into four sections using related clusters of economic concepts that are
important to consumer economics. Each of the sections provides an overview that serves as teacher
background. Section 1, "Decision-Making and the Consumer," contains lessons and strategies on
profits, the two-career family, household production, scarcity, choice, and trade-offs. Section
2,"Functioning of a Market," contains materials on marketplace interdependence, market failures
and access to information on decision-making, the consumer price index, and price changes.
Section 3, "Effects of Government Action on Consumers," looks at consumer protection. Section 4,
"The Interrelationships among Government, Business, and Consumer Decisions," contains
simulations on monetary control, corporate crisis, and increasing productivity. Appendices list
supplementary materials and sources of information. (LP)
Intended to assist Illinois teachers in planning an instructional program in consumer education that
meets state requirements, this consumer education curriculum is designed to help students in
grades 9 through 12: (1) become informed consumers; (2) understand the rights and responsibilities
of consumers in society; (3) develop responsible attitudes toward the use of resources; (4) develop
a sound decision-making process based on individual goals and values; (5) use sources of
information to help make consumer decisions; (6) understand the independent roles of the
consumer, the worker, and the citizen in our economy; and (7) participate more fully in the consumer
aspects of family life. Following an introduction, the second of six sections focuses on the consumer
in the marketplace. Topics in the third section, "The Consumer in Our Economy," include the
economy; the consumer; interaction of the consumer with agriculture, business, government, and
labor and trade unions; economic principles of the marketplace; important economic measurements;
and economic issues for consumers. Topics related to financial planning such as budgeting,
savings, investing, and financial services; consumer credit; taxes; and insurance are outlined in the
fourth section. The fifth section on goods and services focuses on consumer services, housing,
food, transportation, clothing, health care, recreation, and home furnishings and equipment. The
final section, which lists consumer education resources, concludes the publication. For each section
and subsection, course objectives, content, suggested activities, and related resources are outlined.
Fishing is one of the oldest and most popular outdoor activities. Like most activities, fishing requires
basic knowledge and skill for success. The Aquatic Resources Education Curriculum is designed to
assist beginning anglers in learning the basic concepts of how, when, and where to fish as well as
what tackle to use. The manual is designed to be used in beginning sport fishing classes. It is
intended to be an independent, self contained curriculum and incorporates lesson plans,
background texts, and lists of other resources including state and federal agencies, tackle
companies and conservation organizations. The manual is divided into four major units of study
including: (1) a fishing primer; (2) becoming a better angler; (3) understanding fish and their
environment; and (4) water resources for our future. These units have been subdivided into 28
individual lessons. There is an additional lesson on careers at the end. Appendices include a
glossary, bibliography, sources of additional information or assistance, sources of fishing tackle,
equipment, free and/or inexpensive materials, and graphics to supplement the lessons. Each lesson
plan contains objectives, a list of needed materials, an outline of the lesson content and suggested
classroom procedures. (CW)
This handbook contains model lessons on consumer education for use with intermediate, junior
high, and high school students. The handbook was developed as a result of a grant which the Social
Science Education Consortium received to conduct three consumer education workshops for
approximately 100 Colorado teachers and school administrators. Many of the lessons described in
the handbook were used and evaluated by participants in these workshops. The learning activities
are self-contained and can be used in social studies, business, home economics, language arts,
business, math, and science courses. The activities are organized according to the nine consumer
economics categories identified by the U.S. Office of Education: basic economics of the
marketplace; legal rights, redress, and consumer law; financial management and credit; energy
consumption and conservation; major purchases; special problems (e.g. advertising, public safety);
federal assistance and services; consumer representation; and government regulatory processes.
The activities are many and varied. For example, in an activity on energy use, students take home
worksheets on which they record the numbers and kinds of electrical appliances their families have.
When students return to class with their completed worksheets, the teacher selects a dozen
commonly used appliances and asks students to suggest what they might do or use if each one
were not available. As an extension activity students are asked to identify one appliance that he or
she uses every day and refrain from using it for one week. They then write and share brief reports
about how difficult or easy it was to do without their favorite appliances and what they did or used
instead. Other activities include a candy/gum buying simulation, role playing a small claims court
case, analyzing their own spending habits, preparing personal budgets, recycling an empty
container, and comparing prices of items in different stores. (Author/RM)
Some of the conceptual connections between general curriculum theory and multicultural education
are traced, guided by the concept model of education and curriculum theory developed by George
Beauchamp. The major premise is that multicultural education is consistent with, and actually a
continuation of, some trends that have long-standing precedents in the United States. Multicultural
education is further asserted to be compatible with the basic egalitarian principles of democracy and
valuable in translating some of the fundamental ideas of American education into practice.
Reviewing the literature makes it clear that developments in multicultural education scholarship
meet the general criteria of curriculum theorizing in that the key concepts and parameters of the field
have been defined and models and subtheories have been developed. Multicultural education is on
its way to becoming a mature curriculum theory in its own right. Educational equity and excellence
for all children cannot be obtained without the incorporation of cultural pluralism in all aspects of the
educational process, and this will require more exploration of the connections between curricular
innovations and elements of multicultural education. (Contains 145 references.) (SLD)
While health care providers are knowledgeable of health conditions and of the information patients
need to make appropriate health decisions and follow health providers' recommendations, they lack
information about adult teaching and learning and appropriate curriculum design. Adult educators
can contribute more sophisticated skills in program planning, delivery, evaluation, and research to
create learner-centered programs promoting societal as well as individual change. This chapter
describes a collaborative design model for developing curriculum for family caregivers of children
with special health care needs. The curriculum focuses on access to information and seamless care
for children, with the ultimate goal of fostering family independence. (Contains 1 table.)
This paper was presented at the Technology Education Isues Symposium, Maui, Hawaii, in June
1996. 71 knowledge of practice (specific technological applications), and (c) impacts of technology
on society and the environment (Wright, 1992). With this as a basis for the field, curriculum
development can begin. As development of curriculum is considered, disagreement arises. Here is
where the curricular friction begins to take place and be noticed. For much of the profession the
current curriculum framework is little different from the old vocational models used in years past that
concentrate on the technical aspects of selected tools and materials. It is packaged differently,
modules are used instead of unit shops, computers and robots are used instead of jack planes and
handsaws, but the philosophical basis remains the same. Educators concentrate the majority of their
efforts on the technical procedures used to create artifacts and give the processes used by
technologists and the impacts of technology on society only cursory attention. Students sometimes
gain knowledge about the technological processes and the impacts of technology as a by-product of
the curriculum. These outcomes occur in a haphazard way, however, rather than through a
coordinated curriculum that shares the stage with the major elements of the technology education
This competency-based prevocational exploration curriculum is designed to provide occupational
information and hands-on experiences pertaining to consumer and homemaking occupations to
ninth- and tenth-grade students. The curriculum consists of 45 learning pacs, 43 of which cover one
service occupation each. Information for each service occupation is provided in this format: career
information (job title, duties, where employed, employment outlook, education and training, special
qualifications, earnings and additional benefits, working conditions and lifestyles), occupational
cluster, occupational family, representative job titles, occupational task, occupational competency,
resources and/or materials needed to complete the pac, a list of learning objectives, a list of learning
activities, evaluation procedures, student information sheets, and worksheets. The first and last
learning pacs (an introduction and a culminating/review lesson) do not include career information.
The job titles are divided into five units: child care (foster parent, nursery school attendant,
kindergarten teacher), clothing and textiles (demonstrator of sewing techniques, dressmaker,
garment cutter), family relations (family caseworker, extension agent, home economist), foods and
nutrition (clinical dietitian, food demonstrator, foods magazine editor), and housing (housewares
demonstrator, interior decorator, furniture salesperson). Fifteen of the job titles are suggested for
inclusion in a core curriculum. (YLB)
The Asian Consumer Education Study was designed to gather information about the current status
of consumer education in Korea. Conversations and informal interviews with 27 consumer leaders
showed that, with the exception of academic specialists and consumer professionals in government,
business, and community organizations, consumers gave little thought to consumer education and
were not aware of its importance in a consumer-oriented marketplace. A movement was underway
to organize a coalition of professionals and academics who would focus on consumer education.
Consumer concepts were taught within courses at middle and high school levels. Curriculum
specialists at the Ministry of Education revealed that instruction was theoretical and lacked important
practical applications to current and emerging consumption issues. Teaching materials were
somewhat limited. Teacher training in economics and life economics needed to be strengthened.
Barriers to the development of consumer education were limited teacher preparation and updates,
and lack of awareness of the benefits of consumer education. The study concluded that the time
was right for cooperative initiatives between the United States and Korea to strengthen consumer
education both within and across national boundaries. (Appendixes include the participant list,
interview questions, classification of concepts chart, Ministry of Education curriculum charts, sample
textbook table of contents, and newspaper article and photographs.) (YLB)
Six major concepts form the framework for this first grade nutrition education curriculum: (1) Food is
essential for all living things (identifying basic food groups and classifying processed foods into basic
food groups); (2) Nutrition is the food you eat and how the body uses it (recognizing how food
choices are related to a healthy body, characteristics of a healthy person, and understanding that
food eaten is related to growth); (3) Food is made up of different nutrients needed for health and
growth (identifying nutritious food and snacks); (4) All persons throughout life need the same
nutrients, but in different amounts (recognizing that all family members can plan meals using the
basic food groups and realizing how serving sizes differ in the family); (5) Food production and
sanitation affect food quality (understanding how food is marketed and the necessity of cleanliness
in dealing with food); and (6) Eating is a behavioral activity which affects individuals socially,
emotionally, and physiologically (recognizing the necessity of good table manners and making food
choices from a menu). Class activities are outlined for each concept and accompanied by
illustrations and resources for teachers. Supplementary materials are provided. (JD)
This document contains vocational education program course standards (curriculum frameworks
and student performance standards) for exploratory courses, practical arts courses, and job
preparatory programs offered at the secondary and postsecondary level as part of the family and
consumer sciences component of Florida's comprehensive vocational education program.
Curriculum frameworks are provided for 32 programs/clusters: life choices; personal development;
teen challenges; blueprint for professional success; child development; family dynamics; family,
home, and consumer technology; food science technology; life management skills; nutrition and
wellness; parenting skills; principles of clothing construction; principles of food preparation; child
care center management; child development early intervention; child development and education;
decor and design services cluster; dietetic management and supervision; dietetic technician; early
childhood education cluster; elderly and disabled care services; environmental services; family and
consumer sciences cooperative education; fashion design and production cluster; food
management, production and services cluster; home and family management; interior decor
fabrication; interior design technology; nutrition and dietetic services; and parenting. Each curriculum
framework includes some or all of the following: program title, occupational area, grade level, length,
certification awarded; major concepts/content covered in the course; laboratory activities; special
notes; and intended outcomes. (MN)
This comprehensive curriculum guide was developed to enable business education teachers and
administrators in Connecticut to update and upgrade their curricula, with emphasis on and
information about cross credits, technology preparation (Tech Prep 2 + 2), interdisciplinary teaching,
and global economics interdependence study. Preliminary materials in the guide provide the
following information: the state's business education philosophy, mission and goals; areas of study;
25 objectives and competencies; the relation between business education and Connecticut's
Common Core of Learning; scope and sequence of courses; requirements for Connecticut business
education certification; and state policy on vocational education quality. The main part of the guide
outlines the curriculum for business education in four main areas: business technology, information
processing, mathematics, and social business. It also provides information on cooperative work
experience, Tech Prep 2 + 2, Future Business Leaders of America, and international business
education. For each course in the four major areas, the following information is included: sequence,
course objectives, software and hardware requirements, teaching suggestions, benefits, cross credit
information, introduction, goals, student competencies related to the state Common Core, an outline
of course content, evaluation methods, suggested teacher and student activities, career
opportunities, and resources. (KC)
In general, its teaching curriculum reflects the history of a medical school's interaction with a series
of pressures, such as the staggering advance of scientific knowledge and the social demand for
greater security against hazards to the welfare of entire populations. Secondary consequences
include the isolation of the scientist and loss of the overall view; decline in interest in teaching;
depersonalization of medical care; hospital-centred instruction and loss of contact with the viewpoint
of the community at the very time that it is demanding more attention. Compensating trends include:
increasing confidence in scientific methods, team-work in teaching, the project method of teaching,
comprehensive care clinics, and research in educational methods. The conclusion favours medical
education that is devoted to the educational needs of the student, to the health needs of the
individual patient and of the community, and to the advancement of knowledge and understanding.
The Curriculum Resources site of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental
Education Center contains curricula and activities on a variety of environmental topics such as water
quality and pollution prevention concepts. The links are categorized by Air, Ecosystems, Waste and
Recycling, Conservation, Human Health, and Water. Topics include: acid rain, indoor air pollution,
ozone, radon, ecology, endangered species, global warming, habitats, watersheds, garbage, waste,
landfills, Superfund cleanups, trash, energy, environmental stewardship, natural resources, drinking
water, fish advisories, indoor air, ozone depletion, lead, pesticides, smog, drinking water, lakes,
oceans, rivers, water pollution, and watersheds.
that most significant phenomenaÂ-from endangered species to British novelsÂ-cannot be
understood in isolation76 SDSU Curriculum Guide 2010 General Education Seven Essential
Capacities Developed General Curriculum Guide 2010 General Education General Education
profoundly influences undergraduates by providing
The instructional objectives of values education to be taught in the K-12 Utah public schools are
outlined and cross-referenced to each subject area in the curriculum. It is the responsibility of the
schools to help students clarify perceptions and values with respect to self and society. The major
categories of values education goals are: rights and responsibilities, American values, international
values, refinement of values (i.e., to develop a systematic process of forming a values system that
has life-span durability), nature of conflict, positive self-concept, and societal cement (i.e., to develop
a commitment to a core of values that serve as the cement of society). More specific goals under
each of these categories are outlined for the elementary, intermediate, junior high, and high school
grades. The bulk of the publication then cross-references each of the specific goals to the subject
areas in which they are to be taught. Subject areas include communications and reading,
mathematics, science, social studies, creative arts, health and physical education, safety and driver
education, career and vocations, and the teacher advisory orientation success program. The
appendix discusses Utah legislative requirements concerning values education. (RM)
This paper provides a historical perspective on the implementation of educational reform by the
Thatcher government in England. Since 1979, and particularly since the Education Reform Act of
1988, the state educational system in England has undergone massive reform in the form of a
national curriculum, increased school-based management, and the reduction of local education
agencies' powers. The rationale was to place control of education in the hands of consumers
(parents and employers) and to use market forces to improve school effectiveness. This analysis of
educational reform and curriculum implementation is grouped around three themes--culture, control,
and curriculum. It is argued that the reforms have been inspired by a desire to reverse the course of
history. Three conclusions are made regarding culture, control, and curriculum. First, radical reform
of one part of the education system will have little effect if the old social, economic, political, and
educational hierarchies continue in an unreformed state. Second, the great concentration of
central-government control makes education vulnerable to violent policy reversals should another
party come to power. Third, there is no guarantee that the central government possesses
educational wisdom. Positive outcomes have been achieved in specifying objectives, ensuring
progression within and between schools, and improving knowledge and standards in neglected
areas. However, three problems remain: (1) the continuing interference by government ministers in
curricular details; (2) the exemption of independent schools from curriculum and testing
requirements; and (3) the lack of fit between a traditional, subject-based, centrally controlled national
curriculum and a consumer-led approach to education. (LMI)
This one-page consumer education materials evaluation form has been developed as a checklist for
developers and users of business-sponsored educational materials. Criteria listed include issues
such as target audience, design, and usability as well as objectivity and how the business sponsor is
identified. The form is intended to prevent indiscriminate use of business-sponsored materials that
are biased or that exist primarily to endorse a company or product. (YLB)
A description is provided of a 15-month, in-service nursing education program at Childrens Hospital
(Los Angeles, California). The first sections of the paper describe Childrens Hospital and provide a
rationale for the hospital-based program. A listing of program goals and objectives is also provided,
indicating that the curriculum is designed to enable the new hospital employee to acquire theoretical
knowledge drawn from both nursing and allied sciences, practical skills, and assessment abilities.
After outlining the specific objectives of the course in terms of learning outcomes and performance
improvement, the paper identifies the groups for whom the course is intended. The bulk of the
document consists of a description of the following units: (1) Professional and Interpersonal
Enhancement Training; (2) Neonatal Nursing; (3) Pediatric Intensive Care Nursing; (4) the
Procedure Unit; (5) From Infancy to Adulthood; (6) Oncology Nursing; (7) Infectious Diseases; (8)
the Operating Room/Recovery Room; (9) the Emergency Room; (10) Ambulatory Nursing; and (11)
Dialysis Nursing. The procedure for implementation is described, followed by an evaluation scheme
which serves to clarify program objectives. Finally, procedures for curriculum revision and a short
bibliography are presented. (LAL)
This publication is intended to assist teachers in planning an instructional program in consumer
education to meet the state requirements as outlined in the School Code of Illinois. Each of 15
chapters follows a similar format. Each topic is identified in the opening paragraphs, followed by
student objectives, an outline of content, suggested activities, and resources. The resources section
at the end of each topic reflects the most current material available. Chapter titles are "The
Consumer in the Marketplace"; "The Consumer in Our Economy"; "Budgeting"; "Saving, Investing,
and Financial Services"; "Consumer Credit"; "Taxes"; "Insurance"; "Consumer Services"; "Housing";
"Food"; "Transportation"; "Clothing"; "Health Care"; "Recreation"; and "Home Furnishing and
Equipment." The"Consumer Education Resources" section contains the most used resources for the
field of consumer education. An appendix contains "Consumer Education and the Illinois Learning
Standards," a correlation of consumer education to the Illinois Learning Standards. (YLB)
As a result of House Bill 1229, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative
session, every school district, both public and nonpublic, must expand health education to include
abstinence education, if teaching sexuality education as part of the general health curriculum. This
fact sheet provides guidance for districts in meeting this requirement.
This business education curriculum model contains elementary, middle/junior high, and high school
business education courses for Iowa students in the following areas: accounting, basic business,
information processing, marketing, and general topics. A curriculum model provides specific courses
for different educational levels. Each area contains units, and within each unit, the following may be
included: introduction, course objectives, competencies, course content, teaching strategies, and
references. Accounting units include recordkeeping, accounting I, and accounting II. Basic business
units are as follows: introduction to business, consumer economics, business mathematics, and
business law. Information processing includes five units: keyboarding, word origination, computer
applications, business procedures, and business and office education. Marketing units include the
following: principles of marketing, sales and promotion, entrepreneurship, marketing education, and
a marketing education-related class. General topics are as follows: advisory councils, area
education agencies, articulation, career education, certification, community colleges, continuing
education, equity, Iowa Curriculum Assistance System, methods of instruction, multioccupations,
prehigh school, professional organizations, program evaluation standards, public relations, small
schools, special needs, student organizations, and training demands. (NLA)
This teacher's guide on consumer literacy for grades 9-12 is designed for use in the following
subject areas: business education, consumer law, economics, home economics, and social studies.
Four units are included: (1) consumer decision making--consumer law and protection; (2) major
shopping areas--transportation dilemma; (3) housing; and (4) consumers and the environment--an
"environmentally friendly" consumer. Each unit contains the following sections: unit learner
outcomes; competencies addressed; materials; economic concepts; notes to teachers; grade level,
subject areas, time, and procedures; unit assessment; handout(s); visual(s); case studies; and
article(s). Ten brochures from the Minnesota Attorney General's Office accompany the four units:
buying a new car; collection agencies; constructive complaining; the "environmentally friendly"
consumer; home solicitation sales; landlords and tenants--rights and responsibilities; Minnesota's
"lemon law"; Minnesota's used care warrantly law; pyramid schemes; and utility shutoffs. A related
"materials lending library catalog" is appended. (NLA)
A national curriculum is presently being developed in Australia with implementation due during 2014.
Associated standards for the accreditation of teachers and for teacher education providers have
been prepared with the standards describing skills and attributes that teachers are expected to
attain. The developing Australian Curriculum, along with the teacher accreditation and initial teacher
education program standards, claim to support guiding statements that describe aspirations for all
young Australians. Those guiding statements acknowledge that "sustainability" is an essential
element of education for young people in Australia. However "sustainability" is unconvincingly
represented in the curriculum and is not visible in the standards. This could potentially result in its
omission from teacher education and qualification at all levels. A similar situation already exists in
New South Wales (NSW). This article illustrates the positioning of five freshly graduated primary
teachers within the context of their five NSW schools and from this distils implications for teaching
"sustainability" within the developing national proposals.
Recent moves in Australia to institute a national curriculum emanated from federal governments of
ostensibly different political persuasions in the period from 2003, building on developments that go
back over 25 years. This article traces continuities and new developments, meditating on two
questions: whether the current moves are politically likely to move along federalism in Australian
education and whether the current approach to national curriculum is educationally sound. Lack of
infrastructure to support teachers and schools, lack of necessary feedback loops into policy and
development, and lack of appropriate evolving and specified relationships among levels of
government may well undo all the important educational work on national curriculum. On the
educational front, the overcrowding of specified content, its specification at age levels, and the
disjuncture between content, assessment and pedagogies do not bode well for providing practicable
and well-resourced support for teachers. But, given other national partnerships and work on
federalising many spheres (including the two big spending areas still under states' control: health
and education), it may be that national curriculum is a project whose time has come. If so--and this
is still not certain--it signals major shifts in the governance of curriculum and particularly has
implications for the role of teachers in the core of their work. (Contains 1 table.)
This article investigates the long-held assumption that Christian educators need their own curriculum
orientation. Seminal documents published by Philip Jackson and Harro Van Brummelen in the
nineties are analyzed against the background of a brief history of the field of curriculum theory. The
author accepts Jackson's conclusion that curriculum theorists and classroom teachers are generally
confused about the true nature of curriculum orientations and about the way curriculum reform takes
place. Jackson's own understanding of curriculum orientations raises the bar of curriculum reform
from the mere substitution of one conceptual model for another to the preference of one way of life
over all others. The investigation reveals that Van Brummelen's presentation of an alternative
Christian curriculum orientation both rises above Jackson's critique and is vulnerable to it. Education
for Discipleship is a highly evolved alternative curriculum orientation; nevertheless, its
implementation is limited to a learning community actualizing a biblical world and life point of view
from a conceptual model to actual practice. This investigation suggests that substantive curriculum
reform requires two-way traffic along the conduit of influence that connects faith, theoretic
frameworks, curricular practice, and community life experience. (Contains 1 chart, 1 note, and a
This document, which was developed after a comprehensive review of the current state of driver
education across the United States and which included an extensive literature review and interviews
with 40 individuals from various sectors, including education, law enforcement, and the insurance
industry, identifies ways of revamping driver education. Discussed in the introduction are the current
state of knowledge and the need to rethink the objectives and methods of driver education. The
following aspects of developing a curriculum outline strategy are considered: driver education's
missions, stakeholder needs, underlying strategic assumptions, and curriculum development goals.
Presented next is an outline listing 40 performance objectives in the following categories: motivation,
knowledge, attention, detection, perception, evaluation, decision, motor skills, safety margin, and
responsibility. The following topics are examined in a section on methods: shaping methods to
goals, building instructional media units, instructional delivery, refocusing driver education resources
on motivation, educating motivation and responsibility, planning and evaluation, and curriculum
integration. Included in a section on supporting noninstructional influences are suggestions for
coordinating community influences and linking driver education with graduated licensing. Concluding
the document are a summary, and 10 recommendations for revamping driver education. Appended
are a methods outline and list of the 40 experts consulted. Contains 136 references. (MN)
The special education procedural handbook and the special education curriculum guide provide
guidelines for teachers and other school personnel. The procedural handbook covers the following
areas: individual education program process (IEP) and program placement, individual education
program team, administrative placements, parent interviews, program operations, staff time and
scheduling, logistics of community/school scheduling, staff roles, classroom management,
interagency agreements, lunches/meals, forms, community-based instruction, student identification,
community site selection and utilization, safety procedures in the community, use of authorized
unsalaried volunteers in community-based instruction, transportation modes, financial management,
procedures for obtaining cash from instructional supplies budget, fund raising, allocation of funds to
pay for student consumed supplies, student body accounts, revolving cash, training and staff
development, administrative training, procedures for staff development, training of community
personnel, public awareness, evaluation procedures for curriculum, and program quality indicators.
The curriculum guide, to which the handbook is an adjunct, provides definitions of terms, a
discussion of curricular options, and brief guidelines in the following instructional domains: domestic,
community, career/vocational, and recreation/leisure. Also provided are curriculum quality indicators
in the form of program objectives. (DB)
Mt. San Antonio Community College District's Consumer/Home Economics In-Service/Curriculum
Development Project was designed to provide activities to meet staff development and program
improvement needs. The choice of activities was based on evaluation data from previous home
economics projects, and priorities identified by the Consumer/Home Economics State Advisory
Committee. These activities included: (1) a statewide conference, "Kaleidoscopic Views," attended
by professionals from community and four-year colleges and the public and private sectors, was
held which recognized innovative programs and provided subject area sessions; (2) three issues of
a newsletter entitled "Compendium" were produced and distributed statewide; (3) a program plan
revision was conducted, including a review of minimum qualification guidelines for home economics
and related subject instructors and an evaluation of interdisciplinary course and program content; (4)
two training workshops were held on InfoNet, a statewide communication network, and data were
collected on InfoNet usage as part of an effort to determine obstacles to increased enrollments; and
(5) four meetings of the Home Economics Professional Development Committee (HEPDC) were
convened to provide formative evaluation and recommend modifications and revisions of ongoing
activities. Appendixes include lists of HEPDC members and conference participants; a conference
evaluation summary; descriptions of 10 innovative programs; an InfoNet flyer; program plan revision
materials; a conference program; and summaries of conference presentations, including subject
area sessions. (JSP)
The special consideration given to academics in American higher education creates a relatively
closed political environment that increases higher education's resistance to change and
diversification. However, since in this system the consumer has recognized rights, more study
should be made of the interplay of consumers, academics, and political institutions. (MSE)
This parenthood education curriculum is organized into eight units designed for use in approximately
8 weeks of instruction. Each unit includes the following: an overview, an introductory focus question,
a lesson synopsis, basic concepts, lesson objectives, a brief review of basic information, materials,
equipment, and advance preparation needed, lesson plan (with activities, handouts, and
transparency masters), and a reference list. The units cover the following topics: parenting that
enriches lives; caring as a person and as a parent; providing a positive for
development---conception to 1 year; providing a positive environment for development---1 year to 18
years; language, communication, and socialization; families--structures and stressors; challenges of
teen parenting; and the total picture. The units are suitable for use in integrated parenthood
education, language arts, and consumer education courses. (KC)
The active learning approach promotes student achievement of higher-order skills such as
independent reasoning, problem solving, and critical assessment. Active learning has been shown
to foster student retention and encourage a more positive attitude toward school. The goal of the
consumer decision-making class for university students and adults described in this paper is to get
the students to learn and to practice responsible, informed, and assertive behavior as consumers. In
the course, students do exercises, practice making simulated purchases, analyze written and oral
materials, and get exposure to community agencies and resource persons. The course emphasizes
introducing students to carefully selected information and developing their consumer attitudes and
skills. Students become aware of consumer literature in books and periodicals and learn what kind
of information these sources can give them. In addition, students hear presentations in class from
consumer experts and learn which federal, state, and local agencies provide consumer protection
and services. Skill development in active learning classes works toward improved writing, note
taking, and arithmetic skills as well as analysis of decision making. Students also improve test-taking
skills by working together to write multiple-choice quizzes. Assessment of student learning is based
on points assigned for speaker summaries, unit topic paragraphs, bi-weekly quizzes, exercises, and
a 10-15 page paper describing a project they will undertake in consumer decision making. (Forms
used in the course and a bibliography are appended. (KC)
,113.....................................4 Education Curriculum and Instruction 125..........3 Plant Science
101...............................................3 34 Sophomore Year Computer Literacy (GER) Education
Curriculum and Instruction 210..........3 NaturalAgriculture Education Curriculum Grades 6-12 (BS)
Freshman Year English (GER) English 101, 102
This study showed that the coverage of energy varies considerably among secondary schools in
Great Britain and that British students lack a clear knowledge of energy issues in general and
nuclear energy in particular, are indifferent to conservation, and are reluctant to accept nuclear
power. Energy education must be given greater emphasis. (Author/RM)
Introducing fundamental science concepts and real world issues in energy, renewable energy,
energy conservation and the environment to college students has become increasingly important
and urgent in higher education. Efforts to effectively incorporate energy materials have led to
improvements in the instructional methodology of the general education course ``Energy and the
Environment.'' A new approach will be reported, including: 1) adding hands-on projects related to
daily life experience; 2) infusing updated information on renewable energy applications into course
projects through collaborations; 3) introducing energy and environmental concepts to art majors to
stimulate creative art work; 4) broadening student understanding of related issues from a global
perspective through a successful study-abroad initiative; and 5) using an online course platform
EnhanceEdu to manage multilevel interactions with students.
The International Curriculum for Chinese Language Education (ICCLE) represents a significant
initiative by the Office of Chinese Language Council International (Hanban) to organise and describe
objectives and content for a standardised Chinese language curriculum around the world. It aims to
provide a reference curriculum for planning, a framework for assessing language competence, and a
basis for resource development to cater for a variety of Chinese language learners, especially
students at primary and high schools. In this way it is a welcome addition to the international
movement to promote and support Chinese second language education around the world. It claims
to be based on thorough scientific research in both past experiences and current practice in foreign
and second language education globally, and to have considerably reduced the difficulties of
learning Chinese by adjusting objectives and skills to suit more novice learners. The ICCLE is
presented in Chinese with an English translation included in the one document. The review provided
in this article is based upon the English version. The ICCLE describes the goal of Chinese language
education to be the mastery of Linguistic Competencies. Linguistic Competencies is composed of
four components: "Linguistic Knowledge" (phonology, vocabulary, grammar etc), "Linguistic Skills"
(macroskills), "Strategies", and "Cultural Awareness." The first two of these components, "Linguistic
Knowledge" and "Linguistic Skills," are considered the basis of Linguistic Competencies; the latter
two components, "Strategies" and "Cultural Awareness," are provided "mainly for the benefit of
language teachers." (Contains 2 tables.)
Obesity among children and teens continues to be a major public health concern in the United
States. Approximately 16.9% of children and adolescents age 2-19 years are obese. To address this
epidemic, schools have been encouraged to develop a coordinated school health program, which
includes an interdisciplinary approach to nutrition education. Teachers in all subject matters,
especially physical educators, are being called upon to teach nutrition education as a way to help
reinforce nutrition concepts learned in the classroom. This article provides physical educators with
information on how to integrate nutrition lessons into their classes and presents a sample lesson
that physical educators can use to incorporate nutrition into their curriculum. (Contains 3 tables.)
It is a historically held principle of microeconomics that in the presence of better information,
consumers make better decisions. This chapter focuses on information to guide consumers in
making decisions about higher education. It examines the development and implementation of a
one-stop career and college planning tool that leverages existing data sets with newly created data
to facilitate good decisions by consumers of higher education on career choice, major and college
choice, and finance options. Early indicators point to improved access to information that supports
decision making.
Environmental educators in many states are finding that reform efforts are constraining the time they
have to prepare and teach new activities. Therefore, they may find it appropriate to develop
materials that address environmental education (EE) needs as well as augmenting state reform
goals. This study provides an example in which a biodiversity curriculum guide, using the "Linking
Florida's Natural Heritage" database, successfully infuses environmental concepts with the writing
benchmarks of Florida's Sunshine State Standards (SSS). When measured by the same rubric used
for the Florida Comprehensive Achievement Test (FCAT), writing skills rose significantly after
students used the five lesson biodiversity supplement.
The links between curriculum design and educational psychology are, in principle, strong but are, in
practice, becoming increasingly tenuous particularly with the apparent preference of the Department
of Education and Science for a curriculum based upon certain ‘core’ subjects. A framework for a
curriculum based upon the five communication skills of literacy, oracy, numeracy, graphicacy and
physiognomacy is proposed. These
The Galileo mission to Jupiter, an international venture to the solar system's largest planet, is a
dual-spacecraft mission managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in California. Consisting of
a Jupiter orbiter built by JPL and all atmospheric entry probe managed by NASA Ames Research
Center and built by Hughes Aircraft Company, Galileo will answer fundamental questions about the
origin and evolution of the solar system. The mission objectives are to investigate the chemical
composition and physical state of Jupiter's atmosphere and the Jovian satellites, and to study the
structure and physical dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere. This mission entails a number of
firsts, including 1) the first interplanetary mission to include major participation by another country
(Germany), 2) the first mission to use gravity assist techniques to reach an outer planet, 3) the first
close encounter with main belt asteroids, 4) the first permanent orbiter of all outer planet, and 5) the
first in situ sampling of an outer planet. The primary objective of the Galileo Education Curriculum
Grant for Science Improvement (Galileo Ed) is to develop science educational curricula based on
the Galileo mission to Jupiter, with primary emphasis on the entry probe mission. The goals of
Galileo Ed are to (1) develop relevant and exciting hands-on science curriculum and materials, (2)
integrate existing school science curriculums, (3) increase interest in and knowledge of space
exploration, and (4) actively involve students in the interpretation and analysis of real science data.
Developed to provide curriculum materials that secondary Health Occupations Education (HOE)
teachers/coordinators can use in organizing their individual programs, this curriculum guide contains
performance-based units covering the majority of a four-semester program of study in HOE. The
following topics are covered: medical ethics, law, and history; health issues; health care facilities;
health careers; career decisions; organization and general plan of the body; first aid; human
relations; medical terminology and abbreviations; anatomy and physiology (the integumentary,
skeletal and muscular, digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous, urinary, reproductive, and
endocrine systems); nutrition/ dental health; microbes and diseases; metrics for health occupations;
safety and emergency care; recordkeeping; and health care procedures. Included in each unit are
most or all of the following components: performance objectives, suggested activities, information
sheets, assignment sheets, job sheets, transparency masters, unit tests, and answers to the unit
tests. The units are planned for more than one classroom period of instruction. (MN)
There has been a resurgence of interest in global education in the UK as global issues are included
within the requirements of citizenship education in national curricula. This paper examines the
significance attached to global citizenship through Citizenship as a statutory subject at Key Stages 3
and 4 within the National Curriculum for England. Drawing on a web-based project funded by the UK
Department for International Development, the paper analyses a number of secondary school texts
designed to support teachers and students in incorporating global perspectives into citizenship
education. It seeks to answer the question: in what ways is global citizenship being mainstreamed?
It suggests that NGOs and commercial publishers have different but complementary approaches to
resources for global citizenship and that there is a strong case for greater collaboration between the
two sectors.
The Cancer Education Curriculum section of the CancerQuest website provides complete curricular
units about cervical cancer and skin cancer. These units are part of their "Educator Resources"
area, which also includes downloadable posters, interactive educational games about cancer, and
video interviews with cancer survivors and clinicians. Visitors to the site will note that each unit has
an interactive whiteboard that gives them access to supporting materials, such as vocabulary files,
homework, discussion questions, and a quiz. The core of each unit is formed by a PowerPoint
presentation and lesson plan. Also, visitors should note that the site contains an eleven-minute
video-animation that describes the biological processes that are involved in the development, growth
and spread of cancer.
These State Curriculum Standards for Business Education are designed for use by school district
administrators and teachers in developing local business education programs. The first section
shows a cross-reference of new courses and programs to existing courses and programs in
Delaware. Course descriptions that identify the title, length, and general description of each
course/program follow. The second section lists business education curriculum standards for grades
7-8 and 9-12. One course, Elementary Keyboarding, addresses standards for grades K-8. Each set
of standards includes a program objective that describes the area of instruction correlated with
indications of what the student will be expected to do in these instructional areas. The 43
courses/programs include principles of business; business administration and management;
business economics; international business management; business law; accounting; bookkeeping;
recordkeeping; business math; computer operations and services; data entry; programming with
business applications; introduction to computer and information technology; business computer
software applications; program design and development; operating systems/networking; financial
information processing; banking applications; business communications; applied business
mathematics; specialized information processing; keyboarding; work processing; and spreadsheet
management. (YLB)
Consistent with the principles of the Connecticut Common Core of Learning, this competency-based
curriculum guide for electronics provides a reference guide for educators to research and prepare
for teaching the field of electronics. The guide contains 22 units that cover the following topics:
theory of matter; safety; direct current; magnetism; electromagnetism; sources of electricity;
alternating current; inductance; transformers; capacitance; R C L circuits; basic semiconductors;
power supplies; transistor amplifiers; operational amplifiers; electronic instruments; electronic
assembly methods; electronic wiring symbols; digital integrated circuits; radio receiver; radio
transmitter; and computer theory. Each unit contains a list of competencies and a short content
outline. A list of 27 references is included. (KC)
This seven-part guide is intended for use in defining curricula for a wide clientele of adult learners in
British Columbia who want to improve their knowledge, skills, and understanding in science. Part 1
explains the guide's place in the provincial curriculum development and articulation processes,
defines the three purposes of the guide, outlines the scope of the curriculum, and provides an
overview of curriculum goals and instructional units. Part 2 begins with a perspective of the current
and future needs of Adult Basic Education (ABE) Science followed by guidelines for specific
program and course planning, with representative course designs. Parts 3, 4, and 5, respectively,
contain samples of fundamental, intermediate, and advanced instructional units. Each unit contains
a topic outline, purpose statement, identification of required background, key ideas, learning
objectives and activities, and list of resources. Subject areas considered include general science,
biology, chemistry, physics, and earth science. Part 6 presents a variety of ideas to consider in
planning ABE science instruction. Brief sections on principles of adult learning, advising and placing
students, and student evaluation are included. Part 7 contains sections on laboratory, print, and
audiovisual resources; lists of professional references; and addresses of publishers and suppliers.
Current projects in progress are reviewed and evaluated; existing curriculum materials are
evaluated; and DOE's energy education program is evaluated. Results from accomplishments
of the reviews and evaluations are presented along with conclusions and recommendations. The
following projects in progress are reviewed: Solar Curriculum, K-6; Easy Energy Reader, 7-12; Ten
Interdisciplinary Units; Four Disciplinary Units; Electric Power Generation; Vocational Education
Curriculum; Energy Conservation; and Energy Education Workshop Handbook. (MCW)
In this article, the author discusses her experiences with developing an English-language science
curriculum for students at the experimental Hai Bin Lu Primary School in China. She uses Schwab's
(1973) four common denominators (or essential factors) of curricula--teacher, student, subject
matter, and milieu--and Genette's (1980) three categories--narrative, story, and telling--to describe
the lessons she devised, which were based on experiential narratives. She then discusses the
outcomes of the curriculum, which show that experiential narratives are important tools in ethical
and environmental education. Finally, she explains students' moments of encounter with the
curriculum materials, the content about which they learned, and how their lives changed based on
the lessons. (Contains 1 table.)
As Mississippi approaches the 21st century and an increasingly more competitive business climate,
the state should be prepared to develop its most precious business asset--its work force. According
to 1990 data, Mississippi contributes only 8.5 percent of funding for adult education (the remaining
91.5 percent comes from federal sources) to serve less than 2.3 percent of the eligible population.
Furthermore, Mississippi loses up to one-third of its potential high school graduates between grades
9 and 12. Mississippians in households that receive public assistance function at appreciably lower
levels of proficiency than those which receive no public assistance. Mississippi must develop a
curriculum for the education of those individuals who have not received a public school education.
Historically, three approaches have been used to instruct adults: coding and decoding,
competency-based instruction, and "portable skills." However, if the question is not one of
methodology but rather one of instructional technique to enhance learning in adults, perhaps
computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is the innovation that adult education requires. CAI is not a
substitute for individual facilitator and learner interaction. The human relationship aspect of the adult
basic education program is fundamental to the use of its techniques, methods, and materials.
Teachers must also have the flexibility to try different methods with different people. (Contains 24
references and an appendix detailing years of formal schooling completed, by county.) (YLB)
This curriculum guide is one of nine such guides developed for an Alberta high school business
education program. Its content covers the main subject area or strand of law. Subject to the
constraints outlined in the guide, the modules are to be formatted into three- or four-credit courses
within each strand. Introductory materials include a business education program philosophy, a list of
learning principles applied to business education, a list of program objectives, a schematic overview
of a business education high school program, course sequences, guidelines for structuring business
education courses, and a business education matrix. The materials specifically for Law 20-30 follow:
an introduction, objectives, and a flowchart of modules. These components are provided for each of
the 10 modules: purpose and a chart that correlates topics with learning tasks and teaching notes.
Module topics are the nature of law and civil law system, contract law, family law, basic rights and
responsibilities, labor law, property law, criminal justice system, consumer law, tort law, and
controversial issues. The guide also contains guidelines for student evaluation, lists of basic and
recommended learning resources, and a correlation of course content with learning resources.
Part of Project STRETCH, a special personnel preparation grant, this guide contains 13 units on the
practical and philosophical areas practitioners, educators, and consumers believed should be
included in a basic course for administration of an organized camp: growth and development special
populations, camp director's role, philosophy and objectives, program, organizational design, staff,
interpreting the camp's value, evaluation, health and safety, food service, business and finance, and
site and facilities. Each unit consists of six sections: rationale, basic core competency (a generalized
description of the participant's behavior upon completing the unit), areas to be covered to reach the
basic core competency, suggested learning activities, assessment methods, and recommended
sources (books, films, tapes, etc., related to the areas to be covered and suggested learning
activities). All units are numbered in the recommended sequence to be presented or studied. The
guide also includes brief discussions of camp director education and of the camp director education
facilitator as an adult educator. Appendices include forms for needs assessment, core curriculum
planning, and evaluation; list of national organizations and denominations with camping programs
and their resources for camp director education; conceptual diagram for organizing a philosophy of
camping; and sample outline for a basic camp director education course. (NQA)
This booklet outlines competencies for consumer education courses in grades seven through 12 in
the Philadelphia school system. Consumer education is seen to develop students' abilities to cope
with situations encountered daily in their roles in our economic system. It puts into practice the basic
skills of reading, writing, speaking, listening, viewing, problem solving, interpersonal relations, and
computation. For each grade level, the booklet identifies up to four major competencies. Each
competency is accompanied by numerous behavioral objectives by which mastery can be
evaluated. For example, a ninth grade competency is that students will show personal financial
management skills. A behavioral objective for this is to plan realistic budgets for differing income
levels and priorities. Other competencies include demonstrating ability to plan effectively (grade
seven), interpreting issues in consumer affairs and financial management (grade 10), and
understanding the importance of a value system in planning (grade 12). (AV)
Entrepreneurship education derives its importance from three factors: a demand among students for
information about entrepreneurship; a need to provide students with skills related to making jobs,
rather than training to take existing jobs; and a related need for economic growth through job
creation. According to a 1994 national Gallup poll, 7 out of 10 high school students wanted to start
their own business, but most showed remarkably little understanding of entrepreneurship. To
provide students with entrepreneurial skills, educational efforts must focus on the following three
attributes of entrepreneurship: (1) the identification of market opportunity and the generation of a
business idea to address the opportunity; (2) the commitment of resources to pursue the opportunity
in the face of risk; and (3) the creation of an operating business organization to implement the idea.
A useful model for implementing and supporting an entrepreneurship program identifies three
elements: an "initiator" able to identify market opportunities and lead others; a development team
recruited by the initiator to assist with human resources, finance, marketing, selling, development,
manufacturing, and quality management; and a constituent group of community members with a
stake in the growth of the venture. Unfortunately, current curricula fail to even address the initiator
element of entrepreneurship. To facilitate the needs of today's youth, educators must provide true
entrepreneurship education by focusing the curriculum on the role of the initiator. Contains 14
references. (MAB)
Fourteen theme articles discuss the following: curriculum ideas and innovations in agricultural
education, agricultural literacy, Supervised Agricultural Experience, active learning, locating
agricultural education resources, distance and web-based instruction, principles of forest
management, professional development, and service learning. (JOW)
Thirteen theme articles discuss integration of science and agriculture, the role of science in
agricultural education, biotechnology, agriscience in Tennessee and West Virginia, agriscience and
program survival, modernization of agricultural education curriculum, agriscience and service
learning, and biotechnology websites. (SK)
Textbooks can often provide insights into the status of a discipline. To explore the curriculum
assumptions of the field of science education this study is an analysis of leading elementary science
education methods textbooks. Seven of the most commonly used methods textbooks were analyzed
for their themes within the frameworks of Schubert's curriculum perspectives and Robert's historical
orientations. The study
This article examines why and how transformative consumer research (TCR) can become a relevant
perspective in doctoral programs. The article draws selectively from studies published in consumer
behavior, marketing, and marketing education that theoretically or empirically address this topic. It
discusses the meaning and background of TCR together with reasons for its adoption within doctoral
programs. It then briefly outlines current practices in doctoral programs in marketing and their main
limitations. Finally, a proposal for integrating TCR in doctoral programs is presented, highlighting
specific actions to implement it.
This guide contains information and suggestions intended for the teacher planning an Indian unit or
American Indian Heritage Day activities. The first five chapters describe American Indian
contributions and influences in foods, design, language, government, pharmaceuticals, art, and
sports. The sixth chapter contains 24 sources for these contributions. Three chapters present
suggested activities for Native American Day and other celebrations, as well as activities related to
Native Americans in the subject areas of art, home economics, language arts, mathematics, music,
physical education, science, and social studies. Detailed plans are not included. For specific details
or affirmation, it is recommended that teachers consult their Indian education program, resource
people, tribal council, or others possessing specific knowledge on the topics. An extensive
bibliography section presents fiction, nonfiction, and reference works, including references for
selecting books about Native Americans and for incorporating Native materials into the curriculum.
Books are separated into two sections, for secondary students and adults and for children.
Resources are also listed for specific Montana tribes. Two chapters present a chronology of
important dates and the declaration of American Indian Heritage Day in Montana. The final chapter
presents the importance of the buffalo to Native Americans, a map of early tribal distribution, and an
outline and directions for a Native American education unit. (TD)
The essay begins with an account of why Britain introduced a National Curriculum for English and
Welsh schools in 1988 in place of its previously more autonomous system. It goes on to analyse the
content and aims of the National Curriculum and includes a comparison with Stalin's curriculum for
schools in the USSR. An alternative to the National Curriculum is sketched out, centring around the
aim of promoting personal autonomy for all. In the last part of the paper recent British experience of
greater centralization and vocational orientation of the curriculum is contrasted with recent moves by
the USSR State Committee on Education towards the democratization and humanization of the
Soviet school system.
The digital age brought along the appearance of a new type of consumer, the online consumer.
Taking into consideration the serious security threats of the virtual market, the purpose of this article
is to emphasize several significant aspects related to online consumer’s rights and interests, with a
special interest on the educated online young consumers in Romania. We used desk
The aim of this study is to examine the current profile of bioethics education in the nursing
curriculum as perceived by nursing students and faculty in Korea. A convenience sampling method
was used for recruiting 1223 undergraduate nursing students and 140 nursing faculty in Korea.
Experience of Bioethics Education, Quality of Bioethics Education, and Demand for Bioethics
Education Scales were developed. The Experience of Bioethics Education Scale showed that the
nursing curriculum in Korea does not provide adequate bioethics education. The Quality of Bioethics
Education Scale revealed that the topics of human nature and human rights were relatively well
taught compared to other topics. The Demand for Bioethics Education Scale determined that the
majority of the participants believed that bioethics education should be a major requirement in the
nursing curriculum. The findings of this study suggest that bioethics should be systemically
incorporated into nursing courses, clinical practice during the program, and during continuing
education. PMID:23295639
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Concerns about threats posed by microorganisms found in nature are compounded with the
possibility for intentional dissemination. Our vulnerability has increased due to more frequent travel
between geographical regions, newly emerging pathogens, changes in terrorist activities, and
advances in biotechnology. To increase awareness and global preparedness for threats posed by
biological agents, educators need to have access to training and materials to educate the next
generation in these issues. To assess what approach would provide educators with the tools
necessary to incorporate biodefense related content into their current curricula, secondary education
science teachers were surveyed about factors limiting the content of curricula presented in their
courses. Results indicate that the most influential barriers to curricula change are time limitations
and state mandated exam pressures. Analysis measuring differences in survey responses between
two groups of teachers who are separated based on their level of using mandated state objectives
to guide their curricula planning indicates that pressures of state mandated exam scores and a
general fear of unsuccessful results are determinants for separating teachers into one of these two
groups. A teacher training workshop conducive to supporting curricula change was held with the
goal of increasing awareness of current threats posed by biological agents and modern biodefense
strategies. The workshop was also designed to assist participants in overcoming barriers
challenging their ability to incorporate new content into curricula. Participant responses to a
post-workshop survey were favorable for measurements of the workshop effectiveness towards
diminishing barriers to teacher initiated curricula changes. Respondents reported increased
understanding of modern biology, increased realization of the importance of updating curricula with
modern knowledge, and increased likeliness of incorporating content from the workshop into current
In this paper, we begin by providing an overview of the Educator Pathway Project (EPP), an
education infrastructure that was developed in response to emerging critical nursing workplace
issues, and the related demand for enhanced workplace education. We then describe the EPP
competency-based curriculum designed to prepare nurses as preceptors, mentors, and educators to
lead learning with diverse learner groups. This competency-based curriculum was developed
through a collaboration of nurse leaders across practice, academic, and union sectors and drew
from a widely embraced curriculum development model (Iwasiw, Goldenberg, & Andrusyzyn, 2005).
The goal of the curriculum was to prepare nurses through a four-level career pathway model that
contextualized practice and education theory to various education-related roles and levels of
experience within the practice setting. Over 1,100 nurses participated in this innovative intersectoral
nursing initiative. PMID:21126229
This curriculum planning guide helps districts design an appropriate educational program on
HIV/AIDS prevention. The chapters focus on the following topics: "Montana Board of Public
Education Position Statement on HIV/AIDS"; "Instructional Guidelines: Key Issues in Program
Planning, Major Health Education Content Areas, Summary, and Curriculum Progression Matrix for
K-12 Instruction about HIV and AIDS"; "Guidelines for Effective School Health Education to Prevent
the Spread of AIDS"; "General Criteria for Evaluating an AIDS Curriculum"; "Matching Approaches
to AIDS Education with Childhood Development"; "Educational Materials and Resources on
HIV/AIDS"; "Where to Find Information"; "OPI-Supported HIV/AIDS Education"; "Guidelines for
Reviewing Human Sexuality Education Materials";"Guidelines for Non-School Personnel Presenting
Health Programs in Montana Schools"; "CDC/DASH Research to Classroom Project"; "Montana
Department of Health and Human Services Recommendations for Preventing the Transmission of
Human Immunodeficiency Virus in the School Setting"; and "Montana HIV/AIDS Education
Program." (SM)
Environmental education has become trapped in the curriculum box. At a time when our students'
generation is becoming trapped in a global warming box, their education needs to be rapidly
adaptable to the changing state of their planet. Venturing outside the curriculum box takes courage,
creativity, and a willingness to let nature serve as the teacher. This paper provides a rationale for
stepping outside the box, and discusses my experiences as an environmental education coordinator
working to create transformative learning experiences for students.
The burgeoning knowledge of the human brain generated by the proliferation of new brain imaging
technology from in recent decades has posed questions about the potential for this new knowledge
of neural processing to be translated into "usable knowledge" that teachers can employ in their
practical curriculum work. The application of the findings of neuroscience to education has met a
mixed reception, with some questioning its relevance for educational practice. Simplistic
generalizations about neuroscience's application to education have been dubbed as neuromyths,
and regarded as being at best irrelevant to or at worst counterproductive in bringing about good
educational practice. In recent times, expansive literature generated in the area of educational
neuroscience has drawn attention to a range of epistemological and conceptual issues pertinent to
the attempt to translate neuroscientific research findings into usable knowledge that has the
potential to improve curriculum practice. Issues involved in such a process include the place of
neuroscience among the corpus of disciplines constituting the educational foundations; the
conceptual framework required to translate knowledge between neuroscience and education; and,
whether usable knowledge can be generated from neuroscientific information, so to be applied in
curriculum work. These curriculum questions have direct bearing on curriculum work as the issue of
usable knowledge relates directly to the teacher's role in the curriculum process. This article will
consider the expectations and constraints in relation to the contribution of neuroscience to the
production of usable knowledge for curriculum work. (Contains 2 notes.)
In Malaysia, the national moral education curriculums are designed to develop the values that
Malaysians of diverse cultures share or that the government wishes to develop as shared values to
bring about religious and ethnic harmony. Moral education for Muslims is incorporated into in-school
religious education, while a separate, essentially secular moral education curriculum has been
prepared for non-Muslim children. The moral education curriculum is designed around ten values:
physical and mental cleanliness, consideration, moderation, diligence, thankfulness, trustworthiness,
fairness, affection, respect, and society. As set out by the education ministry, the curriculum leaves
no room for discarding, deleting, or modifying these values. Instructional materials focus on
developing students; ability to apply moral principles in decision making and role taking. Many
lessons focus on neighborliness, interracial harmony, and the avoidance of conceit and boasting.
While the curriculum does not openly advocate different rules or responsibilities for boys and girls,
boys are more often the main characters in the stories. While the curriculum is designed for
non-Malays only, some of the textbooks are written and illustrated by Malays and show people from
various ethnic groups, including Malays. The moral education curriculum is experimental, and many
contextual factors will determine its influence on children's moral development. Sample stories at
five grade levels are included. (AC)
62 SDSU Curriculum Guide 2010 Distance Education Policy Policy adopted by Senate, April 6,
2000; Revised April 7, 2009 Classes and Courses, Hybrid, and Distance Education 1.0 Distance
education shall. Distance education may include audio, video, or computer technologies. A hybrid
class shall be defined
Background: Curriculum fidelity describes the extent to which a curriculum is implemented faithfully
as planned. Curriculum fidelity issues may arise when teachers implement the curriculum
inconsistently due to differences in philosophy, barriers in the setting, or other local concerns.
Purpose: The study examined challenges that a teacher faced in implementing a constructivist
physical education curriculum that had fidelity implications. Research design: Ethnographic case
study design was employed in the research. Participants and setting: One physical education
teacher, "Daniel", and his students in the third, fourth, and fifth grades participated in the study as
they were involved in a curriculum intervention in a large urban school district in the US. Daniel's
school was randomly assigned to an experimental group to implement a physical education
curriculum based on health/fitness-related science. Data collection: The researchers observed 75
lessons taught by Daniel using non-participant observation techniques and conducted two
structured interviews with Daniel and eight interviews with his students. Data analysis: Constant
comparison with open and axial coding was used to analyze the observation and interview data.
Findings: Two thematic challenges emerged: (1) school contextual constraints that limited the fitness
science learning environment in physical education, and (2) Daniel's personal values and preference
for a recreational rather than a science-based physical education program. These challenges
impacted Daniel's decisions when teaching the curriculum. (Contains 1 note.)
The curriculum guide for special education students is intended to serve as a supplement to the
Washington 1980 State Traffice Safety Education Curriculum Guide. The guide is also correlated
with two popular traffic safety texts. Each of the 21 modules contains a goal statement, a list of
vocabulary words that might be difficult, a check sheet that lists requirements for both the special
education teacher and the traffic safety teacher, samples of any materials or worksheets, and a
module evaluation section. Modules are concerned with the following areas: introduction to traffic
safety, preparing and controlling the vehicle, maneuvering in limited space; intersections; traffic flow;
lane changes; passing; critical driving tasks; vehicle malfunctions and breakdowns; city and freeway
environments; obtaining your driver's licence; signs, signals, and pavement markings; human
functions--defensive driving; roadway variations; limited visibility and lessened traction; special
driving conditions; vehicle characteristics, motorcycle awareness; nonmotorized traffic; internal and
physical factors, alcohol and other drugs; vehicle maintenance; planning for travel; legal and
postcrash responsibilities; and individual responsibilities and opportunities, fuel conservation, and
system improvement. Also included is a pre/posttest. (DB)
The purpose of the volunteer/work experience requirement is to provide those seeking vocational
authorization in family and consumer science education with practical "work experience" in their
field. Since family and consumer science education deals
The forces of globalisation affect the lives of everybody on the planet--but defining the concept of
globalisation, and its appropriate place within the school curriculum, still proves problematic. This
article engages with three key issues: our understanding and conceptualisation of globalisation; the
impacts of globalisation on education; and the place of globalisation in the geography curriculum.
Globalisation influences education policy and practice worldwide, in turn creating concerns that
national curricula, teaching and assessment are increasingly tending towards uniformity. The
opportunities and challenges faced by young people growing up in our rapidly globalising world are
considered in this article from the perspective of curriculum makers in geography. (Contains 3
This guide is intended to assist in developing and teaching a social studies course for adult basic
education students. The first part identifies a rationale for the development of adult social studies
programs, general goals for such programs, and specific competencies designed to help students
achieve program goals. The section on course design covers the methodology, scope, and
organization of the social studies curriculum and suggests alternative approaches to teaching social
studies. The second part outlines some general principles underlying adult learning and instruction,
identifies some relevant teaching strategies, provides case studies of adult social studies situations,
and suggests some criteria and strategies for student evaluation. Part 3, the main portion of the
guide, suggests six major theme units for a social studies course (Canadian government, law, and
citizenship; people and their environment, multiculturalism; the information society; economics and
people; and global citizenship) that emphasize the history, geography, government, and economy of
Canada and encourage students to develop problem-solving and analytical skills. Also included in
this section are case studies connected with each of the theme units and suggestions for using the
themes (with emphasis on the individualized instruction approach). The fourth part identifies relevant
instructor references and student materials. (MN)
Because the core curriculum for reading education evolved in an unsystematic manner, it has no
"official sanction" and is thus very difficult to challenge or to supplement. The traditional "publish and
wait" means of challenging existing conventions or submitting alternative propositions has changed
without notice, largely due to increased political activism and information inflation. One approach to
combatting these two factors is to establish a core literature that would provide a body of commonly
known facts that could be alluded to in discourse among members of the field. Developing a core
literature would necessarily involve ranking the most frequently cited articles, studies, and books;
critically annotating the most highly ranked citations; and maintaining a committee responsible for
recommendations and revisions. The list developed by Nancy Wilcox contains 43 ranked citations,
but none of the logical refinements to which this list lends itself diminishes the value of a
departmentally sanctioned list. A sanctioned core literature would be very much like a "controlled
substance" in pharmacy: it could be powerful when appropriately governed and used by ethical, well
trained, practicing professionals, although dangerous where any one of these elements were
absent. The Wilcox list is appended. (HTH)
The educational goal of the Faculty of Global Engineering (FGE) of the Kogakuin University is to
prepare the graduates to be global engineers. The requirements for the global engineer are
multifold; having the basic and advanced engineering knowledge together with the international
communication skills and experiences. The curriculum at the Kogakuin University has been
designed and developed over the last ten years. Among others, “Communication Skills for Global
Engineers (CSGE) ” and “Engineering Clinic Program (ECP) ” play essential roles, the former
providing the students with the communication skills and the latter engineering design skills. An
impact on the students studying together with foreign students is so strong and immeasurable. The
English they learned in Japan does not work as well as they thought it would, and the attitude of the
foreign students toward studying they observe is a kind of “shocking” . The student who joined ECP
abroad/CSGE abroad come back to Japan as a very inspired and different person, the first step
becoming a global engineer. In this paper, various aspects of the program will be discussed with the
problem areas to be further improved being identified.
, Teaching, and Learning (CTL) Master of Arts in Education with a concentration in Teach- ing
English many opportunities for students to be part of a high-quality teaching and learning
community. While preparation in our master of arts in Curriculum Teaching and Learning, applicable
to a wide variety of non-teaching
Presented by the International Schools Association, this document outlines the curriculum for K-12
sustainability education. Topics covered include the ESD Framework, skills and attitudes for
sustainability, global citizenship for sustainability, all in one document from the International Schools
Innovation is essential for the education sector. The ways in which curriculum decision making is
organised reflects different implicit approaches on how educational systems pertain to promote
innovation in education. Curriculum holds an outstanding place when seeking to promote innovation
in education, as it reflects the vision for education by indicating knowledge, skills and values to be
taught to students. It may express not only "what" should be taught to students, but also "how" the
students should be taught. Curriculum innovations can include new subjects, combinations of old
subjects or cross-cutting learning objectives. They may also take a form of new content, concepts,
sequencing, time allocation or pedagogy. This paper characterises two contrasted approaches to
curriculum decision making and bringing about innovations in education. At one extreme, a
prescriptive central curriculum implicitly places the initiative for educational innovations at the level
of the central administration. This approach provides strong incentives for schools and teachers to
adapt innovations that would not otherwise take place. Innovations, supported by policy measures
and informed by research, are brought within the reach of all schools and teachers in an equitable
manner. The challenge is then to accommodate local needs and ensure the commitment to and
implementation of innovations by schools and teachers. At the other extreme, decentralised
curriculum decision making provides schools--and perhaps even teachers--with room to create their
own educational innovations. This approach allows for experimentation relevant to individual
students and local communities. Innovations are meant to spread through horizontal networks of
schools and teachers. The challenge is then to provide incentives for individual schools and
teachers to innovate or adapt innovations and ensure that they have equal capacity to do so. The
paper provides an overview of various possible approaches linking curriculum policy to educational
innovation, it shows that OECD countries can mix these approaches and it discusses elements that
can affect those innovations in reality. Focusing on public lower-secondary education, it draws on
various OECD and UNESCO data. First, the paper suggests that OECD education systems differ
clearly when looking at formal curriculum decision making, although no system relies on a purely
central or school-based approach to curriculum innovations. Second, several elements can reduce
the "innovation power" of the central curriculum and the "innovation flexibility" of the decentralised
curriculum. Third, stakeholders--such as experts, teachers and parents--are able to influence
curriculum innovations differently at central and school levels. Innovations in central-level curriculum
appear to have widespread possibilities to rely on expert knowledge with consultation with
practitioners, parents and the wider public. School level curriculum innovations appear to build
mainly on principals and teachers' knowledge with an indirect influence from experts and parents.
Annexed are: (1) Emerging Curriculum Themes in OECD Countries; (2) Approaches to Bringing
About Competence-Based Curriculum; (3) Central Level Curriculum in OECD Countries; (4) Details
on the Implicit Approaches to Curriculum Innovations; and (5) Roles of Parents in Decision Making
on Education Policy. (Contains 13 tables, 4 charts, 5 boxes and 20 notes.)
This article presents a review of three chapters in "Part II, Section D: Teaching Curriculum" of "The
SAGE Handbook of Curriculum and Instruction" (F. M. Connelly, M. F. He, J. I. Phillion, Eds.; Sage
Publications, 2008). These chapters ["Teacher Education as a Bridge? Unpacking Curriculum
Controversies" (Marilyn Cochran-Smith, Kelly E. Demers. Chapter 13, pp. 261-281); "Cultivating the
Image of Teachers as Curriculum Makers" (Cheryl J. Craig, Vicki Ross. Chapter 14, pp. 282-305);
and "Teachers' Experience of Curriculum: Policy, Pedagogy, and Situation" (William Ayers, Therese
Quinn, David O. Stovall, Libby Scheiern. Chapter 15, pp. 306-326)] provide deeper insight into the
work of teachers and teacher educators as curriculum makers. The chapters provide a detailed
history of how teaching curriculum has been theorised through practice and the contemporary
contexts and controversies framing curriculum work. In this review, Harris-Hart discusses each
chapter highlighting key issues and themes, drawing links across chapters, and identifying both
areas of particular interest and areas for further exploration. In addition, she proposes an alternate
theoretical lens, Actor Network Theory (ANT), through which issues of control and agency as they
relate to curriculum practice, can be further explicated. (Contains 1 note.)
Fueled by the internet, instantaneous videos, and the emphasis to look "right" or always win athletic
competitions, many students are seeking information on nutrition and dietary supplements.
Classroom observations reveal student interest and discussions are among the highest when the
topic is dietary supplements. Teachers and coaches provide an important link in providing accurate,
research-based nutritional education. In this article, a questionnaire and discussion is presented as
a teaching aid for the teacher or coach who faces the daunting task of educating students and/or
athletes regarding nutrition and the use of dietary supplements. This questionnaire can be used to
assess a student's nutritional behavior, promote classroom discussion, and provide general
"teaching concepts." An additional goal of using the questionnaire is to enlighten students to simple
changes in dietary patterns that can be implemented in place of consuming a dietary supplement.
(Contains 2 tables.)
Utilizing games within the classroom may assist counselor educators with enhancing learning.
Counselor educators may integrate games within the curriculum to assist students in learning and
developing self-awareness and to assess knowledge and skills. This article describes the utilization
of games within experiential-learning theory and presents research supporting the integration of
games within the classroom. Additionally, the author outlines a process to assist counselor
educators in creatively developing and modifying games. Furthermore, the author presents a sample
of games developed or modified for integration within the counselor education curriculum.
In a report to the Aotearoa New Zealand Ministry of Education entitled "Curriculum Policy and
Special Education Support" (2004), the team of writers noted the lack of collaboration between
experts in these two fields. This paper explores the apparently separate worlds of special education
and curriculum policy in order to develop an understanding of where are the intersections, near
misses and black holes. The experiences of the present authors, as education professionals in the
two fields, are used to illustrate these gradually merging worlds. Discourses in special education are
explored along with the need for new directions in curriculum developments for children with
disabilities that disrupt current boundaries. The authors see possibilities in policy aims and practices;
they have found (and participated in) attempts to reach out across the divides.
This study sampled 268 people involved in natural resource research and management education
from every state in the United States to determine what concepts, skills and affects should be
included in the National Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) water and water resource
curriculum framework. The analysis contains an 80-item curriculum framework to guide the
development of educational materials. (Author/AIM)
Through history nursing education has strongly advocated the importance of educating students
towards moral and ethical responsibility. In today's society however, it has become increasingly
difficult to honour this concern. One peephole to capture the ongoing struggle is to look into the
curriculum where different stakeholders voice different opinions. Following a social constructive
perspective the curriculum texts represent specific interest among stakeholders related to nursing
education in a certain historical periods. By analysing the two last versions of the curriculum we get
an insight into moral and ethical issues at stake and different ways of addressing these questions.
While moral and ethical issues in the curriculum of 1987 follow a disciplinary discourse emphasising
the importance of learning ethical concepts and modes of arguments, the curriculum of 2000 places
ethical and moral issues within an employability discourse. In this curriculum moral issues are seen
as an obligation linked to students practical and technical skills. The 2000 curriculum represents a
shift from emphasising the independent and reflective professional to underline the skillful and
morally obliged practitioner. PMID:15519447
Materials are provided from a presentation concerning the Holmes Group, a coalition of 39
education deans from leading research universities, and its reform package for teacher education.
The specific focus of these materials is creation of a revamped graduate-level education curriculum
for business teacher education at the Ohio State University (OSU). A press release on the Holmes
Group, a chart of its geographical regions, and a journal article on the Holmes Group are presented.
Other contents include a list of generalizations concerning OSU teacher education students and an
outline of issues in professional development of teachers. A description of the business teacher
education major at OSU displays the 10-course professional business teacher education core
curriculum. A listing of 12 business teacher education issues precedes the reference list. (YLB)
The author claims that the UK coalition government's White Paper, entitled the Importance of
Teaching, continues to polarise curriculum and pedagogical thinking in England into subject-centred
versus child-centred camps and in doing so takes sides with the former. He argues that government
reports--such as Hadow, Spens and Norwood--have been concerned with the role and status of the
traditional subject-based curriculum of the elite grammar schools in a mass educational system. In
this policy context cycles of curriculum development and reform have tended to "seesaw" from the
subject-centred to the child-centred curriculum poles and back again. Attempts to reconcile these
conflicting perspectives by locating the subject-centred curriculum in the realm of educational ends
and the child-centred perspective, as exemplified by the thought of John Dewey, in the realm of
educational methods. In this way the child-centred approach is used to improve and broaden access
to the traditional subject-based curriculum, while being rendered subservient to it. The author goes
on to examine Dewey's own integrated conception of the relationship between subjects and the
child-centred perspective and its implications for curriculum and pedagogy. These are compared
with the views on curriculum design and teacher training expressed in the White Paper. The author
concludes that there is a growing gap, between the partial models of mind and its development that
inform government policy in the field of education and advances towards a broader and more
integrated model. From the latter standpoint educational policy-making in England will look
increasingly disordered.
This interim evaluation report of the St. Louis, Missouri Urban Consumer Education Project
assesses program effectiveness in terms of teacher training and teacher knowledge of consumer
basics, community resource participation, and student and teacher knowledge. The project was
designed to teach fifth grade students their rights and responsibilities as consumers, while helping
teachers and other community members to gain expertise in teaching and using consumer basics. A
major feature of the teacher training workshops was the participation of representatives from local
businesses, educational institutions, and public service agencies. These resource persons also
taught consumer basics to the students. In a post-program test which evaluated consumer
knowledge of wise buying habits, warranties, consumer agencies, and consumer rights and
responsibilities, both student and teacher performance was weakest in the understanding of
warranties. Students showed limited knowledge of local consumer groups to be contacted about
consumer problems. Appended to this report are samples of the tests used in the evaluation. (JCD)
Local instructional design describes the process of customization that naturally occurs when
curriculum innovations interface with local classrooms and schools. Describing the practice of local
instructional design can help to explain how curriculum is adapted to local conditions and provides
insight on how instructional leaders mediate curriculum, teaching, and school conditions to allow for
reform-oriented curriculum to occur. Research on local design has tended to focus on the
intersection of curriculum, teachers, and students. This case-based dissertation study documents
the process of local instructional design in the context of high school science education through a
distributed leadership perspective. The study develops a model of instructional design, points to the
important roles of administrators, parents, and university consultants in leading local design, and
suggests instructional reform advocates consider the role of school leadership and community when
further studying local instructional design.
Realizing the goals of higher and continuing education calls for applying consumer research to
university marketing techniques. Several higher education publics have been identified, and the idea
of consuming publics can be subdivided into internal and external consumers, with the student
viewed as the educational product. Internal consumers include future consumers (prospective
students), current consumers (enrolled students), past consumers (alumni), and dissatisfied
consumers (prior students). External customers are private industry, graduate schools, government,
and other nonprofit organizations. Though certain market research scholars might dismiss higher
education as an area that does not lend itself to their work, several reasons can be proposed for
supporting involvement in this type of research (such as testing theoretical concepts concerning
various higher education publics). To be effective, consumer research in higher education must
meet several prerequisites (including that it be coordinated, continuous, implemented, and
evaluated). Four areas recommended for future research are: (1) the need for market segmentation
research, especially concerning nontraditional consumers; (2) a more thorough analysis of the
needs of alumni, faculty, and staff and "other publics" of higher education; (3) understanding the
unmet needs of the students who drop or stop out; and (4) the apparent need to anticipate future
demands of external consumers. Contains 31 references. (SM)
Developed for use by teacher educators or state staff, this teaching packet provides preservice or
inservice training to teachers and prospective teachers on how to use the Illinois Core Curriculum in
Agriculture. (It is recommended that copies of the Illinois core materials be available to the
students.) Three problem areas are included: Orientation to the Illinois Core Curriculum in
Agriculture, Using the Core Curriculum to Develop a Teaching Plan, and Using the Core Curriculum
to Develop Courses of Study. Each problem area includes all or most of the following components:
teacher educator's guide (suggested objectives, suggested interest approaches, anticipated
problems and concerns, suggested learning activities, application procedures, evaluation, and
references), information sheets, worksheets, transparencies, and class handouts. The
recommended time for teaching these problem areas is during the "methods" course prior to the
student teaching experience or as part of an inservice workshop or seminar for teachers currently
employed. (YLB)
A departmental review of education curricula in Queensland, Australia has found that minimal or no
learning about sexuality education takes place. Its public schools and teachers are able to avoid or
not fulfil their obligations regarding the teaching of sexuality education and reproductive health to
children and young people. This lacuna in schools' duty of care may significantly compromise the
well-being, choices, life skills and opportunities for young people as they mature towards adult
citizenship, and may even lead to potentially hazardous situations for them. To redress this
deficiency, a new curriculum and supporting documents have been developed by Queensland's
curriculum authority. This paper audits both the current Human Relationships Education and the
new Sexual and Reproductive Health Education curricula. This paper also analyses the rationale for
teaching school students about sexuality, relationships and reproduction as an essential part of
Health and Physical Education, in light of significant contemporary sexuality education issues and
contexts. (Contains 1 table.)
This document contains the results of a survey of state directors of special education on the status
of strategies related to improving access for students with disabilities to the general education
curriculum. This activity was undertaken as part of the cooperative agreement between Project
Forum at the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) and the U.S.
Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP). Project Forum staff
designed this activity and developed the survey form in collaboration with the Access Center, a
project funded by OSEP to provide technical assistance on the topic of improving access to and
progress in the general education curriculum. The survey is the first step in a process that will
document the programs and activities states have initiated to meet this requirement of the
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Project Forum staff conducted and analyzed the
survey results and compiled this summary that will be used by the Access Center to plan
subsequent activities related to building state capacity to help students with disabilities succeed in
the general education curriculum. The survey, conducted from April to June 2005, requested states
to report on the stage they are in, by academic area, regarding strategies to enhance access to the
general education curriculum, the professional development they have provided, whether they have
a written definition of access to the general education curriculum and any challenges they have
encountered in supporting these activities. A total of 32 states responded and this document
contains a brief analysis of the data they provided. You may find a copy of the survey as an
addendum to this document. (Contains 3 footnotes and 2 tables.)
As an educational leader, in selecting a curriculum we must know our success as a
knowledge-based economy will depend on how well schools equip young people with competencies
the future will require, says Prof Geoff Masters. Within the school sector, efforts are being made at
many levels--from classroom teachers to system managers--to enhance the quality of children's
learning experiences and to ensure that all students receive the best education America can
provide. For educational leaders these efforts to improve school education depend on access to
relevant, reliable and timely feedback on educational outcomes for students. In school education,
outcomes are measured not only in terms of academic achievement, but also in terms of access to,
participation in and completion of schooling. It can also be gauged in terms of preparation for, and
successful transition into, future study and employment (Masters, 2002). This article examines the
most recent educational curriculum trends that should be considered in the planning, design, and
modernization of schools and the direction of Career Technical Education and how it can be used in
renewing obsolete curriculum. The trends were identified by reviewing research on the relationship
of school facilities to student outcomes, by performing a general environmental scan of current
trends, issues, problems, and initiatives in education, and by reviewing demographic patterns
emerging out of the Education Longitudinal Study 2002 (ELS, 2004).
This curriculum model represents an entire school district's attempt to use paleontology to
implement standards-based education reforms. While most colleges do not have a dinosaur
available for student and teacher use, the project provides a template for partnerships between
colleges and local school districts. The curriculum can be adopted by teachers to institute
standards-based classroom practice and by education professors to model standards-based
pedagogy for pre-service teachers. Examples of curriculum activities are included.
When a collaborative approach is embraced, decentralization in the art classroom can consist of a
non-linear exchange of ideas between teacher and students, allowing for necessary dialogue and
conversation, ultimately leading to innovative exploration of materials and concepts. In this situation,
students can become active learners as opposed to passive participants, and teachers learn to
strategically listen and watch for teachable moments. This article examines the decentralized
approach to art curriculum from a pedagogical point of view, acknowledging advantages and
disadvantages for art educators, and its contribution to a curriculum that captures the current cultural
aesthetic experience. By referring to research in art education and writings of curriculum theorists,
the author argues for an application of decentralized approaches to teaching visual art in
contemporary learning environments, with emphasis on instigating critical thinking within classroom
critiques of student artwork. The following topics are addressed: (1) the connection between
decentralized curriculum and complexity thinking; (2) the significance of dialogical exchange
between teacher and students; (3) the concept of emergent knowledge; and (4) the noted desire for
flexible curricular models in art education. The author concludes by providing accounts of
collaborative learning within university studio art courses that occur in online environments, with the
intent of provoking thought for art education at all levels. Throughout, she describes a theoretical
framework for understanding decentralized curriculum as she argues for a contemporary art
pedagogy that is reflective of contemporary life. (Contains 5 figures.)
Abstract: this article is to provide insight into personal relevancecurriculum designs through a
discussion of a theoretical perspective on theirnature, underlying rationale and application to a study
of technology, sourceof content, organizational structure, and use in technology education. Most
ofthe discussions are limited to a micro-curriculum as opposed to a macro level.However, inferences
can be drawn to include both. The
This composite report provides a snapshot of current thinking about the needs and challenges of
consumer education in the United States. The quotations were selected from responses of a small
group of educators, legislators, and consumer leaders in business, government, labor, the media,
and the community who were invited to write brief statements about consumer education as they
saw it. With the exception of a 1975 quote from Ralph Nader, all quotations are current. They are
divided into six categories. The name and position of the author are provided. The section on
"Choice and Empowerment" addresses clarity of choice; minorities, language, and cultural
differences; empowering consumers; marketplace power; accepting responsibility; and improving
consumer literacy. "Information and Decisions" covers consumer self-education, finding and using
information, government information, and informed decisions in a global marketplace. Quotations in
"Consumer Protection" relate to prevention--the best remedy and antidote for fraud; those in
"Business and Consumers" discuss when everyone profits and the existence of a false comfort
level. "Teacher Education" quotations address the need for increased funding; U.S. teacher
academies to include consumer education; experience as a negative teacher; the family; and
teacher accreditation, guidelines, and training. Quotes in "Students as Consumers" cover math for
everybody, what students say, and how neglect shortchanges students. (YLB)
among industry, technology, and society, the interdisciplinar y nature of the field, and general
problem solving. The practice of industrial arts\\/technology education, however, has not always
demonstrated a clear relationship to those goal statements. Industrial arts\\/technology education
laboratories and student activ- ities often resemble vocational education laboratories and student
activities. Moreover, much of the prescriptive
Objective. To conduct a follow-up survey of curriculum committee chairs in US colleges and schools
of pharmacy to describe current committee structures and functions and determine whether changes
have occurred over time. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study design using a 30-item
survey instrument regarding the structure, function, and charges of curriculum committees was sent
to 100 curriculum committee chairs. Several new variables were added to the questionnaire to
explore the use of systematic reviews, oversight of experiential education, and the impact of
accreditation standards on work focus. Results. Eighty-five chairs responded. Curriculum
committees are on average 1 person larger, less likely to have a student vote, more likely to have
formal charges, and more likely to be involved in implementing an outcomes-based curriculum
compared with 1994. Committees have shifted their work focus from review of curricular content to
curricular revision. Conclusions. Curriculum committees continue to evolve as they respond to
changes in pharmacy education and accreditation standards.
This teacher's guide is designed to facilitate use of the West Virginia floriculture competency-based
education (CBE) curriculum by instructors in floriculture programs. The curriculum is organized into
13 learning units, correlated with specific competencies. Each competency includes a learning
checklist, learning activities, and evaluative standards. Where appropriate, student quizzes, work
sheets, and information sheets are included. In order to aid the teacher, the accompanying teacher's
guide contains an explanation of the curriculum and suggested usage; a list of competencies, by job
title; suggested unit tests; and a list of references to accompany the curriculum. Appendixes to the
guide contain data and information on tasks currently performed and equipment used, as
determined from a validation survey of educators and persons employed in floriculture, and lists of
curriculum aids currently used in West Virginia floriculture programs. Job titles covered in the
curriculum include field inspector for disease and insect control; irrigator; supervisor of insect and
disease inspection; flower picker; bulb sorter; supervisors of rose grading and horticulture; specialty
growers; plant propagator; harvest contractor; cashier-wrapper; farmworker; telephone order clerk;
salesperson for flowers or florist supplies; floral designer; florist; and manager of a retail store. (KC)
The preprofessional pharmacy curriculum provides the foundation for the professional curriculum.
Basic requirements are noted in the ACPE Standards and Guidelines, but there is considerable
variation in the preprofessional curriculum requirements for entry into doctor of pharmacy programs
in the United States. Changes in higher education, pharmacy practice, and health care continue to
drive the need to evaluate the preprofessional curriculum. The objectives of this white paper were to
create model preprofessional curricula that would enable students to be successful during and after
entry into the professional curriculum. Using an evidence-based approach where possible, a number
of factors were found to be associated with academic success during a pharmacy program and on
licensing examinations. These data and other information were used to create 2 preprofessional
curricular models that include the development of general and discipline-specific abilities.
Challenges remain in accurately evaluating the abilities and attributes of applicants and the impact
of those abilities and attributes on their success as a student and a practitioner. Colleges and
schools of pharmacy should consider adopting a more consistent preprofessional curriculum on a
national level. This preprofessional curriculum should be multi-dimensional, based on needs for
future practice, and revised over time.
This paper stresses the need for consumer education programs which reflect social changes and
which will be relevant in the future. Specifically, it explores ways in which educators can develop and
implement consumer education programs which stress quality of life, simplified lifestyles, and
changing American consumption habits. Quality of life is interpreted to include a degree of
excellence in lifestyle that could be available to all citizens, rather than wealth, privilege, affluence,
and materialism. Many of the ideas upon which recommendations for changes in consumer
education curricula are based derive from a contemporary social movement called "Voluntary
Simplicity." One of the best known advocates of this simplicity movement, Michigan Senator, Philip
A. Hart, is often cited throughout the paper as an example of an intelligent and thoughtful consumer.
Recommendations regarding how to develop consumer education programs based on quality of life
concepts are presented in three areas--consumer decision making, consumer resource
management, and consumer citizen participation. Recommendations include teaching students how
to make a conscious effort to reduce nonessential possessions, encouraging students to become
less dependent on large institutions, stressing knowledge and skills needed for citizen participation,
helping students understand how consumption habits affect other people and the environment, and
helping students mesh their desired lifestyle with their career goals and future earning capacity. The
conclusion is that educators should learn more about the simplicity movement and should
incorporate its objectives and concepts into consumer education programs. (DB)
This article explores the experiences of 8 Inuit curriculum authors in the Nunavut Territory of
Canada during the creation of "Inuuqatigiit: The Curriculum From the Inuit Perspective". The
"Inuuqatigiit" authors' story is examined in terms of the group coming together, their work with
elders, the educational community's response to the "Inuuqatigiit" curriculum, as well as the author's
intentions for its future use. The "Inuuqatigiit" authors' journey demonstrates a commitment to
curriculum development and instructional practice that is firmly rooted in Inuit language and culture.
Details of the authors' contributions to Indigenous, community-based schooling efforts are provided,
as well as discussions of the wider discursive connections contained within the "Inuuqatigiit" authors'
story. (Contains 1 table and 8 footnotes.)
Curriculum frameworks for North Dakota elementary-secondary education are presented in this
document. These frameworks are voluntary and serve to promote interdisciplinary learning, active
learning, and student diversity. They are part of a larger systemic approach to improve instruction in
the state's schools and to identify content outcomes and student performance standards. Each
section contains: a list of North Dakota educators involved in the framework development; a mission
statement for that particular subject area; the graduation outcomes for the state; a list of content
outcomes; content outcomes and performance standards for each outcome at grades 4, 8, and
graduation; a glossary of terms; and a bibliography. In this volume, curriculum frameworks are
provided for the following areas: arts education; business education; foreign language; health; and
physical education. (LMI)
This curriculum guide, from the American Radio Relay League, is "a resource that will help you do
what you do best...teach, and teach in a refreshing, captivating way that will bring your students into
the world of wireless technology, a journey that will enrich their lives, and our lives." From this site,
visitors can either download the basic document or browse the various units and activities listed
here. Topics covered include Ohm's Law, Oscillators, Wireless Technology in Robotics, and an
Introduction to Ham Radio, among many others.
The developing field of academic analytics seeks to turn data from educational systems into
actionable intelligence for the improvement of teaching and learning. This paper reports on the
implementation of analytics in a new medical school with an integrated curriculum and clinical focus.
Analytics addressed two challenges in the curriculum: providing evidence of appropriate curriculum
coverage and assessing student engagement and equity while on clinical placement. This paper
describes the tools and approaches used, and outlines the lessons learnt. These lessons include
the risk of a simplistic use of visualisations, their potential to generate important questions, the value
of a flexible approach to tool selection, the need for relevant skills, and the importance of keeping
the audience central. Although there is much further potential for the school to realise, academic
analytics have already been a critical enabler of educational excellence. (Contains 7 figures.)
In a time of increased accountability, a tightened curriculum, and fewer curricular choices for
students, technology education in the United States is in the position of defending itself by "carving a
niche" in the school curriculum. Justifying the place of technology education is becoming
increasingly difficult, as there has been little agreement in either policy or practice over the definition
and function of technology education. The problem addressed in this study is determining whether
the new "official" definition and purpose for technology education has had any effect on technology
education classrooms. The concern, and the focus of this study, is that technology education as
defined by the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) might not be what is currently
taught by teachers and experienced by students. The purpose of this study was to determine if
inconsistencies exist between the field's view of technology education and the events that take place
in the technology education classrooms by examining the relationships among the field's teachers'
and students' ideas regarding the nature and outcomes of technology education. This was designed
to help bridge a gap in technology education research. (Contains 1 table.)
This paper investigates the role of environmental education in promoting activism or social action on
behalf of the environment. The connection between between environmental education and social
studies in school curricula is weak. Fields within social studies such as civics, history, law-related
education, government, and problems of democracy have great potential to enrich environmental
education by exposing students to the ways and means by which problems are managed or
resolved through political systems. Recent studies have revealed the ineffectiveness of existing
environmental education as a stimulus for meaningful social action. School programs have
emphasized environmental awareness but have not changed the behavior patterns that perpetuate
ecological problems. Because most environmental problems originate from socioeconomic
conditions, it is argued that effective environmental education requires a strong social
problem-solving component. Some of the issues addressed in this paper include the lack of
emphasis on urban minority environments, making environmental education a vehicle for social
change, the need for values clarification to develop a personal environmental ethos, and student
empowerment. Several programs are described that involve students in the community through
environmental action. The role of technology in environmental education and activism is also
discussed. Contains extensive references and notes. (PVD)
Explores the concept of multiculturalism in terms of how it is articulated in journalism and education
in particular. Identifies three dimensions and investigates: the professional knowledge of journalists
regarding cultural and ethnic diversity; their representations of diversity; and the responsibilities of
journalists covering diversity. Offers recommendations to enhance journalism education program
with multiculturalism. (RS)
This essay explores the ubiquity of the sustainability agenda in higher education in the United
Kingdom (with some parallel examples from the United States) with a view to pointing out its
corrosive influence on educational ambition. In so doing, the author suggests that the prevalence of
sustainability within education has only been possible because academia has lowered its own
critical faculties and allowed academic institutions to be colonized by social policy objectives to the
detriment of knowledge for its own sake. Fundamentally, he wants to explore the effects of today's
doctrinaire approach to education, which, as far as he is concerned, has resulted in the degradation
of students' expectations, the abrogation of responsibility by those in erstwhile academic authority,
and the failure--or refusal--of the academy to defend education in its own terms. (Contains 44
The authors believe that there is no inherent academic validity or lack of thereof in the notion of prior
learning assessment (PLA)-based curriculum. If mishandled, it can become the tool for carrying out
diploma mill practices. Conversely, if implemented and facilitated appropriately, PLA-based curricula
can offer humanistic educational values that recognize and support educational needs of
nontraditional students. PLA-based curriculum is most successful in accomplishing the goal of
honoring college-level learning that mature adults bring to an undergraduate education. The
features of the PLA process are compatible with and enhance a humanistic approach to education.
In this article, the authors discuss PLA as a learning process and not as mere assessment of
learning. Potential PLA pitfalls are also discussed.
This handbook was developed to assist educators in conducting a local curriculum review as a step
in improving business education programs. The major portion of the handbook is a series of 22
self-evaluation checklists that are to be used for reviewing existing courses in such areas as
accounting, business, computer education, economics, shorthand, and typing. Additional sections
aid in the development of a philosophy of education; list expected student outcomes; aid in
preparing course outlines and in stating the concepts and skills to be taught in them; and help in
listing available resources, needs and recommendations, and essential skills students need to
develop. Sample program descriptions are included as are guidelines for implementing a complete
curriculum review. (Author/IRT)
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students in Australian schools continue to have poor education
and health outcomes, and the introduction of a new national curriculum may assist in redressing this
situation. This curriculum emphasises recommendations which have been circulating in the sector
over many years, to require teacher education institutions to provide their students with an
understanding of past and contemporary experiences of Indigenous Australians, as well as the
social, economic and health disadvantages that challenge Indigenous communities, and to equip
them to integrate Indigenous issues into their future teaching programs. This article, while focusing
on teacher education developments at the University of Tasmania (UTAS) to meet National
Standards and Frameworks for preservice teachers, provides some general background, and
identifies recently developed resources, including the potential for Indigenous centres within
universities to assist educators.
Develops a rationale for integrating oceanography and marine education in land-oriented curriculum
at the secondary level. Examples of topics with a multidisciplinary approach are described in the
areas of acoustics and music, aquaria, archeology, art, astronomy, literature, careers, ecology,
gastronomy, geology, and topics on various aquatic organisms. (CS)
Several authors agree that student observations of behaviors are a far greater influence than
prescriptions for behavior offered in the classroom. While these authors stress the importance of
modeling of professional relationships with patients and colleagues, at times they have fallen short
of acknowledging the importance of the values inherent in the role of the professional educator. This
includes relationships and concomitant behaviors that stem from the responsibilities of being an
educator based on expectations of institutional and societal culture. While medical professionals
share standards of medical practice in exercising medical knowledge, few have obtained formal
training in the knowledge, skills and attitudes requisite for teaching excellence. Attention needs to be
paid to the professionalization of medical educators as teachers, a professionalization process that
parallels and often intersects the values and behaviors of medical practice but remains a distinct and
important body of knowledge and skills unto itself. Enhancing educator professionalism is a critical
issue in educational reform, increasing accountability for meeting student needs. Assumptions
regarding educator professionalism are subject to personal and cultural interpretation, warranting
additional dialogue and research as we work to expand definitions and guidelines that assess and
reward educator performance. PMID:17538835
Designed to provide high school students with information concerning energy-efficient driving, this
curriculum guide covers techniques of conserving energy, efficient use of motor vehicles, safe
driving techniques, and development of energy-efficient driving habits. The guide consists of six
lessons: (1) Fuel Conservation: Why It Is Essential; (2) Vehicle Selection; (3) Fuel Efficient Driving;
(4) Planning Travel; (5) Proper Vehicle Maintenance; and (6) Practicing Fuel-Efficient Driving. Each
lesson follows a typical format that includes the lesson goal, lesson overview, lesson topics,
suggested learning activities, related materials, objectives, content, and audiovisual materials.
Appended material includes summary of fuel economy savings, a gas mileage worksheet,
thirty-three fuel-saving tips, a sample on-road situations evaluation, and a student test. (LRA)
Therapeutic patient education (TPE) imposes a radical change in the nurse-patient relationship. It is
a real humanist trend whose values are taken up in the new nursing curriculum. Several teaching
units are participating in the development of skill 5: Initiating and implementing educational and
preventative care". This new element in the training programme is leading to real cultural evolution
in professional practice. PMID:22641948
Despite strong political support for the development of sustainability literacy amongst the UK
graduates, embedding sustainability in the higher education curriculum has met with widespread
indifference, and in some cases, active resistance. However, opportunities exist beyond the formal
curriculum for engaging students in learning about sustainability. Previous research has highlighted
the potential of the university campus for experiential, place-based learning about and for
sustainability. This has been conceptualised as the "informal" curriculum, consisting of
extra-curricular activities and student projects linking estates and operations to formal study.
However, the impact of the so-called "hidden curriculum" (the implicit messages a university sends
about sustainability through the institutional environment and values) has been overlooked as a
potential influence on student learning and behaviour. This article reports on a small-scale research
project which utilised a phenomenographic approach to explore students" perceptions of the "hidden
sustainability curriculum" at a leading sustainability university. The findings suggest that helping
students deconstruct the hidden campus curriculum may enhance aspects of sustainability literacy;
developing students' understanding about sustainability and creating solutions to sustainability
issues, enabling evaluative dialogue around campus sustainability and also self-reflection, which
could be transformative and translate into pro-environmental behaviour change. This research is
transferable to other contexts.
This overview of the Educating for Safety supplement issue explores the context and urgency of the
problem of unsafe care, what we have learned about improving both safety and quality in health
care, and the implications of this for educators. This supplement issue is a response to the charge of
the AACP Council of Deans (COD) and the Council of Faculties (COF) Medication Safety Task
Force to address the role of colleges and schools of pharmacy in responding to the national patient
safety agenda. The articles included are intended to serve as a nexus for pharmacy education in
developing curricula and promoting best practices as they relate to the importance of medication
Standardized curricula are provided for two courses for the secondary vocational education program
in Mississippi: business cooperative education I and II. The 10 units in business cooperative
education I are as follows: orientation; keyboarding and skill building; leadership development;
personnel development; human relations; business communications; database management; word
processing; money management; and career planning/job application process. Business cooperative
education II consists of seven units: orientation; publishing; banking; secretarial procedures;
specialized typewriting; civil service offices; and financial records. Each unit consists of these
components: objectives, with core/essential objectives indicated; suggested instructional practices;
list of suggested resources; list of evaluation and suggested minimum performance standards, with
core/essential objectives indicated; and performance record, with core/essential objectives
indicated. A checklist for each course combining all unit performance standards into a single list is
included. (YLB)
Teaching and learning about geospatial aspects of energy resource issues requires that science
teachers apply effective science pedagogical approaches to implement geospatial technologies into
classroom instruction. To address this need, we designed educative curriculum materials as an
integral part of a comprehensive middle school energy resources science curriculum. We examined
teachers' perceived impact of the curriculum materials to support their pedagogical content
knowledge related to teaching science with geospatial technologies. Results indicated that the
educative curriculum materials supported science teachers' professional growth related to their
geospatial science pedagogical content knowledge during the curriculum enactment. The role of
educative curriculum materials in science curriculum reform efforts is discussed. (Contains 5 tables.)
The Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) partnered with Andrew Porter and John
Smithson of Wisconsin Center for Education Research (WCER) to develop an advanced, in depth
approach to collecting and reporting data on the "enacted curriculum" in K-12 math and science, i.e.
the actual subject content and instructional practices experienced by students in classrooms. The
set of tools are called the Surveys of Enacted Curriculum (SEC). They have conducted research and
testing of enacted curriculum survey tools with schools and teachers. As a result, they are now able
to offer the survey tools and a range of related data services to states and districts. The two
organizations are collaborating with the Learning Point Associates and The Surveys of Enacted
Curriculum, TERC Regional Alliance to disseminate the SEC tools and services to education
systems and to assist schools, districts, and states in using these new tools for improving K-12
education. The Surveys are designed to provide reliable, comparable data that are collected at the
classroom level with teachers and students. They are available for English Language Arts,
Mathematics, and Science at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. The SEC data analysis
and reporting tools are intended to assist teachers, administrators, and policymakers with planning
for instructional improvement in several ways: (1) align curriculum with standards and system-wide
assessments; (2) monitor indicators of instruction and relationship to student achievement; (3)
analyze differences in instruction and content across schools and classes; identify improvement
strategies through school leadership teams; and (4) evaluate effects of initiatives, such as
professional development, in changing math and science practices. The SEC tools and services
have been developed with assistance from many educators and researchers. The data collection
instruments were field-tested in several hundred schools. [Prepared by CCSSO SEC Collaborative
Project which also includes partners: State Departments of Education; and Learning Point
This curriculum guide contains nine units that provide the basic curriculum components required to
develop lesson plans for the machine shop curriculum. The guide is not intended to be a complete,
self-contained curriculum, but instead provides the teacher with a number of informational items
related to the learning outcomes and allows the teacher flexibility to design instructional activities,
select resources, and deliver instruction most appropriate for the learner and learning environment.
The units of instruction contain the following components: learning outcomes; associated tasks;
performance standards; lists of tools, equipment, resources, and limiting constraints; performance
steps; and enabling objectives. The units cover the following topics: bench work; layout; drill press;
power saw; lathe; shaper; milling machine; surface grinder; and special milling processes. (KC)
This paper explores the culture of education policy making in Shanghai using the conceptual tool of
a "global assemblage". A global assemblage is essentially a collection of ideas and practices that
arise from the interplay between a global form and situated sociocultural elements. Focusing on the
global form of curriculum reform, this paper explains how the Shanghai municipal government
justifies the introduction of the "Second Curriculum Reform" using the global imperative while
maintaining its socialist ideology and central control on high-stakes exams. This paper highlights the
active roles played by the municipal government and other local educational stakeholders in
assembling their own logics, tactics and counter-measures in the contested space of the
assemblage. It is argued that the success of the curriculum reform is mediated and vitiated by the
sociocultural elements of a dominant exam-oriented culture and the traditional approaches of
memorisation, repeated practice and didactic teaching. The complex and unpredictable process of
implementing curriculum reform in Shanghai illustrates the culture of education policy making
against a backdrop of globalisation as a problem space. (Contains 1 table.)
This curriculum planning guide is designed to help Montana school districts design an appropriate
tobacco use prevention and education program. It focuses on: "Tobacco Use Prevention Education:
The OPI (Office of Public Instruction) Perspective"; "Instructional Guidelines" (key issues in program
planning and major health education content areas); "Guidelines for School Health Programs To
Prevent Tobacco Use and Addiction: An Overview of the CDC Guidelines"; "Guidelines for School
Health Programs To Prevent Tobacco Use and Addiction"; "CDC/DASH (CDC's Division of
Adolescent and School Health) Research to Classroom Project"; "General Criteria for Evaluating
Tobacco Use Prevention and Education Curricula"; "Matching Approaches To Tobacco Use
Prevention and Education With Childhood Development"; "Educational Materials and Resources on
Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation"; "Guidelines for Reviewing Tobacco Use Prevention
Education Materials"; "Guidelines for Non-School Personnel Presenting Health Programs in
Montana Schools"; "A Dozen Good Reasons for Tobacco-Free Schools"; and "Where to Find
Information." (Contains 71 references.) (SM)
This Senior 2 (grade 10) health curriculum guide is designed to accommodate the needs and
developmental tasks of adolescents. The publication provides a course of instruction to help
students choose and practice responsible behavior conducive to maintaining and enhancing health.
The guide is organized into 5 units: (1) "Contributing to Community" discusses positive role models,
health promotion, health supports, rights and responsibilities of group membership, and concern for
environment and health; (2) "Responsibility to Self and Others" addresses personal safety, facts and
misconceptions about alcohol and other drugs, the pharmacology of alcohol and other drugs, the
continuum of use, misuse and problem use of alcohol and other drugs, defense mechanisms,
attitudes about alcohol and other drugs, tobacco, and chemically dependent families; (3)
"Responsible Sexual Behavior" considers abstinence, affection, using assertiveness skills, condom
awareness (optional), AIDS/STD and social issues, and unplanned pregnancy, and it includes an
AIDS/STD knowledge test; (4) "Mental Health" concentrates on the continuum of mental health,
body image, and grief and loss; and (5) "Transitions" focuses on stages of family life, healthy
relationships, and parenting as a future role. Suggested student activities, including case studies,
provide opportunities to identify personal needs, assess attitudes and values, and explore and
communicate various points of view. A bibliography provides an extensive list of print and
audiovisual resources. (LL)
This curriculum guide for a 1-semester or 1-year course on construction systems is designed to
acquaint students with the nature of the construction industry and its technology--tools, materials,
and methods of construction--as well as the systems for planning and managing construction
projects. The guide contains a course outline, competencies (task lists), student competency
records, and management sheets. Management sheets, which serve as lesson outlines used for 1
or more days, include the following: an introduction, an enabling objective, a performance objective,
an equipment and supplies list, a performance standard, suggested references for teachers and
students, activities, and evaluation criteria. Some of the topics covered by the activities are as
follows: introduction to construction, construction planning and management, earthwork and
foundations, superstructures, exterior finishing and roofing, mechanical and electrical systems,
insulation and interior finish, and special projects. The guide contains six appendixes: (1) a tool and
equipment list; (2) a supply list; (3) a resource list of 18 books, 53 films, slide sets or videotapes, 4
software programs, and 5 kits for models; (4) a suggested facility layout; (5) a corner section
drawing; and (6) definitions. (KC)
This curriculum guide offers an interdisciplinary approach to law-related education (LRE) intended to
assist teachers with introducing LRE into courses for students with limited ability to speak English.
The guide opens with a definition of LRE, its objectives and methods, and its place in the general
school curriculum. The introductory section also includes a description of the Institute for Citizen
Education in the Law (ICEL) and a history of this curriculum project. The 20 units of the curriculum
cover: the roles of judges, lawyers, and juries; the significance of the Constitution and Bill of Rights;
the processes of the trial and appeals; courts and justice; courtroom protocols; fair police
procedures and working with the police; suppression hearing; searches; child protective services;
parents and children; legal issues of domestic violence; landlord-tenant relations; and consumer law.
The lessons encourage interactive and cooperative learning through the methods of brainstorming,
hypotheticals and case studies, role playing and simulation, group activities, and opinion polls. Each
lesson plan specifies the number of class periods required, the objectives, procedures and
vocabulary. Many of the lesson plans provide student handouts such as legal documents and
worksheets. (JD)
The government of Finland has begun planning a new national curriculum framework for the
comprehensive and upper secondary schools. The aim of this study was to find information that
could be used in establishing a theoretical basis for planning the technology education curriculum. In
order to define the scope and focus of each curriculum element (e.g., rationale, theory, objectives,
methods, content, and means of evaluation), the technology education curricula of six different
countries were studied: Australia, England, France, The Netherlands, Sweden, and the United
States. The rationale for choosing these six countries was that their technology education programs
have developed rapidly over the past ten years and profound research, experimental programs, and
the development of learning materials have been undertaken, especially in Australia, England, The
Netherlands, and the United States. The aim was not to conduct a comparative study of the
curricula of other countries. Rather, it was to synthesize theory and practice. A secondary aim was
to search for more detailed and concrete curriculum materials for provincial, district, municipal, and
school purposes. Although this research was conducted to support Finnish curriculum development,
the results may be pertinent to other countries as well. Different countries use different terms to
describe technology education, such as technics, design and technology, technology education, and
technological education. In this study these titles were considered to be synonymous. Regardless of
the term used, the universal goal is to help students to become technologically literate. A model was
developed so that the technology education curricula of the selected countries could be
systematically analyzed and the important curricular elements could be identified. Assessment
practices were not included in the study, although Kimbell's (1997) work in this area must be
recognized since he included most of the countries reported herein. The analysis is presented in two
phases. First, the curricula of the six countries are summarized. The goal at the outset was to cross
tabulate the elements from the curricula; however, it was found that the countries differ to such
degree that it was impossible to reach this goal. Curriculum guidelines of the six countries are,
however, presented so that the reader can obtain a general understanding of the different curricula.
Following this, all six countries are examined more closely using a method of systematic analysis in
order to identify both common and unique features of their curricula.
Rehabilitation counselors are assisting consumers with end-of-life issues. Counselors who have the
capacity to assist with end-of-life issues in a culturally sensitive manner possess pre-established
self-care networks, an understanding of death from multiple perspectives, knowledge of
communication interventions, and appropriate outcome expectations. Rehabilitation counselors may
assess decision making processes, environmental presses, and social support systems in order to
provide counseling interventions, educational services, and advocacy. End-of-life issues that
counselors may need to address include unfinished business, existential meaning, loss, anxiety, and
problem-solving. Rehabilitation counselor educators can prepare counselors to assist consumers
with end-of-life issues by infusing training specific to end-of-life issues in assessment, counseling
techniques, advocacy, and professional ethics curriculum.
From the Center for Science Education at the University of California Berkeley Space Sciences
Laboratory comes the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Education and Public Outreach Curriculum page.
Visitors will find several educational materials listed by grade level, including How Satellites See,
Data Flow Demonstration, The Light Tour, Making Your Own 3-D All Sky Survey Map, and more.
The Light Tour activity, for example, investigates wavelengths of light, types of light, how
astronomers use different wavelengths, and what they see. Each of these fun and interactive
activities does a good job of explaining these potentially difficult topics (especially to younger
The changing landscape of health care in America requires that clinicians be skilled in responding to
varying patient expectations and values; provide ongoing patient management; deliver and
coordinate care across teams, settings, and time frames; and support patients' endeavors to change
behavior and lifestyle--education that is in short supply in today's academic and clinical settings
(Institute of Medicine, 2003). Nursing education needs to innovate at the micro and macro system
levels for the 21st century. It cannot be business as usual. In order to truly transform care, practice
and education will need to partner on curriculum development and the professional socialization of
the new nurse. PMID:21280440
Programming is a fundamental component of modern society. Programming and its applications
influence much of how people work and interact. Because of people's reliance on programming in
one or many of its applications, there is a need to teach students to be programming literate.
Because the purpose of the International Technology and Engineering Educators Association
(ITEEA) is technological literacy, it follows that technology education teachers include programming
literacy as one of the fundamental literacy domains they teach. In this article, the authors advocate
that programming literacy be taught in school and demonstrate how it fits within ITEEA's "Standards
for Technological Literacy: Content for the Study of Technology" (STL) framework. In order to
understand how teachers might incorporate programming literacy into their existing courses, the
authors then provide a practical example of a current junior high teacher who has modified his
communications courses to incorporate programming literacy through the design of videogames.
(Contains 1 table.)
This resource package has been designed to assist the instructor in using modern rhythmic
gymnastics (MRG) to support the objectives cited in the "K-12 Physical Education Curriculum
Guide," developed by the Manitoba Department of Education. MRG is based on scientific principles
of movement, and makes use of small, hand-held apparatus such as balls, hoops, ropes, ribbons,
clubs, and scarves, to provide flexibility, cardiovascular endurance, coordination, and rhythm in
creative activities. Contents proceed from basic exploratory movements through more defined skill
development and appreciation to complete MRG routines, for kindergarten through twelfth grade.
Teaching guidelines, a sample lesson plan, glossary, and a bibliography are also included. (JD)
The Education Committee of the International Game Development Association came into being
three years ago, an unprecedented cooperative effort between the game industry and academia. At
that time, only a few pioneering educators viewed games as a sophisticated medium of expression –
a cultural and economic force that deserved study and attracted increasing numbers of students.
Similarly, only a handful of game developers saw the value in forging relationships with academia,
jumpstarting valuable research programs, creating a common language, and building a shared
knowledge base for discussing games. These two communities were highly motivated to work
together, but how could they establish contact? Some developers and publishers succeeded in
reaching out to universities, and select academic programs and schools found ways to work with
industry partners. At the same time, individual developers and academics found themselves
participating in conferences, teaching, consulting, and working on degree programs. But there were
no roadmaps and progress was slow. In 2000, the Education Committee was created to improve
collaboration and communication between industry and academia. Reinforcing the goals of the
IGDA charter, the Committee began building bridges between game developers and academics
from a variety of fields. Our initial goal was to create a template for creating lectures, courses and
degree programs in game-related
Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat and compromises the management of infectious disease.
This has particular significance in relation to infections of the respiratory tract, which are the lead
cause of antibiotic prescribing. Education is fundamental to the correct use of antibiotics. A novel
open access curriculum has been developed in the context of a European Union funded research
project Genomics to combat Resistance against Antibiotics in Community-acquired lower respiratory
tract infections in Europe (GRACE The curriculum was developed in
modular format and populated with clinical and scientific topics relevant to community-acquired
lower respiratory tract infections. This curriculum informed the content of a series of postgraduate
courses and workshops and permitted the creation of an open access e-Learning portal. A total of
153 presentations matching the topics within the curriculum together with slide material and
handouts and 104 webcasts are available through the GRACE e-Learning portal, which is fully
searchable using a 'mindmap' to navigate the contents. Metrics of access provided a means for
assessing usage. The GRACE project has permitted the development of a unique on-line open
access curriculum that comprehensively addresses the issues relevant to community-acquired lower
respiratory tract infections and has provided a resource not only for personal learning, but also to
support independent teaching activities such as lectures, workshops, seminars and course work.
This study was conducted to study faculty perceptions of the influence of groups outside the faculty
on the curriculum in higher education and to determine whether perceptions of influence are
contingent on institutional type and selected faculty characteristics. The faculty of two master's
degree granting liberal arts colleges and two community colleges were surveyed (n=489) to
determine faculty perceptions of the influence of students, college administration, government, the
public, employers, licensing agencies, and professional organizations on the curriculum. Descriptive
statistics were used to examine trends. Regression was used to determine if age or number of years
in higher education was significant. Chi-square was used to determine the contingency of the faculty
characteristics and institutional types examined. Influence on content and courses offered were
used as indicators for the larger idea of curriculum. A return of 65.6% (n=321) of technically valid
responses was adequate for statistical analysis. Overall, faculty answered that they have "heavy" to
"total" influence on courses offered and even more influence on course content. Faculty most
frequently perceived a "moderate" to "light" amount of influence of outside groups on the curriculum
as a level that is "about right." Chi-square analysis of faculty perceptions of the influence of many of
the outside groups is contingent on institutional type, academic discipline or field, academic rank,
and tenure. Overall, faculty perception of outside influence is independent of race and gender.
Regression showed no statistical significance for age or the number of years in higher education.
There were differences in the faculty perceptions of outside group influence that are attributable to
institutional type and selected faculty characteristics. The idea of faculty autonomy with regard to the
curriculum is largely supported. Six appendixes contain the questionnaire and supporting data
tables. (Contains 15 tables and 59 references.) (SLD)
A study, described in this report, was conducted to provide information to national vocational
education policy makers regarding curriculum development needs for selected new and changing
occupations. The report also outlines a methodology for identifying new and changing occupations
and assessing the need for curriculum development. Information was collected by (1) identifying
new and changing occupations through data analysis; monitoring legislative, economic, technologic,
and social trends; and communication with professional associations, special interest groups, and
knowledgeable persons; (2) collecting occupational information for designated career fields; (3)
locating curricula, civilian and military, currently available for training people in the new and
changing occupations; and (4) assessing the gaps between training needed for new and changing
occupations and the available curricula. New occupations identified by these methods include the
following: case manager for the mentally disabled; housing rehabilitation specialists;
laser/electro-optics technician, tumor registrar; and occupations related to energy and
microprocessing. Each of these occupations or occupational areas are analyzed according to
functions, duties, and specifications; education and training requirements; employment outlook;
employment setting; career advancement opportunities; available curriculum and progress; and
implications for curriculum development. (KC)
A program for trained vocational education curriculum specialists (VECS), consisting of 16 modules,
was written, revised, and field tested at 15 sites nationwide. The instructional materials were written
to deliver the highest rated competencies based on a field survey of vocational educators and
review by a national advisory panel of vocational education experts. VECS modules were designed
to create or upgrade an individual's vocational education curriculum development and management
skills. Additional materials developed were a guide for instructors and administrators and audio
cassette tape for orienting potential users. For the field test a modified quasi-experimental,
pretest/posttest, treatment group/control group design was used. Participants were undergraduates
in vocational education teacher preparation, practicing vocational educators, and persons with
occupational skills who wished to teach their specialty at 12 colleges/universities and two state
departments of education. Field test evaluation forms were developed to measure cognitive and
affective outcomes and to collect biographical information. Results of the national field test
demonstrated that the modules increased knowledge of topics necessary to the successful
performance of skills central to the VECS role. They also tended to increase peoples' confidence in
their ability to perform these skills. (A list of materials produced is appended; a summary report is
available as CE 031 802.) (YLB)
Teaching diverse health profession students to work in teams, communicate, understand each
other's roles and responsibilities, and effectively collaborate is imperative for creating a
practice-ready workforce. This short report introduces an innovative undergraduate interprofessional
curriculum for students enrolled in the baccalaureate majors of applied exercise science, athletic
training, dental hygiene, nursing and pre-occupational therapy. The process of designing this
program of study, guided by the method of appreciative inquiry, is highlighted. The format and
learning activities created for this novel curriculum are described. Congruence for this endeavor is
explored through alignment with the recent national Interprofessional Education Collaborative expert
panel report. Preparing graduates to fulfill the dual identity of discipline-specific clinician and
interprofessional team member is an essential curricular consideration for contemporary health
profession education. PMID:23002788
Medical crises that may occur in the setting of a pain medicine service are rare events that require
skillful action and teamwork to ensure safe patient outcome. A simulated environment is an ideal
venue for both acquisition and reinforcement of this knowledge and skill set. Here, we present an
educational curriculum in pain medicine crisis resource management for both pain medicine fellows
and attending physicians as well as the results of a successful pilot program. PMID:23223099
This curriculum guide, it is hoped, will become an integral part of the social studies curriculum for all
Montana students. Focusing on law-related education themes and concepts, six broad-based
themes are covered: responsibility, authority, privacy, justice, spirituality, and environment. These
six themes are found in the sample lessons under the heading "ILRE [Indian Law-Related
Education] Themes." Teachers will also find within each model unit or lesson under the heading
"ILRE Concepts," a list of more specific law-related concepts and topics such as sovereignty,
jurisdiction, case study, and appellate court. Related documents included with the curriculum guide
are: "Indian Law-Related Education Lessons," divided into ILRE lessons for K-2, grades 3-5, 6-8,
and 9-12; "Many Nations in One: A History of Federal Indian Policy"; "From Boarding School to
Self-Determination," a unit written to supplement the curriculum of intermediate and secondary
teachers; "Montana Tribal Constitutions" for the Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck
Indian Reservation, the Fort Belknap Indian Community of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, the
Northern Cheyenne Tribe of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, the Crow Tribe of the Crow
Indian Reservation, the Chippewa Cree Indians of the Rock Boy's Indian Reservation, the Blackfeet
Tribe of the Blackfeet Indian Reservation, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the
Flathead Indian Reservation; "References," including resource choices for school library media
centers and classroom libraries, videos, and films; "Directory of Indian Education Programs in
Montana"; "Evaluating American Indian Textbooks & Other Materials for the Classroom"; "Montana
Indians: Their History and Location," which provides information on the contemporary status of
Montana's Indian groups; and "The Tribal Nations of Montana: A Handbook for Legislators."
Objective Program director (PD) orientation to roles and responsibilities takes on many forms and
processes. This article describes one institution's innovative arm of faculty development directed
specifically toward PDs and associate PDs to provide institutional resources and information for
those in graduate medical education leadership roles. Methods The designated institutional official
created a separate faculty development curriculum for leadership development of PDs and
associate PDs, modeled on the Association of American Medical Colleges-GRA (Group on Resident
Affairs) graduate medical education leadership development course for designated institutional
officials. It consists of monthly 90-minute sessions at the end of a working day, for new and
experienced PDs alike, with mentoring provided by experienced PDs. We describe 2 iterations of the
curriculum. To provide ongoing support a longitudinal curriculum of special topics has followed in the
interval between core curriculum offerings. Results Communication between PDs across disciplines
has improved. The broad, inclusive nature allowed for experienced PDs to take advantage of the
learning opportunity while providing exchange and mentorship through sharing of lessons learned.
The participants rated the course highly and education process and outcome measures for the
programs have been positive, including increased accreditation cycle lengths. Conclusion It is
important and valuable to provide PDs and associate PDs with administrative leadership
development and resources, separate from general faculty development, to meet their role-specific
needs for orientation and development and to better equip them to meet graduate medical education
leadership challenges. This endeavor provides a foundational platform for designated institutional
official and PD interactions to work on program building and improvement.
A 1989 comprehensive report addressed the then-current status of curricula in all of the mainstream
components of most mass communication programs: journalism, advertising, broadcasting,
magazines, public relations, and visual communication. Recently, a study replicated the advertising
portion of the original report, using a questionnaire based largely on the original and employing
subsamples of respondents that match or are similar to the original subsamples. In the original
study, respondents were asked to rate the importance of general areas of study in a liberal arts
program and also to rate the importance of specialized areas of study usually found in advertising
curricula, such as copy and layout and media planning. Two groups constituted the sample:
educator members of the Advertising Division of the Association for Education in Journalism and
Mass Communication (AEJMC) and presidents and education chairs of local professional
advertising associations. Results in 1989 demonstrated very strong agreement between educators
and practitioners in the relative importance of general areas of study as well as specific advertising
and advertising-related courses. And as in the earlier study, in the current study it appears that
professors and practitioners of advertising are largely in agreement about the relative importance of
various general areas of study. Like the earlier study, this study showed no dramatic differences
between educator and practitioner views of what is important in the typical advertising curriculum.
The conclusion of the original curriculum study appears to be appropriate for this study--that
advertising education "is attuned to the needs of the marketplace." (NKA)
Since the onset of No Child Left Behind (NCLB, 2002) schools have been focusing on raising test
scores in reading and mathematics, while at the same time feeling pressured to reduce subjects
such as physical education and health. It seems for many educators finding time in the school day
for students' physical activity has become increasingly challenging. Yet, according to Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) the academic success of America's youth is strongly linked
with their health. One approach that could enhance students' learning is through integrating more
physical activity into the curriculum. Likewise, instructional time might also be increased if physical
educators and classroom teachers collaborated and shared resources. Since physical educators
have less time with students than classroom teachers, this article supports the integration of literacy
learning and physical activity in helping children succeed in school. It offers a thoughtfully prepared
and annotated children's book list related to health and physical education, as well as ideas for
using some of these resources in the classroom. It also reinforces how physical activity can be
supported in the curriculum without taking away activity time from physical education. (Contains 1
A study examined the type and extent of consumer education that occurred since the Consumer
Product Safety Commission (CPSC) amended the 1972 federal safety standards (effective January
1997) to permit marketing of snug-fitting, nonflame-resistant cotton garments as sleepwear. Three
voluntary point-of-sale (POS) practices recognized as important for informing consumers about the
new standard were investigated: removable information labels, signs or educational brochures on
children's sleepwear safety standards, and display of children's sleepwear separately from other
types of children's apparel. Findings were based on shopping visits to 70 retail stores in 14
metropolitan areas nationwide. Informational hangtags were used in about 73 percent of various
brand selections of snug-fitting garments. However, the full range of suggested POS practices had
not been widely used. Fewer than 16 percent of the stores visited displayed either consumer
education brochures or signs about sleepwear safety requirements; about 63 percent of the stores
displayed other clothing on racks with sleepwear--a practice that has been shown to cause
consumer confusion. Manufacturers and retailers reported a primary reason they had not been more
aggressive in offering consumer information was the uncertain future of the standards. Because
standards could be revised or revoked, expenditure of additional resources on education efforts did
not make good business sense. (The scope and methodology are appended.) (YLB)
A project was conducted to develop, field test, and disseminate a curriculum guide for vocational
education teachers to use in teaching managerial skills to vocational education students on the
secondary level. After a cadre of 20 Arkansas secondary vocational education teachers who were
either directly involved or interested in establishing a program of vocational managerial skills
instruction identified those topics they felt should be included in such a curriculum, their students
interviewed 217 small business owners/managers to determine which skills they felt should be
taught. The owners/managers rated a variety of skills relating to business ownership, leadership
development, human relations, minicomputers/data processing, financial management, personnel
management, business communications, business taxes, governmental regulations, marketing and
advertising, business law, protecting assets, personal finance, and career opportunities. Based on
these ratings, two instructional units were developed and field tested by 214 students and 14
teachers. Both student and teacher evaluations of the units were highly positive. An instructional
manual (curriculum guide) was also produced and disseminated to all Arkansas junior executive
training (JET) instructors. Appended to the report are the project surveys, survey results, and
project-developed materials. (MN)
This curriculum guide provides the basic curriculum components required to develop lesson plans
that address the learning outcomes for the area of machine transcription. It is not a complete,
self-contained curriculum. Instead, the guide provides the teacher with a number of informational
items related to the learning outcomes and allows him/her the flexibility to design instructional
activities, select resources, and deliver instruction most appropriate for the learner and learning
environment. Information for the teacher includes suggestions for development of instructional
activities, instruction, and evaluation of learner performance. This area of study is divided into 2
units--basic concepts and transcribing business correspondence--and 7 and 16 learning outcomes,
respectively. Each learning outcome is divided into one to seven associated tasks. For each task
these types of information are provided: performance standard; required tools, resources,
equipment, and situations; performance steps (where applicable); and enabling objectives.
Representative topics upon which learning outcomes focus include machine transcription in
business; proofreading; transcription skills; career opportunities; machine transcription media and
equipment; the work station; listening skills; grammar skills; development of foot, ear, and hand
coordination; use of reference materials; business letter styles; daily logs; and human relations
skills. (YLB)
The article explores how the Icelandic public school curriculum for early childhood, compulsory and
upper secondary school deals with education for sustainable development. As the curriculum does
not often mention the term sustainability, a key with which to investigate signs of education for
sustainable development in the three curricula was created. The key encourages a holistic view of
sustainable development, where economic, environmental and social factors are not treated as
separate entities. It was designed to reflect the goals of the United Nations Decade of Education for
Sustainable Development (2005-2014) with research on environmental education and education for
sustainable development in mind. The key has seven characteristics: values, opinions and emotions
about nature and environment; knowledge contributing to a sensible use of nature; welfare and
public health; democracy, participation, and action competence; equality and multicultural issues;
global awareness; and finally, economic development and future prospects. Using the key, a variety
of signs and indicators that provide a space for teachers and schools to deal with issues of
sustainable development were identified. (Contains 7 notes.)
This pamphlet is intended to assist the consumer in making informed decisions when choosing
between distance learning programs. Distance education and distance learners are defined.
Included is advice on beginning a program search; choosing a school; accreditation; evaluating
quality of electronically offered programs; evaluate non-accredited schools; choosing the appropriate
technological delivery; and making a decision. Lists of six published guides, five pertinent Web sites,
and six higher education regional accrediting boards follow. The pamphlet includes an insert
containing: (1) "Principles of Good Practice for Electronically Offered Academic Degree and
Certificate Programs." These Principles are the product of a Western Cooperative for Educational
Telecommunications Project, "Balancing Quality and Access: Reducing State Policy Barriers to
Electronically Delivered Higher Education Programs." The Principles include curriculum and
instruction; institutional context and commitment; evaluation and assessment; and a list of relevant
WICHE publications, with price and ordering information. (DLS)
A recommended plan for an educational curriculum on the topic of technology transfer is outlined. A
survey was conducted to determine the current levels of ability and knowledge of technology users
and of transfer intermediaries. Information was collected from three sources: individuals and
organizations currently presenting educational programs on technology transfer, a review of
programs presented by Karl J. Dakin, and a survey of technology companies and service providers
by the Colorado University Business Advancement Center. A general lack of awareness of the
benefits of technology transfer in the target audiences and an inadequate number of available
educational programs were revealed. In general, programs currently available fail to address the
lack of awareness, are largely limited to introductory material, and typically are not available in a
format or at a time convenient to most of the target audiences. The recommendation outlined in this
report seeks to provide a coherent strategy to create a technology transfer curriculum which will be
able to adapt to a broad range of audiences at multiple levels of knowledge, using the same basic
building blocks and channels of distribution. Specific objectives include enhancement of awareness
of technology transfer, creation of a standard curriculum to be delivered through a variety of
mediums and channels (written text, video, and interactive multimedia computer), and cost control
through a large scale collaborative approach. A number of educational topics were identified and
broken down into the following 10 basic courses: (1) Introduction to Technology Transfer; (2)
Technology Sale and Licensing; (3) Technology Acquisition and Implementation; (4) Developing a
Technology Transfer Plan; (5) Technology Validation: Technical, Market, Economic and Legal; (6)
Resources for Technology Transfer; (7) Transfer Structures; (8) Pricing Technology; (9) Technology
Transfer Methods and Techniques; and (10) Practical Studies in Technology Transfer (internship).
The syllabi developed for each of these courses is provided. Additional topics for advancement and
specialty courses, and a number of prospective collaborative participants are identified. Cost of
development of educational materials and the attendant costs of presentation are detailed. (MAS)
Integrative curriculum has been noted as a best practice toward effective learning. Quality physical
educators struggle and search for different ways to integrate other content areas (e.g.., language
arts, math, and social studies) into their daily lessons; however, due to budgetary limitations, they
must find ways to do so with educationally sound and enjoyable lessons. A program entitled
Classroom on the Court (COTC), launched by Conference USA (C-USA) and funded along with the
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), presents physical educators an opportunity to
engage students in meaningful and fun cross-disciplinary curricular activities through the context of
basketball (C-USA, 2009). With the right pieces in place and motivated physical educators, this
program can be used to benefit students and help teach in an integrated manner. This article will
describe the COTC, how it was successfully implemented, and how to implement it in schools.
(Contains 2 figures.)
This compilation of materials addresses the use of computers as a tool for instruction, management,
communication, and personal productivity in special education. Recommendations are presented for
establishing or revising special education technology training programs; recommendations deal with
educational need, assumptions, goals, program model, content, support systems, finances,
resources, materials, integration, personnel, evaluation, and accessibility. Then, descriptions of
special education technology training programs are presented from 23 colleges and universities.
Each program description is accompanied by samples of course materials, such as course
descriptions, course objectives, course syllabi, student/teacher contracts, workshop materials on
cooperative learning and computers, educational program competencies, a training model for higher
education in special education technology, information on a switch-building workshop, and a paper
by Ted Hasselbring titled "Effective Microcomputer Training and Implementation." A prototype
training module is presented for integrating technology into special education teacher preparation
courses. The module, which focuses on teaching with crossword puzzles, describes formats of
crossword puzzles, their uses in several content areas, and their creation through use of computer
software. Also included are the "Code of Ethical Conduct for Computer-Using Educators," developed
by the International Council for Computers in Education, and a "Microcomputing Competency
Self-Assessment for Special Education Professors." (JDD)
This task-based curriculum guide is intended to help secondary teachers provide relevant training
for an entry-level job in machine trades. Introductory materials include background information on
trade and industrial education and program goals and safety information. Descriptions follow of the
construction trades program, vocational cooperative education, work experience/unpaid work
experience, work experience and career exploration programs, and vocational work study. This job
information is then provided: job titles and a task inventory for machine trades. Tasks are grouped
under 20 duties in the following categories: performing shop practices; performing tool crib and
measurement/layout/inspection operations; applying metallurgical processes; interpreting blueprints;
performing bench work; operating power saws, drill presses, lathes, milling machines, shapers, and
pedestal as well as surface, cylindrical, and tool/cutter grinding machines; operating numerical
control and electrodischarge machines; maintaining machines; and using employability skills. Duty
tabs comprise the largest portion of the curriculum guide. Each task in the listing is presented in a
one-page format that provides this information: duty, task, achievement indicators, criteria, tools and
equipment, and resources. Other components of the curriculum guide include tool and equipment
lists, a student achievement record, a class achievement record, a glossary of vocational terms, and
resource and reference lists. (YLB)
An educational psychology curriculum for preservice teachers that attempts to overcome some of
the shortcomings of most such curricula while providing clinical experience is described. The
curriculum is based on three major propositions: (1) preservice teachers must acquire
psychologically informed inquiry skills and a general understanding of when and how they are to be
used; (2) preservice teachers must be encouraged to learn independently in ways that reinforce
critical thinking and increase the strength and range of their intellectual curiosity; and (3) educational
psychology is an appropriate place to begin encouraging prospective teachers to be reflective so
they can learn from teaching itself. The curriculum is confined to the traditional subfields of
motivation, human development, learning theory, and evaluation. Teaching is primarily interactive,
with small-group work, micro teaching, simulation, discussion, and question-and-answer sessions.
Weekly field-based or clinical laboratory activities for 90 minutes augment classroom instruction.
Among the requirements is that students present a five-lesson mini-course to middle-school
students. The grading system transfers some of the evaluative responsibility to the students
themselves. Student interest, involvement, and achievement are indicators of the value of this
curricular approach. Syllabus materials and a bibliography are included. (SLD)
Music is central to the lives of most high-school age boys. However, music education is a
marginalised area of the school curriculum, decreasing in popularity as students approach senior
school and succumb to pressures to choose subjects perceived to be more useful in the "real world".
While this process is common for both boys and girls, the drop-off is greater among boys, who
sometimes construct music as a "feminised" subject. Attempts to engage boys in music, thus, often
involve music teachers trying to adapt their pedagogies to what they perceive to be boys' interests
and learning styles. In some cases music teachers attempt to construct a "connected" curriculum for
boys in ways which accommodate, reinforce and reproduce hegemonic constructions of masculinity.
This article argues that it is critical that the pedagogical practices music teachers deploy in order to
encourage boys' engagement with the subject take into account the cultural implications of
globalisation, media and music technology and capitalise upon diversity rather than participate in the
reproduction of dominant constructions of gender. The article further argues that music education,
like other marginalised areas of the school curriculum, when demonstrating such nuanced
understandings of youth cultures and their relationships to various constructions of young
masculinities and femininities, provides an opening for the study of masculinity and gender relations
in contemporary society in ways that can benefit both girls and boys. (Contains 1 note.)
Energy conservation is a relatively new educational program for the Cooperative Extension Service
(CES). The shortage of training programs available to CES in energy education makes it difficult to
properly prepare agents for energy-conservation work. The purpose of this study was to develop a
curriculum for in-service training of agents engaged in energy education. The procedure for
achieving this purpose was used to identify the following: (1) fundamental concepts necessary for
energy-conservation education; (2) agents' knowledge level of these concepts; (3)
agents' perceived need for these concepts; and (4) agents' training requirements.
Through a mail questionnaire selected agents from 20 states were asked to indicate their knowledge
level of 24 concepts and the need for including the concept in a training curriculum. The training
requirement or gap was calculated by subtracting the mean need rating from the mean knowledge
rating for groups being compared. A comparsion was made of the different groups' response
in the disciplines of heating ventilating, air conditioning, and buildings; economics and management;
home economics and comfort; agriculture and transportation; and thermal science.
One question facing kinesiologists today is how to implement findings from research into society, in
this case, physical education. In this paper I examine the role of a balanced approach to educational
physical education in promoting physical activity. I argue that limiting physical education to simple
tasks that encourage students to workout at target heart rate to expend calories is not an effective
solution to the long-term challenge of promoting physically active lifestyles. As an alternative, I
discuss research findings associated with motor skill competence, perceived competence, and
knowledge growth that can increase individuals' options to participate in many different types of
physical activity at greater intensities and for longer durations. I conclude by considering the role of
educational physical education in public health initiatives with the goal of influencing students'
decisions to embrace physical activity for a lifetime.
As policy makers and educators respond to legislation promoting the inclusion of students with
disabilities in general education classrooms, there is sometimes confusion about why this is being
done and how it can be accomplished effectively. In this article, two categories of fallacies, or
misunderstandings, are identified. The first fallacy is that students with disabilities are incapable of
learning the general education curriculum. The second fallacy is that teachers are required to
"cover" the entire curriculum, sometimes at a pace that leaves students with and without disabilities
behind. Facts are presented following each fallacy. These facts describe research-based
pedagogies effective for students with and without disabilities, indicating that students with mild
disabilities can learn the general education curriculum when responsive pedagogies are used.
These facts also describe how schools that promote differentiation can potentially achieve higher
scores on large-scale assessments than schools that promote "one size fits all" instruction.
This manual contains supplementary information for use by instructors who teach consumer
education and resources management to physically handicapped students in regular classes. It is
subdivided according to typical consumer education topics and handicapping conditions. Addressed
in the individual sections of the manual are the folowing topics: the American economic system,
consumer protection, legal rights of consumers, budgeting, housing, transportation, clothing, food
shopping and selection, food preparation, restaurant utilization, insurance, social security, and
recreation. Each chapter contains information geared to individuals with one or more of the following
disabilities: physical disabilities, epilepsy, mobility impairments, visual impairments, and hearing
impairments. Appended to the guide are a housing accessibility checklist, sample letters of eligibility
to travel, a literature review, and a list of resources. (MN)
This study looks at two curriculum areas; adventure education and religious education. Each is
examined separately to establish common ground for the interface. This interface is then explored in
some depth. This study seeks to show the contribution that religious education can make in
developing and executing a response to issues that will arise within adventure education programs
that are religious in nature, i.e., questions of personal meaning and purpose. The focus of
philosophical research in religious education is often on issues related to its ethical appropriateness
in an institutional setting. Little has been done to explore the ways in which personal experience can
be used as metaphor for issues in the religious quest. This study argues that adventure education
can make a significant contribution at this point, to religious education. These findings arise from a
conceptual analysis of adventure education and religious education viewed as jointly concerned with
human development. Within this analysis, special attention is given to religious education as a cyclic
process. Key components of the more amorphous adventure education are identified, and it is
deduced that curriculum enhancement flows both ways as a result. In short, the study concludes
that adventure education and religious education interface through human development, that both
religious education and adventure education can contribute to the other and that adventure
education is in fact deficient without this contribution. (Contains a bibliography.)
The democratization of South Africa has necessitated a transformation of the education system. The
current transformational landscape of higher education in South Africa requires that basic curriculum
concepts, and principles be rediscovered and, rethought with a view to ensuring that future
educational practice is based on sound, and proven curriculum thinking. Basic curriculum principles
are reconsidered in the light of emerging educational needs. The concepts which receive particular
attention are "constructive" curriculum alignment, globalization, and quality assurance. The criteria
for programme development, implementation, and review should motivate, embrace, and reward a
spirit of individual creative thinking, and innovation in students in the higher education sector.
Purpose: This paper seeks to discuss the rationale of the newly reformed health education
curriculum in Cyprus, which aspires to enable not only teachers, but also all the school personnel, to
work from the perspective of health promotion. It is a curriculum which moves from the traditional
approach of health education focusing on individual lifestyle/behaviour modification into approaches
that recognise and tackle the determinants of health. Design/methodology/approach: The paper
critically discusses the structure and the content of the learning objectives of this curriculum that
encourages teachers to work in a health promoting way. Findings: The central goal of this curriculum
is to enable students and schools to act as health agents, addressing the structural determinants of
health and promoting environmental changes. The optimum level for all topics of the curriculum is
achieved through learning objectives, which concern three interconnected levels. These are:
"investigating determinants of health", "practising action competency skills for health" and "achieving
changes in favour of health". All levels are means as well as end products in terms of the curriculum
objectives. Practical implications: The outcome of the development of the health education
curriculum acts as a guide for school interventions, through a methodological framework, which
encourages participants to identify and promote environmental changes that facilitate healthy
choices. This is of significance to those working in the field of health promotion and who seek to
establish a new language of health promotion that goes beyond the pervasive discourse of
individual lifestyles. Social implications: The implementation of the particular health education
curriculum will promote not only health in the school community but also in the local community. This
is because a key principle which underlies the curriculum is the involvement of the students, school
staff, family and community in everyday health promotion practice. It also promotes the development
of partnerships among them. Originality/value: This is an innovative curriculum for Cyprus, based on
health promotion and health education principles, but at the same time taking in account the local
socio-cultural and political perspective. This curriculum may be applicable to other European
countries. (Contains 1 figure and 1 note.)
Twenty-seven activities have been compiled to assist teachers in incorporating environmental
methods and techniques into their preschool curricula. These activities are designed to complement
the classroom curriculum and heighten participant awareness and appreciation of environmental
resources and relationships. Each activity includes: (1) activity number; (2) time required to
complete the activity; (3) subject area (mathematics, science, language arts, art, music); (4) title; (5)
objectives; (6) list of materials needed; (7) reference(s); and (8) procedures. Among the topic areas
investigated are: protective coloration; camouflage; color identification; rocks; colors, shapes, and
textures in the natural environment; predator-prey relationship; bird feeders; and fossils. In addition,
the activities foster the development of observation, classification, mathematics, listening,
communication, measuring, and language skills. (JN)
This article describes challenges to effective collaboration encountered by nurse educators as they
transformed a unit within a school of nursing in Taiwan. This study introduced collaborative action
research as a vehicle for curriculum change. Although the team achieved positive outcomes in
transforming a unit, the collaborative process was complex with four major challenges: meaning,
time, work culture, and conflicting views. This article provides an overview of the study, and the
major challenges posed by working together are expounded and illustrated with excerpts drawn from
the study data. Possible reasons for the challenges, how these challenges were overcome, and
facilitation of the collaborative process are discussed. PMID:21053858
The intention of this article is to present the way in which a proposal was put forward for a national
basic curriculum for the lower level of secondary education in Guatemala, within a general curricular
reform of the education system. In this process, the International Bureau of Education and
UNESCO's national office in the country provided technical advice. The article examines the
socio-cultural and educational context, some conceptual foundations for the curricular reform, the
construction of the curriculum for lower secondary education, some features of the proposed
curriculum and the outlook for the future. The process of curriculum construction included a
diagnosis, drawing up a strategy for reforming the first cycle of secondary education and preparation
of the proposed curriculum. Likewise, the authors present the steps that must be taken in order for
the national basic curriculum to be adopted, subject, amongst other factors, to the availability of
This extrapolation paper is intended: (1) to present a model of a pretechnical curriculum that has as
its focus the self-empowerment of the individual and (2) to describe how the curriculum could be
implemented in the schools. The first part of the paper discusses the need for a pretechnical
curriculum in terms of a model for self-empowerment. Addressed in the next two chapters are
employer and employee needs in the labor market of the future and criteria for curricular decisions.
Next, the concepts of personal and occupational transitions are examined, and a model for handling
transitions is provided. Covered in the next chapter, the largest section in the report, are the need
for developing problem-solving skills, a model for solving problems, strategies for developing higher
order problem-solving skills, skills for use in developing logical and critical thinking skills, and the
role of interpersonal skills in the group problem-solving processes. The final chapter is an
implementation guide that presents strategies for fusing generalizable, transition, and
problem-solving skills in pretechnical and technical education courses to prepare students for
entry-level jobs, training programs, or retraining programs. (MN)
This curriculum guide provides ideas for implementing technology education in grades 7-12. It
assumes a basic understanding of the four clusters of manufacturing, construction, communications,
and power/transportation and is meant to supplement and reorganize this approach with up-to-date
information and activities. One way to present a variety of technological concepts in industrial arts is
outlined. A technology education task list that groups the tasks into six modules follows. The module
titles are: computer applications in technology; automation, robotics, and industrial practices; light,
lasers, and fiberoptics; communication technology; technology/academic correlation; and future
technology. An outline provides an overview of how technology education can be integrated into the
four cluster approach. Each supporting objective is listed according to related cluster areas. Another
outline lists tasks under the six modules. A performance objective and enabling objectives are given
for each task. Appendixes include a glossary of computer terms for technology education, a list of
suggested resources and related materials on implementation of a technology education program,
an introduction to robotics for technology education instructors, and a communications model. (YLB)
Case study of two main secondary education reforms in Indonesia in the 1990s: Expansion of basic
education and the decentralization of curriculum. Discusses the social, political, and economic
trends in the 1990s, context of the secondary education reforms, and the rationale for the reforms.
Focuses on the curriculum decentralization design and implementation process. Discusses
impediments to implementation. (Contains 26 references.) (PKP)
Objective To evaluate a consumer-led teaching intervention to reduce pharmacy students' stigma
towards depression and schizophrenia, and improve attitudes toward providing pharmaceutical care
for consumers with mental illness. Design Third-year bachelor of pharmacy degree students were
given a series of mental health lectures, undertook supervised weekly placements in the community
pharmacy setting, and attended a tutorial led by trained mental health consumer educators.
Assessment A previously validated 26-item survey instrument was administered at baseline, 6
weeks postintervention, and 12 months postintervention, and 3 focus groups were conducted.
Survey instruments were completed by 225 students at baseline, 230 students postintervention, and
228 students at 12 months. Students' stigma decreased (p < 0.05) and their attitudes toward the
provision of pharmaceutical services to consumers with a mental illness showed significant
improvements (p < 0.05). These improvements were maintained at the 12-month follow-up. Four
themes emerged from the focus groups: knowledge and experience of mental illness, mental health
stigma, impacts on attitudes and self-reported behavior, and the role of the pharmacist in mental
healthcare. Conclusions Consumer-led education for pharmacy students may provide a sustainable
reduction in stigma and improve attitudes towards providing pharmaceutical services to consumers
with a mental illness.
This paper reviews Australian Government actions related to environmental education, particularly in
the past decade, and examines the actions forthcoming from two national action plans (Environment
Australia, 2000 and DEWHA, 2009), the implementation strategy for the Decade of ESD (DEWHA,
2006) and developments related to the Australian Curriculum. This analysis is inspired by the
Australian-ness of the metaphor of the curriculum as a jigsaw puzzle suggested by Robottom
(1987), the seemingly constant battle for survival in the formal curriculum that environmental
education has faced since the 1970s (Fensham, 1990; Gough, 1997), and the ongoing tensions
between science education and environmental education in Australia's formal school curriculum.
(Contains 2 endnotes.)
In this paper, we present the new curriculum of the processor laboratory of the Department of
Computer Science at the University of Tokyo. This laboratory is a part of the computer architecture
education curriculum. In this laboratory, students design and implement their own processors using
field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), and write the necessary software. In 2003, the curriculum
of the
This curriculum guide is designed to help teachers conduct a course that provides senior high
school students with the opportunity for in-depth exploration in the field of welding. The course
provides students with experiences related to the design, theory, and use of welding systems. The
first part of the guide contains such information as course description, target grade levels, general
program goals, specific objectives, course flowchart, time frame, and a course outline. Nine teaching
guides cover the following units: introduction to welding; safety; identification of metals; oxygen fuel
gas welding; oxygen fuel gas cutting; shielded metal arc welding; gas tungsten arc welding; gas
metal arc welding; and special projects. Each unit consists of an introduction; competencies; general
performance goals/objectives; specific performance objectives and mastery of criteria; methodology;
suggested interest approaches; unit outline coordinating subject matter areas and learning activities;
unit test; test key; evaluation and testing suggestions; equipment and supplies list; bulletin board
ideas; and references. A bibliography lists 22 references and gives names and addresses of
sources of equipment and supplies, journals, audiovisuals/computer software, curriculum labs,
professional associations, and the Louisiana State Office of Vocational Education. (KC)
This document presents materials and guidelines for evaluating Colorado high school students'
attainment of the eight state standards for consumer and family studies that pertain to teen
challenges and choices. The materials presented are designed to promote and evaluate students'
mastery of the following competencies: (1) examine and demonstrate personal power by exploring
self-concept, peer pressure, personal responsibility, communication, and decision-making skills; (2)
investigate and analyze behaviors leading to a lifestyle of total wellness; (3) examine personal skills
needed to effectively manage personal and family relationships; (4) understand human growth and
development and the issues involved in personal sexual decision making; (5) recognize rights and
responsibilities as defined by the law; (6) identify characteristics of destructive behaviors and their
consequences while exploring various coping strategies; (7) utilize information for handling health
and emergency situations; and (8) implement the goal-setting process for personal growth. The
following materials are included: (1) the eight state standards for Colorado's teen challenges and
choices curriculum; (2) authentic assessment guide sheets that each contain the specific content
standard, the rationale for mastering the skills and knowledge addressed in the standard, a student
task, and a scoring rubric to evaluate completion of the task; (3) instructions for converting rubric
scores to grades; and (4) student learning assignments. (MN)
This paper explores the integration of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in technology
education and the extent to which it is currently addressed in curriculum documents and state
examinations in technology education at post-primary level in Ireland. This analysis is conducted
amidst the backdrop of considerable change in technology education at post-primary level. The
analysis of the provision of technology education found, that among the range of technology related
subjects offered, the study of Technology and Society is only addressed in one in a comprehensive
manner. The paper discusses the implications of this limited integration, examines the factors
inhibiting greater integration of ESD and outlines opportunities for future development.
The blueprint to build a model physical education (PE) curriculum begins by establishing a sound
curricular foundation based on a lesson plan template that incorporates clear and concise program
goals, the alignment of lessons to state or national content standards, and the collection, analysis
and use of objective assessment data that informs instruction and defines student performance.
Additionally, this document will address the issue of education reform in the construct of a Next Step
Plan--an action plan to review and revise specific school, district and program policies and
procedures--and offers recommendations in the areas of inservice days, parent/teacher
conferences, and writing relevant professional development plans. (Contains 1 figure.)
The field of early childhood education has long been marked by intense controversy concerning
appropriate curriculum and teaching methods and goals. This paper explores some implications of
the traditional dichotomies of the field and suggests that while there are many reasons to resist the
side that advocates formal academic instruction, it does not necessarily follow that what is offered to
children in non-academic programs sufficiently addresses their intellectual development. In
particular, it is asserted that common confusion between academic and intellectual goals often leads
to the neglect of the basic intellectual dispositions of young children, all of which must be
strengthened and supported in the early years. An example of a project conducted with young
children that addresses all the major goals of early education is appended. (Contains 33
references.) (Author/KB)
This article describes an assignment for a secondary education course in which students compiled
curriculum resource guides on ability, class, sexual identity, gender identity, and race/ethnicity.
Student groups presented at least twenty resources, with no more than four resources of the same
medium. Resources included videos, books, guest speakers, organizations, websites, music, and
art. This assignment helped students expand their knowledge of current sociopolitical issues in
education and provided for the development of resource guides that could be used in their future
teaching practices. For this annotated resource guide, authors researched and compiled appropriate
resources provided by the students. Also included are additional resources as deemed relevant to
this collective guide. The course context and the course theoretical framework are explained, and a
variety of resources that K-12 teachers may use when considering issues of ability, class, sexual
identity, gender identity, and race/ethnicity within the context of their classroom curricula are
This document contains a scope and sequence for the Vocational Family and Consumer Sciences
Program in Missouri and a brief report of the project during which they were developed. The scope
and sequence consists of these sections: national vision and mission statements; comparison of the
two types of programs; overview of vocational family and consumer sciences education in Missouri;
implementing a vocational instructional management system; Missouri family occupational analysis
chart; subject area occupational analysis chart; family and consumer sciences education program
guidelines; taxonomies of approvable courses and classification of instructional programs, Family
and Consumer Sciences Education and Occupational Family and Consumer Sciences Education;
exploratory/comprehensive course information and student competencies; semester course
rationales and student competencies; occupational family and consumer sciences education
program guidelines; and occupational course competencies. The four-page report describes how the
crosswalk was developed and revised in 1995. The project crosswalked the revised competencies
for six semester courses against existing curriculum guides. Plans were made to distribute and
explain these crosswalks to teachers via five regional inservice sessions. (YLB)
Global education has been debated and studied for the last two decades because of the
developments in the world. Although global education involves different approaches and
conceptualizations, it has influences on educational systems and curricula across the world.
Likewise, the recent curriculum reform in Turkey has brought global education into perspective. The
purpose of this article is to analyze the influence of global education on Turkey's current social
studies curriculum and to discuss possible revisions of the curriculum to empower global education
in Turkey. (Contains 1 table.)
Focusing on the case of mathematics, this paper reviews debates on China's new Basic Education
Curriculum Reform program, including the status of knowledge within the reformed curriculum, the
arrangement of the curriculum system, and the push toward real-life applicability and hands-on
participation. It discusses the related challenges that teachers face in the implementation of the new
curriculum reform. Lastly, this paper reviews how to promote the further development of this new
This report describes a program for advancing character education by expanding school goals of
respect and responsibility and developing emotional intelligence by using the current curriculum.
Targeted population consisted of elementary students in one first grade class and one fourth grade
class, and middle school students in one sixth grade class, all located in a midwestern suburban
setting. The problem of a school-wide lack of respect for adults and peers was documented through
observations and data collected by four teachers, a principal, and other staff. Analysis of probable
cause data show a past emphasis on academics with a lack of focus on emotional and social skills.
Faculty and administration reported an increase in misbehavior by students in regular classrooms,
special classes, lunchroom, and playground settings. Literature reviews revealed a national interest
in students' declining respect for teachers and peers, indicating a lack of character education. A
review of solution strategies shows the validity of character education in creating a positive learning
environment. This resulted in the selection of an intervention of character building through the
current curriculum. Through studying novels and songs, journaling, service projects, book buddies,
and communication lab, students developed improved respect and interpersonal relationships.
Post-intervention data indicate a decrease in inappropriate talking, and increases in respecting
other's property, keeping hands and feet to oneself, and "being good." Fewer incidences of hurt
feelings and ridicule from peers, as well as improvement in following school rules were observed.
Appended are various sample forms. (Contains 16 references, 7 tables, and 6 figures.) (Author/BT)
Education is particularly important for new fields. In the case of space architecture, there are two
core needs:educating the aerospace community about the architect's function and activity and
design process within the enterprise;educating space architects and associated specialists about
constraints, conditions, and priorities unique to human space systems.These needs can be
addressed, respectively, by two key educational tools for the 21st century:introducing the space
architecture discipline into the space system engineering curricula;developing space architecture as
a distinct, complete training curriculum.New generations of professionals with a space architecture
background can help shift professional focus from just engineering-driven transportation systems
and “sortie” missions to permanent offworld human presence by offering their inherently integrative
design approach to all types of space structures and facilities. Although architectural and
engineering approaches share some similarities in solving problems, they also have significant
differences. Architectural training teaches young professionals to operate at all scales from the
“overall picture” down to the smallest details to provide directive intention - not just analysis - to
design opportunities, to address the relationship between human behavior and the built
environment, and to interact with many diverse fields and disciplines throughout the project lifecycle.
This cross-sectional study compares morale among dental students at five western U.S. dental
schools, relates morale to various aspects of the school environment, and determines a prioritized
list of the most important aspects of dental education from the students' perspective. Survey data
were collected from students at the end of their first, second, and third years. Respondents
answered several questions associated with student morale and listed the three best aspects and
three greatest challenges of their school. Lastly, respondents ranked seven different aspects of
dental education in order of importance. Surveys were returned by 742 students (66 percent
response). Student morale varied significantly in different educational institutions. Morale tended to
be lower among third-year students and higher among first-year students. Poor student-faculty
relations was the factor most strongly associated with decreased morale. Similarly, positive
atmosphere was the factor most frequently associated with high morale. Faculty and clinic
experience were the most frequently cited positive aspects of schools; curriculum and clinic
experience were the most commonly cited negative aspects. Students commonly perceived clinical
experience to be the most important aspect of their education. As students neared graduation, they
perceived business management as more important and lab work as less important.
Consumer education has always been a primary consideration in the prevention of food-borne
illness. Using nutrition education and the new food guide as a model, this paper develops
suggestions for a framework of microbiological food safety principles and a compatible visual model
for communicating key concepts. Historically, visual food guides in the United States have
concentrated on dietary recommendations, including the well-known pyramid of food classification
and the mandatory nutritional labeling. Guides are now emerging for food safety education and
public health. For example, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) recently made safe
handling labels required on all raw and partially cooked meat and poultry products. The Hazard
Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a procedure that identifies ways to prevent food-borne
illness by monitoring critical control points in the processing of foods. In other words, the consumer
should take certain precautions at each culinary step, including when food is purchased, stored,
prepared, cooked, and when the preparer cleans up. These consumer tools need more systematic
presentation, however. Dietary recommendations can be grouped under the three points of variety,
proportionality, and moderation; food safety principles are also governed by threes--the three
variables of time, temperature, and cleanliness and three categories of food which represent
different degrees of bacterial risk. Any accompanying visual model should use familiar but strong
symbols (a clock, a thermometer, hands under a faucet) and careful manipulation of design
variables like shape and line. Seven figures accompany the text. (Contains 11 references.) (BEW)
Introduction: This study addresses the design and validation of the experiential curriculum model for
medical education using a Feministic approach. Method: The present study was conducted on two
non separable planes. On the first plan, the model was designed based on the Feministic approach
using the theoretical study method and emphasizing the perspectives ascribed to Nell Noddings,
Madeline Grumet and Janette Miller. Results: The levels of this model include Expected Curriculum,
Imaginal Curriculum, Concealed curriculum, Interactive curriculum (Manifest Curriculum, Latent
Curriculum, Look the parenting), Transferential Curriculum and Self Determination. On the second
plane, to validate the combined model, a phenomenologically qualitative study was conducted. In
this study, using goal-oriented sampling, undergraduate and graduate (Master's degree) students
majoring in Dentistry, Nursing at Islamic Azad University Khorasgan Branch, Esfahan as well as
those at at Esfahan University of Medical Sciences were selected. Deep interview was used to
collect data. The findings were analyzed using Van Manen's six-stage model. To determine the
reliability of the findings, reliability of reality reconstruction were used. Conclusion: The results
obtained suggested that: Education is in need of some conceptual reconstruction. On this way,
women's perceptions and experience of education and of the interior epistemological and curricular
system which shape the discourse and performance of education must be addressed. Serving as a
research model offering the various planes of the experiential curriculum and focusing more sharply
on the dimensions of curriculum than the formal plane, the present study is recommended to the
decision-makers of higher education curricular system.
Therapists with bachelor's degrees in respiratory therapy have become the new advanced clinicians
of the twenty-first century. Although the opportunity has increased in recent years, earning a
baccalaureate degree in respiratory therapy remains a limited option. The "2-year preprofessional
plus 2-year respiratory therapy" is the most popular curriculum design, but several other notable
designs also fulfill the definition of a bachelor's degree in respiratory therapy. Two landmark
documents issued in 2003 make strong arguments for expanding opportunities for baccalaureate
education in respiratory therapy. Recognizing the "need to increase the number of respiratory
therapists with advanced levels of training and education to meet the demands of providing services
requiring complex cognitive abilities and patient management skills," the American Association for
Respiratory Therapy has strongly encouraged the continuing development of baccalaureate
education. Strategies for expanding baccalaureate opportunities include increasing the number and
capacities of traditional programs, creating more articulation and bridge agreements between
community and junior colleges with 4-year colleges and universities, and offering baccalaureate
respiratory therapy through distance education. For the profession of respiratory therapy to require a
baccalaureate at entry level, expansion of baccalaureate education will be necessary, and
educators, managers, practitioners, and professional leaders will need to pursue all viable
strategies. As an interim phase in the evolution of the profession, Becker suggests a strategy
of"reprofessionalism" aimed at assisting therapists currently in the workforce to complete their
degrees. Through a combination of strategies, a bachelor's degree in respiratory therapy will
inevitably become the standard for clinicians in the decades to come. PMID:16168910
This competency-based curriculum for energy-efficient building construction is intended to educate
students in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the
application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. Each of the eight
units is based on one to five competencies. For each one a student competency sheet is provided
with the following information: competency statement, learning steps, a list of learning activities, and
a suggested student evaluation. Where appropriate, information sheets and study guides (with
answer keys) are provided to enable the students to complete the learning activities. Unit topics are
(1) plan selection; (2) site selection; (3) foundation construction; (4) floors, walls, and ceilings; (5)
roof and attic ventilation; (6) heating and cooling equipment; (7) passive solar fundamentals; and (8)
maintenance. An appendix contains 23 tables that are referenced in the curriculum. A bibliography
is also provided. (Some reading assignments in other textbooks and references are required.
Sources of some additional reference materials--print and nonprint--are cited.) (YLB)
The idea of "connecting" is explored in this multimedia educational kit art for elementary schools.
The Connecting series features a teacher's manual, six teacher's guides, and three videotapes
based on six primary themes. These themes are: "Rhythms and Patterns"; "Change and
Transformation"; "The World Our Minds Invent"; "Maps, Paths and Grids"; "Packaging - From Soup
to You"; and "What Does It Mean to Be Me?" Each theme has an individual teacher's guide. Each
teacher's guide includes a list of audiovisuals with comments, numbered lessons, a lesson index for
the curriculum, and a lesson index by art skills. Each theme is combined with interdisciplinary
approaches, linking visual art to music, dance, social studies, mathematics, science, and/or
language arts. This unique program provides a thought-provoking audiovisual presentation for each
theme addressed using fine arts and everyday images as well as hundreds of art lessons in
drawing, design, painting, sculpture, printmaking, fibers, and bookbinding on each of the teacher's
guides. An accompanying teacher's manual is specifically designed to help set the stage for theme
development for the teacher by providing extensive background information on this topic, while
explaining the foundation for this comprehensive art curriculum. (DQE)
Describes the University of Arizona's approach to developing and implementing a comprehensive
curriculum in integrative medicine, which integrates the best of complementary and alternative
medicine (CAM) with the best of conventional medicine. Describes the curriculum, educational
programs, clinical education, goals, and results, and suggests future strategies for assessing
competency and credentialing professionals. (EV)
This paper focuses upon the relationship between physical education and interests in enabling more
people to establish and maintain ‘active and healthy lives’ from a curriculum development
perspective. Twin and inter?linked concepts of ‘lifelong learning’ and ‘lifelong physical activity’ are
presented as a conceptual basis for curriculum development in physical education. A
multidimensional conceptualisation of physical activity is introduced as
Beginning with the spring semester of 2001, a course designed to prepare future public health
leaders for potential bioterrorism events has been offered by the University of Connecticut Graduate
Program in Public Health. Entitled "The Public Health Response to Bioterrorism," this popular course
was one of the few developed by academic programs in the United States prior to the attack of
September 11, 2001. The course utilizes innovative teaching methods and presentations by
distinguished guest speakers to educate public health personnel, public health and medical
students, and physicians and nurses about the complex issues involved in the public health
response to bioterrorism. The instructional methods and curriculum can serve as prototypes for
similar efforts.
This curriculum guide contains learning module outlines for teaching a series of courses in graphic
arts in high schools in Alberta. Each module provides learning experiences selected to develop
basic competence in trades in the graphic arts field. Each module consists of an introduction,
objectives, learning resources list, content summary, and a number of topics, each with a
generalization and concepts/subconcepts related to learning tasks. The modules cover the following
topics: a general introductory course; image creation and composition; offset press operation;
photography; process camera, stripping, and platemaking; bindery operations; and graphic arts
special topics, on three levels. An introductory section explains the industrial education program and
the graphic arts courses in Alberta. (KC)
This student welding competency-based education curriculum consists of six units dealing with
general areas related to trade occupations and nine units covering specific aspects of working with
welding equipment and performing welding operations. Topics covered in the first six units are
welding opportunities, human relations, safety, basic mathematics, measuring, and reading
blueprints. The remaining nine units deal with the following areas: (1) operating shield metallic arc
welding equipment; (2) operating gas welding equipment; (3) operating metallic and tungsten inert
gas equipment; (4) set up, tack, and weld metal processing projects; (5) cleaning, testing, and
classifying metals; (6) operating auxilliary equipment and tools; (7) performing structural or
equipment welding and cutting operations; (8) welder certification tests; and (9) supervision, training,
and job estimating. A total of 100 competencies are addressed in the student competency sheets
constituting these units. Each student competency sheet contains a task statement, a performance
checklist, a list of materials needed, a performance standard, and learning activities. (MN)
This article is based on the work that the author carried out at Santa Ana College (SAC) during a
period of 2 years using two federal grants. SAC is a Hispanic-serving institution with an average
yearly enrollment of 25,000 students. An average of 45% of the student population is Latino, with
the majority being Mexican American. The author's aim in this article is to offer a few practical
suggestions and strategic steps that might be useful to other institutions interested in the process of
internationalizing the general education curriculum. At SAC, the general aim for this project was to
prepare students to enter the job market with skills to deal with global issues in an ethical and
responsible manner.
Neither of the "Three Industry" Theory nor the "General Agreement of Trading Service" (GATS) of
the World Trade Organization (WTO) can be the essential criteria to analyze the property of
education. The property of education can be defined from consumers' perspective. The direct
consumers of education are students; but the ultimate consumers of education include parents,
employers, society and governments as well. From the perspective of consumers, education is both
a service and a productive institution.
Despite the expansion of technical-vocational education and training (TVET) in nearly all
Asia-Pacific countries during the past 10-15 years, many of the region's policymakers have called
for greater and more effective integration of technical-vocational components in basic and general
education curricula. The idea that technology education should be part of the general education
curriculum is not totally new to Asia-Pacific countries. Technology education was introduced into the
curricula of some Asian countries after World War II. In Australia, the National Training Reform
Agenda, which sought to strengthen the links between senior secondary schooling, general
education, TVET, and postschool options, emerged in the early 1990s. The Korean government
decided to provide technology education for all secondary school students in 1989 and revised its
curricula to include the following competencies: working with others in teams; communicating
ideas/information effectively; solving problems and thinking creatively and critically; and using office
technology. Increased attention toward curriculum integration has been increasingly evident in the
United States, India (where efforts to vocationalize secondary education were initiated in 1986), the
Philippines (where an entrepreneurship development was introduced in schools), and Japan (where
technology education has been expanded to reflect environmental awareness and global
considerations). (MN)
This paper examines students' practical knowledge to visualize and to design methods by which
writing can be addressed across the curriculum. During two semesters of a teacher preparation
course, Content Area Reading and Writing in Secondary Education, students discussed how Writing
across the Curriculum (WAC) could be better incorporated by educators across the university
campus in both traditional and non-traditional disciplines that are often not associated with writing.
These secondary majors represented a wide variety of disciplines including Agriculture, Art,
Business, Computer Science, English, Foreign Language, History/Geography, Home Economics,
Industrial Technology, Health/Kinesiology, Mathematics, Music, Psychology/Philosophy, Science,
and Theater. Even seasoned educators have difficulty incorporating writing as a pedagogical tool
across the curriculum, particularly in those content areas that traditionally do not emphasize writing.
In fields such as music, industrial arts, kinesiology, art, and other non-writing classes, educators
often face the problem of determining how writing may be utilized. One solution to this problem may
be to look to students, rather than educators, for ideas on how writing may be incorporated in a
variety of disciplines. Students' comments are discussed in relation to current theoretical
assumptions about the relationship between writing and thought. (Contains 22 references and a
table of data.) (Author/SC)
What should we teach in our schools and vocational education and higher education institutions? Is
theoretical knowledge still important? This book argues that providing students with access to
knowledge should be the raison d'etre of education. Its premise is that access to knowledge is an
issue of social justice because society uses it to conduct its debates and controversies. Theoretical
knowledge is increasingly marginalised in curriculum in all sectors of education, particularly in
competency-based training which is the dominant curriculum model in vocational education in many
countries. This book uses competency-based training to explore the negative consequences that
arise when knowledge is displaced in curriculum in favour of a focus on workplace relevance. The
book takes a unique approach by using the sociology of Basil Bernstein and the philosophy of
critical realism as complementary modes of theorising to extend and develop social realist
arguments about the role of knowledge in curriculum. Both approaches are increasingly influential in
education and the social sciences and the book will be helpful for those seeking an accessible
introduction to these complex subjects. "Why Knowledge Matters in Curriculum" is a key reading for
those interested in the sociology of education, curriculum studies, work-based learning, vocational
education, higher education, adult and community education, tertiary education policy and lifelong
learning more broadly.
Despite research showing the broad impact that the study of foreign languages has on the cognitive
development of young people, and despite the importance of language expertise for America's
economic and geopolitical interests in the twenty-first century, the teaching of world languages has
been marginalized within the American educational system at both the K-12 and postsecondary
levels. Although some universities believe they (and their students) can do without language
expertise, the economy and the national government clearly cannot do without it. The trend to
eliminate or outsource world language instruction comes at a time when the American Council on
the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) has established, through its Proficiency Guidelines
and Standards for Foreign Language Learning, both performance benchmarks for the assessment
of learning outcomes and guidelines for curricula development--achievements not observed in some
other academic disciplines that are considered more "mission central" by many institutions. In
"Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century," the National Standards for Foreign
Language Education Project (2006) presents a set of standards that constitute a remarkably
accurate reflection of the Essential Learning Outcomes established through the Liberal Education
and America's Promise (LEAP) initiative of the Association of American Colleges and Universities
(2007). The ACTFL standards identify the following five content areas for foreign language study,
called "the five Cs": (1) Communication; (2) Cultures; (3) Connections; (4) Comparisons; and (5)
Communities. This article describes how each of these areas of focus for the world languages
curriculum correlates with the LEAP goals. The redesign of world language curricula in accordance
with the vision for postsecondary education reflected in both the Standards and LEAP can only
strengthen the place of world language instruction in America's colleges and universities, enhance
the lives and postgraduate livelihood of students, and support the nation's economic and geopolitical
As stipulated in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) 2004, preschool children are
provided with access to the general education curriculum when they are in settings with children
without disabilities and when their learning outcomes are met in these settings. In this article, we
describe how access can be achieved through a curriculum, Children's School Success, which was
designed using principles of universal design for learning and specific curriculum modifications.
Further, we provide quantitative and descriptive information showing that preschool children with
disabilities can make gains in both academic and social outcomes using the Children's School
Success curriculum. (Contains 2 tables.)
"Critical Curriculum Studies" offers a novel framework for thinking about how curriculum relates to
students' understanding of the world around them. Wayne Au brings together curriculum theory,
critical educational studies, and feminist standpoint theory with practical examples of teaching for
social justice to argue for a transformative curriculum that challenges existing inequity in social,
educational, and economic relations. Making use of the work of important scholars such as Freire,
Vygotsky, Hartsock, Harding, and others, "Critical Curriculum Studies", argues that we must
understand the relationship between the curriculum and the types of consciousness we carry out
into the world. Following a Series Introduction (Michael W. Apple), the following chapters are
contained in this book: (1) Introduction: Contradiction in Curriculum Studies; (2) With and Within the
World: Developing a Dialectical Conception of Consciousness; (3) Epistemology and Educational
Experience: Curriculum, the Accessibility of Knowledge, and Complex Environmental Design; (4)
Developing Curricular Standpoint: Strong Objectivity and the Politics of School Knowledge; (5)
Curriculum of the Oppressed: Curricular Standpoint in Practice; and (6) Conclusion: Critical
Consciousness, Relative Autonomy, and the Curriculum.
This report presents findings obtained from a survey of nine countries and states:
Baden-Wurttemberg (Germany), North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany), Sweden, France, Scotland,
California (United States of America), New York (United States of America), Quebec (Canada), and
the Netherlands. The study focuses primarily on a comparison of the objectives and contents of the
secondary (ages 12-16) physical education curriculum, obtained from official documents, as well as
on the proportion of time alloted in each country. The descriptive and comparative framework used
to analyze the data is based upon the premise that curricular decisions in general, and decisions
which concern the objectives and educational contents in particular, are based largely on
considerations colored by values. After identifying and defining five conceptual prototypes for
organizing the physical education curriculum, the report classifies the approaches of the nine school
systems being examined. In addition, general information about each system is provided: the
structure of the school system, time available for movement education, whether the subject should
be taught by specialists, whether coeducation is possible or prescribed by law, and whether there
are clear guidelines for the evaluation of pupil achievements. The report concludes with a summary
in diagram form that provides a quick overview of the nature of the subject concepts in the
curriculum documents examined, followed by a bibliography containing 32 references. (IAH)
Over the last decades, the ways in which children experience and understand their worlds have
radically altered. In still-recent times, children were part of communities; they played in wild places
and had unsupervised experiences. Today, the lives of children are increasingly fragmented,
solitary, and removed from a sense of place. Children come home to empty houses and operate
independently. A larger proportion of time is devoted to homework and structured after-school
activities while technology (computer games, television, music) take a growing percentage of each
day. Children experience stranger-fear and have fewer natural spaces as sites for exploration and
imagination. The activities experienced by children in the past, which supported community, nature
and place, have been replaced with post-modern activities that support new and fundamentally
different priorities. In the fall of this year, a group in Manitoba put out the challenge for 100
Manitobans to eat locally for 100 days. Intrinsic to this idea was the thought that the exploration and
economic support of the local promotes different values and interests than the economic support of
the global. This idea appealed to the author both ideologically and as an educator. The movement
towards localized eating supported a variety of constructs that were becoming marginalized in the
postmodern world. Eating within a 100-mile radius forced participants to be creative, get to know the
local farmer, grow their own food and try their hand at preserving. Intrinsic to these skills was the
reaffirmation of the marginalized constructs of place, community and nature. In the centering of
these non-mainstream values, new empathetic understandings emerge. The ideas of sustainability,
empathetic care for the world, and commitment to one's neighbor emerged as guiding insights and
values. In the author's own struggle to reconcile the exclusion of place, community, empathy and
nature in their educational system, she discovered the 100-mile diet as a model for framing these
ideas within the field of education. Accordingly, she launched the 100-mile curriculum challenge.
She challenged teachers to tweak curriculum to explore local issues, ideas, resources and
communities for one semester. The purpose of this challenge was to celebrate the abundance,
diversity and complexity of Manitoba's communities, raise awareness of issues affecting them,
support re-inhabitation of our communities, care for nature, and develop more complex
methodological ways of helping students learn. (Contains 2 notes.)
The purpose of this article is to report on the research findings of the views of student-teachers on
the integration of some aspects of a traditional circumcision curriculum into higher education. The
main question is: Could a traditional circumcision curriculum be integrated into the higher education
curriculum? Seventy five participants were sampled through a systematic random sampling strategy
from a population of 120 male student teachers. The sample includes only those who have attended
a circumcision school. Data were collected through a closed questionnaire, and presented as
percentages. The preliminary results reveal that the majority of student-teachers are in favour of the
integration of a circumcision curriculum into the higher education curriculum. These results may
serve as a siren to alert us of the need to create space in the higher education system for the
indigenous knowledge system (IKS), for example, the circumcision values and knowledge. (Contains
1 table.)
This document presents the Alcohol and Drug Education Programs (ADEP) curriculum guide
developed by the Missouri Department of Mental Health to provide education programs for
individuals under the age of 21 convicted of certain alcohol and drug related offenses. An
introduction is followed by a section on substances of abuse and their effects. Basic terms and
concepts are defined, and a number of substances are considered individually: alcohol, tobacco,
marijuana, cocaine, stimulants, sedatives, hallucinogens, narcotics, and inhalants. The use of
substances in combination is discussed, high risk substance use is defined, and the risk of Acquired
Immunodeficiency Syndrome is explored. The next section looks at the effects of substance use on
driving skills. It examines the magnitude of the drinking and driving problem and explains the effects
of alcohol and of marijuana on driving skills. A section on substance abuse and dependency
discusses the disease concept, genetic factors, the progression of dependency, recognition of
substance abuse and dependency, the effects on the family, and treatments available for adolescent
substance abusers. A section on life skills discusses motivations, decision-making skills, refusal
skills, and alternatives to use. Six tasks that need to be accomplished in the concluding phases of
the program are listed; sample forms, program operations, and resource materials are appended.
This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be
based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional
units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for family and
consumer sciences and related technology (enrichment). Presented first are program descriptions
and course outlines for four courses: child development, family and individual health, family living
and parenthood, and foods and nutrition. Section I contains curriculum frameworks for the courses,
and section II contains outlines of the instructional units required in each course. Child development
consists of five units: preparing for parenthood, child growth and development, guiding behavior,
children with special challenges, and career opportunities. Family and individual health has 10 units:
personal health, mental health, social health, human growth and development, disease prevention
and control, nutrition and fitness, substance abuse prevention, community and environmental
health, safety and first aid, and consumer health. Family living and parenthood consists of four units:
lifestyles, understanding marriage, family health and welfare, and consumer economics. Foods and
nutrition has five units: food and nutrition science, safety and sanitation, consumer information and
food preparation, social and multicultural protocol, and careers. Each unit includes suggested time
on tasks, competencies and objectives, teaching strategies, assessment strategies, and resources.
Recommended tools and equipment are listed in section III. Appended are lists of related academic
topics and workplace skills for the 21st century and student competency profiles for the four
courses. (YLB)
The field of adult education exists within a context of consumer capitalism, although adult educators
have failed to acknowledge how central consumption is to today's society. Traditional consumer
education has typically focused on technical skills, and thus positions itself outside the social,
political, and cultural realms. In this article, the author retheorizes consumer education into a more
critical enterprise using the framework of cultural studies. She argues that consumer education is a
political site that creates consumers with a range of reactions to consumer culture. From this
perspective, consumer education for adults is reconceived to include a variety of informal sites of
learning including those focusing on curbing consumption, fighting consumer capitalism, and
"jamming" corporate-sponsored consumer culture.
Over a decade ago, Oduran (1993) argued that consumer education was an emerging frontier of
adult education. While the Adult Performance Level (APL) project in the 1970s sparked some
interest in consumer and life skills within adult basic education and English as a second language
(Lankshear, 1993; Levine, 1986; Sandlin, 2000), and while this push has been seen more recently in
welfare-to-work education and job preparation programs, the broader field of adult education has
been almost silent on this issue. A review of adult education journals and conference proceedings
over the past decade reveals very little interest in consumer education among adult education
researchers. In this article, the author argues that in addition to the recognized practice of consumer
education in formal classroom settings (including some adult literacy programs, county extension,
and welfare-to-work programs), consumer education for adults is happening in a wide variety of
places outside the formal classroom. These informal sites of consumer education for adults mostly
have gone unnoticed by the field of adult education or are not recognized or named as "consumer
education." She believes adult educators should be aware of these informal sites of adult consumer
education, especially because some of these sites have the potential to move consumer education
outside of its traditional technical focus, and into more critical realms where learners develop "a
different relationship to the marketplace in which they identify unquestioned assumptions and
challenge the status of existing structures [such as consumer capitalism] as natural" (Ozanne &
Murray, 1995, p. 522).
Describes the process of developing an HIV/AIDS education curriculum for "Takalani Sesame," an
educational media project for young South African children. Illustrates the formative research
conducted with adults and children, and recounts discussions with HIV/AIDS health specialists.
Describes the knowledge, attitude, and skill components of the curriculum to be used to create
HIV/AIDS education messages for television, radio, and outreach materials for children ages 3-7
and their caregivers. (Author/KB)
The document presents a new set of standards for family and consumer sciences (FACS)
education. Section 1 is a three-chapter overview. Chapter 1 addresses the rationale for change and
the FACS vision and mission. Chapter 2 describes the approach to develop the national standards,
FACS format, and components of the standards. Chapter 3 provides background information on the
process for FACS national standards, explains the structure of the process questions, and presents
the reasoning for action standard. Chapter 4 presents the 16 areas of study, along with their
comprehensive standards, content standards, competencies, academic proficiencies, and process
questions; career, community, and family connections; consumer and family resources; consumer
services; early childhood, education, and services; facilities management and maintenance; family;
family and community services; food production and services; food science, dietetics, and nutrition;
hospitality, tourism, and recreation; housing, interiors, and furnishings; human development;
interpersonal relationships; nutrition and wellness; parenting; and textiles and apparel. Chapter 5
discusses aspects of implementation strategies and potential leadership activities to guide state
development of standards and related programs. Appendixes contain 118 references grouped by
contributing state; 110 process references and additional resources; and a participant list. (YLB)
Providing effective food safety education to young consumers is a national health priority to combat
the nearly 76 million cases of foodborne illness in the United States annually. With the tremendous
pressures on teachers for accountability in core subject areas, the focus of classrooms is on
covering concepts that are tested on state performance examinations. As a result, topics such as
food safety are rarely addressed in middle school classrooms. Middle school is an ideal time to
teach food safety because adolescents are in the process of setting lifelong behaviors; therefore,
they are more likely to synthesize new food safety knowledge in a way that will lead to the
development of lifelong behaviors. The purpose of this study was to scientifically validate an
educational resource that provides a method for classroom teachers to involve young consumers in
food safety education while meeting state content area curriculum standards. An interdisciplinary
curriculum targeted at middle school students and correlated directly to state content standards was
designed to include highly effective instructional strategies that teach food safety concepts through
all core subject classes (science, math, social studies, and language arts). The curriculum was pilot
tested in 5 schools using a pretest, posttest, and follow-up test assessment model. The results
showed that the curriculum was highly effective at raising student knowledge (21% gain) and
improving students' food handling behaviors (8.47% gain) from pretests to posttests. In addition, 6
wk after implementation, students retained 86% of their total knowledge gain as measured by a
follow-up assessment.
This document contains three model curricula in nursing education for alcohol and other drug abuse,
one graduate and one baccalaureate level from New York University's (NYU) Division of Nursing,
and the third combining graduate and undergraduate level curricula for Ohio State University (OSU).
The NYU undergraduate curriculum contains a pilot test and evaluation instrument as well as fifteen
curriculum modules divided between two levels on topics including family patterns of drug abuse,
impaired professionals, treatment, and patterns in various special populations. Each module
contains a placement suggestion, time estimate, learner objectives, content outline, recommended
teaching strategies and references. The graduate level curriculum titled Project SAEN (Substance
Abuse Education in Nursing) provides a third level of eight curriculum modules for the Masters level
including modules on group modalities, research perspectives, and the nurse within an
interdisciplinary treatment team. The OSU curriculum contains a statement of philosophy, a faculty
development program, an undergraduate curriculum model of family patterns, etc. Also included are
a master's level curriculum, and a Ph.D. level curriculum. Sections on evaluation curriculum and a
Ph.D. level curriculum. Sections on evaluation and references are included. Appended are a list of
faculty development instruments, a taxonomy of content areas, and a glossary of terms. (JB)
In this article, the author begins by describing an important present moment in curriculum studies.
He then rethinks this moment and briefly explores the implications of this new line of thought for
leadership development. At the 2007 American Association for the Advancement of Curriculum
Studies' (AAACS) business meeting, Pinar (2007a) presented a paper arguing that the field of
curriculum studies does not have a disciplinary structure but does contain key disciplinary features
which he calls "curriculum disciplinarities." He identifies two key disciplinarities and examines how
these disciplinarities can be used to create a curriculum studies canon, which, in turn, can be used
to advance curriculum studies. AAACS members unanimously decide to organize a Canon Task
Force based on Pinar's argument, and the task force has been examining this topic over the past 3
years. The task force confronted a perplexing problem, which is explored in a dialogical exchange
(Henderson & Kesson, 2009a, 2009b; Schubert, 2009a, 2009b). This problem can be summarized
as a critical question: "Who identifies and conceptualizes the key curriculum disciplinarities?" This
question has not yet been resolved; and, in fact, it may not have a solution. As a way out of this
quandary, this author rethinks the question as follows: "Are there key curriculum disciplinarities that
can be used to advance democratic educational leadership?" He takes the position that there is an
open set of curriculum disciplinarities and that, therefore, the problem that curriculum theorists face
is to decide which disciplinarities address which educational purposes.
This article documents the emergence of environmental education in the curriculum discourse in
Aotearoa/New Zealand in 1988, and proceeds to trace its path through a succession of curriculum
documents over the subsequent two decades. As well as exploring the form environmental
education takes in these documents, the way it emerges in educational priorities is also reviewed.
This historical analysis highlights the political nature of the school curriculum in general, and in
particular, the place of environmental education within it. It also suggests that the curriculum, by
itself, provides little concrete guidance for teachers. In response, I propose that educators must look
to their own community for strength and leadership in a hostile political climate.
This document is a revised version of the National Consumer and Financial Literacy Framework (the
Framework) originally developed in 2005. It articulates a rationale for consumer and financial
education in Australian schools; describes essential consumer and financial capabilities that will
support lifelong learning; and provides guidance on how consumer and financial education may be
structured to support a progression of learning from Foundation-Year 10. Appended are: (1) Links to
the Australian Curriculum's general capabilities; (2) Links to the Australian Curriculum's
cross-curriculum; and (3) Acknowledgments. (Contains 20 footnotes.)
This curriculum guide, dealing with competency-based cooperative office education in the State of
Louisiana, consists of 10 chapters on program implementation and 12 instructional units. Covered in
the first part of the guide are cooperative office education programs; coordination, program
management, and student placement; legal responsibilities; advisory committees; public relations;
classroom necessities; reports; student organizations; supplemental materials; and the evaluation
process. Topics addressed in the instructional units include telephone techniques; word processing;
human relations; securing and keeping job communication skills; financial records; business math
and machines; typing; shorthand; office procedures; and specialized offices, such as banking,
insurance, legal, and medical offices. (MN)
This secondary distributive education performance-based instructional unit on buying and pricing
contains thirteen lesson plans, each based on a fifty-five minute period. Among the topics covered
are the following: (1) the importance of analysing the customers' demands for merchandise before
planning what and when to buy, (2) questions about consumers' needs that must be answered
before a buyer can purchase intelligently for consumers, (3) different methods available for
purchasing for a small or large business, (4) methods which may be used to keep track of profitable
sources of supply, (5) factors considered by the buyer in determining the retail price on a given
product or service, and (6) the legal restrictions placed on pricing by the Fair Trade Acts and the
Unfair Sales Practices Act. Each lesson plan includes most of the following elements: information
sheets, assignment sheets, transparency masters, key and answer sheets, and teacher reference
sheets. A list of terminal and enabling objectives and a pre-assessment instrument and key precede
the lesson plans. Optional activities, a bibliography, a post-assessment instrument, and key and unit
evaluation are included at the end of the unit. (LRA)
The curriculum on occupational safety and health, designed for a workplace literacy and basic skills
program for clothing and textile workers union members, is outlined. Its objectives are to help
workers understand the importance of following company health and safety rules and danger signs,
identify and report workplace hazards, aid in resolution and prevention of health and safety
problems, recognize symptoms of common workplace illnesses, understand their own and
employers' rights and responsibilities under federal law, understand the union's role in resolving
workplace health and safety problems, learn to report accidents or complaints, understand the
importance of overall health and fitness, and learn about union clinic and social services programs.
The guide includes: charts of common health and safety hazards, with causes, symptoms, and
solutions; notes on maintaining overall health and fitness; and classroom activities and instructional
materials drawn from a problem-based workplace English-as-a-Second-Language text. A
vocabulary list is also included. (MSE) (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Literacy Education)
Injury is the leading cause of death and disability among the U.S. population aged 1 to 44 years. In
2006 more than 179,000 fatalities were attributed to injury. Despite increasing awareness of the
global epidemic of injury and violence, a considerable gap remains between advances in
injury-prevention research and prevention knowledge that is taught to medical students. This article
discusses the growing need for U.S medical schools to train future physicians in the fundamentals of
injury prevention and control. Teaching medical students to implement injury prevention in their
future practice should help reduce injury morbidity and mortality. Deliberate efforts should be made
to integrate injury-prevention education into existing curriculum. Key resources are available to do
this. Emergency physicians can be essential advocates in establishing injury prevention training
because of their clinical expertise in treating injury. Increasing the number of physicians with injuryand violence- prevention knowledge and skills is ultimately an important strategy to reduce the
national and global burden of injury.
This guide proposes a model for a comprehensive curriculum for secondary business education with
a number of program options. A list of the complete course offerings indicates the courses required
or recommended for all students choosing business as an area of study. A listing of prerequisite
courses follows. The purpose and student populations for which Levels I, II, and III of the Office
Administration Sequence were designed are described. A suggestion is made for the sequence of
courses for students aspiring to particular careers: secretarial/clerical, accounting, business
management, and college-bound. Course descriptions are provided for the following courses:
abbreviated writing; accounting I and II; advanced computer applications; business--introduction and
analysis; business communication; business law; business math; business management; computer
concepts/applications; computer mathematics/programming; cooperative work experience;
document processing; electronic office; introduction to business and business occupations;
keyboarding; macroeconomics; microeconomics; office procedures; and word/information
processing. Each description lists prerequisite; recommended placement; recommended course
length; course objectives; course description; and content outline. Course descriptions for desktop
publishing, integrated office systems, and machine transcription are appended. (YLB)
Presents a brief history of information technology-related training for library school students in
Indonesia, including the most recent developments in library and information science curriculum with
special reference to the University of Indonesia. Explains the higher education system and
discusses graduate and undergraduate curriculum developments. (Author/LRW)
The College of Engineering, the College of Arts & Sciences, and the Center for Teacher Education
at Ohio Northern University developed and implemented two parts of a four-module curriculum titled
“Biomass as an Alternative Energy Source” for use in a Wind\\/Energy Academy within a local
school district. The curriculum introduces students to the current topic of biomass, specifically algae,
The current ‘widening participation’ and ‘key skills’ agendas in higher education present the
challenge of developing curriculum models that can accommodate a more heterogeneous student
body. Drawing primarily on the South African experience, and similar findings from Australia, this
article examines various forms of provision in terms of intended target group, assumptions, goals
and curriculum context. A distinction is made
Concerns have been raised in the Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) doctoral education
literature regarding: (a) the narrowness of research preparation, (b) the emphasis on disciplinary
silos, (c) the lack of competitiveness and innovation within and beyond academia, and (d) the role of
graduate assistants. These concerns mirror those in the professoriate at large regarding doctoral
education. There is, however, little research that has examined these issues in our field. In this
paper we report on the content studied in the core curriculum of doctoral programs, admission
requirements, number of full and part time students, number of faculty serving these students,
funding supporting students, and type and scope of research classes. Data were collected from
websites as well as other public domain sources and open-ended interviews with faculty members in
each program. We discuss the findings and implications for PETE. (Contains 2 notes.)
This article investigates the process of curriculum renewal in a faculty of education. I report on my
own experiences as the initiator of the change to the Bachelor of Education curriculum. When
colleges of education were incorporated into higher education institutions, some faculties of
education were relocated to these campuses. This move brought to the fore the debate of whether it
is better for a faculty of education itself to offer all the content in an education degree, or to
outsource subject specialisations apart from Education to discipline-specific departments in other
faculties. The existing curricula and the recommendations of an internal audit were interrogated as a
first step towards change. The idea was to strengthen the subject specialisation knowledge of the
students through the involvement of the discipline-specific or specialist faculties and simultaneously
include a social justice framework for the delivery of the programmes. Design research methodology
was used to analyse the process of curriculum renewal in the Faculty of Education. In order to
analyse the existing curriculum, a process of document review was used. The final curriculum was
negotiated with staff members and its compliance with the Higher Education Qualifications
Framework is provided. (Contains 1 endnote, 1 table and 5 figures.)
One goal educators have is to empower students at all levels in this diverse and changing society
whether they work with teacher candidates or with P-12 students. Teachers are seeing increased
differences in race, ethnicity, culture, and special needs in children in their classrooms. The
changing composition of early childhood classrooms challenges educators to be more responsive to
the diverse needs of all children. Therefore, implementing a curriculum that is culturally responsive
and inclusive to assist children's needs is imperative. To prepare teacher candidates to integrate
anti-bias or diversity curriculum with the regular curriculum then becomes a crucial goal of every
teacher preparation program. Unfortunately, many teachers currently in the classroom report that
they feel inadequate to teach multicultural or anti-bias curriculum. Implementing a diversity
curriculum may not be easy because of the fear, uncertainty, or discomfort of many teachers and
teacher educators. Teachers' beliefs influence and affect their teaching practices and may become
barriers that prevent the integration of anti-bias curricula. However, previous research found that
teacher candidates' level of intercultural sensitivity could be enhanced by their teacher preparation
courses and activities and from teacher educators who encouraged teacher candidates to discuss
and reflect upon issues. In this article, the authors discuss what an anti-bias curriculum is, provide
the theoretical framework and rationale for involving teacher candidates in certain activities that
promote the anti-bias curriculum, and offer additional anti-bias strategies for teacher candidates and
teacher educators to implement in their classrooms.
A project was undertaken to identify, develop, and test the effectiveness of a limited number of
self-contained, individual learning modules about consumer topics that are especially appropriate to
a variety of industrial arts courses given in secondary schools in Texas. Included among the project
activities were the following: (1) identification of appropriate content topics by a survey administered
to a select sample of 49 teachers and administrators involved in industrial arts curriculum
development in Texas; (2) development of a system of analysis to define content material within
each topic in a consistent and meaningful way; (3) development of a format in which to present the
modules; (4) field testing of a portion of the materials in two Texas school districts, using statistical
comparisons and teacher reactions; and (5) dissemination of the materials to all school districts in
the state. (The appendixes to this project report include project-developed rating and survey
instruments as well as learning modules in English and Spanish dealing with energy efficiency, fire
protection, hand tools, guarantees and warranties, protective clothing, power hand tools, and
sandpaper and other abrasives.) (MN)
Taking the increasing implementation and practice of 'quality-oriented education' as the background
to the current reform, the paper outlines moral education in the Chinese junior high school over the
last 25 years. It offers a brief review of a few theoretical and empirical research projects which have
had some influence on the 2003 reform of the course of Ideology and Morality. It describes: three
basic principles behind this new curriculum, focusing on the developing lives of students; curriculum
characteristics with ideological, humanistic, practical and integrative dimensions; and the objectives
of developing feelings, attitudes and value orientations, competencies and knowledge. The
curriculum is illustrated by four textbook and class-based examples of respect for parents,
self-esteem, environmental awareness and being a responsible citizen, which offer some insights
into contemporary moral education with distinctive Chinese characteristics. Finally, the paper gives
an overview of the significance of the moral education curriculum reform and of its ongoing
This curriculum guide contains five units with relevant problem areas for horticulture. These problem
areas have been selected as suggested areas of study to be included in a core curriculum for
secondary students enrolled in an agricultural education program. Each problem area includes some
or all of the following components: related problem areas, prerequisite problem areas, occupational
tasks addressed, learning assessment plan sheets, instructor's guide, information sheets, student
worksheets or assignment sheets and keys, demonstrations, transparency masters, and a
discussion guide for transparencies. Suggestions are made for use of the core materials, including
specific suggestions for using the different components of a problem area. The five units are as
follows: (1) horticultural business operation and management; (2) horticultural science and
production; (3) horticultural mechanics; (4) landscaping; and (5) floral design. (NLA)
This parent education curriculum manual, developed by the Parent Education program at North
Seattle Community College, defines and describes the parent education program and presents
program materials for use as a curriculum guide for instructors and for program participants. First,
the parent education program is described and the educational objectives and program components
are outlined. The next sections present the organization and role responsibilities of the college,
instructors, the parent advisory council, teachers, and children; the goals and objectives of the
program; and the means of implementing the goals and objectives. Then, the manual outlines
curriculum objectives in the areas of child development; child guidance; health, safety, and nutrition;
parenting and family communication; and special concerns. For each program area an introductory
statement is provided and the goals and objectives are categorized according to the age level of the
child (i.e., infants, toddlers, pre-threes, and three-to-fives). Next, the manual provides the goals and
objectives of the program units: implementing the children's classroom program; organizational
function, development, and leadership; and support systems. Finally, a bibliography is provided
under the five program areas. (HB)
The hidden cumculum has served the very useful purpose in educational discourse of alerting
educators to the complexity of physical education teaching and learning. However, the ambiguity of
the phenomena the term attempts to describe has led to a certain notoriety, and there is now
considerable confusion over the meaning of the term hidden curriculum. This paper reviews selected
This document is intended to help instructors and administrators develop secondary and
postsecondary instructional programs on international trade that are based on competencies
identified as those needed in international business by companies in Alaska, Oregon, and
Washington. The first section introduces competency-based curriculum and includes a discussion of
student performance assessment; curriculum delivery systems; the role of the instructor in
curriculum planning, implementation, and evaluation; and the benefits of competency-based
curriculum. The second section contains a chart that shows the scope of the competencies,
including those for appropriate background preparation, for a core curriculum in international trade,
and for specialized or advanced courses in the areas of trade documentation, entrepreneurship, and
advanced international trade. The third section contains course descriptions intended to provide a
conceptual framework for the design and implementation of a program in international trade. Section
4 contains the competencies and tasks associated with each of the following areas: state and
regional profiles, world profile, import and export basics, international trade, international marketing
and transportation, international finance, laws and regulations, communications, entrepreneurship,
trade documentation, and employability skills. Section 5 provides a list of competencies by course
offering. Section 6 contains a sample skills card, which is an example of an instrument for evaluating
student performance. Section 7 consists of a comprehensive list of resources organized by media
type and providing addresses and phone numbers of each source. (CML)
It is recommended that the Coordinating Board for Higher Education approve the Curriculum
Alignment Initiative (CAI) report, with recognition of the dynamic nature of competencies. It is further
recommended that the board direct the Commissioner of Higher Education to make the CAI Report
available online to interested government agencies and constituents as evidence of MDHE's
significant progress in fulfilling its statutory requirements. It is also recommended that the
Coordinating Board for Higher Education commend the arduous efforts undertaken by the
participants and educational institutions involved in the CAI process. This document reports the
mission and progress of the Missouri Department of Higher Education's (MDHE's) Curriculum
Alignment Initiative (CAI) from inception in June 2007 to present. Appended are: (1) Senate Bill 389
on Curriculum Alignment; (2) Completed Entry-Level Competencies; (3) Draft Cross-Disciplinary
Competencies; (4) Draft METS Optimal Entry-Level Competencies; (5) Completed Exit-Level
Competencies; and (6) General Education & Exit Competencies Matrix. (Contains 1 footnote.)
In an ever changing global economy, higher education experiences accountability issues in
educating the workforce. Graduates require the knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in the
global workplace. For graduates to have the opportunity to attain this understanding and expertise, it
is critical to identify what influences curriculum development to create a curriculum that meets
workplace needs. The purpose of this study was to contribute to a better understanding of
curriculum development in higher education fashion merchandising programs. More specifically
what impacts the curriculum and if skill standard(s) and/or competency list(s), are used when
developing program-level curriculum for higher education fashion merchandising programs.
Descriptive research examined the internal and external influences and standard(s) and/or
competency list(s) used in curriculum development. Electronically, an invitation to participate and the
survey instrument were sent to faculty in apparel and textile programs across the United States.
Data were collected from 96 apparel and textile faculty. Data revealed internal influences, more so
than external influences, impacted curriculum development in higher education fashion
merchandising programs. The largest percentage and extent of internal influence on curriculum
development in higher education fashion merchandising programs was faculty background; program
mission was also a major internal influence. The largest percentage and extent of external influence
on curriculum development in higher education fashion merchandising programs was
marketplace/employers. No statistically significant relationship was found between the participants'
type of institution (undergraduate and graduate granting) and internal and external influences.
However, more research is called for to examine the specific internal influence of program mission
and the external influence of marketplace/employers. Current curriculum influences, skill standard(s)
and/or competency list(s) used, and type of institution were examined in this research study. The
study proposes that the higher education fashion merchandising curriculum is influenced, in varying
degrees, by internal and external influences and that skill standard(s) and/or competency list(s) from
many sources are used in curriculum development. Undergraduate or graduate institutions were not
differentially influenced by internal or external factors. [The dissertation citations contained here are
published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without
permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web
The purpose of this article is to offer a theory-to-practice-based approach to promoting equal status
for all students in GPE classes by implementing disability sports in the GPE curriculum. Teaching
disability sports is an appropriate means of promoting inclusion and establishing a more
differentiated and comprehensive GPE curriculum. This article presents (1) a rationale for using
disability sports in GPE, (2) an ecology paradigm identified in the gymnasium that can benefit from
including disability sports in the GPE curriculum, (3) suggested implementation templates, and (4)
results from practitioners who have included disability sports in their GPE programs. (Contains 3
figures and 1 table.)
This guide lists the core curriculum competencies expected to be developed by students in
secondary Fundamentals of Marketing courses in Missouri. It was developed through revision of the
prior core curriculum by a project team with input from all the marketing instructors in the state.
Competencies listed in the revised fundamentals of marketing core curriculum fall under nine
headings: (1) communications in marketing; (2) economic concepts; (3) employment and
advancement; (4) human relations in marketing; (5) marketing operations; (6) market planning; (7)
advertising and sales promotion; (8) selling; and (9) marketing concepts. (KC)
This curriculum guide is one in a series of competency-based instructional materials dealing with
marketing and distributive education (MADE). It consists of some introductory remarks concerning
the course, a lesson plan, a course outline, and four sections of lessons for use in implementing the
course. Covered in the individual sections are the following topics: the nature and scope of
marketing and distributive education; self-awareness (the nature of personality, factors influencing
personality, favorable personality traits, personality handicaps, and developing a good personality);
the movement of an orange as it passes through the channels of distribution from producer to
consumer, and career exploration (general merchandising, apparel and accessories marketing,
home furnishings marketing, food marketing, advertising and display services, finance and credit,
food service, petroleum, insurance, hotel, personal services, and travel and tourism). Each lesson
contains a behavioral objective, an apperceptive base, a motivational approach, an aim, one or
more presentations and medial summaries, an application, and a final summary. Also included in the
individual lessons are student handouts, transparency masters, and a variety of learning activities.
This is the third part of a three-part curriculum guide dedicated to improving the nutritional status of
children and adolescents as well as inspiring lifetime habits of healthy eating. It is also a total
nutrition education program that encompasses nutritional aspects of a student's daily life both at
school and at home. Teachers are provided with specific grade-level lesson plans and learning
activities that include student handouts and worksheets, teacher resource pages, and overhead
transparency masters. The high school guide is organized into five sections. The first section
describes the program including cultural awareness information, the interaction of nutrition education
with school food service, parent involvement, and program visibility. Section 2 discusses
implementation of the ESR IV curriculum guide. The third section addresses modifications of the
program for special populations. Section 4 presents an instructor's resource guide for teaching
nutrition education. The final section presents grades 9-12 nutrition lessons emphasizing diet-related
diseases, prevention techniques, and current nutrition issues. Nine appendices include: suggested
teacher resources; bibliography; a pattern for daily food choices, and school breakfast and lunch
patterns; recommended dietary allowances; a food composition table; dietary guidelines for
Americans; a glossary of terms; suggested instructional strategies; and a health hotline of agencies
and organizations. (LL)
This article explores why university reform is central to the Labour government's project to create a
"modern" Britain. During the passage of the 2004 Higher Education Act the government created a
policy narrative which redefined the role and purpose of universities. It framed their futures as
corporations, based more on an economic than an educational rationale, and competing to provide
educational services to paying consumers. The government presents marketization as the only
possible way to solve the funding crisis and tries to make its interpretation of the future for
universities seem obvious and inevitable. Even though critics show how the Act may exacerbate
differential access and reinforce disadvantage, and thus work against the government's vision for
modern Britain, the policy narrative is becoming authoritative, if not yet hegemonic. The article
places the government's discourse within an international context to re-examine the complexity of
the concepts and arguments on which the policy narrative rests and open up space to consider
alternative futures for universities in Britain and in new world orders.
Changing a curriculum is already stressful enough without finding new ways to create anxiety,
discontent, and rancor. To provide a truly integrated liberal education, the author contends that
educators must not only change their curricula--the courses they offer--but they must change what
they do in the classroom, the kinds of papers and assignments and labs and projects they assign,
and the kinds of test questions they ask. This article presents three reasons why--all political
instincts to the contrary--it is better to fold conversations about writing across the curriculum into the
larger debate about general education models, scaffolding, institutional support, and student needs.
While this short essay addresses oral communication across the curriculum and quantitative
reasoning across the curriculum only in passing, it is safe to say that much of what applies to writing
applies to these areas as well.
The purpose of this study was to test an educational swine curriculum geared toward fifth grade
classrooms to measure the change in students' knowledge about the pork industry, pork as a
nutritious protein source, and the value of byproducts derived from pork production. Objectives of
this study were to evaluate overall change in students' knowledge of the pork industry and the effect
of specific demographics on the change in students' knowledge following participation in an
educational swine curriculum. Effectiveness of the curriculum was measured by a pre-test/post-test
survey of fifth grade students (n = 435), with classrooms divided into treatment and control groups.
Findings indicated that participating in the educational swine curriculum increased the students'
knowledge of the pork industry by 37.4%; demographics such as 4-H experience, farm experience,
or prior experience with pigs had limited effect on knowledge gained. (Contains 2 tables and 1
Aim: To explore critical care patients and families experiences and seek their input into nurses'
postgraduate educational preparation and practice. Background: There is an inconsistency in the
expected standard of practice to 'qualify' Australian critical care nurses. There has also been a lack
of health consumer input in the development of postgraduate course curriculum and content.
Method: Following institutional ethics committee approval, purposive sampling was used to select
participants for focus groups and individual interviews who had experienced intensive care or
coronary care. Findings: Seventeen participants provided data which created two main thematic
categories; the role of the critical care nurse and; minimum practice standards for postgraduate
critical care course graduates. Both physical patient care and socio-emotional support of patients
and family were identified as important for the critical care nurse role. The level of socio-emotional
support provided by nurses was reported to be inconsistent. Components of socio-emotional support
included communication, people skills, facilitating family presence and advocacy. These
components were reflected in participants' concepts of minimum practice standards for postgraduate
critical care course graduates; talking and listening skills, relating to and dealing with stressed
people, individualizing care and patient and family advocacy. Conclusion: Health consumers' views
emphasize that socio-emotional skills and behaviours need to be explicitly described in
postgraduate critical care nursing course curricula and instruments developed to consistently assess
these core competencies. PMID:23419185
There is a critical and growing need for emergency physicians and emergency medicine resources
worldwide. To meet this need, physicians must be trained to deliver time-sensitive interventions and
life-saving emergency care. Currently, there is no internationally recognized, standard curriculum
that defines the basic minimum standards for emergency medicine education. To address this lack,
the International Federation for Emergency Medicine (IFEM) convened a committee of international
physicians, health professionals, and other experts in emergency medicine and international
emergency medicine development to outline a curriculum for foundation training of medical students
in emergency medicine. This curriculum document represents the consensus of recommendations
by this committee. The curriculum is designed with a focus on the basic minimum emergency
medicine educational content that any medical school should be delivering to its students during
their undergraduate years of training. It is not designed to be prescriptive, but to assist educators
and emergency medicine leadership in advancing physician education in basic emergency medicine
content. The content would be relevant, not just for communities with mature emergency medicine
systems, but also for developing nations or for nations seeking to expand emergency medicine
within current educational structures. We anticipate that there will be wide variability in how this
curriculum is implemented and taught, reflecting the existing educational milieu, the resources
available, and the goals of the institutions’ educational leadership.
Recommendations are made so that teachers can have a sound background in economics.
Teachers should be able to understand and to teach the skills and concepts used in the free
enterprise system. This report is designed to help preservice and inservice teachers improve their
knowledge of economics and the free enterprise system. The first chapter discusses major
economic concepts teachers should understand: resources, production and distribution, and
consumption. Economic terms are defined, and relationships among elements in the capitalist
system are explained. In the second chapter, an interdisciplinary approach to economics education,
beginning in kindergarten and ending with the twelth grade, is advocated. The curriculum should
include basic concepts, the nature of the relationship between economics and society, consumer
education, and personal economics management. The third chapter contains recommended
methods for businesses to participate in economics education: by improving communication with
schools, providing in-house economic courses, and sharing educational resources. The final section
describes a study that investigated the economic knowledge level and attitudes of high school
seniors, college seniors, and young adults who had attended less than one year of college. The
topics under consideration were consumer education, the free enterprise system, and general
economics education. The results are discussed, and recommendations generated by the findings
are made. (FG)
Recent legislation encourages the integration of academic content in agricultural education. In North
Carolina, high school agricultural education programs can now choose to offer a state adopted
integrated biotechnology curriculum. Empirical evidence was needed to identify and describe factors
related to the intent of agricultural educators to adopt this curriculum in order to assist teachers
during this transition. North Carolina agricultural educators were randomly surveyed to determine
their self-perceived level of knowledge, actual level of knowledge, and perceived importance of
integrated science competencies in the new North Carolina "Biotechnology and Agriscience
Research" course. This descriptive and correctional study also describes how agricultural educators
perceived the course in fulfilling program needs, perceived barriers to teaching the course, and the
likelihood of agricultural educators adopting the course. Exploratory research was conducted to
identify factors that best predicted the intent of agricultural educators to adopt the course. The
agricultural educators in the study accurately perceived that they lack the knowledge to teach the
Biotechnology and Agriscience Research course. The majority of the educators had not participated
in training related to biotechnology and therefore were ill-prepared to teach concepts related to this
emerging technology. The educators supported the importance of teaching biotechnology and
recognized the benefits of integrated curriculum in agricultural education. They also perceived that
the exterior factors of funding, equipment an teacher knowledge are the largest barriers to adopting
an integrated science curriculum. The Biotechnology and Agriscience Research course has the
necessary support of agricultural educators to propose its continued inclusion in the North Carolina
Workforce Development program of studies. Teachers who were most likely to adopt the
Biotechnology and Agriscience Research course had fewer years of teaching experience, had
attended some biotechnology training and perceived integrated biotechnology curriculum will fulfill
their agricultural education program needs. (Contains 18 references, 5 tables, and 1 figure.)
Consumers and Alliances United for Supported Education (CAUSE) has assisted people with
psychiatric disabilities to attend the postsecondary educational institution of their choice in the
greater Boston metropolitan area since 1991. This article provides the unique grassroots history of
CAUSE and describes the components of this supported education program. In keeping with the
consumer involvement fundamental to its development, CAUSE
The booklet explores the actual and potential relationship between citizenship education and
consumer education. The purpose is to examine key assumptions supporting citizenship and
consumer education and to identify basics that cut across these two approaches to social education.
It is presented in four chapters. Chapter I defines both citizenship and consumer education and
points out that the approaches have a common goal: that of developing peoples' social competence.
It also lists assumptions regarding schooling, particularly that education is an effective way of
achieving the goal, and assumptions regarding citizen and consumer roles, including that the two
roles are separate. Chapter II discusses the relationship of citizen and consumer roles, which fuse
when individuals make decisions that have consequences for all citizens, when economic decisions
are made collectively in the political process, or when individuals consume government services. It
also points out commonalities in the two roles, including that both are subject to the same historical
forces, face common problems, occur in similar settings, and that people exhibit comparable
behavior in both roles. Chapter III offers guidelines for linking citizenship and consumer education by
listing seven citizenship competencies and suggesting several ways these can be used in consumer
education. The conclusion is that the two roles are not separate, and that the linkages between
citizenship and consumer education can provide one useful starting point for integrating social
education. (CK)
The aim of the present study was to assess Israeli certification program for teachers of gifted taking
its initial steps in 5 locations. Research sample comprised 40 stakeholders. Goodlad's model of
curriculum transformation constituted a framework for describing the various programs as they
change from the Ministry to the teachers studying them. Data concerning the different facets
suggested by Goodlad were collected via semi-structured and deep interviews, analysis of
documents, and classroom observations. Significant differences were found between the two types
of certification programs in four of the five facets of curriculum: (a) formal--referring to Ministry
rationale and program design and structure; (b) perceived--referring to local program design, and
program coordinator's role; (c) operational--referring to enactment of perceived curriculum by
lecturer, and contents taught; and (d) experienced-- referring to learners' perception regarding
program contribution and disadvantages. Study findings suggest that both types of certification
programs, although taking a different approach, experienced difficulties along curriculum
transformation. The study proposes factors for examining curriculum transformation in certification
programs, and discusses practical implications for future consideration. (Contains 5 tables.)
The issue of teaching and learning in transnational education has increasingly received attention
through studies about "curriculum internationalization." To date, many of the examples and
theorizations about curriculum internationalization are provided by business courses. This is largely
a function of trade and commercial activities being inherently amenable to globalization forces, and
hence facilitating the business subjects to adopt an international focus in curriculum planning and
design. This article argues that curriculum internationalization also has significance for postgraduate
science and social science programs delivered across borders, citing pharmacy and education as
examples. However, the objectives of curriculum internationalization in these two are not narrowly
focused on the functionalist notion of employability and performance as is found for business
programs. Rather, they are considered to contribute toward the convergence of professionalization
process of pharmacists worldwide for a postgraduate clinical pharmacy program, and the extension
of a community of researchers to novice student researchers located overseas in the case of a
professional doctorate in education. This difference in objectives calls for the construction of a more
robust model of curriculum internationalization to guide international educators in their practice.
(Contains 1 table and 2 notes.)
Adventure in school culture may seem quite a contradiction. In this paper I will present arguments
on the idea that outdoor adventure learning contributes to formal education and is compatible with
school practice and goals. This paper is based on research conducted for my thesis. The doctoral
degree was completed at Oulu University, Finland, in 2005. The study aims to develop and to
enhance outdoor adventure education and experiential learning as an alternative teaching method in
formal school culture. The main purpose of the study is, first, to report on implementing outdoor
adventure-based education, and, second, to describe the learning experiences of pupils who have
undertaken outdoor adventure-based education during a school year (40 weeks) in public schooling.
All the pupils were of average intelligence, but they had problems with their behaviour and
motivation for learning. The general purpose of the study is to introduce an applied qualitative
action-research approach and methodology concerning outdoor adventure education. The research
was designed, conducted, and implemented by myself as a teacher-as-researcher to improve
teaching in my own classroom culture. The findings and ideas that came up during the research are
linked with recent literature on educational reform, which encourages teachers to be collaborators in
revising curriculum, improving their work environment, professionalizing teaching, and developing
policy. As a qualitative researcher, I am an "insider", who has the chance to participate in the life of
the focus group as a member of the group and researcher. At the same time, the teacher as a
researcher is the primary instrument for data collection and analysis into a series of representations,
including field notes, interviews, conversations, photographs, recordings and memos to the self. The
findings of the study would appear to show that the idea of using nature as a context for learning
and the development of ecological awareness will be increasingly essential in the future challenges
of education and that outdoor adventure education can be included in the public school curriculum
as a supportive and holistic pedagogic and teaching method, which maintains motivation and
well-being in the school day. According to the study, especially for pupils with special needs, it can
be implemented as a rehabilitative method without massive costs or resources.
This thesis is a contribution to curriculum theory in environmental education. Its purpose is to
analyze the concept of education as used by environmental educators and to examine how
educational purposes are related to differing concepts of human-environment interactions and the
environmental problematique. It examines three published written curricula using curriculum inquiry
methodology as a means of examining two major claims. The first claim is that curricula in
environmental education have been affected by a focus on environmental issues or problems, which
has resulted in definitions, descriptions and curriculum proposals in the field having a syntax or
narrative structure in the form of problem solving. The second claim of the thesis is that while
different programs share the common underlying syntax they resolve issues concerning the nature
of education, the concept of environment, the role of environmental action projects, and the nature
of schooling in significantly different ways. The thesis critiques the curriculum writings of William B.
Stapp, Harold R. Hungerford, and Michael J. Cohen. Each has published curriculum work in
environmental education and has been active in the development of the field. Their works were
chosen because of their publicly accessible form. The inquiry demonstrates that the three programs
present analyses of current global environmental problems as serious and in need of urgent
attention. All three focus on solving or preventing environmental problems as a major purpose of
environmental education. In spite of the common emphasis on problem solving, the inquiry also
reveals significant differences among the three programs in regard to concepts of education, views
of the environment and the place and role of humans in it, approaches to environmental action
projects as curricular elements, and ideas about the place of environmental education in schools. I
conclude that although some environmental educators view the continuing debate about the nature
and conceptualization of environmental education as needless repetition of issues which have been
satisfactorily resolved, important questions remain to be addressed by curriculum theory in this field.
In order for environmental education to nurture education as opposed to particular ideologies and
beliefs curriculum writers should develop clear concepts of the nature of education and widen the
focus of human environment relations beyond problem solving.
Critiquing and adapting curriculum materials are essential teaching practices but challenging for
many preservice teachers. This study explores the use of educative curriculum materials—materials
intended to support both teacher and student learning—to help preservice elementary teachers
develop their pedagogical design capacity for critiquing and adapting lessons. Preservice teachers
received educative supports highlighting pedagogical principles and rationales for those principles.
When provided with educative supports, most individuals attended to the principles targeted in the
supports, engaged in an in-depth analysis with regard to the principles, and used the rationales from
the supports to justify their analyses. However, few continued to do so in subsequent analyses when
they no longer received support. Implications for science teacher education and curriculum design
are discussed.
In this essay, we state that establishing technology curricula by national governments causes a shift
in the policy actions of educational technology support: from a technical rationale with a main focus
on funding and resources to a pedagogical rationale with a main focus on student competencies.
We illustrate our point of view by describing the formal educational technology curriculum recently
administered by the government in Flanders. This curriculum is written in terms of attainment targets
and has clear implications on the nature of educational technology which is no longer dependent on
teachers' individual efforts or willingness, but is becoming compulsory at the school level.
Furthermore, we present two levers that facilitate the integration process of educational technology
in general and the realization of technology curricula in particular. Technology coordinators should
act more as curriculum managers and change agents, and schools should jointly establish a
technology policy plan.
Twelve industrial arts (IA) teachers and supervisors were interviewed to obtain information on the
significant changes that have occurred in the goals of IA. The issues were the present status of the
IA curriculum in Ohio, the contribution IA makes to vocational education, the relationships between
IA and vocational education, and provision for coordination between IA and vocational education.
The study found a concentrated effort underway to reform the industrial arts curriculum, including a
name change and corresponding emphasis on technology, new purposes, the clustering of
curriculum content, and a recognition of the importance of including the manufacturing process as a
part of the IA/Technology curriculum. Contributions that IA makes to vocational education included
opportunities for awareness, orientation, and exploration; a basic core of technological skills and
knowledge; potential for provision of alternative, hands-on modes for attaining basic skills;
inculcation of technological literacy in youth; and reinforcement of learning from other subjects.
Participants indicated that IA-vocational education relationships were enhanced by coordination
efforts and participation by IA staff in vocational education at the state level; involvement of IA and
vocational education student organizations with each other; and exchange visits between IA and
vocational education personnel in the field. (YLB)
This paper aims to better understand economists' increasingly influential voice to the conversation of
schooling and education. It draws on curriculum theory to develop a framework for analysis of
current economic research in education. The framework consists of the following tri-partition: the
political, the practical, and the programmatical. Through this framework, the authors are able to
discuss a broad range of economics of education articles. The aim is 2-fold: partly to convey
important insights into findings and tools of relevance to educational research, but ultimately to
improve curriculum research. This study draws attention to areas of educational research, and
particularly curriculum theory, where the insights of economists might be used with caution and in
light of current thinking in curriculum research. A central finding from the analysis is that the two
traditions (education and economics) are more complementary than conflicting. Yet, it is argued that,
by failing to engage with educational literature, economists included in this review greatly
over-simplify schooling and education. (Contains 3 notes.)
Many observers have commented on disparities between the theoretical understandings of
environmental education portrayed in academic literature and the environmental education that
takes place in schools. In much of the literature and in curriculum documents there has been an
increasing emphasis on promoting positive attitudes towards the environment, and the results of
several surveys suggest that many teachers support this
A multi-stakeholder-driven model for excellence in higher education curriculum development has
been developed. It is based on the assumption that current efforts to curriculum development take
place within a framework of limited stakeholder consultation. A total of 18 multiple stakeholders are
identified, including learners, alumni, government, local and international universities, research
institutions, SAQA structures and consultants. The model is further based on significant NQF and
OBE alignment of all learning programmes within a multiple stakeholder framework, thereby
ensuring that the need of all stakeholders are firmly embedded in curriculum development.
Additionally, the principles of learner empowerment, employability, transparency and world-class
quality form the foundation of this strategic-driven model for curriculum development. Six phases are
postulated with stakeholder engagement during all phases. Three broad areas of quality planning,
quality management system implementation and quality review are followed throughout the process.
The result is the achievement of excellence in higher education. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)
This curriculum guide provides the framework for integrating humane education into the traditional
elementary school curriculum. The activities in this guide are designed to help students think
critically and clarify their own feelings about various issues, as well as to provide them with factual
information and understandings about animals. Thirty-five concepts have been identified under four
major chapters: (1) Human/Animal Relationships; (2) Pet Animals; (3) Wild Animals; and (4) Farm
Animals. Chapters contain concepts and activities for each of the four curriculum areas: Language
Arts, Social Studies, Mathematics, and Health/Science. The curriculum guide consists of four books
encompassing the following levels: Preschool to Kindergarten, grades 1-2, 3-4, and 5-6. The same
subtitles are used in each of the four levels. Appendices have lists of humane education resource
organizations and addresses of resource publishers. (YP)
Could marketing coursework be part of the general education requirements for all college students?
This article describes the ways in which the professional school marketing curriculum model
(Schibrowsky, Peltier, & Boyt, 2002) can complement and enhance liberal arts education outcomes.
First, the general relationship between liberal arts education and business education is reviewed.
Second, the relevance of specific marketing curriculum outcomes to the broadly established goals of
a liberal arts education is discussed. Third, a model is developed that details these relationships,
addressing theory-driven outcomes, practice-driven outcomes, and blended (theory + practice)
outcomes. Finally, the article offers specific recommendations by which marketing educators can
tailor their curricular offerings to enhance their contribution to a liberal arts education in the areas of
critical and reflective thinking, formation of abstract concepts and theory, analytical skills,
independent and creative thinking, leadership skills, social and emotional judgment, and oral and
written communication skills. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)
With the gloomy prospect of massive language extinction over the next 100 years, efforts by applied
linguists, educational anthropologists, and multilingual educators to reverse the trends in language
loss are increasing. Education in minority languages seems to be a key to maintaining endangered
languages and cultures. One often cited challenge to effective minority language education in
multilingual settings is the difficulty of developing curriculum and instructional material in many
languages. In this paper, current efforts in minority language education are described and patterns
analysed. Minority language communities themselves are a major source of what is necessary--but
rarely sufficient--educationally. Endangered language communities cannot go it alone. The author
suggests several key collaborations between the minority communities and outside organisations
and agencies. In addition, a generalised curriculum development resource is suggested as
facilitative of community-based education programmes that result in effective, culturally appropriate
instruction. (Contains 1 table and 17 notes.)
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on efforts to develop two stand-alone subjects on
sustainability and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in a mainstream business curriculum at
Monash University, Australia. Design/methodology/approach: This paper presents details on the
educational rationale and design of the two subjects in corporate sustainability and CSR. Findings:
Although many universities offer support for education for sustainability, previous research indicates
that most curriculum initiatives in this area have been driven by individual faculty. This paper
provides examples of curriculum development that emerged from the grass-roots initiative, in the
absence of an integrated and mainstreamed programme for sustainability. Practical implications:
The paper encourages all faculty, no matter their circumstances, to consider the development of
curriculum for sustainability. While individual subjects cannot effect wholesale change, each effort
can, no matter how piecemeal, make a difference. Originality/value: The cases in this paper highlight
the importance of skills, knowledge and values to the curriculum for sustainability and CSR.
Because there is no formula for how these are integrated into the curriculum, the paper illustrates
how individual faculty members have brought their own disciplinary and pedagogical backgrounds to
their curriculum design. (Contains 1 table.)
Background: State school physical education (PE) programmes are common throughout Greece.
However, it is not known if the main objectives of the Greek PE curriculum are achieved.Objective:
To assess the current national PE curriculum in relation to selected motor and cardiovascular health
related fitness parameters.Methods: A sample of 84 Greek schoolboys (mean (SD) age 13.6 (0.3)
years, height 160.7 (8.6)
With the publication of the National Science Education Standards and the National Council of
Teachers of Mathematics' Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics, a clear set
of goals and guidelines for achieving literacy in mathematics and science was established.
Designing Mathematics or Science Curriculum Programs has been developed to help state- and
district-level education leaders create coherent, multi-year curriculum programs that provide
students with opportunities to learn both mathematics and science in a connected and cumulative
way throughout their schooling. Researchers have confirmed that as U.S. students move through
the grade levels, they slip further and further behind students of other nations in mathematics and
science achievement. Experts now believe that U.S. student performance is hindered by the lack of
coherence in the mathematics and science curricula in many American schools. By structuring
curriculum programs that capitalize on what students have already learned, the new concepts and
processes that they can learn will be richer, more complex, and at a higher level. Designing
Mathematics or Science Curriculum Programs outlines: Components of effective mathematics and
science programs. Criteria by which these components can be judged. A process for developing
curriculum that is structured, focused, and coherent. Perhaps most important, this book emphasizes
the need for designing curricula across the entire 13-year span that our children spend in
elementary and secondary school as a way to improve the quality of education. Ultimately, it will
help state and district educators use national and state standards to design or re-build mathematics
and science curriculum programs that develop new ideas and skills based on earlier ones--from
lesson to lesson, unit to unit, year to year. Anyone responsible for designing or influencing
mathematics or science curriculum programs will find this guide valuable.
This article describes the development of a gross anatomy course (lab and lecture) at a new medical
school in Namibia. The goal of the article is to demonstrate how building a school from the ground
up allows for a school to incorporate research based practices into a curriculum and facility structure
with ease.
School gardens have many benefits for students which include helping students make nutritious
choices, encouraging students to be environmentally conscious, and providing experiential learning.
School gardens have great potential to be an effective learning tool if incorporated into the
classroom. The purpose of this project is to evaluate how gardening is being integrated into
classroom curriculum in several schools in
This curriculum guide was developed to help teachers and administrators in Connecticut Regional
Vocational Agriculture Centers to update and upgrade their vocational agriculture curriculum in the
areas of career development, supervised agricultural experience (SAE), and Future Farmers of
America (FFA). The curriculum incorporates the competencies related to each area and integrates
them with elements of Connecticut's Common Core of Learning. An emphasis is placed on new and
emerging, as well as current, occupations. The three sections of the curriculum guide, Career
Development, FFA, and SAE, provide two to six units for each of the three areas. Information
provided includes the following: length of study, when taught, competencies, course outline, teacher
and student activities, evaluation criteria, references and resources, and a unit review for teachers to
return to the curriculum committee. Topics covered in the career development curriculum are as
follows: career exploration and self-awareness, goal setting and job exploration, obtaining
employment and job application, and post high-school plans. The FFA curriculum includes the
following: introduction to the FFA, programs and activities, FFA leadership, applications and
programs, banquets and beyond, and parliamentary procedure. The two units of the supervised
agricultural experience curriculum are SAE programs and ideas for SAE projects. Two appendixes
provide sample forms and records and explain the relationship of vocational education in agriculture
to the Connecticut Common Core of Learning. A bibliography lists 20 references. (KC)
In this paper I discuss some aspects of recent scholarship on rhetoric and the curriculum, making a
distinction between approaches that use insight from rhetoric to analyse formal and informal
curricula and approaches that develop programmatic suggestions for the conduct of education. In
the paper I deploy an educational perspective which I distinguish from a perspective that sees
education mainly as a process of the socialization of individuals into existing social, cultural and
political ways of doing and being. I focus on three aspects of the discussion: the conceptions of
education that are being used in the discussion and, more specifically, the way in which the
rhetorical approach is connected to the ideas of "paideia" and "Bildung"; the particular
understanding of language in the rhetorical approach to the curriculum; and the question whether
the rhetorical curriculum should be understood in terms of empowerment or in terms of
emancipation. I argue for a more consistent and more radical adoption of insights from rhetorical
scholarship in order to make the rhetorical curriculum more educational and more politically aware. I
capture this with the idea of becoming "world-wise" as an alternative for the idea that the rhetorical
curriculum should contribute to making students "symbol-wise".
A systematic review of the published work on consumer involvement in the education of health
professionals was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines. Searches of the CINAHL, MEDLINE,
and PsychINFO electronic databases returned 487 records, and 20 met the inclusion criteria.
Further papers were obtained through scanning the reference lists of those articles included from
the initial published work search (n?=?9) and contacting researchers in the field (n?=?1). Thirty
papers (representing 28 studies) were included in this review. Findings from three studies indicate
that consumer involvement in the education of mental health professionals is limited and variable
across professions. Evaluations of consumer involvement in 16 courses suggest that students gain
insight into consumers' perspectives of: (i) what life is like for people with mental illness; (ii) mental
illness itself; (iii) the experiences of admission to, and treatment within, mental health services; and
(iv) how these services could be improved. Some students and educators, however, raised
numerous concerns about consumer involvement in education (e.g. whether consumers were
pursuing their own agendas, whether consumers' views were representative). Evaluations of
consumer involvement in education are limited in that their main focus is on the perceptions of
students. The findings of this review suggest that public policy expectations regarding consumer
involvement in mental health services appear to be slowly affecting the education of mental health
professionals. Future research needs to focus on determining the effect of consumer involvement in
education on the behaviours and attitudes of students in healthcare environments. PMID:23586597
Art and Design Curriculum taught in secondary schools in Kenya is intended not only to prepare
learners for a vocation in Art and Design industry but also to complement literacy, scientific and
factual subjects by awakening creativity in the individual. It is part of the government policy of
diversification and vocationalization of the curriculum. However, enrolment of students in this subject
has gone down to as low as one (1) student in form four classes in some schools. The number of
schools offering Art and Design Curriculum has also gone down drastically since the inception of the
diversified and vocationalized 8. 4. 4 system of education in Kenya in 1985. The 8 - 4 - 4 system is a
structure of education in Kenya with 8 years of primary education, 4 years of secondary education
and a minimum of 4 years of University education. The survival of this subject in the Kenyan School
Curriculum is therefore worrying to the stakeholders. The attitude of the learners towards a subject
of study greatly influences the readiness of learners to take it or perform well in it. This article is
based on a study carried out in secondary schools in Nyanza province of Kenya. Objectives of the
study were to find out the attitude of Teachers and Students towards Art and Design Curriculum and
to determine the differences in attitudes between Teachers and Students. Respondents were 113
students taking Art and Design, 131 students who had dropped Art and Design and 15 teachers of
Art and Design Curriculum. The findings of the study revealed that students who had dropped Art
and Design Curriculum and Teachers of Art and Design Curriculum had negative attitudes towards
the curriculum. Although students taking Art and Design liked the subject their reasons for this were
not fully in line with the objectives of the curriculum. Some of the students were taking the subject for
merely boosting their Kenya Certificate of Secondary Examination (K. C. S. E) result. Based on
these findings, it is recommended that students be given proper career guidance on Art and Design
Curriculum. The subject should also be made compulsory in Forms 1 and 2 to give early opportunity
to students to identify their talents. (Contains 5 tables and 3 figures.)
Due to the growing problems of an unsustainable world, this qualitative, phenomenological study
was designed to investigate the process of developing and integrating sustainability curriculum into
general education requirements in higher education. The researcher interviewed six participants
from different parts of the world who had first-hand experience participating and directing a
sustainability education program in order to better understand the process of teaching and learning
sustainability. Specifically, the participants have not only practiced sustainability curriculum, but
have also lived in a completely sustainable ecovillage. The interview data revealed participants'
insights which gave multiple suggestions for designing curriculum and developing teaching
methodology for a sustainability program within traditional higher education institutions. In addition,
seven themes emerged from the interview responses revolving around sustainability curriculum:
spontaneity, the three R's are good but not enough, difficulty, education at all levels, sustainability as
a way of life, experiential learning methodology, and hope. The researcher found that education is
the key to integrating sustainability into higher education, and experiential learning is the preferred
methodology for teaching and learning sustainability. [The dissertation citations contained here are
published with the permission of ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without
permission. Copies of dissertations may be obtained by Telephone (800) 1-800-521-0600. Web
How has entrepreneurship education been implemented in Finnish comprehensive schools. A
two-part survey was undertaken in 43 municipalities with different educational and socio-economic
backgrounds. The first part, in 2005, dealt with the local curriculum reform with a focus on the
development of entrepreneurship education. The second part, in 2006, dealt with the
implementation of entrepreneurship education. Questionnaires were sent to the representatives of
the education and business sectors in the municipalities. The research questions were: (1) What is
the sense of responsibility for implementing entrepreneurship education? (2) What kind of
knowledge is there about entrepreneurship education? The results indicate that an atmosphere of
responsibility for implementing entrepreneurship education is developing, although teachers do not
possess knowledge of how to implement entrepreneurship education in practice. To develop such
new curricular fields, such as entrepreneurship education, one could develop partnership forms of
curriculum reform in order to develop teachers' learning, school/work partnerships, and local
curriculum work. Reforms need to be framed in practice-oriented terms, thus strengthening the
realization of aims and contents. (Contains 3 figures and 9 notes.)
This paper reviews and discusses the current literature relating to the drivers and barriers for a
successful waste management curriculum at higher education level. The intention is to use this
review to advise educational standards within the tertiary education sector so as to meet industry
requirements. The paper presents a review of the UK&apos;s system for education and training
within the waste management sector over the past decade, and discusses in what ways this
approach could be successfully applied to the Australian sector. The paper concludes with a
rationale for current research being undertaken within Australia, which seeks to identify which
curriculum and pedagogic approaches are best suited for developing the skills of effective waste
management practitioners both within the industry and for those graduating from higher education.
The case made is that there is an absence of clear standards, educational provisions and
certification for this growing industry within Australia, which inhibits the development of an effective
waste management sector.
In this article, data collected from an ethnographic study of adolescent girls growing up in the city of
Las Vegas in the US is used to further our understanding of the role of mediated sex and consumer
culture and in relationship to emerging adolescent female identities. Girls in this study articulated a
clear sense of their abilities to make choices; however the ubiquitous visual of women as the body
subject and object of the male gaze in this landscape, the accepted discourse of liberal feminism
and certain acquiescence to the pervasive consumer logic complicate resistance among girls.
Resistance, although apparent through forms of post-punk representation, depicts the futility of
challenge. The fluidity of postmodern theories helps explain and respond to the specificity of this
context in ways that facilitate greater understanding of gender oppression in many western
societies. The author argues for a curriculum that deconstructs cultural practices and illuminates
multiple discourses to problematize issues of power and identity in the lives of young people that
might provide avenues for emancipatory possibilities.
Today's youth are preparing a number of their own meals and snacks, completing household
chores, and laundering their own clothing. Often, these tasks are performed using home equipment
while home alone or without adult supervision. Fewer home equipment courses are taught within
secondary Family and Consumer Sciences curriculum and students may graduate without suitable
skills to help them operate equipment
A number of recent policies have tried to improve science learning by increasing the number of
science courses required for high school graduation or admission to higher education institutions.
But it is highly unlikely that these mandates alone will materially affect the amount and quality of
science education for students. Any effort to improve the outcome of science education must
carefully consider the effectiveness of the science curriculum. This paper examines options for
improving the science curriculum based on research, best extant practices and experience in other
countries. Although the word "curriculum" has acquired many different meanings, both in the
professional literature and in lay usage, this paper defines curriculum as the intended substantive
and pedagogic content of science education to be presented to students in order to develop their
knowledge and skills. Alternatives for productivity enhancement are grouped as follows: (1) time; (2)
topic and course sequence; (3) curriculum content; and (4) instructional strategies. A summary and
discussion are provided. A list of 88 references is included. (CW)
Portfolios are collections of selected student work representing an array of performance. This
"Consumer Guide" presents information on what has been learned about using portfolios for
administrative purposes, the problems involved, and possible solutions to these problems. Student
portfolios are being used administratively for accountability reporting, program evaluation, and a
variety of administrative decisions affecting the future of individual students. However, many
questions are being asked about these uses, including the technical adequacy of portfolios for
administrative purposes and how administrative use affects the utility of portfolios as instruction
tools. Some of the problems with portfolios are: (1) students may be ill-prepared to carry out work
that is a required part of a portfolio; (2) different students have worked on different tasks or projects;
(3) teachers have used different criteria for rating portfolio work; (4) teachers' guidance and peer
review are different in different classrooms; (5) students have worked on only a small number of
tasks. Remedies are suggested for each of these problems. This education system in general, a
broader, less well-defined audience. This shift is not necessarily negative. Some research projects
in this area are reviewed, and a list of 10 additional sources of information is included. (SLD)
This paper explores, in an Australian context, effective multicultural curriculum strategies which can
be developed at the school level. Many factors which impinge upon curriculum development and
outcomes are beyond the control of individual schools, including state multicultural education policy
and its relationship to more general curriculum policy, funding procedures, the narrow orientation of
some teacher education, school staffing policies, and competing social education goals. Most
educators agree that multicultural education should promote tolerance and intercultural
understanding. However, teaching about "different cultures" can still leave students blind to society's
inequalities and how they are perpetuated. Fundamentals of good multicultural education include
attention to (1) the community's social composition and climate; (2) quality English language
teaching; (3) compulsory learning of a language other than English; (4) incorporation of multicultural
perspectives into existing school subjects; (5) students' personal development; (6) involvement of all
parents; (7) use of bias-free instructional materials and resources; and (8) avoidance of cultural
misunderstanding or racism in the treatment of minority students and staff. School policymakers
should welcome input from staff, parents, and students, use information on the school community,
understand the school as an organization, work through the existing curriculum to develop
multicultural perspectives, and realize the importance of teaching methods and classroom
interactions. Documentation and dissemination of successful programs is vital. 8 references. (SV)
A study examined the operations and management of the National Network for Curriculum
Coordination in Vocational and Technical Education (NNCCVTE) and developed information to
assist in the design of an evaluative study of the network's impact on users of its services. (Since its
inception in 1972, the NNCCVTE has provided a mechanism for state and local education agencies
to coordinate curriculum activities and to share curriculum resources.) It was concluded that the
original objectives of the network have remained largely unchanged since the program's inception.
State liaison representatives are the primary users of the network's services. The six NNCCVTE
centers each provide a variety of services in three broad areas: capacity building, information
resources, and outreach activities. In recent years, the NNCCVTE has invested considerable
resources in developing electronic communication systems such as the Vocational Education
Curriculum Materials System (VECM). In addition, individual centers have developed linkages with a
number of other vocational education information-sharing organizations and, overall, the network
maintains close ties with the National Center for Research in Vocational Education. The individual
centers have not developed uniform guidelines for evaluating the quality of curricula and do not
routinely screen curricula; however, they have contributed to a general improvement in the quality of
available vocational education curricula and have been active in reducing duplication and in
disseminating newly developed materials. Recommendations were developed concerning the
design of an NNCCVTE user study. (Profiles of the six regional NNCCVTE centers are appended.)
Background: During the era of education reform, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region has
launched a series of measures to enhance the learning of the students and the effectiveness of
teaching. In the Curriculum Development Council document, Learning to Learn--the Way Forward in
Curriculum, the policy of school-based curriculum is advocated. The aim is to allow "schools to have
more autonomy in choosing some contents more relevant to their students so long as they are in
line with the curriculum aims, strands, principles of learning/teaching, with justifiable modifications
that suit their students most". This paper reports a case study of a local primary school in
implementing the school-based curriculum in General Studies (GS) from 2003 to 2006. Aims: To
study why the school initiated such educational change, the strategies teachers employed and
difficulties they encountered. Recommendations are made for teachers and administrators who want
to initiate educational change in schools. Sample: The head teacher, the subject panel, level
co-coordinators and subject teachers were interviewed. Parents and students were also invited to fill
in questionnaires by the end of the school year. Method: Qualitative research method such as in
depth interview and quantitative research method such as filling in questionnaires were employed.
Results: Most of the teachers claimed that it is the school administration who initiated the adoption
of the school-based curriculum policy. Though they tried their best to deal with various difficulties,
worked hard, prepared lessons jointly, and claimed that students showed more interest in lessons,
some did not have the ownership of the school-based curriculum development. Conclusion: The
implementation and institutionalization of any educational change requires more than willing
individual teachers, e.g. the subject panel or level coordinators. Rather, there needs to be a deep
re-conceptualisation of the nature of knowledge, teaching, learning, and changes in the practises of
the subject department, supported by the head teacher, school administration, parents and
. Degenerative or systemic diseases affecting the cardiovascular system i. GOALS: 1. Review of
most common cardiovascular disease states. Overall objectives of the rotation will include: Specific
educational goals students relevant topics to management and understanding of cardiovascular
diseases Progressive Education
This document supplements the Manitoba Department of Education Physical Education Curriculum
Guide (1981). It provides an outline of the philosophy and purpose of interscholastic athletic
programs. Guidelines are provided for the organization of interscholastic sports programs and their
implementation. Topics covered include: (1) the purpose of interscholastic athletics; (2) benefits of
interscholastic programs; (3) the history and structure of the Manitoba High Schools Athletic
Association; (4) participants' responsibilities for the interscholastic athletics program; (5) codes of
ethics; (6) safety; (7) organization of practice and games; (8) qualities of a good coach; (9) public
relations; (10) legal responsibility; and (11) related issues and concerns. Appendices include
information on injuries, fund raising, the role of the student manager, and sample letters to parents.
A 13-item bibliography is included. (JD)
Why do the designers of environmental education do what they do towards the environment through
education? More importantly, how do they account for their design decisions (plans and actions)?
Using the theoretical and methodological framework of discourse analysis, we analyse
environmental education designers' discourse in terms of the discursive resources—or interpretive
repertoires—that they use to (a) make their position, (b)
This curriculum guide contains a six-unit, two-level program combining animal science and
veterinary care for youth club leaders and members in grades three through twelve. The Facilitator
and Educator/Leader Introductions describe the program, the goals, and the students who will
participate. The six lesson plans contain what the lesson is about, what the students will learn,
materials needed, time needed, the activity, background for the teacher, educator/leader notes, and
an activity sheet. The unit topics are as follows: (1) Attitudes and responsibilities towards animals
and food production that promote animal well-being and product quality; (2) animal handling and
exhibition promoting animal well-being and product quality; (3) housing livestock to promote animal
well-being and product quality; (4) livestock feeds and feeding to promote animal well-being and
product quality; (5) promoting animal well-being and product quality through proper animal health
practices; and (6) public perception of animal agriculture. Evaluation tools included with the program
are the following: (1) advancement program guides for the educator and youths describing skill
levels that must be gained to complete each level; (2) fair checklists for the livestock department at
the local fair; (3) packer carcass evaluation forms; and (4) exhibitor checklists to provide youths with
immediate feedback on animal care. (SLR)
The goal of the Deconstructing Engineering Education Programmes project is to revise the
mechanical engineering undergraduate curriculum to make the discipline more able to attract and
retain a diverse community of students. The project seeks to reduce and reorder the prerequisite
structure linking courses to offer greater flexibility for students. This paper describes the methods
used to study the prerequisites and the resulting proposed curriculum revision. The process involved
dissecting each course into topics at roughly the level of a line in a syllabus, editing the list of topics,
associating prerequisites and successors to each topic and then using a genetic algorithm to
produce clusters of topics. The new curriculum, which consists of 12 clusters, each of which could
be a full year course, is quite different from the traditional curriculum. (Contains 1 note, 3 tables, and
2 figures.)
Due to the changing labor market needs, a statewide core curriculum for the general marketing
program for Wisconsin was explored. Voluntary standardization has resulted in difficulty in
determining a mandated curriculum. In 1984, a national model core curriculum, occupational valid
competencies, and a mission of marketing education were developed. Two surveys on program
courses were administered in two separate mailings (N=185). Based upon the combination data,
most core courses were accepted as a part of the common core. It was recommended that the
course on business law be taught by local colleges. Ten marketing program core course titles ware
developed: (1) marketing principles; (2) marketing information management; (3) promotion
principles; (4) selling principles; (5) supervisory principles; (6) economics; (7) business law; (8)
accounting; (9) marketing mathematics; and (10) microcomputer applications. In addition, core
curriculum concepts were developed and implemented for each course. (NLA)
Standardized course titles and core contents for seven marketing and cooperative vocational
education courses in Mississippi are provided: (1) marketing education, part one; (2) marketing
education, part two; (3) fashion merchandising; (4) marketing cooperative education, part one; (5)
marketing cooperative education, part two; (6) diversified occupations cooperative education, part
one; and (7) diversified occupations cooperative education, part two. Each unit consists of these
components: objectives, with core/essential objectives indicated; suggested instructional practices;
list of suggested resources; list of evaluation and suggested minimum performance standards, with
core/essential objectives indicated; and performance record, with core/essential objectives
indicated. A checklist for each course combining all unit performance standards into a single list is
included. (NLA)
Environmental education has been incorporated into both the school curriculum and teacher
education for vocational agriculture in Michigan. It is, for the most part, not a separate program area
but is integrated into production units. The same instructional method for teaching environmental
education is followed as for any other topic, predominantly problem solving. The agricultural teacher
education program at Michigan State University contains significant amounts of emphasis on
environmental education through specific courses and integrated parts of other courses. Major
achievements in the incorporation of environmental education into agricultural education are: (1)
curriculum revision and inservice education in teacher education; and (2) curriculum revision and
Future Farmers of America contests and awards for students. Major constraints include insufficient
course offerings and local school district autonomy. Strategies for incorporating environmental
education into agricultural education are active state support, leadership, expanded knowledge base
of teachers, and curriculum development. Documents and activities need to be developed to support
teachers and assist regional leaders. (Appendixes include requirements for the major in natural
resources and environmental education and three course descriptions.) (YLB)
As one part of a series of studies undertaken to investigate the contribution of developmental
attributes of learners to school learning, a representative sample of forty-two students (age from 5
years and 3 months to 13 years and 1 month) was randomly selected from a total student population
of 142 students at a small private primary school in northern Australia. Those children's
understandings of area concepts taught during the primary school years were assessed by their
performance in two testing situations. The first consisted of a written classroom test of ability to
solve area problems with items drawn directly from school texts, school examinations and other
relevant curriculum documents. The second, which focused more directly on each child's cognitive
development, was an individual interview for each child in which four "area" tasks such as the
Meadows and Farmhouse Experiment taken from Chapter 11 of The Child's Conception of
Geometry (Piaget, Inhelder and Szeminska, 1960, pp. 261-301) were administered. Analysis using
the Rasch Partial Credit Model provided a finely detailed quantitative description of the
developmental and learning progressions revealed in the data. It is evident that the school
mathematics curriculum does not satisfactorily match the learner's developmental sequence at
some key points. Moreover, the children's ability to conserve area on the Piagetian tasks, rather
than other learner characteristics, such as age and school grade seems to be a precursor for
complete success on the mathematical test of area. The discussion focuses on the assessment of
developmental (and other) characteristics of school-aged learners and suggests how curriculum and
school organization might better capitalize on such information in the design and sequencing of
learning experiences for school children. Some features unique to the Rasch family of measurement
models are held to have special significance in elucidating the development/attainment nexus.
Although hip hop culture has been one of the most significant urban youth movements over the last
three decades, it has only recently gained attention within the educational literature as a force to be
reckoned with. And even then, much of the literature seeks to understand how hip hop can be used
to engage students in the official school curriculum. In contrast, in this paper, the author looks
critically at hip hop's curricular dimensions; that is, what hip hop might teach educators not only
about the way in which the last three generations of young urban dwellers negotiate identity and
difference across cycles of urban blight and ongoing educational disenfranchisement but also about
the limitations and possibilities of our work as educators. Drawing on curriculum theory and critical
race theory, the author contends that an important part of re-imagining the relationship among
education, social justice, and hip hop culture is beginning with a critical awareness of how the
curriculum of hip hop culture counters the hegemony of the official school curriculum. (Contains 2
Healthcare reform has created a new working environment for practicing physicians, as economic
issues have become inseparably intertwined with clinical practice. Although physicians have
recognized this change, and some are returning to school for formal education in business and
healthcare administration, formal education may not be practical or desirable for the majority of
practicing physicians. Other curriculum models to meet the needs of these professionals should be
considered, particularly given the growing interest in continuing education for physicians in the areas
of managed care and related aspects of practice management. Currently, no theory-based models
for implementing a managed care curriculum specifically for working physicians have been
developed. This paper will integrate diffusion theory, instructional systems design theory, and
learning theory as they apply to the implementation of a managed care curriculum for continuing
medical education. Through integration of theory with practical application, a CME curriculum for
practicing physicians can be both innovative as well as effective. This integration offers the benefit
of educational programs within the context of realistic situations that physicians can apply to their
own work settings. PMID:10169251
The article documents the complex process of changing Argentina's science curriculum and
implementing those changes over the last 15 years. It recounts how reformers tackled the
challenges of balancing national (federal) unity in education with local (provincial) autonomy from
the political, social and pedagogical points of view. It also analyzes various attempts to improve
science education in Argentina from the viewpoint of their relevance to current developments in
various areas of scientific knowledge and human action. In Argentina the effort to ensure equal
opportunities for learners at the federal level led to a strong emphasis on developing Common Basic
Contents (CBC) for both primary and secondary education. These contents were seen as
fundamental components of the competencies that students need in a world increasingly driven by
science and technology. Meanwhile, however, Argentina lacked adequate and sustainable policies
and strategies for teacher education and training, which led to an unexpected complication: while
the curriculum development process led to diverse and sometimes quite sophisticated curriculum
documents, the actual quality of science teaching in the classroom did not improve significantly, and
teachers still felt the need for more support before they could effectively implement the new science
curriculum. The article ends by suggesting ways in which various stakeholders can work together
intensively to improve science education in Argentina, in a new process that will respond to the
current situation.
Given the efforts of comprehensive school reform to improve the quality of educational opportunities
for students by providing a standards based curriculum, this analysis examines the issue of tracking
and its implications regarding curriculum differentiation. Using data from middle schools involved
with the comprehensive school reform model, America's Choice, this mixed method analysis shows
a complex manifestation of curriculum differentiation where schools had multiple types of academic
tracks that responded to students differences including comprehensive learning groups,
subject-specific groups, and temporary learning groups used for test preparation. Although
school-level reports indicated that most regular education and gifted students were exposed to the
America's Choice English Language Arts and mathematics units, special education students and
English Language learners were least likely to gain access to this content. Individual teacher
responses to tracking were idiosyncratic where some modified the curriculum and instructional pace
by learning group ultimately impacting the amount of content exposure where those in the top
learning groups were able to cover greater material than those in lower groups. Even though some
teachers resisted tracking by addressing the classroom issues that caused differences in curriculum
and instruction, tracking persisted as an entrenched practice in these middle schools through
preexisting academic groups and were also replicated in new learning groups that emerged to
address student academic needs related to state testing demands. (Contains 7 tables and 6 notes.)
This paper describes research into teachers' perceptions of technology education carried out as part
of the Learning in Technology\\u000a Education Project. Thirty primary and secondary school
teachers were interviewed. Secondary teachers interpreted technology\\u000a education in terms of
their subject subcultures as did some primary teachers. The primary teachers were also influenced
by\\u000a current initiatives, outside school interests and teaching programs.
Examines recent trends in early childhood education practice: the education of all children in
inclusive classes, the management of vertical and horizontal transitions, the emergence of early
childhood education and care programs, the development of school-family-community partnerships,
the emphasis on language learning and emergent literacy, the integration of classroom learning, and
the application of technology. Concludes that it is important to determine an innovation's worth and
applicability before adoption. (KB)
Elementary education in China is mainly subject-based and courses are offered by discipline.
Because of this, it is impossible to offer a special course in environmental education in elementary
schools. This article explains that the best approach to teach environmental education to elementary
schools is to integrate environmental education by organically incorporating environmental
protection into various activities in different courses. In order for this approach to be effective,
educators must be well aware of the importance of environmental protection and they should be
familiar with environmental protection laws and regulations issued by the central and local
government. In addition, teachers must recognize that there are common features, as well as
distinct differences, between environmental protection classes and ordinary classes. The common
features of environmental education and ordinary education are as follows: (1) Clear objective; (2)
Accurate content; (3) Proper method; and (4) Compact structure. On the other hand, the differences
of the two include: (1) Environmental education can only be provided through integration into other
courses; (2) Environmental education must address the society, the way people live, and its impact
on nature.
This curriculum guide provides materials for activities related to energy sources, forms, and uses
that can be used in grades 7 through 12 and adapted to social studies, science, home economics,
and industrial arts. The time requirement for implementation is 3 to 6 weeks. Three transparencies
are first provided for use as study aids. A list of energy sources follows that the instructor may use to
choose facets of energy to emphasize. Lesson 1 consists of materials designed to determine
students' awareness of house areas where energy can be saved. Objectives; activities; resources,
materials and equipment; an enrichment activity; an energy attitude survey; and a pretest are
provided. Lesson 2 offers information on home energy use, including terms and definitions, and
continues the pretest. Material on cutting energy use and three student activities are provided.
Lesson 3 presents objectives, activities, transparencies, informative materials, and student activities
on factors affecting energy use in home heating and cooling. A Student Schoolhouse Energy Survey
follows that provides students with practical experience in detecting energy waste. Other materials
include an activity on exponential growth and test items (with an answer key) that may be used as a
pre- or post-test, a final examination, or several quizzes. (YLB)
Background: In the early 1980s, the author of this article researched, in her M.Ed thesis, the state of
adult education in Hong Kong with regard to its general support and delivery through university
channels. At that time, adult education had a separate identity and, since, has generally become
vocationalized, creditized or subsumed into postsecondary education and part-time higher
education. Dr. Shak's recent book to be published: Lifelong Education: Consensus in Characteristics
and Practices (2008), describes what adult education has evolved into globally. In this article, her
research of the 1980s is revisited and considered in contemporary context. Aims: The study
explored a training programme for adult educators in universities in Hong Kong. Administrative
arrangements, including funding, staffing, the provision of facilities, and a curriculum were of key
focus. Interviewees were immersed in the adult education of their era. Method: An examination of
administrative arrangements and development of curriculum was done based on a needs
assessment model. Identification of problems was based on literature internationally, and
questionnaires and interviews with respect to relative stakeholders. Results: Findings were that, for
adult education, universities were ideal for training administrators and specialists who could, in turn,
provide part-time in-service training for volunteers and part-time teachers. Further, an appropriate
curriculum was devised. Conclusion: Dr. Shak's research of some 25 years ago yielded seven
recommendations, all of which--of interest--now characterize (in some form) not only education in
Hong Kong, but also continuing education and lifelong education globally today. This article provides
information that highlights the historical, conceptual, and empirical development of adult education
and its derivatives that point the way to the future.
The anatomy curriculum at Namibia's first, and currently only, medical school is clinically oriented,
outcome-based, and includes all of the components of modern anatomical sciences i.e., histology,
embryology, neuroanatomy, gross, and clinical anatomy. The design of the facilities and the
equipment incorporated into these facilities were directed toward simplification of work flow and
ease of use by faculty, staff, and students. From the onset, the integration of state of the art
technology was pursued to facilitate teaching and promote a student-centered pedagogical
approach to dissections. The program, as realized, is comprised of three 16-week semesters with
seven hours of contact time per week, namely three hours of lectures and four hours of dissection
laboratory and microscopy time. Set outcomes were established, each revolving around clinical
cases with integrated medical imaging. The design of the facility itself was not constrained by a
legacy structure, allowing the School of Medicine, in collaboration with architects and contractors, to
design the building from scratch. A design was implemented that allows for the sequential
processing of cadaveric material in a unidirectional flow from reception, to preparation, embalming,
storage, dissection, and maceration. Importantly, the odor of formaldehyde typically associated with
anatomy facilities was eliminated outside of the dissection areas and minimized within via a
high-performance ventilation system. By holistically incorporating an integrated curriculum, facility
design, and teaching at an early stage, the authors believe they have created a system that might
serve as a model for new anatomy programs.
This document presents the results of "Internationalizing the Curriculum," a project designed to
enhance the global knowledge and experiences of students and faculty at Jefferson College
(Missouri). Specifically, this project encouraged the infusion of international dimensions into selected
courses from several disciplines. The methodology used was the curriculum module approach.
Modules could be one week or one month long, or the unit could be broken into smaller parts spread
out over a semester. Each instructor selected the length and subject of the module to specifically
match course content. College faculty members from the academic side, the vocational-technical
side, and the area technical school (high school) participated. Over 300 students have participated
in the project since spring 2001. Overall, students gained a substantial amount of new knowledge
about other cultures, people, and ideas. All the instructors reported significant levels of comparative
cultural discussion and analytic debate among their students. This document includes summaries
from each instructor of the 18 international modules. The summaries include a description of the
modules, specific resources used, a discussion of the objectives and goals, at least two
feedback/assessment forms, and conclusions regarding the efficacy of the modules for the students
and instructor. (KP)
There is growing concern about falling levels of student engagement with school science, as
evidenced by studies of student attitudes, and decreasing participation at the post compulsory level.
One major response to this, the Australian School Innovation in Science, Technology and
Mathematics (ASISTM) initiative, involves partnerships between schools and community and
industry organisations in developing curriculum projects at the local level. This project fulfils many of
the conditions advocated to engage students in learning in the sciences. ASISTM is underpinned by
the notion of innovation. This paper describes the findings of case study research in which 16
ASISTM projects were selected as innovation exemplars. A definition of innovation and an
innovation framework were developed, through which the case studies were analysed to make
sense of the significance of the ideas and practices, participating actors, and outcomes of the
projects. Through this analysis we argue that innovation is a powerful idea for framing curriculum
development in the sciences at the local level that is generative for students and teachers, and that
these ASISTM projects provide valuable models for engaging students, and for teacher professional
In the past several years, curriculum reform has received increasing attention from educators in
many countries around the world. Recently, Taiwan has developed new Science and Life
Technology Curriculum Standards (SaLTS) for grades 1-9. SaLTS features a systematic way for
developing students' understanding and appreciation of individual-society-nature interactions, which
are well aligned with the philosophical essence and foundations of Earth Systems Education (ESE).
Implementation of several ESE-inspired curricula or instructional modules in the secondary schools
of Taiwan have all demonstrated promise in improving students' abilities both in their cognitive and
affective domains. Moreover, several empirical studies suggest that implementing the Earth-system
integrated theme has the potential to serve as a model for future development of an integrated
science curriculum and instruction, not only in Taiwan but also worldwide.
A trained cadre of medical education scholars with a focus on methodologically sound research
techniques is needed to ensure development of innovations that can be translated to educational
practice, rigorous evaluation of instructional strategies, and progress toward improving patient care
outcomes. Most established educational programs are aimed at existing faculty members and focus
primarily on the development of teaching and leadership skills. At the 2012 Academic Emergency
Medicine (AEM) consensus conference, "Education Research in Emergency Medicine:
Opportunities, Challenges, and Strategies for Success," a breakout session was convened to
develop training recommendations for postgraduate fellowship programs in medical education
scholarship that would enable residency graduates to join academic faculties armed with the skills
needed to perform research in medical education. Additionally, these graduates would enjoy the
benefits of established mentorships. A group of 23 medical education experts collaborated to
address the following objectives: 1) construct a formal needs assessment for fellowship training in
medical education scholarship in emergency medicine (EM), 2) compare and contrast current
education scholarship programs in both EM and non-EM specialties, and 3) develop a set of core
curriculum guidelines for specialized fellowship training in medical education scholarship in EM.
Fellowship-trained faculty need to be proficient in learner instruction and assessment, organizational
leadership, curriculum development, educational methodology, and conducting generalizable
hypothesis-driven research to improve patient care. PMID:23279248
The Oregon State Department of Education mandates age-appropriate curricula for all grade levels
on infectious diseases, including AIDS, ARC, HIV, and Hepatitis B. The objectives of this study
were: (1) to determine the extent to which AIDS education was occurring in three remote rural
Oregon school districts; (2) to examine the focus of the curriculum across grade levels; and (3) to
compare the instructional practices with the state guidelines. Two questionnaires were designed for
application at elementary and secondary education levels. They reflect curricular objectives of the
Oregon State Department of Education. The questions were constructed to determine if the teacher
had implemented an AIDS education curriculum, and if so, how much time was devoted to each
objective. In May 1990, the questionnaires were distributed to all elementary and secondary school
teachers in the three small school districts. Results show that 53% of the elementary teachers and
23% of secondary teachers incorporated AIDS education into their curriculum. The results suggest
that rural school districts may lack local policy and curricular programs for implementing AIDS
education. The report contains tables of the objectives with the percent of teachers at each level
addressing each objective, and the mean amount of time spent on each objective. This paper
contains 18 references. (KS)
Religious educators, in neglecting to account for race in their theories, have ignored the historical
legacy of institutional racism. In fact, religious education has demonstrated an inadequate response
to race and racism throughout its history. As evidenced by slavery and immigration history in the
United States, race must be seen as a sociohistorical and legal construction. Its influence goes
Background Major curriculum reform of undergraduate medical education occurred during the past
decades in the United Kingdom (UK); however, the effects of the hidden curriculum, which influence
the choice of primary care as a career, have not been sufficiently recognized. While Japan, where
traditionally few institutions systematically foster primary care physicians and very few have truly
embraced family medicine as their guiding discipline, has also experienced meaningful curriculum
reform, the effect of the hidden curriculum is not well known. The aim of this study is to identify
themes pertaining to the students' perceptions of the hidden curriculum affecting undergraduate
medical education in bedside learning in Japan. Methods Semi-structured interviews with thematic
content analysis were implemented. Undergraduate year-5 students from a Japanese medical
school at a Japanese teaching hospital were recruited. Interview were planned to last between 30 to
60 minutes each, over an 8-month period in 2007. The interviewees' perceptions concerning the
quality of teaching in their bedside learning and related experiences were collected and analysed
thematically. Results Twenty five medical students (18 males and 7 females, mean age 25 years
old) consented to participate in the interviews, and seven main themes emerged: "the perception of
education as having a low priority," "the prevalence of positive/negative role models," "the
persistence of hierarchy and exclusivity," "the existence of gender issues," "an overburdened
medical knowledge," "human relationships with colleagues and medical team members," and "first
experience from the practical wards and their patients." Conclusions Both similarities and
differences were found when comparing the results to those of previous studies in the UK. Some
effects of the hidden curriculum in medical education likely exist in common between the UK and
Japan, despite the differences in their demographic backgrounds, cultures and philosophies.
In the Zimbabwean context, inclusive education involves the identification and minimization or
elimination of barriers to students' participation in traditional settings (i.e., schools, homes,
communities, and workplaces) and the maximization of resources to support learning and
participation (Chimedza & Peters, 1999; Mpofu, 2004). In school settings, successful inclusion
results in students' and their families' participation in the regular activities of the school community
while meeting their unique needs, as well as contributing to the development of the school
community. This article considers aspects of curriculum and classroom practices, the role of
families, teacher preparation, and government policies that influence qualities of inclusive education,
as practiced in Zimbabwe. Although inclusive practice is supported by government policy
documents, successful implementation is yet to be a common reality, due to a lack of commitment
by policymakers towards learners with disabilities. The authors recommend consideration of models
that have proven successful in other national and international settings for adaptation while
examining the sociocultural features of the countries/regions.
Nurse educators are endeavoring to assess and revise their undergraduate curriculum for a variety
of reasons. Legislation passed in California mandates that universities must offer more seamless
associate degree-to-baccalaureate of science in nursing degree programs and must ensure that
course content in their programs is not redundant across program types. A nursing education
consortium, including a university, two community colleges, and four hospital partners, formed a
working group to assess all undergraduate curricula. This working group included faculty from all
three academic institutions and nurse educators from area service provider partners. This article
describes the use of curriculum mapping using a tool formed based on the American Association of
Colleges of Nursing's Essentials of Baccalaureate Education for Professional Nursing Practice to
assess the three curricula and the outcomes and implications of the assessment. PMID:21710963
Compulsory moral education has been included in the Japanese national curriculum since 1872.
Recent demographic trends have created an unstable society, and with the increase in heinous
juvenile crimes, urgent demands are being made for a more effective program. Japan's Education
Reform Plan for the 21st Century has as its second major strategy the improvement of moral
education. The results of this exploratory study find that over 80% of third-grade elementary
students can comprehend a moral theme from their text once it has been taught. Further discussion
provides lessons to be learned from Japan for Western character education specialists as well as
curriculum development specialists. (Contains 2 figures and 3 tables.)
Environmental education provides an interdisciplinary approach to connect various curriculum areas,
such as science, mathematics, social studies, and reading. This study sought to discover if
intermediate grade students who had instruction in environmental education were more positive
toward the school curriculum than those who have not. Fourteen intermediate classrooms were
involved in at least 10 of 12 environmental education activities that were provided to the teachers by
the researcher. These activities were taken from the Project Learning Tree, Project WILD, and
Outdoor Biology Instructional Strategies programs (OBIS). An additional 14 classrooms served as
the control group, and received no such instructional activities. Results of pretesting and posttesting
both the experimental and control groups indicated that the students in the experimental group
developed a more positive attitude toward science and social studies after experiencing the
environmental education instructional activities. Recommendations for further research and
implications of this study are discussed. (TW)
It is showed through the practice of colleges and universities worldwide that the hardest step in the
implement of general education is how to finding out an appropriate teaching method and curriculum
evaluation, which also takes a crucial part in deciding the quality of the general knowledge courses.
However, ordinary engineering colleges are particularly lack of the experience of introducing
This paper examines the origins of the two educational terms--class and curriculum. The authors
believe that an understanding of the origins of key words in education may contribute not only to the
history of education but also to the wider development of educational theory. The paper argues that
the emergence of classes (in the modern sense) arose not so much from an increase in school size
as from shifts in patterns of school attendance. Currently, the earliest known use of class occurs in a
description of the University of Paris written by Robert Goulet and printed in 1517. From the 16th
century to the Industrial Revolution, the term class developed three distinct meanings. First, it was
used in universities and large schools to refer to a cohort of students (e.g., the class of 76). Second,
it referred to a teaching room (Goulet's original use). Third, it came to mean a relatively small group
of students, usually engaged upon a common task. The paper associates the emergence of
curriculum with the rise of Calvinism. The earliest source of the term curriculum in the Oxford
English Dictionary is a mention in the records of Glasgow University for 1633. During the
Reformation, Glasgow University underwent a series of reorganizations intended to turn the
University to more "definitely Protestant ends." In this reorganization process the term curriculum
was used. (Author/RM)
In the United States, civic educators are debating the need to mandate the inclusion of civic
education in high school curriculum. This report describes the result of a pilot test for one curriculum,
"We the People: the Citizen and the Constitution." In January 2003, the Center for Civic Education
contracted with MPR Associates, Inc. to evaluate the "We the People" civic education curriculum.
The evaluation included an assessment of student knowledge of civics and understanding of
democratic principles and practices, as well as a measure of change in student attitudes towards
civic and political participation. In Fall 2003, MPR conducted a pilot test of the knowledge
assessment and survey instruments. The pilot test had two components: (1) A survey of student
attitudes towards civic and political participation. This survey was administered at the beginning and
again at the end of the course; and (2) An assessment of student knowledge about U.S. government
and political history. The knowledge assessment was administered at the end of the course.
Students who took courses using the "We the People" curriculum were compared with students who
took courses using other civics curricula. This pilot study found evidence that students participating
in "We the People": (1) Developed a greater sense of citizen responsibility and obligations to the
community; (2) Had stronger feelings of political efficacy; (3) Scored higher on achievement tests of
knowledge of U.S. government and civics; and (4) Showed greater interest in politics and current
A bibliography of approximately two hundred references in computer science education appearing in
the literature since the publication of “Curriculum '68” is presented. The bibliography itself is
preceded by brief descriptive materials organizing the references into the categories of survey
reports, activities of professional organizations, philosophy of programs, description of programs,
description of courses and other materials.
Presents an essay review of three recent books on eugenics, a once popular quasiscientific and
politically conservative social movement devoted to the improvement of humankind through
programs of selective breeding and marriage restriction. States that educators must study and come
to grips with the meaning of this movement in order to appreciate its impact on the present-day
curriculum. (JDH)
These two documents deal with the relationship between Missouri's Show-Me Standards (the
standards defining what all Missouri students should know upon graduation from high school) with
the vocational competencies taught in secondary-level family and consumer science (FACS)
education courses. The first document, which is a database documenting the common ground that
has existed for years between the academic skills and vocational competencies in the area of FACS
education, is in the form of a three-column table in which duty band and task statements in the
following areas of FACS education are cross-referenced to academic knowledge (content) and
performance (goal) statements: child care provider/assistant; child development, care, and
guidance; clothing and textiles (intermediate and advanced); contemporary living; core employment
skills; custom sewing; exploratory FACS; FACS; family/consumer resource management;
family/individual health; family living and parenthood; fashion/fabric consultant; food service worker;
housing, home furnishings, and equipment; industrial sewing; and nutrition and wellness. In the
second document, the same FACS duty bands and task statements are cross-referenced to
Missouri's Show-Me Standards knowledge and performance statements applicable to the following
curriculum areas: mathematics; communication skills; science; social studies; health and physical
education; and fine arts. (MN)
In 2004, the School of Nursing at the University at Buffalo began a program in which individuals with
a degree in another field could complete an intensive 12-month program leading to a baccalaureate
degree in nursing. Curriculum design using courses from the basic baccalaureate and RN-to-BS
program, as well as graduate courses, not only provided the opportunity to integrate accelerated
bachelor of science (ABS) students with the other student populations but eliminated the need for
the development of courses specific to the ABS program. A unique feature of the program is the
incorporation of graduate courses, allowing students to earn 9 to 12 graduate credits. The potential
for future nursing leaders has also increased, given the characteristics of these mature, highly
motivated, career-minded students who have chosen nursing as a second career. PMID:18380268
This curriculum guide was designed to give teachers, students, and society a better understanding
of wetlands in the hope that they learn why wetlands should be valued and preserved. It explores
what is meant by wetlands, functions and values of wetlands, wetland activities, and wetland
offerings which benefit animal and plant life, recreation, the environment, and humans. Sections
include: (1) What is a Wetland?; (2) How Wet is a Wetland? The Importance of Water; (3) The
Power of Wetland Plants; (4) What's the Muck on Wetland Soils?; (5) Why are Wetlands Important?;
(6) Come For Just a Visit--Or Stay for a Lifetime; (7) Get To Know Your Wetland; and (8) Wrapping
it Up. Includes a glossary and an index. (JRH)
This curriculum for a 1-semester or 1-year course in electronics is designed to take students from
basic through advanced electronic systems. It covers several electronic areas, such as digital
electronics, communication electronics, industrial process control, instrumentation, programmable
controllers, and robotics. The guide contains competencies (task lists), student competency records,
and management sheets. Management sheets, which serve as lesson outlines covering 1 or more
days, include the following: an introduction, performance objective, task/competency statement,
equipment and supplies list, a performance standard, suggested references for teacher and student,
activities, and evaluation criteria. Some of the topics covered are as follows: analyzing electrical and
electronic systems, analyzing electrical system components, analyzing DC electrical circuit
operation and component functions, investigating the principles of magnetism, AC system and
component analysis, diode devices, amplifying devices, electronic oscilloscopes, and electronic
power control systems. Appendixes include a course outline, definitions of terms, course objectives,
laboratory equipment, laboratory supplies, eight-item bibliography, and suggested facility layout.
This publication is the teacher's guide for the competency-based Prevocational Manufacturing
Exploration curriculum for secondary students in West Virginia. The guide is intended to help
instructors give students career exploration activities in the various fields and job categories of
manufacturing. The guide is organized into 18 learning modules. In each module is a career
information sheet that includes a unit of study, occupational category, occupational division,
occupational group, occupational overview, and representative job title within the occupational
group. Included within the guide are listings of audiovisual aids, references, equipment, and supplies
for presenting the various areas of manufacturing. Also included are the answers to all of the
questions from the worksheets contained in most lessons. The following occupations are
represented by the learning modules: wrought iron worker, foundry worker, printer,
electricity/electronics technician, artist, compositor, photographer, drafter, sheet metal worker,
machinist, welder, motor repairer, radio and television repairer, air conditioner mechanic, custodian,
coal miner, and warehouse operator. (KC)
This task-based curriculum guide for industrial electronics is intended to help the teacher develop a
classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a
Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a career ladder, a matrix relating duty/task
numbers to job titles, and a task list. Each task is then outlined in this format: statement of duty,
statement of task, duty and task numbers, a checklist of achievement indicators, a statement of the
criteria for achievement of competence, specification of required tools and equipment and
resources, and lists of teacher activities and student learning activities. The tasks are categorized by
six duties: performing related electronics activities; assembling sub-assemblies and complete units;
testing components, assemblies, and systems; servicing components, assemblies, and systems;
maintaining hydraulic and pneumatic systems; and using employability skills. Other contents include
student and class achievement records, tool/equipment lists, and a resource list. (YLB)
During the past year the Critical Issues Committee of the Division on Developmental Disabilities
worked with Ms. Magi D. Shepley (member) and a group of professionals to structure an Issues
Brief focused upon Secondary School Students with Significant Developmental Disabilities. This
Issues Brief reflects the work of Ms. Shepley and seeks to clarify this issue for educators of young
persons with developmental disabilities as they seek to access general education curriculum content
at the high school level.
This paper describes how HIV\\/AIDS education is being introduced into the curriculum of the
Department of Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Engineering at the University of Pretoria,
Pretoria, South Africa. Third- and fourth-year students were provided with an HIV\\/AlDS Educational
CD developed at the university. Their knowledge of the subject was tested via two quizzes-one
written before they were exposed to
The National Energy Education Development (NEED) project develops and distributes
comprehensive, hands-on energy education programs to schools nationwide. These resources are
correlated to the National Science Education Standards, and to many state standards as well.
Resources on this page include 'Energy Infobooks' on energy types (biomass, geothermal, uranium,
coal, electricity, wind, and gas) which include downloadable teacher guides and class activities for
all grade levels. Also available is the Plug Loads Booklet which guides students through an in-depth
investigation of electricity usage by appliances and machines in their school building. Students
gather data and calculate energy consumption and economic and environmental costs over time.
This paper addresses the imperative to address sustainability and climate change in nurse
education. This will be done by outlining the socio-political and policy context and a discussion of a
'triad' of sustainability-climate change-health. However this is not about introducing new content.
The form of education itself has to change and to address goals other than the transmission of skills
and knowledge to prepare graduate nurses for a role in the NHS. Key concepts and propositions for
a sustainability education within nursing will be outlined. This is offered in the spirit of stimulating
argument and debate. PMID:21232830
For the individual seeking a counselor education faculty position, the journey is a complicated
process. In addition to the assistance given to doctoral students, it is important for these students to
be self-advocates in their own professional development. This paper provides suggestions,
information, and self-advocacy recommendations for doctoral students in counselor education
programs seeking a full-time, tenure track, counselor faculty position. It highlights guidelines for
effectively developing appropriate competencies. The importance of support during this process and
a checklist of recommended experiences are also included. Appendix A is Counselor Education
Checklist. (JDM)
This document contains the proceedings of a conference on the themes of career competency,
consumer education, and consumer research conducted in April 1982. The proceedings consist of
69 research reports (each with abstract) as well as a list of the conference participants, their
affiliations, and addresses. The reports, which are indexed by author, cover the following topics,
among others: shopping time of homemakers and spouses, classification of concepts in consumer
education, comparison of food stamp participants and eligible nonparticipants, consumer policy,
evaluating energy conservation strategies for public housing residents, consumer price information
programs, financial crisis management for families, career ladders for consumer affairs
professionals, consumer educators in the 1980s, marketplace problems as perceived by solar
homeowners and solar experts, consumer responses to mail order problems and knowledge of the
Federal Trade Commission rule, consumer risk perception and response, consumer satisfaction with
complaint handling, competencies of consumer education students, state consumer protection
offices, factors motivating consumer energy conservation, bankruptcy, whole life insurance, needs of
consumer economics education teachers, use of credit cards, home warranties, health care
legislation, the consumer content of prime-time television, and the development of a model for a
community-based information and referral system. Most of the reports contain bibliographies. (KC)
This project combines interdisciplinary conversations within the field of communication to examine
environmental meaning systems and communication practices in the context of forest environmental
education. Due to concerns over children's environmental alienation, there has been a continued
push toward place-based environmental education. One such venture is the North Carolina
Educational State Forest system (NCESF), where educators bring K-12 students into forests to help
them reconnect with nature, expand environmental knowledge, and tackle what has been recently
termed "nature-deficit disorder." When students visit the sites, rangers deliver structured lessons on
ecosystems and forest management to children and chaperones--lessons that must adhere to the
state's science curriculum. I used interpretive and critical qualitative approaches to conduct a
five-month study of communication practices in the NCESF system. As a participant observer, I paid
attention to rangers' daily practices and the spatial layout of the forests and trails, including a
number of "talking-tree trails" throughout the sites. As an observer, I watched rangers teach lessons
to students on one site. Additionally, I conducted in-depth interviews with forestry personnel and
analyzed texts and artifacts, such as curricula, teaching materials, forestry literature, and
photographs that I took. Situated within four extant bodies of literature--socially constructing nature,
environmental communication, consumer and commercial appropriations of nature, and
environmental education--my purpose in this study is threefold. First, I examine how rangers,
teachers, forestry, and curricula conceptualize, construct, and frame nature and the role of humans
in it. Next, I investigated how people, parties, and nature resist and complicate dominant framings.
Last, I explored the possible intersections and implications of what is being constructed, produced,
and performed about human-nature relations in the forest sites. This study is further contextualized
within larger cultural and educational practices to expand environmental communication research,
reexamine forest environmental education, and retheorize nature-deficit disorder. This study's
findings point to three analyses and corresponding theses that rearticulate human-nature relations.
First, in the forest sites, people and parties frame nature as tightly organized and contained--as
scientific, named, managed, gendered, a physical place, disciplined, competitive, different, and
ocularcentric. These framings maintain a traditional nature-culture binary that promotes what I call a
"get close-stay away" dialectic, sending children the message to get close enough to trees to
advocate for them, but far enough away to be comfortable with cutting them down and using them.
Second, people and parties frame nature as produced for human use, where trees exist in
abundance and are central to commerce. This framing points to a "production-consumption" context
and cycle that reproduces consumer relationships with nature and necessitates the production of
trees. Third, humans and nature alike challenge dominant framings through subtle acts of resistance
and autonomy, through expressions of awe and wonder, and in adults' stories of "when I was
young." I conceptualize these resistances as "interrupted boundaries", which disrupt and complicate
the human-nature binary. I then use the three theses to retheorize and rediagnose nature-deficit
disorder, pointing instead to schizophrenic-like relations that contribute to human-nature alienation.
Nature-deficit disorder and my research site position the cause of environmental problems as
decreased exposure to the outdoors and advocate for children to go back to nature as a solution.
This move sidesteps important issues that contribute to environmental estrangement among adults
and children. Incorporating ecopsychology and the environmental communication concept of
"mediation," I argue that the metaphor of schizophrenia allows environmental degradation and
environmental education to be c
This document contains detailed curriculum outlines and teacher support materials for the General
Curriculum Options (GCO) stream of the Certificates of General Education (CGE) for Adults in
Victoria, Australia. The following topics are discussed in the introduction: purpose of the guide,
details of GCO subject areas, accreditation framework and its credentials, CGE for adults, history of
the GCO stream, curriculum design implications of the English-as-a-Second-Language/literacy
interface, and curriculum model. The curriculum materials are organized into eight sections: health
and lifestyle, creative arts, social history, the human body/energy, diet and health, legal studies,
horticulture, and Technical and Further Education taster in vocational studies (a sampler of five
vocational areas). Each section includes some or all of the following: cover sheet detailing the
materials' subject area, level, GCO application, course type, name of developing organization, and
project writer; narrative introduction outlining the materials' rationale, recommended teaching
strategies, and the relationship of the subject area to the GCO stream; thematic web; curriculum
planning grid; assessment task (lesson) outline, lesson plan, and list of related resource
organizations. A glossary and references are provided. Appended are the following: elements and
performance criteria of the GCO stream, curriculum planning grid, and sample assessment task
cover sheet. (MN)
‘It takes a village to raise a child', but who does it take to educate a hydrologist who can solve
today's and tomorrow's problems? Hydrology is inherently an interdisciplinary science, and therefore
requires interdisciplinary training. We believe that the demands on current and future hydrologists
will continue to increase, while training at undergraduate and graduate levels has not kept pace.
How do we, as university faculty, educate hydrologists capable of solving complex problems in an
interdisciplinary environment considering that current educators have often been taught in narrow
traditional disciplines? We suggest a unified community effort to change the way that hydrologists
are educated. The complexity of the task is ever increasing. Analysis techniques and tools required
for solving emerging problems have to evolve away from focusing mainly on the analysis of past
behavior because baselines are shifting as the world changes. The difficulties of providing an
appropriate education are also increasing, especially given the growing demands on faculty time. To
support hydrology educators and improve hydrology education, we have started a faculty community
of educators (REACH) and implemented the Modular Curriculum for Hydrologic Advancement
(MOCHA, The goal of this effort is to support hydrology faculty as they
educate hydrologists that can solve interdisciplinary problems that go far beyond the traditional
disciplinary biased hydrology education most of us have experienced as students. Our current
objective is to create an evolving core curriculum for university hydrology education, based on
modern pedagogical standards, freely available to and developed and reviewed by the worldwide
hydrologic community. We seek to establish an online faculty learning community for hydrology
education and capacity building. In this presentation we discuss the results of a recent survey on
current hydrology education (to compare with the state of hydrology education in 1991), show initial
results of this new educational effort, and discuss future opportunities for connecting hydrology
education and research in the context of a changing world.
The fundamental premise of this paper is that a broad rather than a narrow definition of
"competency" should inform discussions on "competencies-based education". Also, while we see
value in drawing on a broad definition when designing curricula, we hold that it is not sufficient on its
own for such design if education is to be a humanizing activity along with being a preparation for the
societal demands of life. To take this position is to promote a curriculum studies perspective to
analyzing competencies-based education. The paper clarifies what we mean by such a perspective.
A variety of difficulties inherent in competencies-based education that have been outlined over the
last thirty years by significant curriculum theorists are then outlined. The paper concludes with a
brief exposition on how a broad-based view of competencies-based education can be
accommodated within a curriculum framework that addresses these difficulties and views education
as a liberating activity, while also allowing for its contribution to economic and social concerns.
The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) Horizons Committee met in Iowa City (Iowa)
before the 1982 Curriculum Update Conference. The committee was charged with planning a new
future of science education. The thinking of the members of the Horizons Committee provided the
framework for the 1982 conference. These proceedings represent a record of the thinking,
deliberations, and outcomes of their efforts and, in a sense, represent a status report concerning the
directions envisioned by some of the current leadership in science education. Areas and issues
addressed include: aspects of a renewal in schooling and education; learning from past mistakes;
status of precollege science/mathematics education; computer use in the science curriculum;
activity-based curriculum projects for societal issue courses (includes a bibliographic list of
activities/projects matched to science/society issues); a brief review of the Individualized Science
Instructional System (ISIS); naive conceptions of science and instruction; and NSTA's 1982 Search
for Excellence program. Other areas/issues considered include developing creativity as a result of
science instruction; crisis in the science classroom; linking teacher behaviors to student outcomes;
science educators and policy makers; teaching citizens about science/technology, relevance in
science education; need for solutions for lingering problems; and supervision and teaching
perspectives. (JN)
Rapid expansion in scientific knowledge, changes in medical practice, and greater demands from
patients and society necessitate reform of the medical curriculum. In recognition of this, medical
educators across the world have recommended the adoption of competence-based education. This
is intended to increase the rigour and relevance of the curriculum, move students beyond a focus on
the memorisation and regurgitation of scientific facts, and better enable them to understand
scientific principles and apply them to the practice of medicine. Experience from 40 years' use of
competence-based curricula across the world suggests that the uncritical application of this
approach to the medical curriculum may not achieve its intended aims. There are valuable lessons
to be learnt from the history of competence-based education. By taking on board these lessons,
confronting the pitfalls of this approach, and devising new and creative solutions to the problems
inherent in this methodology, medical educators can better achieve their aim of providing a strong
foundation for the practice of medicine in the twenty-first century. It is only through such a
strategy--rather than the uncritical adoption of this educational approach--that we will have real
movement and progress both in competence-based education in general, and in its applications to
medicine in particular.
This article explores the current context for personal, social and health education (PSHE) in English
schools, and examines what the implications of the "Every Child Matters" (ECM) agenda are for
schools in the future and how these changes may affect the profile and provision of PSHE in the
curriculum. The author begins by revisiting the most recent Office for Standards in Education,
Children's Services and Skills in the UK (Ofsted) subject report on PSHE, before moving on to
consider both the potential impact of the (2006) duty on schools to promote well-being contained
within the recent Education and Inspections Act and the recent review of the English Secondary
National Curriculum, which presents PSHE as personal, social, health and economic education
(PSHE education), establishing twin, non-statutory programmes of study for personal well-being and
economic well-being. He argues that there are now significant opportunities for PSHE to realise its
potential through these shifts in context and emphasis. He proposes that in order for this to happen,
policymakers and practitioners must embrace the concept of "well-being" as an educational
imperative and align and embed it within the drive to raise standards, concluding that PSHE must be
given statutory status within the National Curriculum and must, as a result, prepare itself to accept
the challenge of increased scrutiny and accountability that this revised status will demand.
This paper explores the substance of competence-driven changes in teacher education curricula by
testing the possibility of using a framework distinguishing between the German pedagogical culture
of "Didaktik" and the Anglo-Saxon Curriculum culture to describe the substance of these changes.
Data about the perceptions of competence-driven changes in teacher education curricula has been
collected in 30 in-depth interviews with teacher educators, student teachers, and their school
mentors in Serbia, and analysed with the help of qualitative data processing software. The coding
procedures involved classification of utterances into five groups relating to the perceptions of (1)
teacher evaluation, (2) teacher competence in subject matter, pedagogy, and curriculum, (3)
understanding of the education system and contribution to its development, (4) teacher
competences in dealing with values and child-rearing, and (5) changes in teacher education
curricula related to these groups of competence. The perceptions in each group of utterances were
interpreted in terms of their alliance with "Didaktik" or Curriculum cultures. The findings indicate that
the framework cannot be used as a continuum since the utterances aligned with the two cultures
co-exist in the individual responses, but could be useful as a reflection tool in teacher education
curricula. (Contains 1 table and 1 note.)
Energy education units (consisting of a general teacher's guide and nine units containing a wide
variety of energy lessons, resources, learning aids, and bibliography) were developed for the
Indiana Energy Education Program from existing energy education materials. The units were
designed to serve as an entire curriculum, resource document, supplementary materials, or as a
laboratory manual of "hands-on" activities which could be infused into existing grades 9-12 curricula.
Unit VII, focusing on energy conversions, consists of an introduction (rationale, unit objective, and
general background information), 10 activities, materials list for first 4 lessons, bibliography, and
teacher evaluation form. Each lesson includes lesson title, objectives, background information,
activities, evaluation techniques, and resources. Titles of lessons are: (1) Calories for Heating Our
Homes, the Cost of Heating; (2) Do We Know the Heat Produced Per Unit of Measure? (3)
Measuring Heat Transfer: The Calorie; (4) Kilowatt-Hours, Calories, and BTU's; (5) The Most
Economical Home Heat Source; (6) Construction of a Hydroelectric Generator; (7) Heat
Exchangers; (8) Moonshine Travel: Sunshine Solutions (Gasohol); (9) Seeing Dust as a Fuel; and
(10) Pedal Power. (Author/JN)
Character education is defined as a planned and systematical approach in terms of self- respect,
responsibility and honesty etc. for being a good citizen. The elements of hidden curriculum
possessed in schools are values, beliefs, attitudes, and norms and values which are important parts
of school function, ceremonies and the quality of interpersonal communication. This research is
aimed to determine supportive activities and views of students' participated in these activities with
the thought of revealing importance of hidden curriculum on gaining vales within character education
in elementary schools. Supportive activities of hidden curriculum such as social and cultural
activities, free time activities and sportive activities, celebration of special days and weeks, social
club works can be considered as strong value gaining tools for elementary school students to
comprehend, internalize and perform values. In this study, one of the qualitative research methods
case study model is utilized. This research is carried out within 2009-2010 academic year through
three elementary schools in Eskisehir affiliated to Ministry of National Education by investigating
supportive activities for hidden curriculum and views of students participating in these activities. For
analyzing the gathered data, document analysis and content analysis are used. Working group of
this study comprises 40 students going to 6th, 7th and 8th grades within three elementary schools in
the city center of Eskisehir. At the end of the study, it is determined that values are included in
curriculum of elementary schools, and supportive activities for hidden curriculum in the process of
gaining and internalizing values have great importance. (Contains 1 footnote.)
This paper was written to provide nurse educators with strategies for implementing multicultural
concepts into their nursing programs. Administrators are urged to design their total educational
process and educational content to reflect a commitment to cultural pluralism, in which traits of
nonmainstream cultures are treated as differences rather than deficiencies. Such an approach helps
all students develop more positive attitudes toward cultural, racial, ethnic, and religious groups and
helps students from victimized groups develop confidence in their ability to succeed academically
and to influence societal institutions. Nurses need to understand how cultural differences affect their
clients' behaviors and attitudes, in order to have an impact in transcultural work. Nine specific
knowledge areas that nurses should acquire to practice nursing from a multicultural perspective are
outlined. Among them are: knowledge of cultural views on pregnancy; knowledge of culturally
relevant information related to specific diseases; and knowledge of religious variations in relation to
dying, bereavement, euthanasia, and other ethical and moral issues. Nursing education faculty and
administrators are encouraged to assess existing programs for elements of multicultural education.
A suggested guideline is presented, addressing such elements as program atmosphere, materials,
and self-understanding. (Contains 10 references.) (JDD)
Internationalisation of higher education is a strategic theme in current research on higher education
and policy debate. Both at national and institutional levels, in many countries, internationalisation is
stated to be an educational goal. However, the dominant discourse on internationalisation of higher
education in research and research-based discussions tends to be framed by political, economic
and organisational perspectives, rather than informed by educational considerations. There is also a
tendency to place internationalisation in higher education within the conceptual frame of economic
globalisation and the increasing trade in educational services worldwide. While such discussions
may shed light on various organisational, political or economic issues, this research does not give a
pedagogical basis for the internationalisation of higher education in terms of teaching and learning.
In particular, questions relating to the internationalisation of content and learning outcomes need to
be addressed. A series of studies conducted in Sweden 1999-2007 by the authors indicates that the
didactical realisation of internationalisation as an educational goal can be very elusive. In our
findings, the concrete content considered by teachers and students to represent internationalisation
did not follow any clear pattern or goal. Internationalisation was assumed to be represented by
some form of "general knowledge" and general human qualities, without considering cultural
differences. Institutionalised curriculum thinking as a basis for developing internationalisation was
lacking. Concrete thinking was very much restricted to organisational and administrative aspects,
and thoughts concerning content and learning outcomes tended to be expressed in idealised and
general terms, rather than developed into clarifying and useful specifications underpinned by
curriculum theory. Certain consequences ensuing from this situation are discussed, and a
curriculum approach to internationalisation of higher education is suggested.
Cultural competence affects all interactions with prospective parents and families. Childbirth
educators need to assess their own cultural competence, beginning with an understanding of their
own background and how it affects interactions with families. The purpose of this article is to
enhance the incorporation of cultural competency, cultural awareness, and cultural sensitivity into
the childbirth education curricula. Methods for enhancing cultural competence in a multicultural
global society are discussed. Strategies are also presented to address the challenges of assessing
parents and families of diverse cultures and their beliefs, traditions, and special needs in the plan of
This curriculum guide provides materials for a course to prepare students for the occupation of
nutrition aide. Fifteen modules are provided. They are self-contained and require little effort on the
instructor's part aside from scoring posttests and providing equipment. Each module consists of a
cover sheet that details job skills, performance objectives, and materials needed; pretest;
information sections; and activities. Posttests are intended to be kept by the instructor and
administered to students when they are prepared to be tested on their mastery of the module
contents. Answer keys for all activities, the pretest, and the posttest are provided. A list of sources
concludes each module. Module topics are as follows: create a safe environment; sanitary food
preparation techniques; clean and sanitize work and storage areas; identify relationship between
health and nutrition; coordinate food order; prepare beverages; prepare special diet orders; arrange
dining room for service; perform sidework; perform table cleaning and clearing duties; arrange
serving area for tray service; serve patients/clients; demonstrate good communication skills; exhibit
maturity in most work situations; and develop job procurement skills. (YLB)
This article describes a fitness curriculum grounded in the sport education model. The curriculum
consists of 18 lessons that were taught to fifth-grade students at a rural school in the South. All
features of sport education--team affiliation, season, formal competition, culminating events, record
keeping, and festivity--were preserved. The classes worked on a three-day event-cycle: (1) a
teacher-directed day, (2) a student-directed day, and (3) an obstacle-course competition day. Each
week a different team designed an obstacle course for other teams to complete. The distinct team
roles were captain, equipment manager, fitness leader, and course designer. Students who
officiated took on the duties of a starter, timer, and course official. This article also discusses
recommendations for high-autonomy elements in a sport education season. (Contains 4 tables and
1 figure.)
These guidelines for developing an undergraduate medical education curriculum in pulmonary
disease prevention emphasize not only the most current scientific practice but also the active
application of cognitive and behavioral skills related to patient education. Chapter 1 introduces the
guidelines and the issues and trends in preventative medicine, social change, and public policy that
have shaped their development. Chapter 2 contains suggested goals and exit competencies for
medical school graduates. The broad behavior and cognitive goals are grouped by the type of
clinical encounter or setting for which they are most relevant: well outpatient visit, sick outpatient
visit, inpatient setting, and community setting. Chapter 3 contains suggestions for implementing and
evaluating a curriculum in preventative pulmonary medicine. It provides general guidelines and a
few specific examples. Appendixes contain lists of 61 educational resources by subject area (e.g.,
apnea, asthma, immunization, occupational lung disease, preoperative care, pulmonary
rehabilitation, and tuberculosis) and by type of resource. (Contains 61 references.) (JB)
Adults with intellectual disabilities have high rates of physical inactivity and related chronic diseases.
Researchers have called for an increase in the development and evaluation of health education
programs adapted to the unique needs of this population. Formative and process evaluation
strategies were applied to develop a physical activity education program. The first phase of
formative evaluation included a comprehensive literature review to select educational strategies and
curriculum content. The theory of planned behavior was selected as a guiding framework, and
meetings with stakeholders were held to assess feasibility. The second phase of formative
evaluation included an assessment of materials by an expert panel and the priority population, and
pilot testing. Next, field testing was implemented, followed by process evaluation and an
assessment of implementation fidelity. The final curriculum was developed as a result of the
completion of the aforementioned steps and led to a successful physical activity intervention.
A decisive factor for achieving a culture of sustainability is university training for future professionals.
The aim of this article is to bring new elements to the process of reorienting university studies
towards sustainability. Presented here is the ACES model (Curriculum Greening of Higher
Education, acronym in Spanish), which is the result of a project involving a network of 11 European
and Latin American universities. The methodology of the project is based on participatory action
research. The ACES model is defined by 10 characteristics, detailed in this article, which can
orientate a diagnosis of the level of curriculum greening and the design and application of the
strategies and actions in order to facilitate incorporating the sustainability dimension in higher
education. The potentialities and limitations found are also discussed. The ACES model has started
a process for reorienting higher education studies towards sustainability. (Contains 1 figure, 1 table
and 2 notes.)
School reform increasingly requires curriculum integration of academic and vocational-technical
education. The first part of this guidebook presents views held by 17 North Carolina teachers in
support of an integrated curriculum at the middle- and high-school levels. Part 2 provides examples
of parallel academic and vocational curricula for the following areas: language arts and computer
technology; communication skills and business education; and mathematics, science, social studies,
and visual arts paired with various vocational-technical courses. The third part offers sample lesson
plans for the following courses: language arts and career exploration, science and home economics,
communication skills and business education, mathematics and agriculture, mathematics and
carpentry, science and agriculture, and social studies and marketing. (LMI)
This project's goal was to develop a network of educational signposts and electronic textbooks to
support K-12 student learning and curriculum articulation across eastern Connecticut and to
enhance teacher education and graduate programs at Eastern Connecticut State University (ECSU).
Through support from an AAUP-CSU grant, selected ECSU graduate students who were also K- 12
teachers in the region attended a summer workshop that focused on the development of web pages
for the World Wide Web and commitment to integrating the World Wide Web into their curriculum.
Participants learned how to use the World Wide Web and how to create home pages and electronic
text. They developed a variety of electronic textbooks and school home pages. Project linkage titles
included: "Find it on the World Wide Web,""Online Resources for Educators New to the
Internet,""K12Links,""Curriculum Enhancement,""Newspapers in Education,""Glen Lessig's
Education Technology Bookmarks,""Arline Mykietyn's Bookmarks on Harriet Tubman,""J.P.'s
Eclectic Bookmarks," and "Mrs. Wargo's Bookmarks WJJS Media Center." (Author/SM)
Background Recognizing the growing demand from medical students and residents for more
comprehensive global health training, and the paucity of explicit curricula on such issues, global
health and curriculum experts from the six Ontario Family Medicine Residency Programs worked
together to design a framework for global health curricula in family medicine training programs.
Methods A working group comprised of global health educators from Ontario's six medical schools
conducted a scoping review of global health curricula, competencies, and pedagogical approaches.
The working group then hosted a full day meeting, inviting experts in education, clinical care, family
medicine and public health, and developed a consensus process and draft framework to design
global health curricula. Through a series of weekly teleconferences over the next six months, the
framework was revised and used to guide the identification of enabling global health competencies
(behaviours, skills and attitudes) for Canadian Family Medicine training. Results The main outcome
was an evidence-informed interactive framework to
provide a shared foundation to guide the design, delivery and evaluation of global health education
programs for Ontario's family medicine residency programs. The curriculum framework blended a
definition and mission for global health training, core values and principles, global health
competencies aligning with the Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists (CanMEDS)
competencies, and key learning approaches. The framework guided the development of subsequent
enabling competencies. Conclusions The shared curriculum framework can support the design,
delivery and evaluation of global health curriculum in Canada and around the world, lay the
foundation for research and development, provide consistency across programmes, and support the
creation of learning and evaluation tools to align with the framework. The process used to develop
this framework can be applied to other aspects of residency curriculum development.
Records for students receiving an undergraduate degree at the University of Alabama were
examined, to compare education majors and other majors for grades in similar courses in seven
specified curriculum areas: freshman composition, mathematics, humanities, social science, natural
science, writing, and computer language or foreign language. The 482 education majors obtained
an average grade of 2.66 for the 100 and 200 level core courses, which was the same average
grade as that obtained by 4,116 other majors. Education majors had slightly higher grades than
other majors in mathematics and social science and slightly lower grades in freshman composition,
humanities, natural science, and computer language or foreign language. Education majors had
slightly higher mean grades in all core curriculum courses compared to majors in commerce and
business administration, communication, and human environmental sciences. Education majors had
a slightly lower mean grade in all core curriculum courses compared to majors in arts and sciences,
engineering, new college, nursing, and social work. (JDD)
This paper is threefold. It is grounded in the philosophical work of two educational theorists: John
Dewey and our contemporary Nel Noddings. It also brings into the conversation the ancient system
of Tarot, arguing that its pictorial symbolism embodies intellectual, moral, and spiritual "lessons"
derived from collective human experiences across times, places, and cultures. For Dewey, to call
somebody spiritual never meant to invoke some mysterious and non-natural entity outside of the
real world. As a system of communication and interpretation, Tarot is oriented toward the discovery
of meanings in the real experience and performs two functions, existential and educational, focusing
on the ethical and spiritual dimension of experience. The pictorial images create an adventure story
of the journey through the "school of life", each new life experience contributing to
self-understanding and, ultimately, spiritual rebirth. Tarot not only speaks in a different voice,
therefore bringing forth the subtleties of Gilligan and Noddings' relational ethics, but also enables a
process of critical self-reflection analogous to the ancient Socratic "Know thyself" principle that
makes life examined and thus meaningful. As a "techne", it can and should become a valuable tool
to complement an existing set of educational aids in the area of moral and spiritual education.
(Contains 7 figures and 7 notes.)
A holistic approach to the study of the Earth, as embodied in Earth System Science and Global
Change concepts, provides a captivating socially relevant focus to Geoscience instruction. Under
the auspices of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Universities
Space Research Association, twenty-two universities have been engaged since 1991 in the
Cooperative University-based Earth System Science Education
Singapore, a small island city-state, has achieved notable economic advancement within 40 years
since independence. It is fast becoming a global city and a knowledge society. In education and
training, the Singapore system has evolved from its British roots. Macro performance indicators of
participation rate, literacy rate and mean years of schooling, show that the current education system
can be regarded as highly successful. The contributions of general education as well as technical
education and training to the overall success of the nation are often cited. Technical education and
training, which is globally perceived as having a lower status than "academic" curricula, has largely
overcome its "image" problem in Singapore. Singaporeans have seemingly embraced technical
education and training as an accessible, attractive mode of education, which therefore enjoys a high
participation rate. The success and quality of technical education and training were affirmed when its
main provider, the Institute of Technical Education, became the first educational institution in
Singapore to win the Singapore Quality Award in October 2005. This paper provides a review of the
contemporary education system and curriculum in Singapore with a focus on technical education
and training vis-a-vis a vision of education and training in and for postmodern knowledge societies.
Suggestions are made on how the technical education and training sector in Singapore can further
develop and thrive in the 21st century, while continuing to be accessible and of high quality.
(Contains 1 figure, 1 table, and 1 footnote.)
Critical of approaches that treat internationalization as the addition of multicultural elements to a
Western curriculum, the author makes an even more radical proposal. Specifically, he explores the
possibility of internationalizing the undergraduate curriculum by organizing it around a non-Western
framework rooted in Indian philosophy, thereby lifting, or perhaps rather freeing, internationalization
efforts from their Eurocentric foundations. An important aspect of the framework the author
advocates, which he refers to as a "Sattvic curriculum," is that it promotes self-reflection and
self-development among students, thereby having the potential to overcome present barriers to
empathy, genuine commitment, and global citizenship. Here, the author discusses the educational
benefits of, and main objections voiced against, such a proposal. (Contains 1 table.)
Weak effectiveness of bilingual education is an especially obvious phenomenon in non-key
universities of China where students have poorer English ground and bilingual curriculums are
unconstructive designed partly because of the scarcity of teaching resources. This paper discusses
failures of these unconstructive curriculum systems from the view of cognitive learning and points
out that just because of the lags in BICS [basic interpersonal communication skills] and CALP
[cognitive academic language proficiency] of students in non-key universities, metacognitive process
should be substantially considered and completely integrated in construction of bilingual curriculum
system including aspects of bilingual allocation, subject design, bilingual arrangement and
prepositive training. This paper takes International Business Specialty in non-key universities as an
example and highly involves writer's teaching experiences. (Contains 1 figure.)
This information packet is useful to teacher-librarians and teachers who would like to integrate
global education concepts into existing curricula. The techniques outlined in this document provide
strategies for implementing global education integration. The central ideas of the global education
package include: (1) interrelatedness; (2) peace; (3) global community; (4) cooperation; (5)
distribution and sustainable development; (6) multicultural understanding; (7) human rights; (8)
stewardship; (9) empowerment; and (10) social justice. Throughout the packet, ideas are offered for
inclusion of global perspectives in language arts, science, mathematics, and social studies.
Recommendations are included for purchases of resource materials and cross reference charts for
concepts across grades and curriculum areas. (EH)
Guidelines and suggestions for introducing energy education into classrooms are provided in this
booklet. The first section discusses available resources and ways to use them. These include: (1)
community resources (museums, libraries, county extension services/planning offices); (2)
organizations and institutions such as environmental groups, utilities/fuel companies, architectural
firms, and others; (3) government resources; (4) human resources; and (5) material resources
(bookstores, magazines, and federally funded materials). The second section focuses on strategies
for using the resources, including organizing a course, establishing a resource center, and building
and using alternative energy models. These models include a solar hot water heater, parabolic solar
furnace, fresnal lens, solar electrical device, savonius rotor and wind charger, and a hytroturbine.
Four sample energy education course outlines are also included. (JN)
This book is designed to show marketing education teachers how Missouri's Show-Me Knowledge
and Performance Standards can be reflected in the Marketing Education Framework. It is organized
to present each of the nine competency strands (instructional units) by learner outcome and
competencies. The instructional units are as follows: communications in marketing, economic
concepts, employment and advancement, human relations in marketing, marketing operations,
marketing management, advertising and sales promotion, selling, and marketing concepts. Each
learner outcome and competency is cross-referenced to the Show-Me Standards related to
knowledge (content) and performance (process). The framework is in table format. For some
activities, a suggested assessment instrument is provided in the related assessment guide. (YLB)
This guide is intended to assist industrial arts/technology education teachers in helping students in
grades K-12 understand the impact of computers and computer technology in the world. Discussed
in the introductory sections are the ways in which computers have changed the face of business,
industry, and education and training; the scope and sequence of industrial arts from the elementary
through the secondary grades with specific guidelines for each grade level; the goals and provisions
of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act; and the purpose and organization of the guide.
The second major section consists of computer study and applications units on the following topics:
history and development of computers, principles of computer systems, computer-aided
design/drafting (CAD), computer graphics, computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) and
computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM), microprocessors, robotics, telecommunications,
computer-assisted instruction (CAI), data management, and careers. Presented next is an
implementation suggestion matrix that proposes a wide variety of ways in which computer use might
be integrated into industrial arts programming. Hardware system configurations for a general-use
computer station are outlined. Appendixes to the guide include lists of related periodicals, software
resources, and software evaluation criteria; a glossary; and a bibliography. (MN)
Our paper illustrates how males of Chinese descent in British Columbia (BC) have historically been
victims of overt and subtle forms of discrimination, and describes how racism is and was integrally
linked to notions of class, gender and the body. Highlighted in our historical overview are issues
around race and masculinity for Chinese males as they existed (and still exist) in the BC educational
system, especially in sport-related and physical education (PE) contexts. We examine how some of
these issues continue to impact Vancouver's schools through Millington's (2006) study of
masculinities in secondary PE which showed how that environment, while offering the potential for
various masculinities to flourish, tended to promote hegemonic gender identities as "normal". In
particular, we show how Chinese-Canadian boys, both Canadian born as well as more recent
immigrants from Hong Kong, Taiwan and mainland China, continue to be subject to subtle racist
understandings of Chinese masculinities--understandings that are often camouflaged by the
dominant national rhetoric of multiculturalism. We conclude the paper by arguing that if indeed
schools' curricula exacerbate problematic understandings of race and masculinity that underlie
discriminatory behaviours and attitudes, then physical educators need the tools to develop
strategies for change. (Contains 14 notes.)
Curriculum may be more adequately explained as the work of an organization than as a plan for
individual learning. Research is reported based upon case studies of four allied health programs in
one university with the intent to employ concepts from the organizational literature to describe a
group of curriculums, and to determine if relationships among variables exist and yield a coherent
explanation. The four programs were medical technology, nuclear medical technology, physical
therapy, and physician assistant. The programs are distinct in having varying relationships to the
dominant health care profession of medicine. Descriptions of each program were combined into one
descriptive case study with the goal to promote internal validation by utilizing multiple sources of
data and the perceptions of multiple investigators, and then rely heavily on internal consistency as
the criterion of validity wherever possible. Results are discussed according to: environments of
academic programs; boundary setting and boundary spanning; curriculum as an organizational
technology; and outline of a tentative model. Curriculum can be most adequately explained by
considering it an organizational phenomenon. Higher education curriculum might benefit from an
emphasis on more complex organizational technology and structure issues. Contains 44 references.
Professional development is the key to curriculum-based reform, yet there is little empirical evidence
upon which to base decisions of design or implementation of training and development programmes.
This study examined the training and development needs of Ghana's polytechnic teachers in an
existing curriculum reform scenario as they became involved in curriculum design. Forty-four
teachers and four heads of mechanical engineering departments and representatives of the
leadership of four polytechnics granted comprehensive interviews and responded to questionnaires.
Findings revealed that updating subject knowledge through industrial attachments was a major
training and development need for teachers. Teachers indicated that they were keen to get more
involved in curriculum design and argued for their subject knowledge to be improved to give them
the confidence to do so. The results of the study suggest higher education teachers have training
and development needs in relation to effective curriculum design and implementation. It is proposed
that polytechnic-industry links are strengthened and that teachers should draw on teamwork to plan
and undertake industrial attachments.
The issue of learning transfer is of prime importance to the field of adventure education. Adventure
education programs are designed to promote a variety of personal development outcomes for
participants, and a significant amount of research has validated these outcomes. However, in order
for students to use the learning gained during their course, they must transfer the learning from a
backcountry context to their postcourse life. This study measured the effects of a
theoretically-grounded treatment curriculum designed to foster the transfer of learning of
expedition/prosocial behaviors compared to a traditional curriculum. Expedition behavior (EB) is a
concern for other people, coupled with the willingness to demonstrate this concern through action. It
is a term used in many adventure education programs, and is similar to a psychological construct
called prosocial behavior. Prosocial behaviors (PSB) are described as behaviors that are primarily
aimed at benefiting others, and may be described as sharing, comforting others, donating goods or
money, volunteerism, and instrumental helping. The treatment curriculum was delivered to 14- to
15-year-old students who attended 2-week long adventure education courses with the National
Outdoor Leadership School (NOLS) in the summer of 2008. Each of these courses featured 15
students. The instructors of four of the courses were trained to administer the treatment curriculum
and the instructors of the other four courses administered the traditional curriculum. In order to
assess transfer, a measure of PSB, the PTM-R, was completed by research participants three
times: before the course left for the field, immediately when the course returned, and 3 months
postcourse. In addition, participants completed a standardized outcome measurement of EB, along
with several qualitative questions. Quantitative data were analyzed using MANOVA and qualitative
data were analyzed using constant comparison technique. Results suggested that the treatment
curriculum was responsible for increasing proximal learning of EB. Results did not show that the
treatment curriculum was effective in fostering the transfer of PSB. Qualitative data analysis was
incapable of detecting differences in data between the two groups, but offered insight into how
students use their EB postcourse. Implications for adventure programming, pedagogy, and transfer
are considered. [The dissertation citations contained here are published with the permission of
ProQuest LLC. Further reproduction is prohibited without permission. Copies of dissertations may be
Designed to serve as a foundation for competency-based marketing and distributive education
curriculum development, this package consists of task lists, performance objectives, and
performance guides for use in planning an introductory level retailing course. Job descriptions are
given for receiving clerks, stock clerks, and salespersons/sales clerks in retail trade. Following a
marketing and distributive education curriculum sequence, a marketing and distributive education
occupational task matrix is provided. Presented next are Retailing I tasks, performance objectives,
performance guides, instructor's check lists, and references/resources for the following job skill
areas: ordering, receiving, storing, inventorying, shipping, stocking, displaying, store operating,
cashiering, customer servicing, selling, and employee training. Also listed are Retailing I
psychomotor and cognitive skill statements as referenced to Interstate Distributive Education
Curriculum Consortium (IDECC) learning activity packages and competency numbers. The
occupations to which these skill statements pertain are receiving clerk, stock clerk, and
salesperson/sales clerk. Completing the package is a list of retailing occupation references. (MN)
E-learning and e-teaching systems are involved in teachers' professional activities and development
in several ways: (a) If e-learning/e-teaching is the technology which supports the process of
teachers' learning of university courses, the teacher is in the position of e-learner; (b) If
e-learning/e-teaching is the content of the teachers' university curricula in order to be applied in the
teaching process, the teacher switches from the position of e-learner to the one of e-teacher in
blended or total e-learning systems. Systematic formal teacher education concerning
e-learning/e-teaching implementation, and the structure of teachers' ICT competencies and
e-competencies, as well as the reasons for their occurrence, are considered in the paper. The
Master curriculum of e-learning and an example of the programme realization are presented. The
university curriculum of e-learning at Kragujevac University-Technical Faculty in Cacak (Serbia) was
developed as a part of the international project (TEMPUS JEP-41016-2006). The curriculum focuses
on the development of different e-roles for teachers and e-teachers: e-creator, e-designer,
e-facilitator, e-tutor, e-moderator, etc. This master programme is a part of teacher in-service formal
education for primary and secondary school teachers. In addition, the curriculum is adaptable to
teachers' pre-service education. However, it is more effective as a part of in-service education than
as a part of pre-service undergraduate education, because the active teachers recognize their
professional roles better than prospective teachers. (Contains 4 tables and 2 figures.)
Introduction The Integrative Medicine in Residency (IMR) program, a 200-hour Internet-based,
collaborative educational initiative was implemented in 8 family medicine residency programs and
has shown a potential to serve as a national model for incorporating training in
integrative/complementary/alternative medicine in graduate medical education. Intervention The
curriculum content was designed based on a needs assessment and a set of competencies for
graduate medical education developed following the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical
Education outcome project guidelines. The content was delivered through distributed online learning
and included onsite activities. A modular format allowed for a flexible implementation in different
residency settings. Evaluation To assess the feasibility of implementing the curriculum, a multimodal
evaluation was utilized, including: (1) residents' evaluation of the curriculum; (2) residents'
competencies evaluation through medical knowledge testing, self-assessment, direct observations,
and reflections; and (3) residents' wellness and well-being through behavioral assessments. Results
The class of 2011 (n??=??61) had a high rate of curriculum completion in the first and second year
(98.7% and 84.2%) and course evaluations on meeting objectives, clinical utility, and functioning of
the technology were highly rated. There was a statistically significant improvement in medical
knowledge test scores for questions aligned with content for both the PGY-1 and PGY-2 courses.
Conclusions The IMR program is an advance in the national effort to make training in integrative
medicine available to physicians on a broad scale and is a success in terms of online education.
Evaluation suggests that this program is feasible for implementation and acceptable to residents
despite the many pressures of residency.
A number of recent studies, especially within the East Asian region, have chronicled the problems
involved in successful implementation of the English language teaching component of large-scale,
system-wide educational innovations. This paper reports on the findings of research into the
implementation, in both general and ELT-related terms, of another similar recent initiative, the
Philippines Basic Education Curriculum (BEC). The data indicate that classroom-level
implementation of the BEC has been difficult to achieve, principally because (i) the curriculum
design is insufficiently compatible with teaching situation constraints and, (ii) the necessary levels of
professional support and instructional materials have not been provided. The data also show that
both drawbacks can be traced in the first instance to a shortage of teaching situation and
implementation process resources, a phenomenon frequently noted in the other studies and
elsewhere. As the literature on curriculum development also indicates, however, such problems
occur in both resource-rich as well as resource-poor contexts. The paper therefore concludes by
discussing a number of additional possible underlying causes for inappropriate forms of curriculum
innovation, with a view to informing directions for further enquiry. (Contains 2 tables, 1 figure and 7
The market as educator has become firmly lodged at the centre of popular and scholarly debate
commenting on the nexus between children, consumption and education/learning. In this paper, I
appreciate this scholarly debate from the point of view of the sociology of consumption. The latter
has been relatively silent on children's consumption and education, focusing instead on adult
learning. Nevertheless, I here draw on that sociology to forward an argument that favours
consideration of a broader range of social relationships and cultural and contextual influences. I
outline two models on the network of relationships that inform children's consumption, and illustrate,
through a discussion of Chin's Purchasing Power, how children's consumption-related learning may
originate from outside the market. The paper finishes with a plea for more research that focuses on
children and the domestic contexts of consumption.
This article looks at shifts in pedagogy used to prepare school leaders. "Leaders for America's
Schools" is the focus around which the authors build their case, beginning with a recap of the early
phases of administrator training. Next, the authors examine "A Nation at Risk" and the impact the
educational reform movement had on administration preparation. This section examines "Leaders
for America's Schools", the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium standards, and the
impacts of neoliberalism, globalization, and social justice on preparation. The authors conclude by
describing current pedagogy used in an exemplary leadership preparation program. (Contains 5
This sampler was designed for art specialists and art museum educators with a basic understanding
of teaching discipline-based art education content. The introduction offers a brief history of the
Sampler and explains its intended purpose and use. Then 8 unit models with differing
methodologies for relating art objectives to the four disciplines: aesthetics, art criticism, art history,
and art production, are presented. The sampler consists of two elementary units, two units for
middle school, two units intended for required high school art, one high school studio ceramic unit,
and a brief unit for art teachers and art museum educators that focuses on visits to art museums.
Learning activities, resource material, and learning strategies are given for the units along with a
sequence of lessons organized on a theme. (1) "Art Touches the People in Our Lives" is a unit for
primary level students that introduces children to basic concepts, and to selected elements and
principles of art. They study ways artists use principles to express mood and meaning, learn about
artists who have chosen emotional themes for their work, and express their own thoughts and
feelings as they create artworks. (2) "Spaces and Places" is an elementary unit on architecture that
shows how a topic might be articulated from one grade level to another. (3) "Many Ways of Seeing"
is written for middle school students and investigates the concept of originality, the interpretation of
visual language, symbolism, and the categories of fine art and folk art. (4) "Celebration!," also a
middle school unit, investigates how different cultures use art for common purposes. (5) "The Word
as Image: Symbol to Gesture" investigates relationships between words and visual images in
paintings and graphic arts, and leads to an understanding of contemporary abstract and
non-objective painting. (6) "Art Exploration--A Global Approach" is a general education, high school
unit, that gives balanced consideration to content from each of the four art disciplines. The unit
presents a study of ceramics, painting, and sculpture, which incorporates art exemplars from many
times, places, and cultures. (7) "The Artistic Heritage of Clay: Survival and Revival of Traditions"
demonstrates how an elective high school studio course can focus on the art production discipline
with enrichment from the other three art disciplines. (8) The final unit, "Experiencing Original Works
of Art in a Museum," provides a model for engaging students in response to original works of art.
This article used theory, historical records, and empirical research to make a case that inclusive
education, in which students experience significant proportions of their day in the age-appropriate
contexts and curriculum of general education, is a research-based practice with students who have
extensive support needs. We begin by noting that there are regressive trends occurring in
educational placements in our country and that these are causing alarm. Next, we establish
guidelines for defining a useful, research-based practice. These guidelines include considering what
education should be achieving for all students as a standard and using a view of scientific causality
that acknowledges complexity. We then show how constructs from ecological theory and group
processes theory, which provide accounts for human growth and learning, relate to location of
educational services (i.e., context) and curriculum (i.e., content) decisions. Throughout this
discussion, we show educating students using an inclusive education approach is supported by
these constructs, whereas other widely used special education are not. We then review both
historical and empirical data from institutions and schools and show that these data provide
empirical support for the primary theoretical position of this article--that context, together with
curriculum content, matter crucially when educating students with extensive support needs. We
concluded that there is theoretical and empirical support for using general education contexts and
curriculum content and for not using other contexts and curriculum content both in educating
students with extensive support needs and in conducting related research.
The Consumer Protection Act (CPA) lays the basis for the protection of consumer rights in South
Africa and comprehensively sets out obligations for "suppliers". There have been differing views
expressed as to whether a student should be seen as a consumer. It is clear, however, that this Act
applies to HEIs. This article, firstly, explores the concept of a student as "a customer/consumer".
Secondly, it examines specific aspects of the CPA which will have an impact on HEIs as service
providers in the education sector. It concludes that the impact of the CPA for business is
far-reaching. It also directs that HEIs must take into account the provisions of this Act, particularly
with respect to the rights to: equality, generally and with regard to access; disclosure and
information; fair and equal marketing practices; and fair and reasonable terms and conditions, as
well as fair value and good quality. HEIs are advised to scrutinize their current practices, policies,
terms and conditions, in order to ensure that they comply with the Act.
This publication reports on a workshop to review and analyze existing practices in the design,
implementation, and evaluation of curriculum in technical and vocational education (TVE). In the
main working document, "Curriculum Development in TVE" (Tom Saluja), are the following:
definition of curriculum development; description of how to measure the effectiveness of curriculum
and models of curriculum development; and outline of the stages of curriculum development,
implementation, and evaluation. Summaries of presentations describe experiences of countries in
curriculum development, implementation, assessment, evaluation, and validation. These country
papers are included: Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Japan, Mexico, Tanzania, and
Uganda. A synthesis of country papers focuses on the following areas: education system, TVE
system, responsibility for curriculum development, quality assurance, system of implementation, role
of various bodies, constraints, and future trends. Eight major issues with proposed solutions are
identified: national socioeconomic development and technological advances; relevance of curricula
and competency-based vocational education; feedback from implementation and evaluation; quality
of teachers/instructors; attitude of students to TVE; financial resources for curriculum development
and delivery; legislation related to TVE curricula; and national institutional capacity in curriculum
development. Future strategies and recommendations are listed. A participant list is appended.
This bulletin provides guidance and direction to Missouri local education agencies (LEAs) on the role
of general educators in educating students with disabilities and in linking the general education
curriculum to participation in state- and district-wide assessment. It reviews the Individuals with
Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) requirements which request that students with disabilities have
meaningful access to the general curriculum and are included in general education reform efforts.
The bulletin discusses the changing role of the general educator in assisting and supporting the
student in succeeding in the general education environment, linking general education curriculum to
IDEA through standards-based Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) and standards-referenced
IEPs, and using accommodations in instructional assessments. Four categories are listed of
accommodations that IEP teams may consider when administering the Missouri Assessment
Program: (1) test administration, including reading the assessment, large print, Braille editions,
signing, audiotapes, and assistive devices; (2) timing, including changes in duration or scheduling of
an assessment; (3) response, including use of word processor, dictation to a scribe, pointing, and
use of a Brailler; and (4) setting, including changes in the location or physical environment in which
an assessment is administered. (CR)
The chronic shortage of rural physicians prompts further consideration of the educational
interventions that have been developed to address this issue. Despite rural admission strategies
and a variety of undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate curricular innovations, the recruitment
and retention of family physicians into many rural areas has not kept pace with the retirement of
older general practice physicians. This paper reviews the 1994 American Academy of Family
Physicians' rural training recommendations in the light of several recent educational needs
assessments. These studies affirm the need for rural residency rotations and the need to maintain
and better implement the established rural clinical training guidelines. However, although
preparation for rural medical practice has been addressed and is being adequately accomplished in
the clinical knowledge and procedural skills areas, instruction and experiences relating to the
"realities of rural living" need to be enhanced to increase the retention duration of rural physicians.
This can be accomplished with more curricular emphasis on developing community health
competencies, including community-oriented primary care (COPC). Physicians who know how to
collaborate with community members on health improvement projects have skills that can also
facilitate integration and, hence, retention. PMID:11131773
The guide is intended to assist Manitoba physical education teachers in the process of integrating
students with disabilities into regular physical education classes. The manual provides an
introduction to students with special needs, stresses the need to create an accepting environment,
discusses various teaching tips, and highlights resources available to teachers. Part 1 presents a
discussion of human movement including "learning to move," the role of practice, and "moving to
learn." Part 2 presents descriptive information and specific hints for physical activity programming
for the following disabilities: asthma, visual impairments, cerebral palsy, deafness and hearing
impairment, diabetes, convulsive disorders, physical awkwardness, mental retardation, Down
Syndrome, autism, muscular dystrophy, obesity, and spina bifida. Part 3 provides principles for
creating an accepting environment including information on mainstreaming as a continuum of
participation, teacher attitudes, creating peer acceptance, and eliminating environmental barriers.
Part 4 offers teaching tips in the areas of assessment, task analysis, behavioral teaching principles,
activity analysis, and activity modification/adaptation. Part 5 describes additional resources including
screening tests, checklists, and evaluation instruments; forms; modified equipment (e.g., aquatic
devices, bicycling equipment, devices for ball activities); adaptive equipment; and materials
suppliers. The bibliography contains 40 references. (DB)
This article outlines the results of an issues?based study conducted over a 12?month period that
investigated how the systematic inclusion of teachers within the design, operationalization and
implementation of an online curriculum development project in Florida led simultaneously to
teachers’ own professionalizing in areas of education they were previously unknowledgeable.
Specifically, this study charts how reflective, iterative curriculum development practices
Discusses what the predoctoral dental curriculum should emphasize, in both general content and
learning and teaching processes, in order to fully integrate a postgraduate-year experience. Two
reports recommending strategies for dental education are compared for suggested curriculum
structure, instructional modes, articulation, practicum design, postgraduate year, and potential
barriers to successful implementation. (MSE)
Purpose We sought to determine if a medico-legal educational curriculum designed to increase
physicians' familiarity with the legal system in a nonthreatening environment—a didactic and
interactive educational seminar—would positively influence learners' knowledge base and
self-awareness. Methods Because neither the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education
nor its Residency Review Committees specifically addresses medico-legal liability education, we
designed a 2-day intensive medico-legal educational curriculum and piloted it in 2007 and 2008 at a
large academic tertiary-referral medical center. Postcurriculum evaluations and precurriculum and
postcurriculum testing were used to identify areas of common and/or persisting knowledge deficit.
Results A total of 50 graduating residents, fellows, and community practitioners participated in the
course. Common areas of knowledge deficit were “privilege,” “discovery,” statutes of limitations, and
basic legal procedure. Discordance in physician interpretation of patient perspective and
misunderstanding among physicians of the impact of the legal suit were evident. Conclusions
Concentrated legal education at selected times during medical training may support physicians'
motivations to improve the assurance of quality and continuity of care. We continue to revise the
curriculum to address issues of lecturer style, lecture content, and overall attitudinal values related
to clinical practice, legal education, long-term impact on practice patterns, job satisfaction and its
effect on attention to quality and continuity-of-care issues, and health care provider attitudes about
the provider's role within the legal system and the community. We plan to conduct follow-up of
participants to assess retention and subsequent use of this knowledge.
The numbers of school-aged children with life-threatening allergies that cause anaphylaxis
continues to increase. Many states, including Washington, have responded to this by developing
specific guidelines for school districts to follow in order to provide a safe learning environment for
children with medical conditions that put them at risk for anaphylaxis. School nurses require
resources to assist them in providing health training for school staff on how to manage potentially
life-threatening health conditions for children in their school, however, resources to address this
training are limited. A search for and content analysis of currently available literature and resources
about anaphylaxis and anaphylaxis training curricula revealed a lack of an integrated curriculum to
train school staff. This article presents a discussion of the development of a train-the-trainer
anaphylaxis education program providing school nurses with curriculum, lesson plans,
teaching-learning activities, and resources for anaphylaxis education of all school staff. (Contains 2
This curriculum offers lesson plans for 5 hours of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
education instruction for high school and young adult students of English-as-a-Second Language
(ESL). It helps students develop English language skills while it helps them understand the AIDS
risk factors. The curriculum is designed to help cope with the social pressures that might lead to
behaviors that could put them at risk for HIV infection. Each lesson incorporates specific AIDS
education and ESL objectives and develops the critical thinking, reading, writing, listening, and
speaking skills at the core of every sound ESL program. Copy-ready background materials,
exercises, and activities are provided for each lesson. Appendixes include supplementary exercises
and handouts, a copy of the Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL)
resolution on AIDs, and an international AIDS resource list with addresses and telephone numbers.
The material presented in this guide was developed to serve as a two-year curriculum for classes
connected to cooperative education programs. The overall subject of the guide is preparing for
employment. The curriculum contains 16 units, arranged in sequential order with a recommended
year of presentation shown on the course outline. Each of the units contains objectives, and is
broken into several topics, with suggested resources that can be used to cover each topic. The units
cover the following material: orientation to vocational education; entering the world of work; safety
on the job; understanding business; human relations skills; law; individual potential; coping with
stress; adult responsibilities; youth organizations; job-related mathematics; taxes; preparation for
future employment; analyzing employment possibilities; the economic system; and resource
conservation. In addition, there is an introduction on teaching technical competencies for the
teacher, and a list of resources. (KC)
This book presents teacher-created lesson plans, sequenced by grade level, that illustrate the
connection between teaching specific disciplines--English language arts, foreign language,
mathematics, science, and social studies--and NETS (National Educational Technology Standards)
for Students performance indicators. Each lesson sequence addresses national standards for the
discipline, suggests related resources, and provides a brief narrative by a teacher who has actually
used the lesson in a classroom. Several multidisciplinary learning activities are also described.
Direct links are made between content standards from two or more subject areas and the NETS for
Students performance indicators. Units for each grade range provide developmentally appropriate
themes, tools, and resources from which teachers can choose when developing specific learning
experiences for their classrooms. The appendices include the full text of the NETS for Students, a
NETS workshop staging guide, a directory of NETS project partners, a list of resources, and a
glossary. (MES)
The heart of effective programming for gifted services lies in the development of curricula that will
challenge and enhance learning outcomes for gifted students. Educators have voiced concerns
about the lack of differentiated curricula and instruction in gifted classrooms and the paucity of
empirical evidence to support their effectiveness for gifted learners. Concerning the need to gather
further data on the effectiveness of model-based curricula on student learning in gifted classrooms,
critical components of three highly regarded curricular models in gifted education were integrated
into a single curriculum model and two language arts units for third grade gifted students were
developed. The review of the related literature illustrates the need for a study investigating the
extent to which model-based curricular units are accountable for observable and measurable
outcomes in gifted classrooms using an experimental paradigm. The current study investigated
effectiveness of the integrated curricular model through assessing student outcomes from two
language arts units. The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the CLEAR
curriculum, specifically: Do gifted learners exposed to an integrated model-based curriculum
outperform equally able learners not exposed to the integrated model-based curriculum in the
comparison group on standards-referenced post-tests after controlling for their prior achievement?
The results suggest that the CLEAR curriculum model which establishes the context of rich
curriculum and responsive instruction driven by key components of three existing curricular models
in gifted education is a viable option to enhance student learning. The effect of the CLEAR
curriculum units were also supported through rigorous methodologies such as a cluster-randomized
experimental design and multilevel analyses of student outcome data over two years. The current
study also collected data with regards to the fidelity of implementation and found that teachers
implemented the lessons with moderate to high fidelity (Foster, Oh, Azano, & Callahan, 2012).
Further discussion on fidelity of implementation in the study can be found in Azano et al. (2011) and
Foster et al. (2012). (Contains 16 tables.)
The field of space physics is rich with examples of basic physics and analysis techniques, yet it is
rarely seen in physics courses or textbooks. As space physicists in an undergraduate physics
department we like to use research to inform teaching, and we find that students respond well to
examples from magnetospheric science. While we integrate examples into general education
courses as well, this talk will focus on physics major courses. Space physics examples are typically
selected to illustrate a particular concept or method taught in the course. Four examples will be
discussed, from an introductory electricity and magnetism course, a mechanics/nonlinear dynamics
course, a computational physics course, and a plasma physics course. Space physics provides
examples of many concepts from introductory E&M, including the application of Faraday's law to
terrestrial magnetic storm effects and the use of the basic motion of charged particles as a
springboard to discussion of the inner magnetosphere and the aurora. In the mechanics and
nonlinear dynamics courses, the motion of charged particles in a magnetotail current sheet magnetic
field is treated as a Newtonian dynamical system, illustrating the Poincaré surface-of-section
technique, the partitioning of phase space, and the KAM theorem. Neural network time series
analysis of AE data is used as an example in the computational physics course. Finally, among
several examples, current sheet particle dynamics is utilized in the plasma physics course to
illustrate the notion of adiabatic/guiding center motion and the breakdown of the adiabatic
approximation. We will present short descriptions of our pedagogy and student assignments in this
"backdoor" method of space physics education.
The case study reported in this paper started as a research and development initiative to improve
environmental education and ecology fieldwork activities. A package of resource materials and
activities was developed and pilot?tested with teachers. Despite highly commended workshops,
however, follow?up evaluation revealed that the curriculum packages were not widely used. The
paper discusses a two?year action?research investigation of conceptual,
Purpose. To investigate if there was bias, or the perception of bias, in medical education curriculum
and other issues by students in two private schools of medicine. Method. Over 540 students were
surveyed in two private schools of medicine: Institution X was predominantly European-American
(E-A) and Institution Y was predominantly African-American (A-A). Students marked level of
agreement\\/disagreement to survey items
Governments, international organizations and academics have, in recent decades, expressed a
sense of crisis in the practice of democracy based largely upon increasing levels of disengagement
by citizens from even the most basic elements of civic life. One response has been to devise civics
and citizenship education curricula for schools with the concomitant expectations of enhanced civic
practice. Our examination of citizenship education programs has revealed considerable variation
from country to country in the degree of success achieved in the design, development and
implementation of programs. This paper examines recent developments in citizenship education in
four leading Western democracies--Australia, Canada, England and the USA; each one with its own
particular successes and shortcomings. It identifies several factors associated with the successful
building of curriculum capacity for citizenship education and argues that these are fundamental for
countries wishing to move beyond rhetoric and toward substance in citizenship education. (Contains
1 table.)
Conducted collaboratively by an art educator and a literacy educator, this qualitative study focused
on pre-service art educators' perspectives on integrating literacy in their teaching of art as they took
a required course on literacy across the curriculum. Data included interviews, questionnaires, course
assignments, and field notes from class sessions. Our analysis identified three patterns related to
participants' perspectives while taking the course: their conceptions of literacy expanded, they
reconceptualized familiar art education practices with a literacy-focused lens, and they considered
new practices. Findings suggest that literacy courses are valuable for art educators but that they
must be designed to maximize discipline-specific concerns and literacies. Implications for further
research and practice are outlined. (Contains 1 figure.)
This paper outlines the design of a new curriculum for positive youth development (P.A.T.H.S. II) in
Hong Kong. The paper discusses the conceptual base for designing a drug-education curriculum for
junior-secondary students using four positive youth development constructs—cognitive competence,
emotional competence, beliefs in the future, and self-efficacy. The program design is premised on
the belief that adolescents do have developmental assets; therefore, the curriculum is designed to
develop their psychosocial competencies. The goal of the curriculum is to develop the selfhood of
these youths and ultimately achieve the goal of successful adolescent development.
Many observers have commented on disparities between the theoretical understandings of
environmental education portrayed in academic literature and the environmental education that
takes place in schools. In much of the literature and in curriculum documents there has been an
increasing emphasis on promoting positive attitudes towards the environment, and the results of
several surveys suggest that many teachers support this aim. This paper explores the beliefs of
three geography teachers teaching controversial environmental issues in UK secondary schools. In
contrast to the findings of prior studies, the teachers in this study feel strongly that they should try to
avoid influencing students' attitudes, or imposing any kind of pro-environmental agenda. There is a
substantial divergence between the teachers' beliefs and the espoused aims of much environmental
education literature and the geography syllabus they were following. This suggests that, unless
curriculum developers take account of teachers' beliefs in designing new curriculum materials, those
materials are unlikely to be implemented in their intended format. (Contains 4 notes.)
The North Carolina arts education curriculum encompasses K-12 programs in dance, folk arts,
music, theater arts, and visual arts. It is designed to provide a scope and sequence which
encourages students to develop the essential senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste, touch, and
kinetic awareness. It provides opportunities to develop thinking skills as outlined in the "Florida
Taxonomy of Cognitive Behavior." In addition, a program for exceptional children is included. There
is an overview of educational goals from kindergarten through grade 12, major emphasis for
instructional program divisions (grades K-3, 4-6, 7-8, 9-12) is delineated for each subject. Goals,
objectives, and measures are developed sequentially for each subject. The major goal of the dance
education program is to develop kinetic awareness in students. It is based primarily on the principles
of modern dance. The music curriculum is divided into general, instrumental, and vocal music. The
theater arts program serves to develop an understanding of the ideas, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings
of people in different times throughout history as communicated through literature and theater. The
representative media selected for the visual arts are drawing, painting, printmaking, sculpture, and
fine crafts. The folk arts curriculum encompasses a variety of cultural expressions including
traditional music, dance, visual arts, crafts, oral literature, and customary work practices.
Appendixes include a transcript of the relevant state legislation and materials pertaining to North
Carolina's standard course of study, graduation requirements, scholars' program, testing
requirements and textbook adoption process. (SM)
This essay performs a number of our collaborative responses to thinking (differently) with Deleuze in
educational philosophy and curriculum inquiry. Deleuze "and Guattari" have inspired each of us in
distinctive ways. Single-authored products include a series of narrative experiments or
"rhizosemiotic play" in writing educational philosophy and theory, and a doctoral thesis enacting
processes of "rhizo-imaginary" "picturing" towards immanent and emergent curriculum theorising.
We have also collaborated in producing some co-authored works, which has motivated us to
persevere with exploring further potentials for thinking-writing together. By exploring our
genealogical and generative work with Deleuzean conceptual creations in mind, we seek to move
readers beyond Deleuzo-Guattarian select metaphors (e.g. nomadism, rhizome, lines of flight,
smooth and striated spaces). However, we distance ourselves from the types of "use" of Deleuze
that merely appropriate metaphors that were never intended as metaphors. Rather, we prefer
thinking with Deleuze to produce previously unthought questions, practices and knowledge. We
intend these performances to give a sense of not only the generativity that Deleuzo-Guattarian
reading-thinking has opened to us but also the affirmation such performances bestow for thinking
(differently) in educational philosophy and curriculum inquiry. (Contains 7 notes and 14 exhibits.)
This curriculum guide provides instructional materials that offer suggestions and strategies to
change mindsets and remove barriers in order to pave the way for a gender-equitable, technically
trained work force. A DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) chart forms the basis for the task
performance guides provided for five audiences: students, educators, business/industry/labor
community, policy makers, and parents. Not every duty and task on the chart pertains to every
audience. Each task performance guide consists of units that include introduction, performance
objectives, suggested implementation strategies, evaluations, resources, and special notes. These
units are grouped under the duty to which they pertain. The curriculum consists of these 11 duties:
eliminate internal barriers; eliminate sex-role stereotyping; provide survival skills for trade and
technical women and men; create support systems; eradicate external barriers; remove
discriminatory behavior at all levels in schools and the workplace (coworkers/students); provide
educator training; deliver career education and exploration; deliver workplace literacy skills; revise
policies and regulations; and comply with government regulations. Appendixes include a compilation
of handouts, newspaper articles, programs, agendas, events, etc., mostly related to tasks
(suggested tasks are typed on each copy) related to the student audience section of the document;
170 curricula, guides, handbooks, and manuals; 132 videos, cassettes, disks; 9 profiles, tests, and
posters; and 29 agencies, associations, and unions. Contains a bibliography listing 280 items. (YLB)
This document provides two separate curriculum guides for pediatrics faculty to use in teaching
medical students. The first section contains the alcohol abuse curriculum guide; the second section
contains the drug abuse curriculum guide. The drug abuse guide concentrates on cannabis as a
paradigm for all nonalcoholic drugs of abuse. Each guide includes an introduction and five chapters.
Chapter 1 of each guide lists curriculum goals and objectives. Chapter 2 examines the pediatrician's
role in the curriculum, focusing on subject matter, clinical skills, and attitude. Chapter 3 looks at
several areas of core subject matter: history; epidemiology; definitions; biochemical,
pharmacological, and physiological effects of alcohol (cannabis); psychological effects of alcohol
(cannabis); psychological factors; and treatment. The alcohol abuse curriculum also contains a
section on patterns of alcohol use in children and adolescents. Chapter 4 focuses on related drug
issues. For the alcohol abuse curriculum, these issues include combined alcohol-polydrug use,
management of acute intoxication and untoward reaction, the pregnant adolescent drinker, the fetal
alcohol syndrome, and children of alcoholic parents. For the drug abuse curriculum, issues include
multiple drug use, fetal drug syndromes, the drug-abusing mother, and management of untoward
reactions and overdosage. Chapter 5 considers the problem of the student drinker (drug user). Both
curricula conclude with several pages of references and appendices containing Attitudes and
Opinions Questionnaires for students and annotated lists of curriculum material. (NB)
This presentation highlights the implementation of the NOAA VOICES OF THE BAY education
curriculum at a two-year college. The VOICES OF THE BAY curriculum provides students with an
understanding of the marine ecology, economy, and culture of fisheries through three
interdisciplinary modules that use hands-on activities while meeting a wide range of science, math,
social science, and communications standards. In the BALANCE IN THE BAY module, students use
critical-thinking skills and apply principles of ecosystem-based management to analyze data, debate
and discuss their findings, and make decisions that recognize the complex dynamics associated
with maintaining a balance in fisheries. Through role-playing, teamwork, and a little fate, the FROM
OCEAN TO TABLE module provides students with an opportunity to get an insider’s view of what it
takes to be an active stakeholder in a commercial fishery. In the CAPTURING THE VOICES OF
THE BAY module, students research, plan, and conduct personal interviews with citizens of the local
fishing community and explore the multiple dimensions of fisheries and how they inter-connect
through the lives of those who live and work in the region. The VOICES OF THE BAY modules were
introduced into the curriculum at Los Angeles Valley College during the Fall 2009 semester and are
currently being used in the introductory Oceanography lecture, introductory Oceanography
laboratory, and Environmental Science laboratory courses. Examples of curriculum materials being
used (power point presentations, module worksheets and simulated fishing activities) will be
presented. In addition, samples of completed student worksheets for the three interdisciplinary
modules are provided. Students commented that their overall awareness and knowledge of the
issues involved in sustainable fishing and managing fishery resources increased following
completion of the VOICES OF THE BAY education curriculum. Students enrolled in the laboratory
sections commented that the lab was more enjoyable than the typical lab exercises and the
hands-on nature of the activity made the concept of sustainable fishing more real to them. The
Office of National Marine Sanctuaries and the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary sponsor
professional development workshops to selected faculty to introduce the VOICES OF THE BAY
fisheries education curriculum and assist with implementation in the classroom. Classroom materials
are also available on the website or by
contacting [email protected]
Cognitive development and teaching have highlighted the importance of learning based on the
relationship among individuals and the learning environment. Teaching and learning of science in
early childhood development and education (ECDE) can only be effective if adequate facilities,
materials, equipment and activities are put in place. Teaching of science in ECDE centres in Kenya
is faced with numerous challenges, hence the negative influence on children's learning of the
subject. This raised the question of whether we have appropriate conditions for implementation of
the science curriculum in ECDE centres. This study investigated conditions for implementation of
science in 115 ECDE centres managed by 230 teachers in Kakamega Municipality, Kenya. It used
the ECDE facilities checklist, the ECDE classroom science materials/equipment checklist, the ECDE
classroom science activities checklist, and the ECDE teacher classroom science questionnaire to
analyse the availability of science materials, equipment, class size and activities for ECDE children
in the classroom. Each teacher was videotaped for two consecutive days during science activities.
Their attitude towards science curriculum was measured by the use of an attitude scale. The
findings of the study indicated that three-quarters of the ECDE centres had appropriate general
facilities. However, a majority (91.2%) of ECDE centres lacked adequate and quality classroom
science materials/equipment. The activities that the ECDE teachers engaged in were mostly
unrelated to science activities (85.7%), even though they had a favourable attitude towards the
science curriculum. This study is significant because the resulting findings will influence practice in
early childhood education by informing policy makers on prevailing conditions for implementation of
the science curriculum. On the theoretical side, the findings will contribute to the development of
teaching and learning science materials, science equipment and a children's science curriculum tool
The data for this paper were generated during a three-year, Participatory Action Research project,
with 41 15-19-year-old female co-researchers and activists, within and beyond the walls of a
secondary school. The purpose of the larger study was to work with these students to understand
and transform their self-identified barriers to physical education (PE) engagement and physical
activity participation. The focus of this paper is on one of the transformation sites, the students'
formal PE curriculum. Participatory Action Research (PAR) constituted the theoretical, pedagogical
and methodological framework for this study. The specific questions we seek to address in this
paper are what does a negotiated PE curriculum process look like, and how does students'
increased involvement in curricular decision-making impact on their engagement with physical
education. Data for this paper were generated through individual and group conversations with five
student researchers and curriculum designers during the first year of the study. These conversations
were guided by participatory research artefact's (e.g. photographs, posters). Findings suggest that
participatory approaches to research and curriculum-making can serve to promote students'
meaningful engagement in the critique and the re imagining of their PE and physical activity
experiences. The girls in this study, when provided with guidance and encouragement, rose to the
challenge and took ownership of their learning, and doing so was a positive, energizing and exciting
experience for them and one in which deep learning occurred and deep insights were produced.
Negotiating the curriculum was not without challenge however, and both students and adult allies
needed support in persevering beyond the transition and the novelty of initial excitement.
These physical education standards were designed to ensure that each student achieve the
following goals: (1) physical activity--students develop interest and proficiency in movement skills
and understand the importance of lifelong participation in daily physical activity; (2) physical fitness
and wellness--students increase understanding of basic body systems to develop and maintain the
highest possible level of physical fitness and wellness; (3) movement skills and movement
knowledge--students increase effective motor skills development, understand the fundamentals of
movement by practicing and analyzing purposeful movement, and appreciate the aesthetics of
expressive and creative movement; (4) social development and interaction--students learn
appropriate prosocial behaviors and leadership skills by participating in planned physical activities in
which they develop an appreciation of self and others, experience independent and group work, and
learn how to cooperate and compete with others in the achievement of common goals; (5)
self-image and self-realization--students develop and maintain a positive self-image, value their
personal identity, and have the opportunity to develop and display self-control, self-direction, and
self-expression; and (6) individual excellence--students are encouraged to achieve high personal
levels of performance by integrating psychosocial development, growth and development, and the
humanities. The six sections of these standards are based on these goals; each section provides
objectives and representative activities. (AMH)
These Instructional Management Plans (IMPs) are designed to assist teacher-coordinators of
cooperative industrial education (CIE) in the design of application experiences for each task of each
core competency area. They are intended to help the CIE teacher-coordinator direct the learning of
occupational competencies by helping the student-learners apply theory and classroom-learned
skills to their particular job situations. The IMP should serve as a master plan for the CIE
teacher-coordinator, training sponsor, and student-learner. The application experiences include
classroom, on-the-job, and vocational student organization activities. They are in a format that will
allow the CIE teacher-coordinator to reproduce the form and use the application experience in
classroom instruction and evaluation. Each application experience is in this format: unit title, task,
rating scale, and description of the application experience. Unit titles are career research and
planning, computer awareness, employment orientation, human relations, income management,
insurance, job application and interview, leadership development, legal responsibilities, private
enterprise economics, occupational communications, occupational mathematics, occupational
safety, social security, and tax responsibilities. (YLB)
Increasing physical activity among America's youth is critical in helping to combat chronic diseases
such as obesity and diabetes. Therefore, finding the right sporting activities for the youth is
important, as is making appropriate biomechanical adjustments or behavior modifications that create
a safer means of participation. In this article, the author reiterates his call to researchers, educators,
and clinicians in Kinesiology and the allied health sciences to continue working collaboratively to
identify predispositions to sports-related injuries, but also to develop strategies for transferring the
evidence-based recommendations into curricula where it can have a greater impact. Since sport and
exercise has become a fixture in the lives of young Americans, and has been identified as a
"medicine" for combating chronic diseases, the burden of responsibility has fallen on the shoulders
of the organizations like the National Academy of Kinesiology to help provide an environment that
minimizes the risk of injury in all sports. Preventing injuries related to participation in sport must be a
priority for the National Academy of Kinesiology, American College of Sports Medicine, National
Athletic Trainers' Association, and other associations focused on "safely" promoting healthy and
active lifestyle--while trying to avoid consequences of late-life degenerative diseases. The author
suggests ways this can be accomplished. (Contains 2 tables.)
Images of aging that appear in popular child/teen curricular materials used in church-related
contexts were examined to determine how older adults are portrayed in words and pictures in these
materials and what images of aging emerge. Materials from the following sources, randomly
selected from those that had been checked out of the Ecumenical Resource Center of Richmond,
Virginia, during August-September l989 were examined: Scripture Press, Accent, Bible Discovery
(Presbyterian and Reformed Educational Ministry), and the God with Us program. Most of the
images of older persons in the materials associated aging with sickness, physical disability,
uselessness, wrinkled skin, ugliness, loneliness, poverty, need, lack of knowledge, and grouchiness.
In only a few cases were older adults portrayed as strong, wise, and useful. In at least one example,
aging was related to sinfulness. The study concluded that the prejudices found in these instructional
materials contribute to limiting the view of children/teens toward aged people and perpetuate
stereotypes that are not socially adequate. (KC)
This teacher handbook provides recommended goals and objectives and suggested measures for
competency-based courses in the vocational program area of trade and industrial education. A
background and overview section contains the philosophy and rationale, discusses thinking skills
and programs for exceptional children, and provides notes that explain how to read the goals,
objectives, and measures and offer suggestions for student placement, textbook use, and activities.
This specific information is then provided for a vocational education competency-based curriculum:
purpose and overview (target groups, philosophy, curriculum planning and design) and course of
study. For trade and industrial education, grades 9-12, are offered a program description, learning
outcomes, and scope and sequence. These courses are included in the curriculum: aerospace, auto
body repair, auto mechanics, cabinetmaking, carpentry, cosmetology, diesel mechanics, electrical
trades, electronics, furniture, graphics and industrial communications, industrial cooperative training,
machine shop, marine occupations, masonry, plumbing, sheet metal, small gasoline engines,
tailoring, technical drafting, textiles, upholstery, and welding. Materials provided for each course
include a topical outline and a one-page format for each competency goal that details grade level,
skills/subject area, the competency goal, objective(s), and measure(s) (suggestions of ways in which
students may demonstrate their ability to meet the objective). (YLB)
This paper uses a narrative constructed from diary entries made over the course of a year teaching
English as a platform for examining some of the political, economic, educational and socio-cultural
contexts into which the Digital Education Revolution (DER) was launched as policy. It analyses the
underlying imperatives, components and balance of the current educational reform agenda in
Australia and how it might impact on English pedagogy and curriculum. In doing so it argues that the
delivery of a reform program with considerable promise requires greater attention to the equilibrium
of its constituent parts. Additionally it suggests that the priorities for the enacted curriculum in
English classrooms are set according to the evaluation of content knowledge and more recently by
the prescription of performance measurements of students' literacy and numeracy skills. Finally this
paper argues that in order to support investment in the DER, the role of digital technology should be
inscribed in National Curriculum documents relating to the study of English from the rationale
through to assessment.
A Dairy Foods Curriculum Packet and inservice training were provided to South Dakota high school
agricultural education instructors. Instructors rated barriers to implementation of teaching dairy foods
as "small to medium barriers." After curriculum distribution and inservice training, more than half of
instructors indicated an increase in class time spent on dairy foods instruction. More than half of
instructors taught a greater variety of dairy foods topics after receiving the curriculum. More than 1/3
of instructors who increased dairy foods instruction attributed 75% or more of their increase to the
packet and inservice. High school dairy foods education can be enhanced by providing curriculum
and training to instructors. Dairy foods education is necessary to ensure high school graduates are
educated about dairy products and exposed to potential dairy science careers.
In this paper, the authors explore what citizenship means in an age that is largely defined by
consumption and when education--both within and outside of schools--has become increasingly
commodified and commercialized. They raise questions regarding how citizens, publics, and
axiological dispositions are formed and deformed by the parasitic relationship between market
ideology and educational institutions, and they discuss the tensions between reproduction and
possibility in acts of resistance to these constrained spaces. They also describe how the acquisitive
society has taken rise via explorations of educational and sociological literature addressing
consumerism in three primary arenas: (1) social life; (2) education; and (3) the individual psyche. In
these spaces, they argue that the consumptive force of late capitalist social formations dismisses,
undermines, and potentially colonizes the educational project of democracy. They conclude with
their vision of the potential pedagogical interventions that can be developed despite the cultural
ubiquity of problematic patterns and ideologies of consumption, based largely in the notion that
Dewey's democratic utopia might not be completely lost, but rather displaced, deposited elsewhere
in the cultural landscape and awaiting rediscovery. (Contains 4 notes.)
The Pacific region is growing in worldwide importance in terms of politics, economics, and culture.
The emergence of this area of the world provides an opportunity for new directions in social studies
education. This book addresses the Pacific Rim issues from the viewpoints of educators from 9
Pacific nations: Australia, Canada, Fiji, Japan, Malaysia, People's Republic of China, Philippines,
South Korea, and the United States. The book is divided into three sections: policy issues,
curriculum issues, and classroom activities; each section is followed by an evaluative commentary
on the section. The book contains 24 papers. (DB).
Barry M. Franklin's new work uses the concept of community as a lens for interpreting urban school
reform since 1960. Focusing on the curriculum and employing case studies, he applies the concept
to reform initiatives in a number of city school systems. Included are compensatory education,
community control, mayoral takeovers, educational partnerships, and smaller learning communities.
This comprehensive work concludes with a consideration of how we can employ the concept of
cosmopolitanism to change the idea of community for a twenty-first century, globalized world and its
The role of the nurse educator in curriculum design in the future is considered. Changing
technology, shifts in patient care agencies, legislation and long-term care specialties in nursing are
all factors that will have a significant impact on curricula. Plans for managing and utilizing various
teaching methodologies will be an important role for the nurse educator. The following roles are
discussed and the literature reviewed: leadership, goal-setting, motivation, perception,
communication, power and political involvement, learning styles, teaching methodologies, and
research. An outline of the paper is attached. 56 references. (KM)
Background: The level of influence teachers have over changing developments in curricula to suit
their individual schools is not matched by the influence they possess in the development of such
curricula outside of the school context. Bernstein's model of the social construction of pedagogic
discourse allows examination of the development, mediation and reproduction of curricula using
three fields of knowledge production that he terms "primary", "recontextualising" and "secondary".
Particular tensions emerge when teachers (secondary level) are expected to deliver a curriculum
constructed by agents and agencies external to the school context (recontextualising level).
Purpose: To examine teachers' view towards the process of a particular curriculum innovation in
Scottish secondary school physical education (Higher Grade Physical Education, HGPE), the
consequent subject content and the management of the subject in schools, in an attempt to identify
factors that aided or hindered teachers from supporting and delivering HGPE. Participants and
setting: Physical education teachers teaching in schools belonging to the largest local regional
authority (at the time) in Scotland. Research design: A descriptive study aiming to examine physical
education teachers' view towards the process of a particular curriculum innovation in school physical
education. Data collection: A questionnaire for the attention of the physical education staff was sent
to all 170 secondary schools in the chosen regional authority. The questionnaire set out to
investigate teacher curriculum decision making, particularly in relation to how teachers read and
interpreted issues related to HGPE. Data analysis: Analysis was completed by manually sorting,
organising and indexing the data. Comparing, developing and describing the comments resulted in
the analysis of comments under three headings: (1) the process of construction and the agents and
agencies involved; (2) subject content and the level of prescription; and (3) management and
delivery. Findings: It was evident that teachers wanted to receive considerably more specific central
guidance related to the delivery of HGPE with less of an appreciation that the lack of central
prescription offers teachers more professional freedom to develop courses that are more
appropriate to their own specific contexts. There was also a lack of understanding as to the
expected roles between the recontextualising agents and those operating in the secondary field.
This lead to tensions in the level of support and provision provided to teachers on what was likely to
produce an effective discourse and a lack of assistance and feedback concerning assessment.
Conclusions: While it is evident that teachers were not central to curriculum planning and
development in this instance, it could be interpreted that many teachers did not necessarily wish to
be involved in the curriculum development process but were more concerned with receiving
appropriate training and resources from central agencies. However, this does not excuse the need
to involve teachers in curriculum planning and development, accepting that it is ultimately teachers
who decide whether or not to implement an innovation. Teachers' insights into what aided or
hindered supporting and delivering HGPE are valuable in determining what should be changed, and
what should be preserved, in order to encourage teacher investment in curriculum developments.
(Contains 1 figure.)
This study was conducted for evaluation of existing MBBS curriculum (2002) of undergraduate
medical education in Bangladesh. The specific objectives of this study were: i) to assess the subject
wise course content coverage in the new MBBS curriculum, ii) to assess different examination
system for evaluation of MBBS students, iii) to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching and learning
activities under the curriculum, iv) to explore students opinions regarding improvement of new
curriculum. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study was conducted among the
students of Dhaka medical colleges of Bangladesh in 2008. Data was collected by self administered
structured questioner adopting convenient sampling method. About ninety percent students opined
that the coverage of course content of subjects in the curriculum in Phase I was enough. In case of
the subjects in phase II except community medicine more than four fifth of the students expressed
their opinion about coverage of course content in the curriculum as enough. In case of phase III it
was mentioned by most of the students that coverage of course content was enough. Study
revealed that teaching methods were perceived suitable by about three fourth of the respondents, to
achieve learning objectives. Most of the students expressed their positive views regarding practice
of block posting teaching. More than three fourth of the students perceived that formative
assessment was encouraging for students to become time bound learner and Structured Oral
Examination (SOE) was fair on an average. Only 31(8.6%) of the respondents had opinion that
Objective Structured Practical Examination (OSPE)/Objective Structured Clinical Examination
(OSCE) was not well organized. About half of the students opined that 20% marks in written test
should be allocated for Multiple Choice Question (MCQ). Students' suggestions regarding teaching
were: there should be smaller group sessions; more interactive sessions; more clinical and practical
sessions; more problem oriented sessions; more sessions with senior and experienced teachers;
teachers should follow the curriculum properly; and should be well prepared for class. Regarding
assessment suggestions were: written script of the formative examination should be returned to
students with feedback; teachers should not be biased. Study recommended that training of the
teachers on teaching methodology and assessment system is needed; teachers should provide
feedback to the students according to the performance of the formative assessment at the individual
level; to maintain the standards of assessment proper planning, designing, conduction and
evaluation of assessment should be taken into consideration; subject wise review and updating is
essential to make the curriculum more need based, user friendly and applicable considering context
of Bangladesh. PMID:21522092
Social networks and communities are rapidly expanding and changing due to the accelerating pace
of globalization. In this article, we examine new possibilities for the reform of curriculum and
educational research in a way that is responsive to increasingly multicultural and global
communities. Drawing on literatures in the areas of multicultural, global, and civic education, we
conducted a critical qualitative case study of four elementary school teachers. The teachers, two in
the United States and two in the United Kingdom, are known to be exemplary at synthesizing
multicultural, global, and civic education. We, the two authors, one a female from China and the
other a male from the United States, employed duoethnography methodology to utilize our different
positionalities as researchers in our description, analysis and interpretation of the data. As the
exemplary teachers in our study illustrate, education needs to be culturally responsive, socially just,
well-integrated, and empowering. We conclude with findings that have implications for the reform of
curriculum and educational research methodology.
This guide explains how to incorporate a local area network (LAN) into the business education
curriculum. The first section defines LAN, a communications system that links computers and other
peripherals within an office or throughout nearby buildings and shares multiuser software and send
and/or receive information. Curriculum planning considerations are discussed, followed by a
discussion of four levels where networking is used in the curriculum: individual classes, electronic
processes to network classes, networked systems incorporated in other classes and/or other
schools, and curriculum support of school administration needs. The introductory course outline
consists of two sections: (1) Introduction to Electronic Communications--basic communication skills,
communication modes, and applied communications; and (2) LAN Software Functions--electronic
mail, electronic filing, electronic calendars/scheduling, and electronic conferencing. Student
application exercises are described next. They cover the following topics: (1) Electronic
Mail--messages, memoranda/business notes, and document suggestions; (2) Electronic Filing, (3)
Electronic Calendaring, and (4) Electronic Conferencing. Five appendixes are included: selected list
of 78 publications; list of 103 simulations by publishers; 9 computer activities (banking and finance);
Sports Spectrum electronic files; and proposed software using Sports Spectrum flow-of-work
simulation. (NLA)
The term "curriculum" has been used almost exclusively in educational circles to refer to plans for
the conduct of learning lessons in school classrooms. This paper argues that the concept can be
productively expanded to describe learning processes in workplaces, including those in which
learning is not the intentional outcome of an interaction. The article first reviews conventional
conceptions of curriculum, and then draws on theories of cognition and learning base in
phenomenology, symbolic interactionism and situated learning to identify some of the features of a
naturally-occurring curriculum in the workplace: the socio-technical and pragmatic elements of the
knowledge used in the work environment, the classification and framing of knowledge-use, and the
extent to which participants are expected to use the various forms of knowledge. That is, curriculum
is essentially a socially-constructed ordering of the knowledge-use in a social context. These
concepts are applied to two settings in which high school interns were supposed to be learning
something: a history museum and a veterinary clinic.
This article discusses theoretical underpinnings, teaching strategies, and preliminary evaluation
relative to the development of a reflective curriculum used in our distance-accessible graduate
psychiatric nursing program. Influenced by the collective ideas of J. Dewey (1993), J. Reed and S.
Proctor (1993), D. A. Kolbe (1984), J. Mezirow (1981), C. Johns (2006), D. Schön (1983), D.
Freshwater (2008), and others who have promoted reflection as a transformative teaching and
learning process, we sought to develop a curriculum that balanced knowledge and skill acquisition
with critical reflective practices that would instill habits of lifelong learning. We began with traditional
approaches to psychiatric nursing education, including case study analysis and modified lectures
that we call mini lectures. We then added principles and practices of reflection to allow for merging
these traditional approaches with contemporary reflection-focused approaches. Specific ways to use
reflection in a graduate psychiatric nursing curriculum are described to demonstrate how we have
taken our curriculum beyond traditional ways of teaching and learning toward one that emphasizes
building knowledge and skill through reflective practice. PMID:22999029
This guide is intended to assist vocational English as a second language (VESL) instructors in
teaching courses in carpentry and the culinary arts to residents of Navajo reservations. The first
section outlines the rationale and content of the two training programs as well as the basic VESL
objectives that they seek to address. The next section, a VESL learning guide, discusses the main
principles of the ESL method, learning characteristics of ESL students, the ESL learning
environment, curriculum development, teaching techniques (including survival and
competency-based methods, the notional-functional approach, use of the world outside the
classroom, and total physical response), student assessment, and placement levels. Educational
goals and curriculum design are covered next. The carpentry curriculum includes 25 units that are
intended to provide students with hands-on and classroom instruction in the identification, proper
handling, care, and maintenance of trade tools and equipment; the fundamental processes and
techniques of the carpentry trade; applicable codes and safety practices; and blueprint reading and
job estimation techniques. The culinary arts curriculum teaches professional cooking skills in a
43-week, 40-hour-per-week program that includes 215 hours of culinary arts instruction, 42 hours
each of classroom English and basic math, and 1,421 hours of programmed kitchen laboratory
instruction. Both curricula include behavioral objectives, instructional outlines, learning activities, and
quizzes. A bibliography of additional resources is included. (MN)
The Bethel Theological Seminary (St. Paul, Minnesota) sought to analyze the viability of the
curriculum for ministers and persons in related occupations, and to consider an outcomes-based
approach to curriculum restructuring. A model was developed to assess the effectiveness of
seminary curricula in light of the realities of ministry among practicing clergy. Development of the
model involved a survey to identify the tasks and time utilization of practicing clergy. Steps in the
model included: develop cross-discipline agreement on outcomes to be sought; seek feedback from
alumni, pastors, and denominational leaders; meet with pastors for integration focus group
interaction; revise outcomes statements and develop a recommendation for faculty review; develop
objectives, instructional strategies, and testing procedures to support the achievement of outcomes;
implement the revised curriculum, test its effectiveness, and use evaluation data to refine the
effectiveness of the core curriculum. The survey of 807 pastors, with 86% responding, gathered
data on attitudes toward ministry and the functions of ministry. Factor analysis was used to
determine the relative importance of categories of ministerial effectiveness, such as personal
spiritual faith and integrity, outreach, counseling, and Christian compassion. Ministers also rated
their level of involvement in counseling, preaching, evangelism, worship, education, administration,
information, and personal development activities. (JDD)
Objective To design and implement an interactive education program to improve the skill and
confidence of community pharmacists in providing pharmaceutical services to people with mental
illnesses. Design A literature review was conducted and key stakeholders were consulted to design
a partnership that involved community pharmacists and consumer educators. The partnership was
designed so that all participants shared equal status. This facilitated mutual recognition of each
others' skills. Assessment Four 2-hour training sessions were conducted over a 2-week period in
March 2005. Seven pharmacists, 5 consumer educators, and 1 caregiver educator participated in
the partnership. Pharmacists indicated that their participation caused them to reflect on their own
medication counseling techniques. Consumer educators reported that speaking about their
experiences aided their recovery. Conclusion Developing a better understanding and improved
communication between community pharmacists and people with mental illnesses is an important
aspect of facilitating a concordant approach to patient counseling. Implementing mental health
education programs utilizing consumer educators in pharmacy schools is a promising area for
further research.
Educational consortiums possess significant academic and financial benefits. A faculty shortage has
had an impact on subspecialty educational programs including nurse anesthesia. This column
describes a collaborative "consortium" model of 3 individual nurse anesthesia educational programs
located in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, area. The Philadelphia Area Nurse Anesthesia
Educational Programs' Shared Curriculum Consortium provides high quality, didactic education;
decreased overall program administrative costs; and offers each participating program the ability to
explore opportunities for continued growth. PMID:20977124
Food safety education is most effective when messages are targeted toward changing behaviors
most likely to result in foodborne illness. The five major control factors for pathogens are personal
hygiene, adequate cooking, avoiding cross-contamination, keeping food at safe temperatures, and
avoiding foods from unsafe sources. Pathogens associated with poor personal hygiene have the
highest incidence and costs. Inadequate cooking and
Research shows that educators are not prepared to address real life issues such as substance
abuse, HIV/AIDS, and bullying in the classroom. Yet, students with learning disabilities remain
vulnerable to each of these pressing life issues. The purpose of the current study was to determine
whether the curriculum infusion (CI) model increased the confidence of special educators in
addressing real life issues and whether CI training altered their beliefs about their role in prevention
education. This paper describes the key components of a higher education training program in CI.
The paper also reports the results of pre- and posttest data collected from students who participated
in two undergraduate-level courses and one graduate-level course. Findings indicate that the CI
methodology positively impacted preservice teacher beliefs concerning the importance of
addressing real life issues in instructional plans. (Contains 2 tables.)
Curriculum guidelines for the education of primary care practitioners (PCPs) about AIDS and
AIDS-related disorders have been developed by the National Fund for Medical Education (NFME).
The guidelines resulted from a modified Delphi authority opinion survey with two iterations and have
been edited by the authors. The guidelines are intended to support local educational programming
in hospitals, medical schools, HMOs, health departments, and other entities that provide educational
services to physicians and nurses. The guidelines are intended to be flexible so as to support
programs directed at issues of particular local interest as well as more general programs. The
guidelines are divided into 12 modules and cover epidemiologic, scientific, clinical, social, and
economic issues related to AIDS and HIV infection. NFME will provide, on request, a list of potential
faculty who can teach the various modules. PMID:2340190
This essay review focuses on Daisaku Ikeda (b. 1928) and his curriculum of Soka, or value-creating,
education present in two works: "Choose Life: A Dialogue" (Toynbee & Ikeda, 1976) and "Thoughts
on Education for Global Citizenship" (Ikeda, 1996b). In reviewing these works, the authors trace the
biographical roots of Ikeda's educational philosophy to his encounter with Josei Toda (1900-1958)
and to the overwhelming concerns he has grappled with since childhood about the forces that
ravaged his youth and family life; the authors also examine Ikeda's concept of value-creating
education relative to value-creating pedagogy theorized by Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1981-1988)
and suggest that Ikeda's curriculum of Soka education is comprised of three key principles that also
serve as its processes and goals--dialogue, global citizenship, and "human education" in the
mentor-disciple relationship. The authors conclude with the implications of Ikeda's curriculum of
Soka education and of the two reviewed works.
This booklet offers guidelines for the consumer interested in buying solar systems. It should help the
homeowner considering the use of solar energy for space heating and cooling and domestic water
heating to make informed decisions based on geographic location, type of home, quality of
insulation, present energy costs, and type of solar system intended for purchase. It is hoped that
these guidelines will eliminate a good many risks in purchasing solar equipment and protect the
consumer against possible fraud and deception. It includes engineering terms used to evaluate or
describe solar products.
In this paper, based on the technology acceptance model (TAM) we explore the influencing factors
of consumer intention towards web group buying. We took back 224 questionnaires. The samples
are students and staff in the company, who are the typical web group buying consumers. We use
correlation analysis and regression analysis to analyze the questionnaire data and test the
The project ìconsumer perception and buying behavior (the pasta studyî) is basically measures the
development of perception through different variables and identify those factors which stimulate
buying decision of consumer. Among various variables which effect consumer buying pattern I
choose AWARENESS and AVAILABILITY of the product as two main variables which have strong
effect on popularity and sale of pasta product. As my research is totally based on qualitative method
thatís why I choose quota sampling technique and collect data by interviewing house wives resides
in different areas of Karachi. The reason of choosing only house wives as respondent is that house
wives can give true insight factors which hinder the popularity of pasta products in Pakistan. Focus
group discussions have been conducted to extract findings. 30 house wives have been interviewed
and their responses have been analyzed.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how young Chinese consumers' money
attitudes influence their compulsive buying behavior. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In total,
303 undergraduate students from Tianjin and Ningbo (two major cities in coastal China) answered a
self-administered questionnaire. Findings – Money attitudes were found to significantly affect young
Chinese consumers' compulsive buying behaviour. Specifically, the Retention-Time
Despite numerous studies reporting on organic consumer profiles, little is known on consumers
motivations for buying local and organic products. More precisely, do consumers prefer local
products because they want to support local producers or do environment and the question of food
miles matter in their choice ? Besides, very little is known about organic consumers in developing
countries, since
As many consumers have possessed a high-quality Internet access, the market scale of e-travel
service business showed rapid growth. The convenience and anonymity of Internet shopping
increase opportunities for e-impulse buying. However, most previous studies focused on the effect
of website design characteristics on online impulsive buying behavior, and few explored such
behavior from consumer individual internal factor perspectives. Therefore,
The object of this study was to increase knowledge on the user groups of convenience foods, the
use of convenience foods and factors affecting their use. The answer to the key question — 'Why
does a consumer buy convenience food?' — was sought from the results of earlier research and by
means of an extensive survey study aimed at consumers.
Based on the economics theory of information and the transaction utility theory, this paper shows
how the market price dispersion affects a consumer's intention to join group-buying transactions
using the transaction utility, which compares the consumer's internal reference price and the
predicted final price of group buying. The experimental data show that consumers consistently
perceive a higher internal reference price
We elicit willingness-to-pay information for similar food products that differ only in their content of
genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Participants in the experiment are a demographically
representative sample of French consumers. 35% of participants are unwilling to purchase products
made with GMOs, 23% are indifferent or value the presence of GMOs, and 42% are willing to
purchase them if they
Consumers in Arizona are showing increased interest in solar electric systems for their homes and
businesses. This booklet provides basic information about buying a PV system. Photovoltaic (PV)
systems are reliable, pollution free, and use a renewable source of energy-the sun. A PV system
can be a substantial investment and careful planning will help ensure that you make the right
There are many factors effecting consumer buying behaviours in urban areas of the People's
Republic of China during recent years. These factors and their results are of growing importance in
the increasingly global marketplace within which most companies are beginning to compete. Just
some of the rapidly changing drivers of this change are the Chinese one-child policy, higher average
A consumer intercept survey was conducted to evaluate consumers' attitude and awareness, as well
as their willingness to accept irradiated food products. The primary data for this analysis were
collected in Spring 2001. A low level of awareness of food irradiation exists despite the recent
increase in news stories about irradiation technology. This study reveals that most consumers are
not familiar with irradiation technology, which attributes to the fact that the public is very ambivalent
in their decisions regarding irradiated foods. Education programs seem to have positive effects on
shaping consumer opinion about irradiation, which can improve the safety of food products. Thus,
the results of this study provide useful information required for the development and implementation
of effective consumer educational programs. The study identifies the current profiles of consumers
who are willing to purchase irradiated food products and who are willing to pay a premium for
irradiated beef products in the marketplace. A number of socio-economic variables were
hypothesized to be related to consumer willingness to buy and pay more for irradiated beef. The
estimates of willingness to buy were obtained using a probit model. Willingness to pay more for
irradiated food products was estimated using ordered probit with a sample selection model.
Standard errors of the marginal effects of the ordered probit model were estimated using the
bootstrap method. About 80% of the respondents were willing to purchase irradiated beef products
and about 58% were willing to pay a premium for irradiated beef. This finding suggests that those
who think that improper handling contributes to food poisoning are more likely to buy and pay a
premium of 50 cents per pound for irradiated beef than others. Those who trust the irradiation
technology are also more likely to purchase and pay a premium of between 5 to 50 cents per pound
for irradiated beef. The results of this study provide information important not only to food retailers,
but also to other players in the supply chain.
This paper analyses the impact of a priori identified determinants on stated willingness to change
usual place of shopping in order to be able to buy more animal welfare friendly food products of
consumers in nine European Union countries. We used Eurobarometer data and structural equation
models with observed and latent variables. The results show that the ranking of determinants'
impact on the behavioural willingness is similar in the majority of models, with access to information
as the strongest determinant, followed by perceived responsibility of consumers and education with
strong influence, then by labelling and occupation with lower impact and ending with children, with
the lowest influence. This study aims to provide some evidence on the relationship between welfare
friendly behavioural willingness and information and labelling issues, amongst other determinants, in
the European Union. As both access to information and perception of welfare labelling were found to
significantly influence the behavioural willingness, this might suggest the need for the European
Union to invest more in improving the welfare labelling system, enhance the welfare information
available to the public and improve access to it through measures such as welfare education
campaigns. PMID:22127269
This study examined attitudinal and behavioral differences between internal and external locus of
control (LOC) consumers on credit card misuse, the importance of money, and compulsive buying.
Using multiple analysis of variance and separate analyses of variance, internal LOC consumers
were found to have lower scores on credit card misuse and attitudes toward money than external
LOC consumers. External LOC consumers were found to have scores closer to compulsive buying
behaviors. Chi-square test of independence revealed that the proportion of external LOC consumers
classified as compulsive buyers was significantly higher than the proportion of internal LOC
consumers classified as compulsive buyers. (Contains 5 tables.)
Information and exercises are provided in this learning module to increase students' awareness of
and effectiveness in their role as consumers. The module, which is written at an elementary level,
covers eight topics related to consumer affairs: (1) finding an apartment through newspaper
classified advertisements and other sources and signing a lease agreement; (2) buying a house and
transferring the title from seller to buyer; (3) choosing and financing a mobile home; (4) buying a car,
financing it, securing automobile insurance, and performing preventative auto maintenance; (5)
planning for grocery, clothing, furniture, and appliance purchases; (6) using sales catalogs as an
alternative means of shopping; (7) judiciously utilizing telephone and door-to-door sales; and (8)
avoiding consumer rip-offs, such as false advertising, fraudulent home and personal improvement
schemes, automobile repairs that are not completed, sympathy appeals, free offers, and debt
consolidation programs. For each topic, the module provides informational texts and suggestions, as
well as exercises and activities designed to reinforce student learning. A glossary and an exercise
answer key are provided. (JP)
A substantial number of studies has already investigated differences within the consumer market
with regard to attitudes and perceptions in relation to farm animal welfare. Likewise, several studies
focused on the gap that exists between positive attitudes and reported consumption or purchase
intentions for sustainable food products in general and higher welfare products more specific, and
on the factors influencing this attitude-behavior gap. Little or no studies, however, have started from
reported pro-welfare behavior to distinguish between consumer groups and to explore the
motivations of the respective behavior. With this study, we aim to group consumers according to
their reported buying frequency of higher welfare eggs and higher welfare chicken meat. Similarities
and dissimilarities between these groups are mapped in terms of individual characteristics, product
attribute importance, perceived consumer effectiveness, perception of higher welfare products, and
attitude toward a welfare label. The research methodology applied was a quantitative study with
cross-sectional consumer survey data collected in Flanders in spring 2007 (n = 469). Pro-welfare
behavior was unevenly distributed across different consumer segments, despite a general interest
and concern for bird welfare. A consistent choice for standard (no welfare premium) poultry products
was related to strong perceived price and availability barriers, to a low importance attached to
ethical issues as product attributes, and to a low perceived consumer effectiveness. A consistent
choice for products with higher welfare standards to the contrast associated with a high importance
attached to ethical issues; a low effect of price and availability perception; a strong association of
higher welfare products with product attributes like health, taste, and quality; and a high perceived
consumer effectiveness. The identification of market segments with common characteristics is
essential for positioning higher welfare products and developing effective communication strategies.
Finally, a welfare label emerged as an appropriate communication vehicle for consumers who
engage in pro-welfare behavior and who experienced the label as a solution to lower the search
costs for higher welfare products. PMID:19903971
The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which the Treaty on European Union agreed at
Maastricht will alter European Community consumer protection law and policy. Two aspects of the
Treaty have attracted most interest from the consumer viewpoint: the potential forward impetus
resulting from the inclusion in the Treaty of a specific Title devoted to consumer
The aim of the overall project is to understand in depth the behavioural process of parents with
respect to organic food. Its main objectives are to identify: beliefs, with respect to organic food, of
parents who buy and do not buy organic food; the positive as well as negative attitudes towards
organic food of those who buy and do not
Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to explore the values that underlie consumers purchasing
decisions of organic food. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper draws on data from focus
groups and laddering interviews with a total of 181 regular and occasional consumers of organic
food that were contrasted with survey results of other studies. Findings – The results show that
2012 Meet Your Vegetables Tasting Booth Internship Objectives Primary To encourage Market
customers to buy and consume more fresh fruits and vegetables. To educate Market customers
about the health benefits of fresh fruits and vegetables. To teach Market customers tips for easy
storage and preparation
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of wine's region of origin in the
consumer wine-buying decision-making process in the Australian domestic market.
Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data collection takes place by means of a self-administered and
online approach in tandem utilising a highly structured questionnaire completed by wine consumers.
The sample is limited to three groups
This paper presents the combined mid-term findings of the consumer research components of two
EU Sixth Framework Programme integrated projects concerning meat, ProSafeBeef and
Q-PorkChains. The consumer pillar of ProSafeBeef carried out eight focus group discussions in May
2008, in France, Germany, Spain and the UK. Q-PorkChains conducted a large-scale, web-based,
consumer survey in January 2008 in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece and Poland. The first
project provides a set of qualitative data from a small cohort of focus groups and the second a set of
quantitative data from a larger consumer sample. This paper draws together the main findings of
both projects and provides a comprehensive overview of European citizens' and consumers'
attitudes towards and preferences regarding beef and pork. In general, consumers consider meat to
be a healthy and important component of the diet. Consumers support the development of
technologies that can improve the health attributes of meat products and guarantee eating quality,
but they have a negative view of what they see to be excessive manipulation and lack of
naturalness in the production and processing of beef products. In the Q-PorkChains study consumer
and citizen segments are identified and profiled. Consumer segments were built upon the frequency
and variety of pork consumption. The citizen segments were built upon their attitudes towards pig
production systems. Overall, the relationship between individuals' views as citizens and their
behaviour as consumers was found to be quite weak and did not appear to greatly or systematically
influence meat-buying habits. Future studies in both projects will concentrate on consumers'
acceptance of innovative meat product concepts and products, with the aim of boosting consumer
trust and invigorating the European beef and pork industries. PMID:20374787
Beef packaging can influence consumer perceptions of beef. Although consumer perceptions and
acceptance are considered to be among the most limiting factors in the application of new
technologies, there is a lack of knowledge about the acceptability to consumers of beef packaging
systems aimed at improved safety. This paper explores European consumers' acceptance levels of
different beef packaging technologies. An online consumer survey was conducted in five European
countries (n=2520). Acceptance levels among the sample ranged between 23% for packaging
releasing preservative additives up to 73% for vacuum packaging. Factor analysis revealed that
familiar packaging technologies were clearly preferred over non-familiar technologies. Four
consumer segments were identified: the negative (31% of the sample), cautious (30%), conservative
(17%) and enthusiast (22%) consumers, which were profiled based on their attitudes and beef
consumption behaviour. Differences between consumer acceptance levels should be taken into
account while optimising beef packaging and communicating its benefits. PMID:21543160
OBJECTIVE: The involvement of consumers in the development of dietary guidelines has been
promoted by national and international bodies. Yet, few best practice guidelines have been
established to assist with such involvement. DESIGN: Qualitative semi-structured interviews
explored stakeholders' beliefs about consumer involvement in dietary guideline development.
SETTING: Interviews were conducted in six European countries: the Czech Republic, Germany,
Norway, Serbia, Spain and the UK. SUBJECTS: Seventy-seven stakeholders were interviewed.
Stakeholders were grouped as government, scientific advisory body, professional and academic,
industry or non-government organisations. Response rate ranged from 45 % to 95 %. RESULTS:
Thematic analysis was conducted with the assistance of NVivo qualitative software. Analysis
identified two main themes: (i) type of consumer involvement and (ii) pros and cons of consumer
involvement. Direct consumer involvement (e.g. consumer organisations) in the decision-making
process was discussed as a facilitator to guideline communication towards the end of the process.
Indirect consumer involvement (e.g. consumer research data) was considered at both the beginning
and the end of the process. Cons to consumer involvement included the effect of vested interests on
objectivity; consumer disinterest; and complications in terms of time, finance and technical
understanding. Pros related to increased credibility and trust in the process. CONCLUSIONS:
Stakeholders acknowledged benefits to consumer involvement during the development of dietary
guidelines, but remained unclear on the advantage of direct contributions to the scientific content of
guidelines. In the absence of established best practice, clarity on the type and reasons for consumer
involvement would benefit all actors. PMID:23182406
Wine is particularly suited to various dimensions of the internet and hence creating a brand image
that will attract and retain consumers is the conundrum of the online wine retailers. This article
outlines the findings of a primary ‘field’ research study with a final sample size of 1377 using an
online-administered structured questionnaire to obtain information about behavioural and
Health claims on food products are often used as a means to highlight scientifically proven health
benefits associated with consuming those foods. But do consumers understand and trust health
claims? This paper provides an overview of recent research on consumers and health claims
including attitudes, understanding and purchasing behaviour. A majority of studies investigated
selective product-claim combinations, with ambiguous findings apart from consumers' self-reported
generic interest in health claims. There are clear indications that consumer responses differ
substantially according to the nature of carrier product, the type of health claim, functional ingredient
used or a combination of these components. Health claims tend to be perceived more positively
when linked to a product with an overall positive health image, whereas some studies demonstrate
higher perceived credibility of products with general health claims (e.g. omega-3 and brain
development) compared to disease risk reduction claims (e.g. bioactive peptides to reduce risk of
heart disease), others report the opposite. Inconsistent evidence also exists on the correlation
between having a positive attitude towards products with health claims and purchase intentions.
Familiarity with the functional ingredient and/or its claimed health effect seems to result in a more
favourable evaluation. Better nutritional knowledge, however, does not automatically lead to a
positive attitude towards products carrying health messages. Legislation in the European Union
requires that the claim is understood by the average consumer. As most studies on consumers'
understanding of health claims are based on subjective understanding, this remains an area for
more investigation. PMID:22385589
In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers
are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price,
quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He
believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener choices by giving consumers immediate
access to reliable information about a product's environmental impact at the point of purchase and
proposes a way to do just that.
Marketing educators have long recognized the value of engendering students' deep learning of
course content via experiential pedagogies. In this article, the authors describe a semester-long,
team-based retail audit project that is structured to elicit active student engagement with consumer
behavior course material via concrete, hands-on, real-world experience. For the project, students
form teams to organize and conduct an observational audit of a live retail setting. In the process of
completing the project, students engage with course content on their own, with their team members,
and importantly, within a focal store environment, thus experiencing for themselves the effects of
that content on their own shopping behavior, as well as that of others. Compelled by the project's
active pedagogy to engage in discovery, students learn not only the "what" and "why" of marketing
concepts, strategies, and techniques but also "how to" implement them. Anchored in conceptual
perspectives relevant to the project, the article explains the components and structure of the project
and explicates its key benefits with an emphasis on the students' perspectives. The article includes
results of qualitative and quantitative analyses that support the effectiveness of the project and
suggests future directions for extending pedagogical research in this area. (Contains 2 tables.)
This study aims to identify the factors that affect consumers purchasing behaviour towards food
products that are free from Genetic Modified Organism (GM Free) in a European Region and more
precisely in the Prefecture of Drama-Kavala-Xanthi. Field interviews conducted in a random selected
sample consisted of 337 consumers in the cities of Drama, Kavala, Xanthi, in November and
December of 2009. Principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted in order to identify the
factors that affect people in preferring consuming products that are GM Free. The factors that
influence people in the study area to buy GM Free products are: (a) products' certification as GM
Free or organic products, (b) interest about the protection of the environment and nutrition value, (c)
marketing issues, and (d) price and quality. Furthermore, cluster and discriminant analysis identified
two groups of consumers: (a) those are influenced by the product price, quality and marketing
aspects and (b) those are interested in product's certification and environmental protection. Non
parametric statistical bivariate techniques were performed to profile the identified groups of
consumers regarding their personal characteristics and some other factors affecting their buying
behaviour. PMID:21718730
Until recently consumers and consumer-interests have been virtually absent not only from the rules
of copyright but also from\\u000a copyright’s discourse. This has been so even though the
combination of an expansion of copyright and a devaluation of the\\u000a internal balancing
mechanisms raise concern from a consumer perspective. There would, therefore, seem to be a
need to incorporate\\u000a a consumer
Interviews with 48 consumers found that they desired moderate to high levels of corporate social
responsibility (CSR). Precontemplators (n=16) did not base purchasing on CSR and contemplators
(n=11) only moderately. The action group (n=8) had stronger beliefs about CSR but did not always
purchase accordingly. Maintainers (n=9) practiced socially responsible consumer behavior.
(Contains 42 references.) (SK)
in order to avoid martensite and avoid the risk of brittle fracture. Weld metal yield strengths therefore
cancellation relies on the solidÂ-state transformation of the weld metal into bainite or martensite
available martensitic stainless steel welding consum- ables, and it has been demonstrated that the
Although tomato flavor has not been a major goal for breeders, nowadays it becomes important as it
is a subject of consumer complaint. A better knowledge of tomato consumer preferences, at the
European level, should provide the basis for improvement of fruit quality and for market
segmentation. In the framework of a large European project, 806 consumers from 3 countries, The
Netherlands, France, and Italy, were presented with a set of 16 varieties representing the diversity of
fresh tomato offer in order to evaluate their preferences. In parallel, sensory profiles were
constructed by expert panels in each country. Preference maps were then constructed in each
country revealing the structure of consumer preferences and allowing identification of the most
important characteristics. Then a global analysis revealed that preferences were quite
homogeneous across countries. This study identified the overall flavor and firmness as the most
important traits for improving tomato fruit quality. It showed that consumer preferences from different
European countries, with different cultures and food practices, are segmented following similar
patterns when projected onto a common referential plan. Moreover, the results clearly showed that
diversification of taste and texture is required to satisfy all consumers' expectations as some
consumers preferred firm tomatoes, while others preferred melting ones and were more or less
demanding in terms of sweetness and flavor intensity. Detailed comparisons also showed the
importance of the fruit appearance in consumer preference. PMID:21535628
Background Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef
consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The
aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Methods Eight focus
group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each
consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of
these discussions. Results Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group
participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health.
Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with
further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a
difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in
favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate
consumption behaviour and preparation methods. Conclusions The individual responsibility for
health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their
food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness
is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness
provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation
and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions
related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.
When it came time to buy the next-generation data storage system for the Mission Control Center at
Johnson Space Center, we asked our contractor who provides Control Center support to come up
with a solution that would consolidate three current storage systems, as well as provide additional
capability and functionality - all without spending vast amounts of money. Eventually, the
contractor's report arrived at my office. To my great disappointment, the proposed system came
along with a multi-million dollar price tag. And, even more disappointing, the system relied on the
same technology we already had in place and wouldn't deliver much additional functionality. It was
clear that we needed to come up with a better solution-the best we could buy. But how do you buy
the best technology, when you don't even know what technology is out there?
Technology product procurement can be a daunting task for a college or university--especially a
smaller institution--to accomplish alone. Perhaps this is why schools are tackling it by banding
together. When it comes to purchasing technology, a little help from friends is the key to economies
of scale, which frequently net schools the best bargains available. Simply put: Buying in bulk can
offer significant advantages. Over the years, a number of consortia have experienced these benefits
firsthand. In the Midwest, the Wisconsin Association of Independent Colleges and Universities buys
laptops as a unit, and distributes the hardware among its 20 member schools. In Appalachia, via the
Maryland Independent College and University Association and the Pennsylvania State System of
Higher Education, educators do the same with other technologies. In fact, each of these academic
federations spend millions on technology every year. But without the consortium approach they
have adopted, the individual schools that comprise each of them would be spending a great deal
more. In this article, the author explores the realities of technology purchasing consortia by talking
with prominent leaders of two such organizations: (1) the Claremont University Consortium in
California; and (2) the Massachusetts Higher Education Consortium (MHEC). While Claremont is a
relatively small consortium consisting of seven schools, MHEC is mammoth, comprising 83 schools,
with more to come. Across both consortia, many campus leaders hail the pros of the collaborative
buying approach, while some are keenly aware of the cons. Still, there is no disputing that
consortium buying has changed the face of procurement forever. Perhaps two heads really are
better than one.
Access to reliable exposure data is essential for the evaluation of the toxicological safety of
ingredients in cosmetic products. This study complements the data set obtained previously (Part 1)
and published in 2007 by the European cosmetic industry acting within COLIPA. It provides, in
distribution form, exposure data on daily quantities of five cosmetic product types: hair styling, hand
cream, liquid foundation, mouthwash and shower gel. In total 80,000 households and 14,413
individual consumers in five European countries provided information using their own products. The
raw data were analysed using Monte Carlo simulation and a European Statistical Population Model
of exposure was constructed. A significant finding was an inverse correlation between the frequency
of product use and the quantity used per application recorded for mouthwash and shower gel. The
combined results of Part 1 (7 product types) and Part 2 (5 products) reported here, bring up to date
and largely confirm the current exposure parameters concerning some 95% of the estimated daily
exposure to cosmetics use in the EU. The design of this study, with its relation to demographic and
individual diversity, could serve as a model for studies of populations' exposure to other consumer
products. PMID:21093525
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of consumers' health beliefs, health
involvement, and risk perception on fish consumption behaviour in five European countries.
Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Cross-sectional data were collected through a pan-European
consumer survey (n=4,786) with samples representative for age and region in Belgium, The
Netherlands, Denmark, Spain and Poland. First, the cross-cultural validity
The cost of thermographic information obtained by contracting for a service is compared to that of
buying equipment and doing the work in-house. A breakeven analysis method is used to find the
number of days per year an instrument must be used to justify buying it. Life-cycle costing
techniques are used to find the equivalent annual cost of various classes of thermographic
instruments. Results indicate that a full-time person earning $20,000 annually must use a $30,000
instrument at least 73 days per year if thermography can otherwise be contracted for $675 per day.
By devoting a person to thermography part-time, the number of inspection days for this case can be
reduced to about 28. Further in-house advantage can be gained by considering investment tax
credits, salvage value and, to some extent, accelerated depreciation. Techniques for finding the
breakeven number of inspection days for other costs are developed. A nomogram is included for
rapid comparisons.
Since the European Medicines Agency was created in 1995, it has engaged in dialogue with its
various stakeholders, including patients and other representatives of civil society. The establishment
of the Patients' and Consumers' Working Party represented a key step forward in the formalization
of this interaction. The working party has played a crucial role in facilitating the integration of patients
and consumers in various regulatory activities. This article describes how this group operates and
gives a detailed overview of the interaction between the agency and the patients' and consumers'
organizations focusing on the main achievements to date. PMID:20539145
In late September 2010, Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) issued their verdict on
European Commission proposals aimed at lifting the ban on pharmaceutical companies
communicating directly with the general public about prescription drugs. The MEPs were able to limit
the scope of some of the more harmful aspects of these proposals, in particular by proposing that
drug regulatory agencies should pre-screen the "information" produced by drug companies before it
is made available to the public. In December 2010, faced with ongoing opposition from European
Member States, the Commission appeared to back down, announcing that it was drawing up
"amended proposals". They were publicly released in February 2012 but still leave the door open to
direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs, particularly "reminder advertising". As of 4 July
2012, the amended proposals had not yet been examined by Member States, thus obstructing the
legislative process. Public health and management of the costs of social services for Member States
are at stake. The Medicines in Europe Forum (MiEF) and the International Society of Drug Bulletins
(ISDB) urge Member States to continue to refuse to examine the Commission's proposals, and have
drawn up concrete counterproposals that would enable the general public to obtain relevant health
information. PMID:23373084
Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were differences
between European and African American vocational rehabilitation consumers' perceptions of the
barriers they experience towards obtaining employment. A secondary purpose was to determine
whether there were differences in these perceptions based upon gender or educational background.
Method: The perceived barriers to employment success of 189 consumers of a state-federal
vocational rehabilitation agency were evaluated using the Barriers to Success Inventory (BESI)
between 2004-2007. Univariate (ANOVA) and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were
used to investigate the effects of three independent variables (gender, ethnicity and educational
background) on five dependent variables. The five dependent variables include the BESI Personal
and Financial scale, the Emotional and Physical scale, the Career Decision-Making and Planning
scale, the Job-Seeking and Knowledge scale, and the Training and Education scale. Results: The
results indicate that African American consumers perceived significantly more barriers to obtaining a
job or succeeding in employment than their Euro-American counterparts for all five dependent scale
variables. Conclusions: African American participants' primary perceived barriers relate to practical
matters, such as having sufficient education or training for the type of job sought, childcare,
transportation, medical care, housing, and financial resources. (Contains 4 tables.)
An increasing number of private companies are now offering direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic
testing services. Although a lot of attention has been devoted to the regulatory framework of DTC
genetic testing services in the USA, only limited information about the regulatory framework in
Europe is available. We will report on the situation with regard to the national legislation on DTC
genetic testing in seven European countries (Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Portugal,
France, Germany, the United Kingdom). The paper will address whether these countries have
legislation that specifically address the issue of DTC genetic testing or have relevant laws that is
pertinent to the regulatory control of these services in their countries. The findings show that France,
Germany, Portugal and Switzerland have specific legislation that defines that genetic tests can only
be carried out by a medical doctor after the provision of sufficient information concerning the nature,
meaning and consequences of the genetic test and after the consent of the person concerned. In
the Netherlands, some DTC genetic tests could fall under legislation that provides the Minister the
right to refuse to provide a license to operate if a test is scientifically unsound, not in accordance
with the professional medical practice standards or if the expected benefit is not in balance with the
(potential) health risks. Belgium and the United Kingdom allow the provision of DTC genetic tests.
\\u000a The threshold of group-buying is low, so the group-buying develops very fast. But at the
same time, there are many goods which\\u000a have low price and high quality service which is
false to get the network users’ trust. Therefore, consumers should keep a\\u000a clear head and
avoiding straying into the trap of business, the website of group-buying should strengthen
In her recent article, “Does autonomy count in favor of labeling genetically modified food?,” Kirsten
Hansen argues that in Europe, voluntary negative labeling of non-GM foods respects consumer
autonomy just as well as mandatory positive labeling of foods with GM content. She also argues that
because negative labeling places labeling costs upon those consumers that want to know whether
The aim of this study was to review research conducted in 2003–2006 in the EU-15 countries on
how consumers perceive, understand,\\u000a like and use nutrition information on food labels.
Based on a search of databases on academic publications, Google-based search,\\u000a and
enquiries directed to a range of food retailers, food companies, consumer associations and
government agencies, a total\\u000a of 58
The European Union (EU) ban on the production and importation of meat derived from animals
treated with growth-promoting hormones has spurred considerable debate. However, relatively little
research has considered how EU consumers have been affected or how they feel about the ban.
The purpose of this research is to determine beef product preferences of EU consumers and to elicit
). Farmers'markets: Consumer trends, preferences, and characteristics. Journal of Extension
[On-line], 40: A practical alternative to written questionnaires and oral interviews. Journal of
Extension [On-line], 37Meat and Poultry Buying at Farmers' Markets: A Survey of Shoppers at Four
Markets in Oregon Lauren
Food producers are experiencing a fast-growing need to use the Internet to enhance competitive
advantage. Past researchers have urged the need to understand market segmentation mechanisms
as applied to different consumer behavior models to better understand the online buying behavior of
consumers. This study integrates the Theory of Planned Behavior and food-related lifestyle to
explore consumer's characteristics of online specialty
The aim of this research was to explore consumer perceptions of personalised nutrition and to
compare these across three different levels of "medicalization": lifestyle assessment (no blood
sampling); phenotypic assessment (blood sampling); genomic assessment (blood and buccal
sampling). The protocol was developed from two pilot focus groups conducted in the UK. Two focus
groups (one comprising only "older" individuals between 30 and 60years old, the other of adults
18-65yrs of age) were run in the UK, Spain, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Ireland, Greece and
Germany (N=16). The analysis (guided using grounded theory) suggested that personalised
nutrition was perceived in terms of benefit to health and fitness and that convenience was an
important driver of uptake. Negative attitudes were associated with internet delivery but not with
personalised nutrition per se. Barriers to uptake were linked to broader technological issues
associated with data protection, trust in regulator and service providers. Services that required a fee
were expected to be of better quality and more secure. An efficacious, transparent and trustworthy
regulatory framework for personalised nutrition is required to alleviate consumer concern. In
addition, developing trust in service providers is important if such services to be successful.
Stewart-Knox, Barbara; Kuznesof, Sharron; Robinson, Jenny; Rankin, Audrey; Orr, Karen; Duffy,
Maresa; Poínhos, Rui; de Almeida, Maria Daniel Vaz; Macready, Anna; Gallagher, Caroline;
Berezowska, Aleksandra; Fischer, Arnout R H; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Riemer, Martina;
Traczyk, Iwona; Gjelstad, Ingrid M F; Mavrogianni, Christina; Frewer, Lynn J
This student manual covers five areas relating to consumer decisions. Titles of the five sections are
Consumer Law, Consumer Decision Making, Buying a Car, Convenience Foods, and Books for
Preschool Children. Each section may contain some or all of these materials: list of objectives,
informative sections, questions on the information and answers, case studies, word list, and
activities. (YLB)
The issues of food quality and food quantity are crucial for trophic interactions. Although most
research has focussed on the primary producer-herbivore link, recent studies have shown that
quality effects at the bottom of the food web propagate to higher trophic levels. Negative effects of
poor food quality have almost exclusively been demonstrated at higher food quantities. Whether
these negative effects have the same impact at low food availability in situations where the majority
if not all of the resources are channelled into routine metabolism, is under debate. In this study a
tri-trophic food chain was designed, consisting of the algae Rhodomonas salina, the copepod
Acartia tonsa and freshly hatched larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. The lobster
larvae were presented with food of two different qualities (C:P ratios) and four different quantities to
investigate the combined effects of food quality and quantity. Our results show that the quality of
food has an impact on the condition of lobster larvae even at very low food quantities. Food with a
lower C:P content resulted in higher condition of the lobster larvae regardless of the quantity of food.
These interacting effects of food quality and food quantity can have far reaching consequences for
ecosystem productivity. PMID:22442696
"Rent or buy?" is a question people ask about everything from housing to textbooks. It is also a
question universities must consider when it comes to high-performance computing (HPC). With the
advent of Amazon's Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), Microsoft Windows HPC Server, Rackspace's
OpenStack, and other cloud-based services, researchers now have the ability to quickly rent space
and time on an HPC cluster, a collection of linked nodes that run as if they were one computer.
Researchers who need to process vast amounts of data can buy an HPC cluster, rent a cloud-based
solution, or opt for a hybrid approach.
When one looks around in everyday life, one sees mathematics everywhere: i.e., when making the
right decisions whether to rent or buy a bicycle depending on the circumstances. Mathematics can
determine (in case of renting a bicycle) the maximum rental cost to ensure that you will be able to
pay the rental cost every month. The period you need the bicycle will also influence the rental cost
you are prepared to pay. It is also possible to evaluate whether renting is better than buying,
depending on the interest rate the bank is offering you for investing your saved money that you do
not spend at once because you rent the bicycle. (Contains 3 figures.)
A compilation of activities and instructional ideas on advertising helps intermediate or junior high
school teachers incorporate simple consumer education concepts into the social studies curriculum.
Material is divided into three sections. An outline defines 16 advertising techniques including eye
appeal, youth appeal, snob appeal, celebrity endorsement, and expert endorsement. A list provides
activities to help students realize the effects of advertising. Examples include compiling an
advertising scrapbook, creating imaginary products, analyzing magazine ads, and answering a
market survey. A final list contains activities for evaluating television and radio commercials. (LP)
Typical contamination and the frequency of misuse of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) bottles are
crucial parameters in the risk assessment of post-consumer recycled (PCR) PET intended for
bottle-to-bottle recycling for direct food contact applications. Owing to the fact that misuse of PET
bottles is a rare event, sustainable knowledge about the average concentration of hazardous
compounds in PCR PET is accessible
Metacognitive theories propose that consumers track fluency feelings when buying, which may have
biological underpinnings. We explored this using event-related potential (ERP) measures as twenty
high-math anxiety (High MA) and nineteen low-math anxiety (Low MA) consumers made buying
decisions for promoted (e.g., 15% discount) and non-promoted products. When evaluating prices,
ERP correlates of higher perceptual and conceptual fluency were associated with buys, however
only for High MA females under no promotions. In contrast, High MA females and Low MA males
demonstrated greater FN400 amplitude, associated with enhanced conceptual processing, to prices
of buys relative to non-buys under promotions. Concurrent late positive component (LPC)
differences under no promotions suggest discrepant retrieval processes during price evaluations
between consumer groups. When making decisions to buy or not, larger (smaller) P3, sensitive to
outcome responses in the brain, was associated with buying for High MA females (Low MA females)
under promotions, an effect also present for males under no promotions. Thus, P3 indexed
decisions to buy differently between anxiety groups, but only for promoted items among females and
for no promotions among males. Our findings indicate that perceptual and conceptual processes
interact with anxiety and gender to modulate brain responses during consumer choices.
Compulsive buying is an under-recognised entity among Indian psychiatrists. A Medline search,
hand searching of journals and direct communications with lead investigators in compulsive buying
have generated numerous studies. Overseas data indicate a community prevalence between 1%
and 8% . The phenomenon can be an independent entity or appears as a comorbidity with another
axis I or axis II disorder. A degree of suspicion on part of clinician regarding its possible presence is
the key to its detection. A few rating instruments are available to quantify the morbidity and
screening for compulsive buying. Management involves pharmacotherapy with SSRIs,
psychotherapy, self-help groups and self-help books. Epidemiological and clinical studies on
compulsive buying should be undertaken by Indian psychiatrists to provide better services for people
suffering from compulsive buying. PMID:22315867
The paper reports a study on food buying behaviour among Chinese children aged between 10-13
years old. There are two important findings. Firstly, the growing influence of commercial
environment. During the learning of consumer behaviour by Chinese children, the parental role of
guidance remains prominent, and their recommendations have a decisive impact on children's food
choices. Secondly, the perceived importance
Results from a study with Danish school teachers on their values, environmental attitudes, and
buying of organic foods are reported. The objective was to investigate the applicability of the
Schwartz value theory and measurement approach (Schwartz, 1992) in explaining specific aspects
of consumer behaviour. This theory was developed within a general social psychology framework
and has been tested cross-culturally for
Manufacturer-supported trade deals remain one of the major competitive tools in today's
marketplace. This is true despite the fact that such trade deals are often claimed to be unprofitable
for manufacturers. The unprofitability is attributed to the fact that retailers forward buy and do not
pass the price discounts on to the consumers. The audience for this paper includes practitioners
When NRG Energy Inc. of Minneapolis, Minn., first became interested buying a stake in the
MIBRAG coal mining operation near Leipzig, Germany, the company was attracted by a montan
wax producing facility at the complex. Montan wax, an industrial and commercial wax extracted from
lignite, is manufactured at only two plants in the world. One of the Romonta wax plant at MIBRAG in
eastern Germany. The other is near Sacramento, Calif., at the Jackson Valley Energy Project,
owned and operated by NRG Energy. NRG, a subsidiary of utility Northern States Power Co., hoped
its experience with montan wax would lead the Treuhandanstalt - the German privatization energy to favor NRG as a MIBRAG suitor. In its initial plan, NRG proposed building two, 800 MW power
plants at Lippendorf. These would burn coal from MIBRAG to generate electricity for southern
Germany and for possible export to Switzerland and Austria. This strategy led NRG to the
successful DM2 billion (US $1.15 billion) MIBRAG acquisition complex in December 1993. Ironically,
the Lippendorf projects were excluded from the final arrangement along with the Romonta wax
works. This deal marks the first successful entry by non-German power companies into the German
This document from Joe Orzali provides a classroom unit on consumer product disassembly.
Students are asked to "critically analyze the life cycle of products," which will help them better
understand larger related concepts like systems thinking, global climate change, ecological
preservation and how what we buy and how items are produced impacts our environment. This
document may be downloaded in PDF file format.
Social buying became an extremely popular phenomenon in the last year and this study examined
the factors that can lead vendors to be successful using this trend. We’ve found that coupon’s
category, coupon’s website and coupon’s prices have an effect on the number of coupons
purchased, one of the success criteria of group buying. In the different coupons categories,
This article is the fourth in a series of articles published annually by "Computers in Libraries"
surveying integrated library systems and services (ILSs). The purpose of the annual survey is to
enable comparison of the ILSs that are available. ILS vendors are in constant pursuit of an
ever-changing, consistently vague definition of what the "ideal" library automation system should
encompass. In this article, the author presents and discusses five issues and five open-ended
questions that were intended to help readers buy the system that is best for them. The necessity of
integrating new developments in computer and telecommunication technologies while concurrently
responding to the expanded concepts of what librarians want is extremely challenging. A
questionnaire was developed based on the surveys conducted by Information Today, Inc. in 2006,
2007, and 2008. The survey was intended to: (1) Provide an up-to-date comparison of functionality
currently available in ILS products; (2) Provide a comparison of support services and licensing
structures available from ILS service providers; (3) Learn the practical advice given by ILS service
providers; (4) Determine the current areas of strong trends and development priorities for ILS
services; and (5) Provide vendors' current contact information for readers interested in more
information. The answer to question five is presented in an online-only directory of vendors that
provides the vendors' answers to what they regard as their products' greatest strength, along with
full contact information, product release dates, the number of sites it has, and the library markets it
serves. (Contains 5 tables.)
The legal framework of the European Union (EU) for regulating access to and supply of
direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests is very liberal compared to the legal and regulatory
framework for (internet) medicines. Nevertheless, both health related products can cause equally
serious damage to the well being of individuals. In this contribution we examine whether the legal
framework of the EU for the safety and responsible use of (internet) medicines could be an example
for regulating access to and supply of DTC genetic tests. The EU laws governing medicines can,
notwithstanding their shortcomings, serve as an example for (central) authorising the marketing of
DTC genetic tests on the internal market in accordance with strict criteria regarding predictive value
and clinical usefulness. Furthermore, a legal framework controlling DTC genetic tests also should
introduce system supervision as well as quality criteria with respect to the information to be provided
to consumers in order to enhance health protection. However, DTC genetic tests purchased through
online ordering are difficult to supervise by any agency. Adequately protecting individuals against
questionable testing kits calls for international vigilance and comprehensive measures by the
international community. For Europe, it is important to rank the regulation of DTC genetic tests on
the European regulatory agenda. PMID:23115825
In the growing body of literature on consumer acceptance of genetically modified (GM) foods, there
are significant differences on the impact of knowledge on acceptance of GM foods. One potential
explanation is the manner in which knowledge is measured. The goal of this study is to differentiate
and examine the impact of both subjective and objective knowledge related to acceptance
Abstract Objective. Childhood trauma has been empirically associated with various types of
self-regulatory difficulties in adulthood. However, according to the extant literature, no study has
examined relationships between various types of childhood trauma and compulsive buying behavior
in adulthood. Methods. Using a self-report survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive
sample of 370 obstetrics/gynecology patients, we examined five types of childhood trauma before
the age of 12 years (i.e. witnessing violence, physical neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse,
sexual abuse) in relationship to compulsive buying as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale
(CBS). Results. All forms of trauma demonstrated statistically significant correlations with the CBS.
Using a linear regression analysis, both witnessing violence and emotional abuse significantly
contributed to CBS scores. Further analyses indicated that race did not moderate the relationship
between childhood trauma and compulsive buying. Conclusions. Findings indicate that various
forms of childhood trauma are correlated with compulsive buying behavior, particularly witnessing
violence and emotional abuse. PMID:22296513
This article reports on "LJ"'s annual book-buying survey of public libraries in which circulation took
the biggest leap recorded since the survey was launched in 1999. This year's whopping 5.16
percent increase overall suggests just how many people are saving pennies by borrowing materials
instead of buying them. In fact, libraries are being swamped; nearly eight in ten respondents report
increased circulation. In this regard, at least, the library business is booming. With industries
collapsing, tax revenues shrinking, and jobs, stock prices, and consumer spending in freefall,
libraries know that retrenchment is just around the corner. Fully seven in ten of this year's
respondents anticipate budget cuts in the forthcoming year, and they're already making plans. Many
of "LJ"'s respondents report that they expect to be more selective than ever about book purchases
in the coming year, trimming fringe and even mid-tier titles while focusing on what users really want.
Those hoping to keep some breadth in the collection are looking to work with other systems. For the
first time ever in this survey, a small percent of respondents say that they manage budget cuts by
maintaining collaborative collections.
When a 1981 tornado in Minnesota revolutionized the retail approach of Sound of Music, which later
changed its name to the now very familiar Best Buy, those who founded the company never
imagined that a series of hurricanes twenty years later would also help give it a cutting-edge lead in
customer service and disaster planning. That original "Tornado Sale'' introduced low prices in a
"no-frills" environment that gave the company higher sales than the industry average and paved the
way to a new business model. But before Best Buy could find the silver lining of these new storm
clouds., it needed to survive them by planning for the destructive weather that plagued Florida
during the summer of 2004. Having seen the power of listening to its employees and customers,
Best Buy now seeks to capture their thoughts and feedback about other elements of the business.
Provides guidelines for buying computers for parents of gifted children. Steps for making decisions
include deciding who will use the computer, deciding its purposes and what software packages will
be used, determining current and future needs, setting a budget, and reviewing needs with
salespersons and school-based technology specialists. (CR)
The paper examines the role of credit registries in the context of European consumer credit markets
and the current policies\\u000a of the EU in this area. It attempts to show the institutional challenges
relating to some competing rights or interests amongst\\u000a consumers and financial institutions
and the need for a strengthened prudential supervision of the financial system as evidenced\\u000a
BACKGROUND: Although patient charges for health-care services may contribute to a more
sustainable health-care financing, they often raise public opposition, which impedes their
introduction. Thus, a consensus among the main stakeholders on the presence and role of patient
charges should be worked out to assure their successful implementation. AIM: To analyse the
acceptability of formal patient charges for health-care services in a basic package among different
health-care system stakeholders in six Central and Eastern European countries (Bulgaria, Hungary,
Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Ukraine). METHODS: Qualitative data were collected in 2009 via
focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with health-care consumers, providers, policy
makers and insurers. The same participants were asked to fill in a self-administrative questionnaire.
Qualitative and quantitative data are analysed separately to outline similarities and differences in the
opinions between the stakeholder groups and across countries. RESULTS: There is a rather weak
consensus on patient charges in the countries. Health policy makers and insurers strongly advocate
patient charges. Health-care providers overall support charges but their financial profits from the
system strongly affects their approval. Consumers are against paying for services, mostly due to
poor quality and access to health-care services and inability to pay. CONCLUSIONS: To build
consensus on patient charges, the payment policy should be responsive to consumers' needs with
regard to quality and equity. Transparency and accountability in the health-care system should be
improved to enhance public trust and acceptance of patient payments. PMID:23279115
Australian beef consumers have different preferences given their characteristics and the effect on
expected quality of cues related to health, production process and eating experience. Beef brands
using Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grades can help to signal quality and reduce consumers'
uncertainty when shopping. The objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of beef
buyers and their perceptions about product attributes that affect the propensity to buy branded beef.
Binary logistic models were applied identifying differences between all respondents and the potential
target market, including buyers in medium to high income segments, and between buyers in the
target market who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Variables increasing the
propensity to buy branded beef include previous experience, appreciation for branded cuts and
concern about quality more than size. Finally, variations in preferences for marbling and cut were
found between buyers who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. PMID:23501257
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to review product-placement research in the
consumer-marketing domain, examine the acceptability of the practice for buying-center
participants, and assess recall, attitude and purchase-intention responses to B2B products placed in
movie scenes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Achievement of the research objectives requires
the collection of data from a sample of organizational buying-center participants and their
Health claims on food products, which aim at informing the public about the health benefits of the
product, represent one type of nutrition communication; the use of these is regulated by the
European Union. This paper provides an overview of the research on health claims, including
consumers' perceptions of such claims and their intention to buy products that carry health-related
claims. This is followed by a discussion on the results from some recent studies investigating public
perceptions and willingness to use products with health claims. In these studies, claims are
presented in the form of messages of different lengths, types, framing, with and without qualifying
words and symbols. They also investigate how perceptions and intentions are affected by individual
needs and product characteristics. Results show that adding health claims to products does
increase their perceived healthiness. Claim structure was found to make a difference to perceptions,
but its influence depended on the level of relevance, familiarity and individuals' need for information.
Further, the type of health benefit proposed and the base product used also affected perceptions of
healthiness. The paper concludes that while healthiness perceptions relating to products with health
claims may vary between men and women, old and young and between countries, the main factor
influencing perceived healthiness and intention to buy a product with health claim is personal
relevance. PMID:21266092
In general, fruit consumption in the EU does not meet governments' recommended levels, and
innovations in the fruit industry are thought to be useful for increasing fruit consumption. Despite the
enormous number of product innovations, the majority of new products in the market fail within the
first two years, due to a lack of consumer acceptance. Consumer segmentation may be a useful
research tool to increase the success rates of new fruit products. The current study aims to identify
consumer segments based on individual importance rankings of fruit choice motives. We conducted
a cross-national, online panel survey on fresh fruit innovations in four European countries: the
Netherlands (n=251), Greece (n=246), Poland (n=250), and Spain (n=250). Our cluster analysis
revealed three homogeneous consumer segments: Average Joe, the Naturally conscious consumer,
and the Health-oriented consumer. These consumer segments differed with respect to their
importance ratings for fruit choice motives. Furthermore, the willingness to buy specific fruit
innovations (i.e., genetically modified, functional food and convenience innovation) and the
perceived product characteristics that influence this willingness differed across the segments. Our
study could lead to more tailored marketing strategies aimed at increasing consumer acceptance of
fruit product innovations based on consumer segmentation. PMID:21477633
Group buying is one of the major pricing mechanisms in which retailers can offer low group rates
due to a saving on transaction\\u000a costs and its target consumers are those with lower sensitivity
on waiting time. Under group buying, group size significantly\\u000a affects the waiting cost to which
consumers have different tolerances. In this paper, we develop a two-stage pricing
This lesson plan will help students understand the big picture of consumption and responsible
buying. Through group discussion, the class will look into the changes in the environment that have
resulted from overconsumption. Students will analyze the effects of each item they purchase, from
original production through use and eventual disposal. The material is intended for high school level
students and should require two class periods to complete.
Abstract In an effort to understand consumer,acceptance of and willingness to pay for genetically
modified food products, we propose a model of consumer acceptance of GM foods. The model is
synthesized from literature on consumer acceptance reviewed in the paper. The paper suggests that
consumer,acceptance mediates the relationship between three key antecedent variables and a
consumer’s willingness to pay for
Which U.S. institutions of higher education offer the best value to consumers? To answer this
question, we evaluate U.S. institutions relative to a data envelopment analysis (DEA) multi-factor
frontier based on 2000-2001 data for 1,179 4-year institutions. The resulting DEA "best buy" scores
allow the ranking of institutions by a weighted sum of institutional characteristics per dollar of
average net price. The net price is calculated as tuition, fees, room, and board less per student
financial aid. Institutional characteristics include SAT score, athletic expenditures, instructional
expenditures, value of buildings, dorm capacity, and student body characteristics. The DEA scores
indicate the distance of each institution from the "best buy" frontier for the chosen characteristics,
providing an objective means of ranking institutions as the best values in higher education.
(Contains 7 tables, 10 figures, and 14 footnotes.)
Section 161 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) encourages energy-efficient federal
procurement. Executive Order 12902 and FAR section 23.704 direct agencies to purchase products
in the upper 25% of energy efficiency. Agencies that use these guidelines to buy efficient products
can realize substantial operating cost savings and help prevent pollution. As the world`s largest
consumer, the federal government can help pull the entire US market towards greater energy
efficiency, while saving taxpayer dollars. The General Services Administration (GSA) will soon
include residential windows in its Federal Supply Schedule 56-IV(A), ``Construction and Building
Materials.`` When contracting for residential windows, specify NFRC-rated SHGC and U-factor
values that meet this Efficiency Recommendation for your geographic region. When buying
commercially, look for windows with the EPA/DOE ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} label, all of which
meet this Recommendation.
This study demographically determines: which consumers are currently buying organic produce;
consumer comparisons of organic and conventional produce; and consumer purchase likelihood of
higher-priced organic produce. Data were collected from a Delaware consumer survey, dealing with
fresh produce and food safety. Multinomial and ordered logit models were developed to generate
marginal effects of age, gender, education, and income. Increasing age,
Linkages between consumer beliefs and attitudes regarding the risks and benefits of genetically
modified foods and consumer purchase intentions for these foods are examined. Factors that hinder
consumer purchases of genetically modified foods are also tested. Results show that purchase
intentions for consumers willing to buy genetically modified crops and meats are primarily affected
by their belief that these foods
Conventional wisdom says that people should not buy anything in education until research is seen.
The following questions should be asked: (1) Does that particular technology enhance learning? (2)
Does that piece of software increase test scores? and (3) Do those machines reduce absenteeism?
Of course the answer is always yes. No vendor is going to provide research that says a product
does not work. Research is considered just another price of doing business. This article describes
how the research field of product effectiveness works.
A refrigerator Buy-Back Program was initiated by the regional power utility, BC Hydron in 1990, with
six pilot collection areas in British Columbia. As a result of the program's initial success, BC Hydro
started a facility to dismantle old refrigerators, and the utility plans to expand its Refrigerator
Buy-Back Program province-wide. BC Hydro's Refrigerator Buy-Back is the first utility-sponsored
The food miles concept, originating in the UK and given much prominence in the news media, has
been used to imply that importing food from distant countries is inherently more wasteful than
growing and consuming local produce. What impact is this potential non-tariff barrier having on
consumer buying behaviour in UK supermarkets? Revealed preference surveys in four
supermarkets show only
This article analyzes and summarizes the 25 years of research on organizational buying behavior
that followed the seminal works of Robinson, Faris, and Wind (1967), Webster and Wind (1972), and
Sheth (1973). Based on a review of 165 articles, the authors present an integrated model of
organizational buying behavior that both combines the propositions of the original three works and
This brochure provides information on how consumers can use renewable energy in and around the
home. Information on buying green power; using renewables to generate power; using passive and
active solar and geothermal heat pumps to heat, cool and light buildings; and using alternative fuels
and vehicles is included. Resources at the end of each chapter help readers find more information.
There is concern about the extent to which consumers will accept genetically modified (GM) foods if
they are commercialized in China. The evidence from the existing literature is mixed and sometimes
confusing. The objective of this study is to conduct a large in-depth face-to-face in-house survey that
examines the consumers' awareness, acceptance of and willingness to buy GM foods in
The purchase of a bottle of wine is often a challenging decision for most consumers. The marketing
of a wine's package, which consists of several interrelated cues (bottle shape, color, closure, and
label design), interfaces with the key factors of the consumer's experience, knowledge of wines,
self-confidence and the occasion at hand to form buying decisions. Some consumers know what
Previous work on demand response in smart grids considers dynamic real-time prices, but has so
far neglected to consider how consumers can also be involved in planning ahead, both for
scheduling of consumption and reserving their ability to regulate downward during balancing. This
work models a flexible consumer in a novel two-settlement electricity auction. The consumer buys
electricity on an
Whether you are considering buying a luxury sport utility vehicle or a new blender, this site offers
invaluable, unbiased consumer product information. strives to provide "the
latest and best competitive analysis of products" for free. The site divides goods into basic, logical
categories, and for each product, offers three distinct and related services. Fast Answers is an
at-a-glance compilation of reviews (gleaned from other sources) of each specific product; it also
rates the best products according to the reviews. For an in-depth analysis of both the product and
the experts that reviewed the products, readers will want to peruse the Full Story section. Finally, All
the Reviews Reviewed consists of the's editors's descriptions, ratings, and
opinions of each of the review sources. At present, the list of products on is
not very extensive. However, the products that are covered are reviewed thoroughly and
responsibly. New users to the site may want to browse the FAQs and the About section, in order to learn more about the company, its mission, and services.
As the site continues to expand, users may choose to subscribe to the free
newsletter which will send email alerts for the latest product reviews.
A study of homeowner&apos;s thermal insulation buying habits in the Little Rock, Arkansas area
showed that the value of improved insulation to fuel or energy conservation is recognized, that costs
and degree of difficulty in installing insulation are the primary factors affecting the decision to buy
insulation, that the middle-income families were the group taking action, and that more advertising
and dealer effort is needed to promote use of more insulation. (LCL)
Effective coal buying involves knowing your supplier so you can determine that he (1) controls the
mine property, (2) assures mining permits are in force, (3) establishes the variability of the coal
seam, and (4) verifies the tonnage and mining plan. You should also evaluate his productivity and
load-out capabilities and verify his management experience and reputation. Other recommendations
include devising a contractual buying strategy and settling on a negotiating posture.
Throughout history, new methods of food preservation have been met with skepticism and fear.
Such processes as pasteurization and canning were denounced as being dangerous, detrimental to
nutrients, or an excuse for dirty products. Now comes irradiation, and activists argue against this
new process for the same reasons. Publicly, the perception is that consumers, distrustful of nuclear
power, will never buy or accept irradiated food.
Dr. Berry`s article draws upon his review of dozens of electrical contracts while he was with the staff
of the Arizona Corporation Commission. He presents risk management strategies for commercial
and industrial consumers of power as electric markets become more competitive. Seven risk
management tools are discussed: get more information about market prices; seek or make credible
commitments; try to retain flexibility; seek to share, transfer, or spread risks; use incentives to help
improve or offset poor performance; manage the use of electricity; and build trust with the supplier.
In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between compulsive buying and borderline
personality disorder (BPD) symptomatology-two disorders possibly linked through impulsivity. Using
a survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of nonemergent female outpatients
from an obstetrics/gynecology clinic, the authors assessed compulsive buying with the Compulsive
Buying Scale (CBS) and BPD symptomatology through the BPD scale of the Personality Diagnostic
Questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4) and the Self-Harm Inventory (SHI). In this sample, 8% of Caucasian
women and 9% of African-American women scored positively for compulsive buying. The
correlations between scores on the CBS and the PDQ-4 and SHI were 0.43 and 0.41,
respectively-both statistically significant at the p < .001 level. Compared to Caucasian women,
African-American women demonstrated statistical associations between the BPD measures and the
CBS scale scores that were significantly larger. Findings suggest relationships between compulsive
buying and BPD, particularly among African-American women. PMID:23514189
Clinical laboratories are often faced with the decision to either perform a service in-house using their
own assets or outsource the service to another vendor. This decision affects many aspects of the
laboratory's business, from the macroeconomic perspective of outsourcing the laboratory service to
a laboratory vendor, to the microeconomics of determining whether to refer a test out to their
reference laboratory or perform the test in-house. The basis for decision making includes many
variables, but a detailed financial analysis is usually the basis for the decision, especially when the
decision only affects the laboratory and not the rest of the institution. Other factors often come into
play, and depending on the magnitude, the "make versus buy" decision could be based more on
strategic or political factors than economics. Even when noneconomic factors are involved, an effort
usually is made to quantify those factors so that the make versus buy decision is reduced to
financial terms. The previous article in this issue, "Effectively Managing Your Reference Laboratory
Relationship" by Ronald L. Weiss, M.D., focused on the "buy" decision relating to managing the
reference laboratory relationship. Although that article took a more clinical perspective through the
eyes of the reference laboratory, this article looks at the make versus buy decision from a financial
perspective through the eyes of the buying party. PMID:14692075
This paper focuses on the environmental and ethical attributes of food products and their production
processes. These two aspects have been recently recognized and are becoming increasingly
important in terms of signaling and of consumer perception. There are two relevant thematic
domains: environmental and social. Within each domain there are two movements. Hence the paper
first presents the four movements
This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of
the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that
addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the
commentary for this task: Tom wants to buy some protein bars and magazines for a trip. He has
decided to buy three times as many protein bars as magazines. Each protein bar cost...
Psycholinguistic research shows that word-characteristics influence the speed and accuracy of
various language-related processes. Analogous characteristics of brand names influence the
retrieval of product information and the perception of risks associated with that product. In the
present experiment we examined how phonotactic probability-the frequency with which phonological
segments and sequences of segments appear in a word-might influence consumer behavior.
Participants rated brand names that varied in phonotactic probability on the likelihood that they
would buy the product. Participants indicated that they were more likely to purchase a product if the
brand name was comprised of common segments and sequences of segments rather than less
common segments and sequences of segments. This result suggests that word-characteristics may
influence higher-level cognitive processes, in addition to language-related processes. Furthermore,
the benefits of using objective measures of word characteristics in the design of brand names are
discussed. PMID:21870135
Two studies examined hypotheses about compulsive hoarding, compulsive buying and beliefs about
saving and discarding derived from the cognitive-behavioral model of compulsive hoarding [Frost, R.
O. and Hartl, T. (1996). A cognitive behavioral model of compulsive hoarding. Behaviour Research
and Therapy, 34, 341–350.]. Study 1 examined the hypotheses in a college student population,
while study 2 compared members of a
Middle School Math Project at Education Development Center in Newton, Massachusetts, puts
industry representatives into classroom to free teachers for professional development and to show
students real-life applications of science and math. Although the program is no magic bullet for
achieving teacher professionalism, this innovative approach buys time until teachers obtain ample
professional development opportunities during the school day. (MLH)
Considerations when buying a continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) system include probe
design, sample conditioning systems, analyzers, dilution ratios, scrubber systems, redundancy, hot
back ups, cold back ups and operating schedules. Parameters to be monitored include nitrogen
oxide (NOâ), oxygen (Oâ), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (COâ), sulfur dioxide (SOâ), total
hydrocarbons (THC), hydrogen chloride (HCl) and ammonia (NHâ) as well
An in-store experiment was performed to investigate the effects of shelf placement (high, middle,
low) on consumers' purchases of potato chips. Placement of potato chips on the middle shelf was
associated with the highest percentage of purchases. The results confirm the importance of item
placement as a factor in consumers' buying behavior.
While there are many Web services which help users find things to buy, we knowof none which
actually try to automate the process of buying and selling. Kasbah isa virtual marketplace on the
Web where users create autonomous agents to buy andsell goods on their behalf. Users specify
parameters to guide and constrain an agent'soverall behavior. A simple prototype has
The research aimed to investigate 1) the factors influencing Chinese customers' trust and
purchasing probability of group buying websites; 2) the differences of trust on B2C and group buying
websites; and 3) whether the Theory of Reasoned Action and Gefen's summarization of trust
antecedents applicable for Chinese group buying websites. The study consisted of three phases: 1)
a pre-questionnaire about
Group buying is a business model where people with the same merchandise interests form a group
and conduct the purchase together to achieve a discount. Third-party proxy websites negotiate with
merchants for appealing deals and then provide them to end customers. We call it online group
buying. Besides, there exists local group buying where the joiners, the initiator, and sometimes
American consumers are presented with an increasing number of reasons to buy and eat local food
products. One refers to the importance of the origin of the products they purchase. A second, and
closely related reason, refers to being concerned about the food miles, or the distance foods have
traveled from where they are grown or raised, to where they
This guide is intended for use in a consumer education course designed to teach consumers to get
the most out of their dollar when shopping for and preparing food. The kit is divided into a series of
sections containing activities and fact sheets that are designed to guide the consumer through a
successful shopping trip. The following topics are covered: the business of food (procedures for
completing a one-day food record; Canada's Food Guide; and penny pincher ideas for use in
purchasing and preparing bread and cereal products, meat and fish products, meat alternatives,
fruits and vegetables, milk and milk products, and convenience foods); things to consider before
going to the store (shopping lists, some food for thought, ways of stretching one's meat dollar, and
alternatives to meat); the grocery store game (label talk, the food label game, prices, examples of
grading, grades for canned fruits and vegetables, brand names and labeling games, no-name
brands versus brand names, and a case for comparison); techniques for analyzing purchases
(becoming a market master and buying food); and more ingredients (too much sugar, information on
additives, common food additives and their use, salt and health, breakfast cereals, ways to use
leftovers, fast foods, and food advertisements). (MN)
Self-help arrangements and special legislative initiatives in five eastern states enable industrial
users to contract for wellhead gas prices below those charged for utility customers. The users buy
pipeline space from the wellhead producer. Ohio has taken the lead in self-help programs using
intrastate gas, but the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has also patched together limited
programs for interstate pipelines. The arrangements require agreements among producers, utilities,
and industries that are beneficial to each. (DCK)
Diffusion of microgeneration technologies, particularly rooftop photovoltaic (PV), represents a key
option in reducing emissions in the residential sector. We use a uniquely rich dataset from the
burgeoning residential PV market in Texas to study the nature of the consumer’s decision-making
process in the adoption of these technologies. In particular, focusing on the financial metrics and the
information decision-makers use to base their decisions upon, we study how the leasing and buying
models affect individual choices and, thereby, the adoption of capital-intensive energy technologies.
Overall, our findings suggest that the leasing model more effectively addresses consumers’
informational requirements and that, contrary to some other studies, buyers and lessees of PV do
not necessarily differ significantly along socio-demographic variables. Instead, we find that the
leasing model has opened up the residential PV market to a new, and potentially very large,
consumer segment—those with a tight cash-flow situation.
Consumer attitudes toward food irradiation were evaluated. The influence of educational efforts on
consumer concern for the safety of irradiated products and willingness to buy irradiated foods were
measured. Demographic and psychological factors were studied in relation to attitudes. An
educational leaflet describing current scientific information regarding the safety, advantages, and
disadvantages of food irradiation was developed and used in two studies evaluating attitude change.
In the first study, attitude change among two groups of consumers with different philosophic
orientations was measured. In a second study, the effectiveness of an educational leaflet received
through the mail and a poster display were examined. In a third study response to food irradiation
was related to value hierarchy, locus of control, innovativeness, and demographic parameters.
Initially, subjects showed a higher concern for other areas of food safety, particularly the use of
chemicals and sprays on food, than toward food irradiation. After educational efforts, conventional
consumers expressed minor concern toward irradiation whereas ecologically sensitive alternative
consumers obtained from a food cooperative expressed major concern. A knowledgeable discussion
leader lowered irradiation concern among conventional consumers. In contrast, concern among
alternative consumers did not diminish when given the opportunity to discuss safety issues with a
knowledgeable person.
B to B commerce is an important research issue for increasing profitability in global market. A
sophisticated B to B commerce requires optimality in resource allocation with human behaviour
dynamism. A market-oriented programming calculates a Pareto-optimal resource allocation in the
market by computing competitive equilibrium of an artificial economy. In this paper we newly
propose a resource allocation algorithm based on market-oriented programming with consumers
buying behaviour for B to B commerce. Supply agents in the computational market decide their
supply plan by estimating the demand agents’ behaviour in this method. Careful constructions of the
agents according to the buying behaviour can lead to efficient distributed resource allocation, and
the behaviour of the agents can be analysed in economic terms.
Respondents to "Library Journal's" ("LJ") annual book buying survey of public libraries nationwide
reported that adult book budgets were down eight percent overall, the largest plunge recorded since
the survey began in 1998. What's more, for the first time ever, cuts were reported for every region of
the country and every size of population served. That these cuts came on top of reductions
averaging 2.3 percent and 4.9 percent, as reported in the 2008 and 2009 surveys, respectively,
suggests how hard up librarians must feel. (Contains 2 tables.)
Some suggestions for increasing business in the fuel oil marketing sector are given: These include:
(1) give your customers a good reason to buy from you; (2) never take customers for granted; (3)
use newsletters to educate customers about new developments, the latest technology; (4) establish
a personal relationship with customers. Call them and tell them how much you appreciate their
business; (5) educate them about possible scams-for instance chimney cleaning companies that
might bend the truth; and (6) give your {open_quotes}full-service{close_quotes} company a small
town personality and a caring voice. Customers will have difficulty leaving you.
"Consumer World has gathered over 1400 of the most useful consumer resources on the Internet."
The brain child of Edgar Dworsky, a consumer education consultant for the Federal Trade
Commission, the site offers information on issues from the latest FTC scam to consumer banking to
hospital rankings to tax cutting tips to cheap airline flights and more. Information is arranged in
myriad, sometimes overlapping, ways. It often takes a few clicks to access specific information, but
perseverance will reveal that this site is content-rich.
This study posits a relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Impulsive Buying Tendency
(IBT). A survey of 574 adolescents found that high-EI adolescents manifested less impulsive
behavior than did low-EI adolescents, and high-IBT adolescents were more likely to engage in more
impulsive buying behavior than were low-IBT adolescents. Finally, possible extensions of the
research to the area of adolescents' impulsive buying are suggested.
One of the most respected consumer organizations, Consumer Reports (CR) has put together a
nice collection of resources for car owners and buyers. At the site, users can read up on CR's top
new car picks for 1999, view a list of 35 used cars that are "good bets," print out a leasing
worksheet, get advice on buying a new car, and search a database with profiles of over 1,600
models. Please note that full car profiles are only available to subscribers, but all visitors can use the
search function to find cars that match their criteria. Additional features at the site include lease
advice, safe driving tips, tire care and car-washing instructions, and a list of CR's top selections for
child car seats.
Purpose – This paper seeks to analyze the buying behavior of internet users in two European
countries with different cultural backgrounds, Spain and The Netherlands, assessing the influence of
online experience factors on the choice of an internet vendor. It also aims to identify and compare
the influence of personal and behavioral characteristics on the e-vendor choice.
Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The
This study investigated consumer awareness of integrated pest management (IPM) and the effects
of two marketing strategies. Specific objectives were to find whether eastern Massachusetts
farmstand and farmers' market customers purchasing sweet corn care how their food is grown,
whether they are aware of IPM, whether they would prefer to buy IPM-certified sweet corn and why,
and whether the marketing
Consumers seek for trusted advice during buying decision. Brand owners and retailers invest large
sums in marketing and market research, trying hard to find out what customers really want.
my2cents is a mobile application for reading and sharing comments and ratings on retail products.
Consumers have access to comments about a product via their mobile phone and can share their
The Canadian chicken industry has operated under supply management since the mid-1970s.
Canadian consumer preferences for chicken have grown dramatically since then possibly in
response to concerns about health and the levels of fat and cholesterol in red meats. However
Canadian consumers are also looking for convenience with their food purchases. Canadians are
buying their chicken in frozen further processed
Reports on an online survey of consumer attitudes toward online storefronts marketing barbecue
sauce, cheese, olive oil, potato chips, and other specialty food products. The relationship between
consumer attitudes toward Web sites and the likelihood of purchase, as well as demographic factors
related to online food and drink buying, are described. (PEN)
Consumer sensory requirements for beef vary as a function of the market in which the product is
being sold and, within any market, they can vary also over time. These conclusions are
demonstrated using the Australian domestic and Japanese export markets as examples. In
Australian studies, consumers buying meat for home consumption place more emphasis on
leanness than do food
This article aims to provide an analysis of the saving and investing consumer behavior, that where
researched in a time of changes after a severe financial crisis. The analyses purpose was to
determine the reasons, or the way that the reasons would change, for buying different financial
instruments, and also the way that the consumer perceives investing and saving. Different
Based in Yonkers, New York, Consumer Reports has been sticking up for the rights of consumers
since 1936, when they started the Consumers Union and began publishing product reviews of such
common-place items as breakfast cereals, soap, stockings, and hot water bottles. On this site,
visitors can learn about the history of Consumer Reports, which includes a series of rather
interesting test photos that feature products like paper towels and automobiles. Of course, the main
focus of the site are the product reports, and while not all of the material on the site is freely
available, there is certainly enough free content to warrant several visits. The product and service
reports are divided into sections such as appliances, autos, home & garden, and personal finance.
The right-hand side of each section page contains free highlights, such as Finding the Best Hospital,
Outdoor Lighting Design, and Camcorders. Overall, the site is organized quite well, and will be a
great boon to those persons who are hoping to find quality product reports, all of which are
developed by a team of knowledgeable experts.
Vegetables in the dark green group are the most nutritious, yet intake is low. Studies suggest that
an increase in fruit and vegetables may improve diet-related health outcomes of African Americans.
The aim of this exploratory study was to use the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) to qualitatively
assess salient, top-of-the-mind, beliefs (consequences, circumstances and referents) about eating
and buying more dark green leafy vegetables each week over the next 3months. Adult (n=30),
Midwestern African-American women, who buy and prepare food for their household participated in
a face-to-face salient belief elicitation. A content analysis of verbatim text and a descriptive analysis
were conducted. Findings suggest that the RAA can be used to identify salient consequences,
circumstances and referents about eating and buying more dark green leafy vegetables. The use of
the RAA allowed for the extraction of specific beliefs that may aid in the development of nutrition
education programs that consider the varying priorities, motivators and barriers that subgroups
within the population have in regard to buying and consuming dark green leafy vegetables.
Many customers are already implementing processes to select suppliers in anticipation of full
customer choice, establishing price and risk parameters. Customers are also recognizing that
transitional steps on the way to full competition, including such options as buy-through and real-time
pricing, can lower costs at reasonable risk. Retail competition is transforming the US electricity
market at a dazzling pace, promising major customers greater choices and better prices--and a lot of
new headaches. Even though regulators have not yet put retail access into general practice, many
customers are working diligently to make sure they are properly prepared to deal with the additional
issues and complexities being created by electricity`s new world order. By the time retail competition
is officially unleashed, many national buyers of electricity will have: (1) specified their service criteria
(contract terms and conditions), (2) defined their price risk tolerances, (3) structured their purchasing
organization/process, and (4) chosen their national/regional suppliers.
Buy-sell agreements for shareholders entering and leaving a radiology practice are different from
those commonly used in other business endeavors. This paper explores the reasons for these
differences, focusing on the culture of radiology and its unique influence on the buy-sell process.
Buy-sell methodologies commonly used in most business transactions are described, and basic
principles that influence these methodologies are discussed. The reasons these traditional methods
are not applicable to most radiology groups are explored in depth. The paper concludes with a
presentation of several workable buy-sell options for radiology practices. The strengths and
weaknesses of these options are enumerated, so that each group can customize the option that
best suits its needs. PMID:17412202
This site, provided by six US Government agencies ranging from the Federal Trade Commission to
the Securities and Exchange Commission to the Food and Drug Administration, is aimed at
providing one-stop shopping for consumer information. It points to relevant consumer-oriented
government information in the fields of food, health, home, transportation, children, buying smart,
product safety, money, and education. This information is mostly in the form of articles and
publications at this time. Each section also contains articles of special interest, and the main page
connects to the General Services Administration's Consumer's Resource Handbook. Although the
site is still in development, it promises to be a powerful centralized locator for government consumer
In investigating the place of consumption in education it is necessary to question both critical
theory's language of manipulation and neo-liberalism's language of rational action as ways of
explaining the significance of consumption in people's lives and where it has assumed a central
status in the contemporary social order. This paper argues that consumption is a sign economy
where practices of signification, such as those to do with lifestyle, have assumed a significant place.
Learning is energised by desire, which can follow many paths and take multiple forms. This has led
to a lessening of the centrality of institutional education. As people are positioned as consumers,
they become consumers of learning. Participation in learning activities cannot therefore be
understood by contemporary educators without reference to consumption. But many doubt whether
the learning taking place is really "worthwhile", which poses the question--who is to define what is
worthwhile? The contemporary situation is frustrating for those seeking social justice and
transformation through education because nothing seems sufficiently credible to merit the
commitment necessary to achieve those goals. The lifestyle practices that come with signifying
consumption are difficult to work with educationally even though educating for lifestyle practices
offers, and indeed is providing, great scope for adult education programmes. But this is alien to the
taste and sensibilities of many adult educators. An alternative is to work with pockets of resistance
to consumer culture that involve learning on the part of those participating, but a learning that is
more rhizomatic--a learning that takes off in a variety of directions. (Contains 7 notes.)
For years most consumers have expressed less concern about food irradiation than other food
processing technologies. Attitude studies have demonstrated that when given science-based
information, from 60% to 90% of consumers prefer the advantages irradiation processing provides.
When information is accompanied by samples, acceptance may increase to 99%. Information on
irradiation should include product benefits, safety and wholesomeness, address environmental
safety issues, and include endorsements by recognized health authorities. Educational and
marketing programs should now be directed toward retailers and processors. Given the opportunity,
consumers will buy high quality, safety-enhanced irradiated food.
Understanding the diverse PHEV purchase behaviors among prospective new car buyers is key for
designing efficient and effective policies for promoting new energy vehicle technologies. The ORNL
MA3T model developed for the U.S. Department of Energy is described and used to project PHEV
purchase probabilities by different consumers. MA3T disaggregates the U.S. household vehicle
market into 1458 consumer segments based on region, residential area, driver type, technology
attitude, home charging availability and work charging availability and is calibrated to the EIA s
Annual Energy Outlook. Simulation results from MA3T are used to identify the more likely PHEV
buyers and provide explanations. It is observed that consumers who have home charging, drive
more frequently and live in urban area are more likely to buy a PHEV. Early adopters are projected
to be more likely PHEV buyers in the early market, but the PHEV purchase probability by the late
majority consumer can increase over time when PHEV gradually becomes a familiar product.
Copyright Form of EVS25.
Kansei engineering was founded 30 years ago, as an ergonomics and consumer-oriented
technology for producing a new product. When a consumer wants to buy something, he\\/she will
have a kind of feeling and image (kansei in Japanese) in his\\/her mind. If the consumer's feeling
could be implemented in the new product, he\\/she would be more satisfied with the product. Kansei
Purchasers of fast-moving consumer goods generally exhibit multi-brand choice, selecting
apparently randomly among a small subset or "repertoire" of tried and trusted brands. Their behavior
shows both matching and maximization, though it is not clear just what the majority of buyers are
maximizing. Each brand attracts, however, a small percentage of consumers who are 100%-loyal to
it during the period of observation. Some of these are exclusively buyers of premium-priced brands
who are presumably maximizing informational reinforcement because their demand for the brand is
relatively price-insensitive or inelastic. Others buy exclusively the cheapest brands available and can
be assumed to maximize utilitarian reinforcement since their behavior is particularly price-sensitive
or elastic. Between them are the majority of consumers whose multi-brand buying takes the form of
selecting a mixture of economy -- and premium-priced brands. Based on the analysis of buying
patterns of 80 consumers for 9 product categories, the paper examines the continuum of consumers
so defined and seeks to relate their buying behavior to the question of how and what consumers
maximize. PMID:15157975
While librarians and users have been inundated with advice on how to produce content for
MySpace, blogs, and other Web 2.0 services, there's been much less discussion about using newer
technologies to consume all this new content efficiently. These technologies are new to everyone,
and the flood is hitting all people at the same time. People must learn how to use information better
and to share that understanding. By removing software as a barrier, they can focus on data. Too
often they conflate data and interface, talking about blogs, podcasts, or "Second Life" (a 3D virtual
world where users can socialize, connect and create using voice and text chat) as if drastic
adjustments must be made to process the data. But it is generally just text, supplemented with
photos, audio, or video. This article discusses how to create new web content and the best and
fastest ways to process it.
Academic entitlement, an attitude marked by students' beliefs that they are owed something in the
educational experience apart from what they might earn from their effort, has received attention
recently in the literature. In previous work, academic entitlement has been shown to be related to
parenting styles and personality constructs. The current study departs from previous research by
taking a phenomenological approach to understanding academic entitlement. Focus groups were
conducted with a total of 52 first-year students. Responses were coded into six facets of academic
entitlement: product value of education, social promotion, role of professors, teaching assistants,
administrators, and shoppers or scholars.
Volume 3, Issue 3\\/4 Abstract: India is a country where the average selling of life insurance policies
is still lower than many western and asian countries, with the second largest population in world the
Indian insurance market is looking very prospective to many multinational and Indian insurance
companies for expanding their business and market share. Before the opening of indian
This guide explains how a solar domestic hot water (DHW) system works and what is involved in
installing one in the home. Like any other major property improvement, a solar DHW system should
be carefully considered in terms of costs, benefits, local building regulations, and the system&apos;s
ability to provide the owner&apos;s needs. The guide covers siting, system sizing, financing,
warranties, installation, and maintenance. It also provides step-by-step instructions and worksheets
for an economic investment analysis. 1 table, 9 figures.
Our previous study shows that environmental soundness as an intangible product attribute for food
products is a four dimensional concept. These dimensions are: nature friendly production process,
animal friendly production process, additive free production process, and environmentally-sound
packaging. Nature friendly production process refers to items related to access of pollutants to the
waterways from industrial plants, farms, and as animal
This paper examines the relevance of additional ethical attributes of organic food for consumers’
purchase decisions. By means of an Information-Display-Matrix (IDM) and an accompanying
consumer survey, the information acquisition behaviour of consumers regarding seven additional
ethical attributes and the product price of organic food was investigated in five European countries.
The ethical attributes, ‘animal welfare’, ‘regional production’ and ‘fair
Overview: It is well documented that the Internet retailing revolution has established a new
distribution channel that represents a fundamental paradigm shift in consumer buying patterns. The
rapid growth of alternative retail channels has transformed not only the competitive structure of
several industries, but also the way in which consumers shop for products. Despite a wealth of
research on electronic
Conventional thinking holds that districts and schools face a strategic decision between two
fundamentally different alternatives: make or buy? The former refers to planning, designing, and
enacting school-specific improvement initiatives. The latter refers to contracting with external
providers of schoolwide improvement programs. However, there is much to suggest that "make or
buy" is actually a false dichotomy that diverts attention from the core issue of systemic school
improvement: collaborative, experiential learning among schools, districts, and external providers.
As such, this analysis draws from research on comprehensive school reform and franchise-like
organizational replication to suggest criteria for identifying external providers likely to function as full
partners in such learning.
This article explores the discourse on prostitution, trafficking, and buying sex. Buying sex or the
purchase of sexual services, as the law says, has been a criminal act in Sweden since 1999. In the
summer of 2006 Finland followed the lead, making it a crime to purchase sex from a person who
has been subjected to trafficking or procuring. These reforms give a signal that the customers are
responsible for increasing the international sex trade, but as the author argues, the commercial
language used by the law makers may be a double-edged sword. PMID:20053945
This unit provides high school students with criteria for deciding to buy a new or used car and
selecting a reputable dealer. It is divided into three sections. In the first section students analyze
uses and identify car sizes, options, and appearances that are important. The second section
describes advantages and disadvantages of new and used cars and the third section describes how
to tell a reputable dealer from a nonreputable one. Students play games in which they answer
hypothetical questions about their automobile needs, list advantages of purchasing a new or used
car, analyze feelings about car ownership, find articles in consumer magazines about purchasing
cars, and survey reputations of car dealers at the Better Business Bureau. Directions for making
activities and games, objectives, a materials list, and reproducible pre- and posttests are included in
the teacher's guide. Approximate class time for the unit is four to six hours. (KC)
This curriculum guide is based on the notion that consumers can no longer afford to buy goods
without thinking of the consequences. The unit presents students with criteria for making wise
consumer choices. Twenty-six lessons offer data for examination and encourage students to
calculate the consequences of various courses of action. Lessons look at economic relations
between nations, energy shortages, political instability in developing nations, the widening gap
between the rich and poor between and within nations, the penetration of every economy by
multinational corporation, massive food shortages, degradation of the environment, and refugees
world wide. The focus is on how these phenomena are affected by or have an effect upon
consumers. Student handouts, worksheets, and resources are provided. (MM)
This study explores consumers' acceptance of innovations in traditional cheese in France (n=120)
and Norway (n=119). The respondents were presented with 16 photographs of a traditional cheese
from their respective countries, varying according to six factors: pasteurisation, organic production,
omega-3, packaging, price and appropriateness. For each of the scenarios the consumers indicated
their willingness to buy the cheese on a nine-point scale. Results show that consumers' willingness
to buy traditional cheese is highly driven by price, appropriateness and pasteurisation in both
countries. However, on average consumers in the French sample prefer buying raw milk cheese,
while consumers in the Norwegian sample prefer buying pasteurised cheese. These general trends
are led by a pro-raw milk segment in France and a pro-pasteurised milk segment in Norway. Several
interaction effects involving appropriateness are detected, indicating the importance of the
consumption context on the acceptance of innovations in traditional cheese. On a general level, the
results indicate that well-accepted innovations in traditional cheese are those that reinforce the
traditional and authentic character of the product. PMID:21550369
Prepared to help teachers address the basic and survival level consumer needs of adult Vietnamese
and Laotian refugees, this instructional guide consists of five units of instructional materials. Topics
of the individual units are (1) how the monetary system works (cash, checks, postal money orders,
banking); (2) the family consumer (personal and family hygiene, laundry, home care, and landlord
and tenant); (3) family safety and health (home safety, home medicine, emergencies, doctors and
dentists, prescriptions, reading directions); (4) shopping for food and good nutrition (foods and
adapted basic food groups, smart food shopping); (5) smart consumerism (types of stores, getting
the best buy). Provided in each lesson are a teacher's sheet containing suggested activities,
instructional materials, and goals of the lesson; a student sheet (written in Vietnamese and Lao)
complete with a vocabulary list and basic information about the topic covered; and a student
instructional sheet (written in English) giving the student practice in developing manipulative skills.
Pharmacists play an important role in providing information about natural products and in preventing
risks related to these substances, particularly with respect to interactions with conventional drugs.
For these reasons, a survey was specifically designed to investigate the quality of self-care
counselling by pharmacists on phytotherapy. Twenty-three pharmacy stores took part in the project.
Face-to-face interviews, using a pre-structured questionnaire, were undertaken by trained
pharmacists to consumers buying a herbal product. The questionnaire included socio-demographic
data and 17 items designed to elicit information regarding the reason of consumption, product
knowledge, relationship/communication with healthcare providers, level of satisfaction, concurrent
drug use and adverse reactions. The collection of interviews started in November 2006 until April
2007. From the analysis of 1420 questionnaires, it is evident that herbal use is increasing in Italy:
12% of our interviewees were buying a herbal product for the first time. The present survey
highlights the favourable perception of efficacy of phytotherapic compounds by the pharmacy's
consumers, who consider this healthcare modality to be an important and effective way to promote
health/wellness and disease management as well as being safer overall than conventional drugs.
Moreover, findings from this study demonstrate that pharmacists are more likely to answer correctly
about the uses of herbal medicines than about drug interactions, adverse drug effects and cautions
about these products. PMID:18422384
into the herd. The risk of contagious disease spread is great when purchased animals are added to
the herd contagious diseases can be introduced by the addition of purchased cattle. The following
are common of healthy animals will help prevent specific diseases from occurring. VSE-9.6-1 Buying
Cattle? Here's What
for Existing Buildings Sustainable purchasing policy Green Cleaning policy (with purchasing
requirements) #12 Â- Building products Â- Green meetings and conference services · Low or
non-toxic or non-hazardous chemicalsGO GREEN! BUY GREEN! Introduction to Green Purchasing
April 22nd, 2010 Karen Preston - Purchasing
R342 Dispatch Ras effectors: Buying shares in Ras plc Peter J. Cullen The debate over whether
activated Ras can regulate phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) has been contentious
and at times heated. The argument may be resolved by the recent identification of a novel
Ras-regulated PLC, but some
Buy, a campus-wide e-procurement system, across UC Berkeley and UCSF is to streamline
processes, increase a lot of time and effort procuring goods and services through inefficient
procurement systems-wide e-procurement system built on the proven SciQuest full-suite
procurement platform and will integrate
, farmers' market, CSA farm) in the last three months? .................................................................. 11
8. Of all the reasons you bought at a (farm stand, U-pick farm, farmers' market), which one did you
buy products from a (farm stand, U-pick farm, farmers' market) in the last three months
The research and elimination of perceived risks by customers shopping online in groups furthers the
development of the business model. With the review and summary of perceived risks by customers
in traditional e-commerce environment, special risks resulted from online group buying ware
discovered by interviews with customers and experts in order to develop initial scale of perceived
risks by online
The two students who won commercial sponsorship for their college education embody
entrepreneurialism's darker side-the growing commercialism of schools and conscious targeting of
students as lifelong consumers. This update discusses developments in program, activity, and
materials sponsorships; exclusive agreements; electronic marketing; privatization; and fund raising.
(Contains 34 references.) (MLH)
Many students are struggling with more depression and anxiety than ever before. These are
characteristic dangers of the "consumer class"--1.7 billion people worldwide who are "characterized
by diets of highly processed food, desire for bigger houses, more and bigger cars, higher levels of
debt, and lifestyles devoted to the accumulation of non-essential goods." Mindless consumerism
threatens physical, social, and psychological health; total abstinence, on the other hand, means
starvation. The author teaches dystopian literature, which exaggerates modern context so that one
can challenge it. Providing for its readers a glimpse into a horrifying but fully possible future, Aldous
Huxley's "Brave New World" and M. T. Anderson's "Feed" show how unrestrained industry often
relies on manipulation and herd mentality, an unspeakably grim encroachment on the individual.
When the important thing is selling and buying, the individual becomes nothing more than consumer
or worker. This is where it gets tricky: Young people love advertising, consuming, entertainment, and
technology. If people attack these trappings of modern life, they risk nurturing defensiveness. The
challenge is to focus on the dangers, demands, and opportunities common to the "consumer class"
without alarmism--difficult terrain to navigate. Four important traits of modern consumerism that the
two novels address are powerful advertising and industry, mindless consumption based on instant
gratification, reliance on technology, and the resulting atrophy of language. English teachers can
explore these important concepts with their students. Using these texts, they can meaningfully
discuss what it means to be responsible, aware, knowledgeable, and moral consumers.
Internet-based group-buying has become a new growth point for China's e-commerce. By studying
B2C group- buying model, this paper has collected data of 20 major Chinese group-buying websites,
studied factors that might influence Internet users' group-buying behavior, proposed a new model for
evaluating the value of Internet enterprises, and provided a feasible reference model for the
evaluation and performance of
In this study, purchase behavior of California consumers in response to irradiated papayas is
described. The papayas were shipped from Hawaii and irradiated in California under a permit by the
Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and approved by the California Department of Food and
Agriculture. Results show that the superior appearance of the irradiated fruit appealed to consumers
and that two-thirds or more of the people queried indicated that they would buy irradiated produce. It
is noted that this marketing took place in a supportive environment with no protestors present.
Informational material was available.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, perception and buying behaviour of
probiotics. 72 participants in Middelburg, the Netherlands, filled out a detailed questionnaire
regarding probiotics and their customer and consumer behaviour. It can be concluded from this
study that the concept of probiotics is generally poorly understood. Health-conscious consumers
seem to be the group most aware of the correct meaning of the term probiotics. Almost 50% of the
participants did not believe that probiotics had any health effect. Independent organisations and/or
government agencies appeared to be the preferred source of information on the functionality of
probiotics. PMID:23434950
Share buy-backs have become increasingly popular among Australian companies. One of the main
aims of announcing a share buy-back by a listed company is signalling the market that its shares are
currently underpriced. When market reacts to the signal, price of the shares is expected to increase
immediately after the announcement. While there are several ways of buying back shares,
Will European football keep leagues open, or adopt the American system of closed leagues? Would
this reform be to the benefit of consumers? This paper develops a framework to analyse the
consequences of the structure of competition - whether teams play in both national and international
competitions or not - and the effects on performance of revenue sharing among teams
States significantly increased buy-in from local teachers' unions in round two of the Race to the Top
competition, but made far less progress in enlisting districts or expanding the number of students
affected by the states' education reform plans. Those patterns emerged from an "Education Week"
analysis of applications from 29 states and the District of Columbia, all of which entered both rounds
of the $4 billion federal grant contest. Although the changes made in applications from the first to the
second round varied widely from state to state, union buy-in increased on average by 22 percentage
points, with states such as Florida, Michigan, and Wisconsin making big leaps. At the same time, the
overall level of district support and students affected in the 30 applications barely budged, mostly
owing to California's loss of support from about 500 districts representing nearly 2 million students.
That negated progress other states made in improving buy-in. Even with greater union backing,
states didn't appear to garner the additional support by substantially weakening their applications.
That possibility had been a fear of many education policy advocates after first-round winners
Delaware and Tennessee were singled out for praise by U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan,
at least in part, for their 100 percent district and nearly universal union buy-in. Such unanimity meant
the improvements proposed by the states in seeking the grants would at least theoretically reach all
students. Buy-in is important to a state's Race to the Top chances because more support from
superintendents and unions for its plan, as shown by the number of those who sign on to an
agreement with the state, earns that state more points on the 500-point grading scale. The
competition, funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act passed by Congress last
year, has become the chief mechanism by which Mr. Duncan is driving changes to state and federal
education policy. In this latest round of applications, those competing for a second time got, on
average, 61 percent of their districts on board, and within those districts, 68 percent of local unions
signed on. In the first round, those states on average had buy-in from 62 percent of districts and 46
percent of unions. Second-round applications were due on June 1, and awards are expected to be
made in late August or early September. A total of $3.4 billion remains for round two.
This paper uses a logistic regression model to examine consumer willingness to buy organic and\\/or
GM food products in the context of food attributes that are considered important in the consumption
decision. That model is chosen for its mathematical simplicity and because its asymptotic
characteristic constrains the predicted probabilities to a range between zero and one. In particular,
the model
Refrigerator energy consumption has been the subject of regulatory attention in the US for some
thirty years. Federal product standards, energy labels, and a variety of programs to get consumers
to discard their existing refrigerators sooner and buy new, more energy efficient ones have
transformed the refrigerator landscape and changed how many of us think about refrigerators. The
results of
Consumer purchasing patterns of a standard and an energy-efficient refrigerator are presented.
These models differed only in their initial cost and electricity consumption. Consumers in regions
with higher electricity prices tended to buy the more efficient model. A distribution of implied
consumer discount rates is constructed. Roughly 2/5 of the consumers behaved as if they had real
discount rates above 60%, 1/5 between 35% and 60%, and 2/5 less than 35%. Some of the
distribution in apparent discount rates may be attributable to market failures.
This paper investigates the link between the consumer perception that a company is socially
oriented and the consumer intention\\u000a to buy products marketed by that company. We suggest
that this link exists when at least two conditions prevail: (1) the products\\u000a sold by that
company comply with ethical and social requirements; (2) the company has an acknowledged
commitment to protect
Compulsive shopping is an impulse control disorder that produces psychological distress.
Appropriate measurement scales of compulsive buying are important to identify compulsive buyers.
Three compulsive buying scales (Faber and O'Guinn scale, Edwards scale, Yale and Brown scale)
were tested in an Italian sample composed of 438 participants randomly selected from the general
population. Self-report questionnaires measured psychiatric dysfunctions and personality traits. The
data confirmed that high anxiety, obsessive-compulsive dysfunctions, depression, psychoticism, and
low self-esteem were associated with inappropriate shopping. The Faber and O'Guinn scale and
Edwards Scale are appropriate for surveys, while the Yale and Brown scale are more appropriate for
clinical diagnosis of psychological dependences. PMID:23402051
This study evaluates consumer purchase propensity for genetically modified (GM) food products in
Romania, shedding light on consumer preferences in developing Eastern European nations. Results
based on a bivariate probit model of purchase propensity for GM sunflower oil and table potatoes
show that consumers in Romania are generally opposed to GM food consumption, similar to
consumers in Western Europe, but
Purpose – This study aims to examine the causal relationships among fashion involvement, positive
emotion, hedonic consumption tendency, and fashion-oriented impulse buying in the context of
shopping. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A self-administered questionnaire developed from the
literature was administered to 217 college students during a scheduled class. They were enrolled at
one metropolitan university in a southwestern state in the USA.
Professor Bryant Simon is the author of "Everything But the Coffee: Learning About America From
Starbucks" (University of California Press, 2009). He presented his key findings to the class and
summarizes them here. Studying Starbucks reveals essential truths about what its customers, who
represented a large cross-section of the American middle-class, cared about and desired. Moreover,
it reveals something about the nature of buying in everyday America.(Contains 10 notes.)
How to best decide when it's time to replace your PC, whether at home or at work, is always tricky.
Spending on computers can make you more productive, but it's money you otherwise cannot spend,
invest or save, and faster systems always await you in the future. What is clear is that the computer
industry really wants you to buy, and the computer publishing industry does too. In ads as well as
articles, the emphasis is always on the latest and greatest. Healthy spending has fueled the PC
revolution, but it may not necessarily be healthy for your bottom line. Not everybody buys into the
dictum that yesterday's technology is a liability. Being on the cutting edge, in fact, can make you
bleed. New technology is and will always be buggier than the tried and true. Yet there are good
reasons for spending on new computer hardware. It will let you run the latest software, which
typically has more features and is easier to use than older programs, though this reason is less
compelling than it used to be. In deciding whether or not to buy a new PC, the ultimate question you
need to answer is this: Will the new system let you or those you work with work more efficiently, or in
the case of home systems used for entertainment, play more pleasurably, and is the price worth it?
Background ‘Neuromarketing’ is a term that has often been used in the media in recent years.
These public discussions have generally centered around potential ethical aspects and the public
fear of negative consequences for society in general, and consumers in particular. However, positive
contributions to the scientific discourse from developing a biological model that tries to explain
context-situated human behavior such as consumption have often been neglected. We argue for a
differentiated terminology, naming commercial applications of neuroscientific methods
‘neuromarketing’ and scientific ones ‘consumer neuroscience’. While marketing scholars have
eagerly integrated neuroscientific evidence into their theoretical framework, neurology has only
recently started to draw its attention to the results of consumer neuroscience. Discussion In this
paper we address key research topics of consumer neuroscience that we think are of interest for
neurologists; namely the reward system, trust and ethical issues. We argue that there are
overlapping research topics in neurology and consumer neuroscience where both sides can profit
from collaboration. Further, neurologists joining the public discussion of ethical issues surrounding
neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience could contribute standards and experience gained in
clinical research. Summary We identify the following areas where consumer neuroscience could
contribute to the field of neurology: First, studies using game paradigms could help to gain further
insights into the underlying pathophysiology of pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease,
frontotemporal dementia, epilepsy, and Huntington’s disease. Second, we identify compulsive
buying as a common interest in neurology and consumer neuroscience. Paradigms commonly used
in consumer neuroscience could be applied to patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease and
frontotemporal dementia to advance knowledge of this important behavioral symptom. Third, trust
research in the medical context lacks empirical behavioral and neuroscientific evidence.
Neurologists entering this field of research could profit from the extensive knowledge of the
biological foundation of trust that scientists in economically-orientated neurosciences have gained.
Fourth, neurologists could contribute significantly to the ethical debate about invasive methods in
neuromarketing and consumer neuroscience. Further, neurologists should investigate biological and
behavioral reactions of neurological patients to marketing and advertising measures, as they could
show special consumer vulnerability and be subject to target marketing.
Non-hypothetical valuations obtained from experimental auctions in three United States and two
European locations were used to calculate welfare effects of introducing and labeling of genetically
modified food. Under certain assumptions, we find that introduction of genetically modified food has
been welfare enhancing, on average, for United States consumers but not so for Europeans and
while mandatory labeling has been
The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World
War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member
countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands,
Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are
internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and
commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies.
The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and
1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for
members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport,
economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission,
Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee.
The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main
goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote
technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European
Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as
well. PMID:12177941
Founded at the Boston College School of Law, the National Consumer Law Center (NCLC) is a
nonprofit corporation committed to the legal problems commonly faced by low-income and
financially distressed families. Accurate and authoritative information regarding issues of debt
collection abuses, home improvement frauds, usury, and utility terminations, among others, are
provided at the Consumer Information section of the site for lawyers, low-income community
organizations, public policy makers, consumer and business reporters, and interested citizens, alike.
Links to related websites are also provided for additional consumer guidance.
European movement regarding increased consumer concern toward food safety and quality as well
as health and nutritional aspect of food is present in Croatia as well. Consumer perceptions and
attitudes regarding organic food were analyzed on sample of 124 examinees, by means of
face-to-face survey. Aim of paper was to create founded marketing strategies, market segments
identification, sales channels and
Discarded electronic consumer products cause enormous environmental problems as no thought
has been given to their possible reuse. Some European governments have passed laws so that
manufacturers and importers are being made responsible for their products when discarded by the
consumer. Therefore, manufacturers have started to think about product designs which allow the
reuse of components and the recycling of
The Harmonized Index of Consumer Prices (HICP) is the single most important indicator of inflation
used by the European Central Bank. Sections 2 to 4 of the paper look at the theory of inflation
indexes that could be used as target indexes of inflation. A Consumer Price Index (CPI) emerges as
perhaps the most useful target index. Four different approaches
A study investigated the learning of consumer skills by adolescents, using two theoretical
approaches--the social learning and the family communication pattern approaches. It was
hypothesized that (1) assuming that parents are more experienced consumers than are
adolescents, frequent discussion with parents on consumption matters are likely to enhance
children's learning of intelligent consumer behaviors, and (2) assuming the concept-oriented family
communication pattern fosters consumer behaviors geared to evaluating alternatives according to
their objective and functional attributes, adolescents from this type of family are more likely to be
active in information seeking and price shopping before buying. Subjects, seventh, tenth, and twelfth
grade students from lower, middle, and upper socioeconomic backgrounds, selected from three
school districts in southeastern Michigan, completed a questionnaire. Both hypotheses were largely
supported. Results showed that parents seemed to serve as role models for the teenage
consumers, and that peer-child communication also contributed to the learning of consumer skills.
Findings also indicated that the concept-oriented family communication pattern had a direct effect
on adolescent knowledge of consumer skills. Results suggested that the two theories work together
to explain the socialization outcome, and that the integration of the two different theoretical
perspectives into a single model presents a more holistic view of how teenagers learn to be
intelligent consumers. (Tables of data are included, notes and a bibliography are appended.) (NKA)
Cogenerators who don&apos;t negotiate a buyback price with utilities that brings a fair rate of return
stand to lose a great deal of money, according to a spokesman from the Cogeneration Development
Corp. Utilities are required by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) to buy back unused
power generated by cogenerators, but the rules leave room for negotiation and interpretation. Large
industrial users can take advantage of their high power demand and the opportunity cogeneration
offers utilities to avoid using old or building new capacity during the bargaining process.
Cogenerators can either develop in-house or retain professional expertise to represent their
interests. (DCK)
As an internet application, Group-buying is a new darling of E-commerce. To the consensus of
many, the integration of social networking and e-commerce will contribute significantly to the
reliability of online transactions, and improve customers' satisfaction as well. This paper presents
Group-buying Trust — a coherent adaptive trust model for quantifying and comparing the
trustworthiness of group-buying websites based on
This study presents an experiential exercise designed to heighten students' awareness of
overconsumption in the United States and allow them to see how their own consumption habits are
linked to larger social factors. Students engaged in the "Not Buying It" project--which involved
refraining from purchasing all but essentials for a set number of days--as part of a broader lesson on
consumerism. Qualitative and quantitative data, gathered from students enrolled in three sections of
Introductory Sociology, suggest that the exercise was effective in enhancing students' sociological
imaginations by helping students see how their own consumption habits are shaped by larger social
forces and how they, along with most Americans, tend toward overconsumption. To a more limited
extent, it may help enhance cognitive understanding of consumption. Teaching about consumption
in general, and the Not Buying It project in particular, offers instructors an excellent pedagogical
means by which students can acquire a sociological imagination, reinforces key sociological
principles, and links to broader goals within the discipline. (Contains 4 figures, 2 tables, and 2
The General Services Administration (GSA) offers its Consumer Information Center via the web.
The Consumer Information Catalog (advertised as being available in hardcopy from an address in
Pueblo, Colorado) is available for downloading, as well as full text consumer information
publications on cars, children, employment, federal programs, food and nutrition, health, housing,
small business, money, and travel and hobbies.
This handbook is intended to help consumers exercise their rights in the marketplace in three ways.
It shows how to communicate more effectively with manufacturers, retailers, and service providers; it
is a self-help manual for resolving individual consumer complaints; and it lists helpful sources of
assistance. The handbook has two sections. Part I, How To Be a Smart Consumer, features tips on
avoiding purchasing problems and getting the most for one's money. It gives steps for handling
one's own complaint and writing an effective complaint letter. Part II, the Consumer Assistance
Directory, lists consumer offices in both the public and private sectors that provide assistance for
consumer complaints. An index in the back of the handbook lists, by subject, the appropriate
contact. Consumer tips and remainders on resolving complaints appear throughout the handbook.
These tips are also in the index by subject. The handbook is a handy reference tool for consumers;
additional users include educators (as a source of information and ideas for developing and
teaching innovative consumer education courses) and consumer leaders in business and
government (as a resource for locating others who share consumer program objectives and who can
help resolve consumer complaints). (YLB)
Answering consumer questions can be one of the toughest aspects of working in the egg industry.
Consumers enjoy being informed about the products they purchase. The increased use of the
internet by consumers can prove problematic due to the wealth of inaccurate information available
on the interne...
Today¿s consumer is more informed than consumers from previous generations. This desire for
knowledge about the products they use raises a need for employees to be informed and trained in
dealing with consumer concerns. In the egg industry, general topics of concern include: Proper
storage, safe ...
Safe driving in older adulthood depends not only on health and driving ability, but also on the driving
environment itself, including the type of vehicle. However, little is known about how safety figures
into the older driver's vehicle selection criteria and how it ranks among other criteria, such as price
and comfort. For this purpose, six focus groups of older male and female drivers (n=33) aged 70-87
were conducted in two Canadian cities to explore vehicle purchasing decisions and the contribution
of safety in this decision. Themes emerged from the data in these categories: vehicle features that
keep them feeling safe, advanced vehicular technologies, factors that influence their car buying
decisions, and resources that inform this decision. Results indicate older drivers have gaps with
respect to their knowledge of safety features and do not prioritize safety at the time of vehicle
purchase. To maximize the awareness and uptake of safety innovations, older consumers would
benefit from a vehicle design rating system that highlights safety as well as other features to help
ensure that the vehicle purchased fits their lifestyle and needs. PMID:23522914
Purpose – The aim of the paper is to investigate the consumers' decision-making process for
organically produced foods in Italy. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A structural equation
modelling approach has been used with information provided by a survey conducted in Italy
(Naples). Findings – Results indicate that consumer' attitudes towards organic food, in particular
towards the health attribute and towards the environment
In this paper we attempt to compare the responses of consumers and professionals to questions
related to organic food retailing, in order to highlight the differences and the similarities of viewpoints
between them and to understand the links between consumer perception of organic food and the
sales channel. In order to do this, we analyse the results of three studies,
Marketing lacks comprehension on the increasingly important segment of mature consumers in
regard to their behavior and respective\\u000a reasons for certain behavior. This study on the desire
for alternative products or brands within the domain of fast moving\\u000a consumer goods was
capable of verifying differences among age-groups. While the keenness for cross-buying increases
with age,\\u000a the desire for switching to
Local food movements have emerged in many parts of Canada to support local farmers, sustain the
regional food supply, encourage the consumption of healthier foods, and address environmental
concerns associated with conventional agriculture. The implementation of food localism to date,
however, has remained primarily the responsibility of consumers. This paper seeks to examine the
practical realities of individual consumer localism in order to understand how food localism operates
at the household level. Local food scholarship and empirical data from a recent study of Canadian
farmwomen's food provisioning practices are used to assess the feasibility and implications of buy
local and eat local messages for consumers. In particular, physical access to local food markets,
financial constraints to buying local and food self-provisioning, and (gendered) labor requirements
are examined in detail. Findings suggest that encouragement by local food advocates to "buy local"
and "grow food" are not simple transactions for households; rather, such practices must be
considered within the broader food provisioning context and the structural constraints therein.
Although well-intentioned, these urgings delegitimize real constraints that exist for many individuals
and households, in particular those outside of well-serviced urban areas, those who are food
insecure, and those without the necessary resources (time, labor, skill, and expertise) to engage in
local food provisioning. The ability of consumers to engage in individual localism will be limited as
long as the broader context in which food provisioning activities are undertaken is ignored. (Contains
1 figure and 1 table.)
The European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) is a "consultative body of the European
Union." The EESC is meant to serve as "a bridge between European and organized civil society",
and their work includes networking with other governmental organization, adopting policy resolutions
and suggestions, and researching energy issues, among other things. The materials on the site are
divided into seven primary sections, including "Documents", "Themes", and "Events & Activities". A
good place to get started is the "Themes" area, which features information about their recent
activities in areas like civil society, consumers, economics, and agriculture and environment. Along
the left-side of this page, visitors can look at the latest events and conferences related to each
separate theme. Moving along, the "Documents" area includes opinion pieces and working papers
such as "EU-Canada Relations" and "Higher Education and Entrepreneurship". Lastly, the "Press &
Media" area includes videos, interviews, and photo galleries.
View and Print An Electronic PO or Invoice in iBuyNU NUFinancials Supply Chain 3/23/2012 i and
invoices. Note: most, but not all, vendors in iBuyNU provide electronic invoices. If a vendor does not,
contact Accounts Payable to request a copy of the invoice. Navigation: History tab Search by All
Media News | Marketwire buys social media firm Sysomos This article provided courtesy of
Marketing Magazine. [ Marketwire buys social media firm Sysomos ] July 07, 2010 | By Canadian
Press | Comments Recommend The Marketwire news release company has acquired Sysomos, a
Toronto-based social media monitoring
Joining the ranks of other fine Websites serving as watchdogs over the 2000 presidential elections
campaign, this one from The Center for Public Integrity mirrors data from the just published book
The Buying of the President. Drawing primarily on Financial Disclosure Statements available on-site,
the Center provides listings of each candidate's assets, the sources of honoraria and travel money,
the candidate's top 25 career patrons, and the size and disbursements of his campaign war chest.
The site also features information concerning possible candidate violations of campaign laws
currently under review by the Federal Election Commission as well as a listing of the top 50 soft
money donors to the Democratic and Republican parties. Voters in Iowa and New Hampshire take
An antitrust suit against 90 Georgia electric utilities, charging that their monopoly of retail electricity
sales should not preclude cogenerators and small power producers from selling surplus power to
utilities elsewhere on the network, could set a national precedent allowing cogenerators to shop
around for the best buy-back rate. Greensboro Lumber Co. charges that the utilities&apos; refusal to
wheel cogenerated power to potential purchasers represents a restraint of trade. The lumber
company contends that cogenerators should sell to the wholesale market, where utilities have no
state-granted monopoly. Attorneys for the two sides are unsure of the immediate outcome, but
predict that antitrust action or threatened action could give cogenerators unfair leverage.
This paper reports that Hunt Oil Co., Dallas, has agreed to buy substantially all of the oil and gas
assets of Pacific Enterprises Oil Co. (U.S.A.) a subsidiary of Pacific Enterprises, Los Angeles. Hunt
will pay $371 million for leases mainly in Texas, Wyoming, Louisiana, and Mississippi. The acquired
properties will add oil and gas reserves of about 63 million bbl of oil equivalent and nearly 1.4 million
gross leasehold acres to Hunt&apos;s exploration and production assets. Included in the assets to
be acquired are several oil and gas fields on the Burnett Ranch in King County, Tex., and a
subsidiary corporation that has production interests in Colombia.
Consumer markets have been studied in great depth, and many techniques have been used to
represent them. These have included regression-based models, logit models, and theoretical
market-level models, such as the NBD-Dirichlet approach. Although many important contributions
and insights have resulted from studies that relied on these models, there is still a need for a model
that could more holistically represent the interdependencies of the decisions made by consumers,
retailers, and manufacturers. When the need is for a model that could be used repeatedly over time
to support decisions in an industrial setting, it is particularly critical. Although some existing methods
can, in principle, represent such complex interdependencies, their capabilities might be outstripped if
they had to be used for industrial applications, because of the details this type of modeling requires.
However, a complementary method - agent-based modeling - shows promise for addressing these
issues. Agent-based models use business-driven rules for individuals (e.g., individual consumer
rules for buying items, individual retailer rules for stocking items, or individual firm rules for
advertizing items) to determine holistic, system-level outcomes (e.g., to determine if brand X&apos;s
market share is increasing). We applied agent-based modeling to develop a multi-scale consumer
market model. We then conducted calibration, verification, and validation tests of this model. The
model was successfully applied by Procter & Gamble to several challenging business problems. In
these situations, it directly influenced managerial decision making and produced substantial cost
Humans are exposed to a variety of chemicals in their everyday lives through interactions with the
environment and through the use of consumer products. It is a basic requirement that these
products are tested to assure they are safe under normal and reasonably foreseeable conditions of
use. Within the European Union, the majority of tests used for generating toxicological data rely on
animals. However recent changes in legislation (e.g., 7th amendment of the Cosmetics Directive
and REACH) are driving researchers to develop and adopt non-animal alternative methods with
which to assure human safety. Great strides have been made to this effect, but what other
opportunities/technologies exist that could expedite this? Tissue engineering has increasing scope
to contribute to replacing animals with scientifically robust alternatives in basic research and safety
testing, but is this application of the technology being fully exploited? This review highlights how the
consumer products industry is applying tissue engineering to ensure chemicals are safe for human
use without using animals, and identifies areas for future development and application of the
In 1975 the people of the U.S. bought nearly 127 million major household appliances, which had a
retail value of more than $14.5 billion. Few of the buyers had much information enabling them to
compare one brand with another wisely, particularly if they were concerned about the durability of
the appliance and its lifetime cost (a sum of what the buyer would spend to buy it, to maintain it and
to pay for the energy it would require). At the end of 1977 the situation was much the same. Partly
as a result of the &apos;&apos;consumer movement&apos;&apos; of recent years and partly
because of rising concern over the efficient use of energy, Congress has passed legislation calling
on various Federal agencies to establish certain standards for the performance of major appliances.
Work in progress at the NBS Center for Consumer Product Technology promises to make available
to the consumer a substantial amount of information on the durability and efficiency of appliances.
What one can expect to see as a result of this work is a labeling system for certain appliances that
will set forth, at the point of sale, a measure of the energy the appliance requires in normal use and
the efficiency with which the energy is used. Thus the buyer can ascertain by comparing labels that
the appliance with the lowest retail price may not be the cheapest in the long run because of its
large energy requirements or relative inefficiency. The difference between this labeling system and
the information now available to the consumer in product brochures and consumer publications is
that the label information will be standardized, based on accepted engineering tests of product
performance and available at the point of sale.
We assess consumer choice of eco-labeled, organic, and regular apples, and identify
sociodemographic characteristics affecting the choice among those three alternatives. Eco-labeled
apples are less desirable than organic when food safety, the environment, and children's needs are
considered. Characteristics that may be expected to positively affect the decision to buy eco-labeled
apples relative to regular apples actually have the opposite
This article discusses consumer choices of renewable energy technologies over polluting power
producers and the factors that are likely to go into consumer choice. Covered are the following
topics: is it really green? How much difference will cost make? What choices will industry make?
The continuing need for policy emphasising clean energy and lowering complicating obstacles.
With the rise of the “Google generation”, consumers can easily access information with a simple
click. Unfortunately, this information is not always accurate or honest. This can pose many problems
if consumer perception of your product is swayed by erroneous information. Being able to factually
Four conference presenters involved in consumer online services present information on new
products both under development and in the process of implementation, commenting on
technological, content, distribution, and consumer service issues. Products and companies
discussed are eWorld (Apple Computer Europe); Olivetti Telemedia; CompuServe; and Europe
Online. (JKP)
The Marketing 305: Consumer Behavior web site was developed by Gordon Bruner, Associate
Professor of Marketing at Southern Illinois University. The course aims to help students understand
the variables that affect consumption and how consumer behavior affects the success of marketing.
At the site, visitors will find the course syllabus, slides from the lectures, review questions and
sample exam questions.
This study assessed how, and to what extent, it is possible to use behavioral experimentation and
relative sales analysis to study the effects of price on consumers' brand choices in the store
environment. An in-store experiment was performed in four stores to investigate the effects of
different prices of a target brand on consumers' relative buying behavior using an alternating
treatment design with baseline. The intervention consisted of periodically reducing the target brand's
price by 17-26%. Price reductions generally had none or minor effects. However, data for one store
showed lower relative sales for the price reduction condition. These are surprising results and they
underline the need to examine all of the marketing mix factors, not only price. (Contains 4 figures
and 2 tables.)
Explores the benefits of multi-year bid contracting of university furniture contracts and offers tips on
how to be successful at this approach. Areas covered include careful development of specifications,
establishing clear ground rules for pricing and contractual escape routes, and comprehensive and
careful bid contract writing. (GR)
The British Library has been producing quality online features for close to a decade now, and this
latest offering is worth a close look. This particular feature offers some insights and commentary on
five prominent black Europeans. It may even come as a surprise to some visitors that several of the
individuals profiled were black, such as Alexandre Dumas, the celebrated author of The Three
Musketeers. These profiles are supplemented with essays by Dr. Mike Phillips, a writer, scholar, and
journalist. The essays are accompanied by a series of images, including engravings, portraits, and
illustrations. Visitors may also want to view and print out extended versions of Phillips essays,
which are available here in the pdf format.
For 41 toothpastes available to European consumers in 1995, the cleaning efficacy was evaluated in
comparison with abrasivity on dentin (RDA value). For cleaning power assessment, a modified
pellicle cleaning ratio (PCR) measurement method was developed. The method is characterized by
a five-day tea-staining procedure on bovine front teeth slabs on a rotating wheel, standardized
brushing of the slabs in
Together with the national central banks of the European Union, the European Central Bank (ECB)
collects statistical information and governs the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). Legal
texts about the ECB, the ESCB, and the European Monetary Union (EMI) are provided in addition to
press releases, speeches, euro area statistics and selected publications of the EMI (in eleven
European languages).
Offered in this guide are facts enabling family day care providers in Michigan to serve meals
meeting meal pattern requirements of the state's Child Care Food Program. Adapted from the "Food
Buying Guide for Child Nutrition Programs," contents are based on the latest Federal regulations
and meal pattern requirements, current food production and marketing techniques, packaging
methods, and grading standards. Introductory information explains the yield data tables, how to
calculate the quantity of food needed, and how to use additional yield information. Foods are
classified according to meal pattern components of the Child Care Food Program: meat and meat
alternatives, vegetables and fruits, bread and bread alternates, and milk. In that order, sections 1
through 4 of the guide concern foods in those categories. The yield data tables furnish information
about food as purchased, the purchase unit, servings per purchase unit, serving size or portion, and,
when relevant, additional yield information. Appended are a chart of meal pattern requirements, a
chart of bread and bread alternates, and tables concerning abbreviations and symbols, volume
equivalents, decimal equivalents of commonly used fractions, and metric equivalents. (RH)
From the Washington State Library, Find-It! Consumer provides links to and information about over
100 consumer safety and protection Websites. Annotated Websites concerning Washington State or
the entire United States may be searched by keyword or browsed by topic. The librarians have
included a wonderful section on Top Searches, which gives guides to information and resources on
a broad range of subjects, from insecticide in food to choosing an Internet service provider.
Up-to-date recalls and new consumer information are also highlighted.
An inventory of nanotechnology-based consumer products currently on the market. After more than
twenty years of basic and applied research, nanotechnologies are gaining in commercial use.
Nanoscale materials now are in electronic, cosmetics, automotive and medical products. But it has
been difficult to find out how many "nano" consumer products are on the market and which
merchandise could be called "nano." While not comprehensive, this inventory gives the public the
best available look at the 800+ manufacturer-identified nanotechnology-based consumer products
currently on the market.
America is undergoing a profound age shift in its demographic make-up with people 55 and over
comprising an increasing proportion of the population. Marketers may need to increase their
response rate to this shift, especially in refining the application of marketing theory and practice to
older age consumers. To this end, a survey of older couple buying behavior for health insurance
coverage is reported here. Results clarify evaluative criteria and the viability of multiple market
segmentation for health care coverage among older consumers as couples. Commentary on the
efficacy of present health coverage marketing programs is provided. PMID:10143892
The purpose of this Consumer Representation Plan is to ensure to the greatest extent possible that
persons who are affected by any major FEA sponsored legislation, regulation, policy, decision or
program action have the opportunity to comment on the subject before a decision is reached, and
that these views are duly considered in the agency&apos;s decision-making process. It is
FEA&apos;s intent to more actively solicit consumer opinion and to make the individual offices more
responsive to the consumer. It is a basic premise of this plan that where the machinery and the
techniques for assuring consumer representation already exist within FEA they are to be
strengthened and that where they do not exist they will be instituted.
Difficulty identifying feelings (a component of alexithymia) and distress tolerance both appear to play
a role in impulse-control problems. The goal of the present study was to build upon past research by
developing a model of the relations between these constructs and compulsive buying. Participants
from the United States and Canada completed a survey containing well-established measures of
demographic variables, difficulty identifying feelings, distress tolerance and compulsive buying. In
support of a hypothesized model, the three constructs were significantly related in predicted
directions and distress tolerance fully mediated the relationship between difficulty identifying feelings
and compulsive buying. These results confirm the relationship between alexithymic tendencies and
distress tolerance and extend previous findings concerning the problematic behaviors (e.g.,
substance abuse, pathological gambling) of people who have difficulty identifying their feelings.
They also highlight attributes and skills (e.g., tolerating distress, identifying feelings) which clinicians
might beneficially target while working with clients who buy compulsively.
This paper analyses the market reaction to the share buy-back announcements of companies listed
on BSE for the year 1999-2004 by employing event study methodology with Sensex as the market
index. The results find that market reacts positively to the buy-backs. Further, abnormal returns are
tested for information signaling, free cash flow and leverage hypotheses. Results reveal that only
This new bimonthly magazine published by the European Commission is targeted at
"decision-makers/opinion formers having an impact on European Integration" in the ten Central
European and Baltic countries that have applied to join the EU. The electronic version of the first
issue contains articles on humanitarian aid, membership negotiations, pensions, and economic
Ownership rates of advanced communication technologies among Hispanic families are lower than
the national average. Going beyond socioeconomic (i.e., family income, educational attainment, and
occupation) indicators as key predictors of the so-called technology gap, this paper relies on
qualitative analysis of Hispanic families' attitudes and opinions about computers to provide a richer
context for understanding the gap. Six focus groups were conducted in the summer of 1997 (n=72).
Interviewees were recruited from Santa Ana and Riverside, California, and were eligible to
participate if: (1) they were heads of household of Hispanic origin; (2) their yearly family income was
between $25,000 and $65,000; and (3) they did not already own a home computer. Focus groups
were balanced in terms of gender, and participant ages ranged from 21 to 64. Santa Ana focus
groups tended to include mostly college-educated, professional, English-speaking, and native-born
respondents, while Riverside focus groups included predominantly non-college-educated,
working-class, Spanish-speaking, and foreign-born participants. The results of the focus group
dialogues provided support for the following key findings. First, most respondents (over 90%)
believed strongly that Hispanics need computers to keep up with progress. Not only were computers
considered to be important, they were ranked behind "taking a vacation" as a priority in their
household. Second, notwithstanding common wisdom, which suggests that Hispanic parents want a
home computer principally for their children, focus groups revealed that heads of household most
likely to purchase a PC in the next year would buy it for their own personal use as well as for their
children. Third, while respondents found many advantages to owning a computer, the drawbacks
were formidable, including anxiety over pornography on the Internet (a concern for two-thirds of
participants, mainly female interviewees) as well as the antisocial nature of using computers in a
family setting. (LPP)
Food is a powerful symbol in the struggle to transition to a more sustainable pathway since the food
choices citizens make\\u000a have deep environmental and social impacts within their communities
and around the world. Using transformative learning theory,\\u000a this research explored the
learning that took place among individual adults who consumed goods directly from local
organic\\u000a producers, and how this
The segment of organic products occupies an increasingly important place in dairy assortments. The
European Union (EU) introduced a new EU organic logo in 2010 with the aim of harmonizing its
organic sector and boosting consumer trust in organic food. This study focuses on organic yogurt
and investigates consumer awareness and knowledge of the new EU logo. Consumers evaluate
organic yogurt as superior compared with conventional yogurt on healthiness, environmental
friendliness, quality, and safety. More frequent buyers of organic yogurt have a stronger belief that
organic yogurt is superior. The willingness-to-pay for organic yogurt ranged from a premium of 15%
for nonbuyers to 40% for habitual buyers, indicating the market potential for this product. A structural
equations model reveals the positive association between knowledge, attitudes, and the frequency
of purchasing and consuming organic yogurt. Nevertheless, consumer awareness of the EU organic
logo remains rather low, which suggests a need for more effective information campaigns and
marketing actions. PMID:23415537
The majority of consumers, in particular European consumers oppose genetic modifi- cation of food.
Although consumers oppose strongly genetic modification of food, genetically modified food
production increases world wide. The co-existence of both, genetically modified food production and
food production free of genetic modification cannot be ensured. There is always a risk that
non-genetically modified food gets contaminated despite safety
Private brands in grocery retailing have evolved from a way to compete on price by selling low
quality products at a low price, into a brand category in their own right, with a wide range of
positioning options open to retailers. The buying and selling of private brands means that retailers'
add new activities and processes to those that are
The controversy over genetically modified (GM) foods has swept across Europe and is beginning to
make inroads into the North American consumer market. It is set to become a thorny trade issue
between the European Union (EU) and the United States. The issue is important, not least because
of the potential scale of the problem. There has been a rapid
At present, the proposal for a Consumer Rights directive and the draft Common Frame of Reference
are almost entirely disconnected. This is surprising in the light of the Commission's original plans. It
is also unfortunate in the light of the CFR's potential for making European contract law more
coherent. The proposed directive fits very well into a scenario which could
The debate over the safety of genetically modified organisms (GMO's) has varied greatly in
intensity. In Europe, the debate has been vigorous and European consumers have, in general, been
extremely skeptical of the technology and unwilling to assume the risks associated with GMOs.
Many retailers in Europe have promised that they will not sell food products that contain GMOs. In
As biotechnology evolves new methods of genetic engineering are now being applied to the
production and processing of foods. This paper is trying to explore the attitudes of the European
consumers towards genetic modification of food. Using survey data of the EU member countries the
proposed research paper is planned to have a threefold output: 1) providing a comparative ranking
Traditional pedagogy is premised on a belief that older generations teach younger generations how
to learn. At this point in history, however, through their ubiquitous exposure to media, technology,
and communication, younger generations understand contemporary forms of communication better
and more tacitly than older generations. Yet schooling lags behind advances in communication and
technologies, clinging to a concept that older generations still impart knowledge to prepare younger
generations for the future. In this article, the author argues that unveiling new media and digital
technologies production practices exposes a logic and language that better serve as a
contemporary model of learning. The process of adopting new media is iterative and cyclical in that
meaning-makers pick up new media production practices, remix them, and make them their own.
Forging a twenty-first century identity entails reappropriating practices and texts consumed on a
daily basis. (Contains 1 figure, 1 table, and 2 notes.)
Strategies to fix America's ailing health-care system seemed to fly off the presses every month in
2007. Doctors, journalists, and policymakers clamored to have their say, as did supporters and
opponents of the controversial life-extension movement. These top trends, which registered in 2006
as well, and will only balloon in this election year, correspond to a complicated reality: aging baby
boomers seek the fountain of youth while facing inadequate or nonexistent health insurance in the
near future; their parents, in turn, may have to choose between obtaining necessary medical care
and paying the rent or buying groceries. Alzheimer's, a frequent subject in this summary,
reappeared again in the form of guides to helping sufferers achieve a decent quality of life.
Diet-and-exercise books tailored to the 50-plus audience and children also made a strong showing,
as the U.S. obesity epidemic continues to cause rising levels of diabetes, cardiovascular disease,
and some cancers. In this article, the author presents the best consumer health books of 2007.
Organic food is often labelled with an organic certification logo to gain consumer trust in the product
integrity. The number of different organic certification logos in the European market raises the
question whether consumers prefer specific logos over others. The aim of this paper is to analyse
consumers’ willingness-to-pay (WTP) for different organic logos to give recommendations for actors
This first edition of the Atlas provides, in reference form, a central source of information to
consumers on key contacts concerned with energy in the US. Energy consumers need information
appropriate to local climates and characteristics - best provided by state and local governments. The
Department of Energy recognizes the authority of state and local governments to manage energy
programs on their own. Therefore, emphasis has been given to government organizations on both
the national and state level that influence, formulate, or administer policies affecting energy
production, distribution, and use, or that provide information of interest to consumers and
non-specialists. In addition, hundreds of non-government energy-related membership organizations,
industry trade associations, and energy publications are included.
Purpose – This paper attempts to examine the relationship between consumer innovativeness and
consumers' acceptance of brand extensions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is a
conceptual paper that builds upon the extant literature of consumer innovativeness and brand
extensions. A number of research propositions are developed in this thought-provoking work.
Findings – It is proposed that consumer innovativeness exerts considerable influence on
This paper addresses the question of the relationship between consumer law and the protection of
the environment. In contradiction to those who see the goals of consumer protection and
environmental protection as being close to each other, this paper presents the relationship as one of
conflict rather than one of harmony. Consumer law as an expression of the consumer society
Launched last week by the UK Department of Trade and Industry (DTI), this metasite offers
annotated links to Websites containing "consumer information and advice run by Government
departments, consumer organisations and others." The resources are organized in eight principal
sections: cars, food, holidays & travel, home improvement, money & finance, safety at home,
shopping, and utilities. In addition to Websites, some sections also include links to government
papers, bills, and other publications. An internal search engine and a list of information sources are
also provided.
It was thought that passage of the Consumer Protection Act in India in 1986 would encourage
consumers to stand up for their rights and lead to an overwhelming number of disputes in consumer
courts. Although a consumer movement has yet to get going in India, existence of the act has
stimulated the creation of many consumer organizations across the country. The number has such
organizations has more the doubled in the last few years so that there are now 600-800
organizations in the voluntary sector. The movement has not blossomed because not all of the
organizations are active enough to make an impact, there has hardly been any unified action which
would demonstrate their strength, and there has been no active consumer participation in the
movements. Consumers claim that the lack of consumer education makes them passive and
apathetic, and blame consumer organizations. The majority of consumers in the country are even
unaware of the existence of consumer courts to which they make take their grievances. Consumer
rights organizations, however, counter that they lack sufficient funds and blame the government for
their inaction. The author acknowledges criticism that the Indian consumer movement is elitist and
considers the need to focus upon rural consumers, the significant contributions that organizations
have made in laying the foundations for change, the need for consumer education, the need for
specialists, the particular need for consumer protection with regard to health-related products, and
support by voluntary health groups. PMID:12288799
A study was conducted to examine whether exposure to continuous commercial messages affects
children's fundamental sense of well-being and whether they are at risk for a series of negative
outcomes. Results show that consumer culture is harmful to adults and children, and both the
American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Psychology Association have passed resolutions
opposing commercialization and advertising to children.
Is Bounty the "quicker picker upper?" Are expensive shampoos better? Are all antacids the same?
Fourth grade students posed and answered these questions during a "Consumer Product Testing"
unit in which they designed experiments to assess these products' qualities and learned to question
the advertising that is so much a part of their lives.
Collection, handling and transportation issues surrounding the marine aquarium fi sh trade have
resulted in the degradation of many fi shing communities and coral reefs worldwide. Currently, a
number of con- servation organisations are working in source countries to improve industry
sustainability. An analysis of United States consumer perspectives on the marine aquarium fi sh
trade suggests that additional attention
An important component of the quality of life, the consumers’ rights and interests protection has
become a priority of the European Union policy, a type of policy based among others on the results
of the Eurobarometer type studies. Our study is a secondary analysis of the data provided by the
special EB 69.1 Eurobarometer on the topic of „Consumer Protection
Purpose – New member countries of the European Union such as Lithuania, Latvia and Poland are
an interesting subject of study due to the fact that processes of changes in consumption and
consumer behaviour in these countries are characterized by large dynamics. The purpose of this
paper is to present consumer behaviour in the market of catering services in all
Despite the suggestions of friction-free information availability, considerable price dispersions for the
same product are not uncommon across online retailers in the business-to-consumer (B2C)
segment. Online customers do not necessarily always buy from the site with the lowest price,
suggesting that other forces are at work. This paper presents and empirically examines a model that
proposes that Web site value
There has been great hand wringing over the nature of personal debt in recent years, and some
commentators have made it seem as if this recent trouble was without historical precedent. This
engaging exhibit from the Harvard Business School's Baker Library draws on their historical
materials "to show how previous generations devised creative ways of lending and borrowing long
before credit cards." The exhibit is divided into four sections, including "Credit in a Consumer
Society" and "Credit in Pre-Industrial Society". Each section has short topical essays, accompanied
by images of germane woodcuts, prints, engravings, legal documents, and other items that illustrate
the relationship between credit and charity, credit reporting, and other matters. The exhibit is
rounded out by the "Research Links" area, which brings together full-text manuscript and collection
guides to items like the Briggs Motor Sales Company Records.
Some readers may find the thought of reading the average government publication less than
riveting, but fortunately the Food and Drug AdministrationÂs in-house publication, FDA Consumer, is
both well-written and informative. Intended for both a general audience and those concerned with
the ongoing work of the FDA, the magazine offers broad coverage on both how to stay healthy and
the regulatory work that is part of their mission. Every issue features a consumer quiz, commentary
on recent regulatory activities, and a column from the magazineÂs editor. On their site, visitors can
read the complete contents of recent issues and also take a look at special issues on drug
development and food labeling. The online archive is quite impressive, as it stretches back to 1989,
although the contents of the entire magazine are not available for earlier years.
Is Bounty the "quicker picker-upper?" Are expensive shampoos better? Are all antacids the same?
The authors' fourth-grade students posed and answered these questions and many more during
their recent "Consumer Product Testing" unit in which they designed experiments to assess these
products' qualities and learned to question the advertising that is so much a part of their lives. The
unit was a terrific success--students were thoroughly engaged in the learning, and consumer
science was a perfect way for students to learn about scientific inquiry and explore the properties of
various materials while making important social studies connections. The author packed a great deal
of learning into a few science periods and effectively met numerous learning standards. This unit is
briefly described in this article.
This paper challenges a foundational conjecture of the Religion in Education Dialogue or Conflict
(REDCo) project, that increased interest in religion in public and political life as manifested
particularly in education is evidence of counter-secularisation. The paper argues that rather than
representing counter-secularisation, such developments represent an emergent and secularising
European civil religion facilitated through European religious education.
Digital photography is becoming increasingly prevalent. The general public want to preserve their
memories using media other than digital files. Printing images is a popular alternative but home
printing is both time consuming and costly. This paper wants to address mainly wholesale finishing
using original photo paper for prints from 3,5" to 8" and other printing technologies for additional
products. The goal in this industry is to print a high volume with optimal photo quality at a low price.
It may be difficult for the average consumer to evaluate the sometimes grandiose claims that various
supplements, vitamins, and other such products make on their labels and such. One way to learn
about products is, which provides independent test results and information in
order to assist consumers and healthcare professionals to evaluate such products. The casual
visitor will want to begin by looking over the ÂLatest Results area on the homepage, which
provides some information on their recent tests on melatonin sleep supplements and other related
nostrums. Visitors looking for information on specific products will want to direct their mouse to the
ÂLaboratory Test Results area. Here they can look through a list of product evaluations that
include nutrition bars, ginkgo biloba, and the ever-popular echinacea. The site is rounded out by a
very nice area on ÂRecalls and Warnings, which (as its name suggests) includes information on
recent notices posted by the Federal Trade Commission and other such agencies.
When improving a web presence, today's libraries have a choice: using a free Web 2.0 application,
opting for open source, buying a product, or building a web application. This article discusses how to
make an informed decision for one's library. The authors stress that deciding whether to use a free
Web 2.0 application, to choose open source, to buy a product, or to build a web application is
closely tied to a library's specific needs and resources. They suggest to keep an open mind toward
each option, and think through the implications carefully before committing to any solution.
The ultimate aim of health care policy is good care at good prices. Managed care failed to achieve
this goal through influencing providers, so health policy has turned to the only market-based option
left: treating patients like consumers. Health insurance and tax policy now pressure patients to
spend their own money when they select health plans, providers, and treatments. Expecting patients
to choose what they need at the price they want, consumerists believe that market competition will
constrain costs while optimizing quality. This classic form of consumerism is today's health policy
watchword. This article evaluates consumerism and the regulatory mechanism of which it is
essentially an example -- legally mandated disclosure of information. We do so by assessing the
crucial assumptions about human nature on which consumerism and mandated disclosure depend.
Consumerism operates in a variety of contexts in a variety of ways with a variety of aims. To assess
so protean a thing, we ask what a patient's life would really be like in a consumerist world. The
literature abounds in theories about how medical consumers should behave. We look for empirical
evidence about how real people actually buy health plans, choose providers, and select treatments.
We conclude that consumerism, and thus mandated disclosure generally, are unlikely to accomplish
the goals imagined for them. Consumerism's prerequisites are too many and too demanding. First,
consumers must have choices that include the coverage, care-takers, and care they want. Second,
reliable information about those choices must be available. Third, information must be put before
consumers, especially by doctors. Fourth, consumers must receive the information. Fifth, the
information must be complete and comprehensible enough for consumers to use it. Sixth,
consumers must understand what they are told. Seventh, consumers must be willing to analyze the
information. Eighth, consumers must actually analyze the information and do so well enough to
make good choices. Our review of the empirical evidence concludes that these prerequisites cannot
be met reliably most of the time. At every stage people encounter daunting hurdles. Like so many
other dreams of controlling costs and giving patients control, consumerism is doomed to disappoint.
This does not mean that consumerist tools should never be used. It means they should not be used
unadvisedly or lightly, but discreetly, advisedly, soberly, and in the fear of error. PMID:19534255
This special JCP issue deals with the iConsumer and their search for rules that would accommodate
their specific concerns and interests. For a long time, consumers of audiovisual services, music,
e-Books, and computer games have led a shadow existence as 'eyeballs', 'couch potatoes' ,o
r'nerds'. The times, however, seem to be over. The digital consumer (or iConsumer) is high on
The paper aims at investigating whether or not organic food consumers are automatically opposed
to genetically modified (GM) food. Results from quantitative market research indicate that this is not
the case. Based on attitude towards GM food, three consumer segments are identified: the
opponents; the proponents; and the neutrals. Only about 40 per cent of the organic consumers,
namely the
The purpose of this working paper is to give an overview of main results from previous studies on
household demand for organic foods or alternatively for foods certified free-from-pesticideresidues.
We have concentrated on studies handling willingness-to-pay (in past as well as future WTP),
purchasing motives/valued product attributes, concern for food safety, especially risk perception
regarding pesticides, consumers ’ stated propensity to buy, consumers ’ willingness to accept lower
quality of organic products, the importance of labelling and information, the importance of store
choice, and relations between consumers ’ values, risk perception, attitudes and behaviour
regarding environmental protection and WTP. These issues are handled to a various extent in the
reviewed studies. Most of the studies handle household characteristics. In the paper, we give an
overview of the influence from these characteristics. Main results
Chemical food safety deals with the health evaluation of compounds in food with regard to
toxicological aspects. In the following, examples of current interest from various categories of
compounds in foods, e.g., of naturally occurring substances and of heat-induced or process-related
contaminants, are presented and current problems in their toxicological evaluation are described. To
guarantee that human intake of such compounds will occur in safe amounts only, an assessment of
their health risks based on the present state of science and according to internationally recognized
methods has to be provided. This risk assessment is independent and is performed at the national
level by the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment and at the European level by the European Food
Safety Authority. Results and findings of the risk assessment of toxicologically relevant compounds
are the scientific basis for recommendations and strategies for consumer protection. For example,
measures like the setting of maximum levels for contaminants in certain food categories can be the
result. At the national level, the Federal Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety is
responsible for risk management, while at the European level the European Commission and other
institutions develop the measures for the member states. PMID:20449551
This article presents an introduction to consumer behavior analysis by describing the Behavioral
Perspective Model of consumer choice and showing how research has, first, confirmed this
framework and, second, opened up behavior analysis and behavioral economics to the study of
consumer behavior in natural settings. It concludes with a discussion of current investigations in
consumer research and theory. Hopefully, it will serve as an invitation to other researchers to work
within this exciting and relevant context. (Contains 3 figures.)
An industrial gas users&apos; view of FERC Order 636 is presented. From the industrial standpoint,
the initial understanding of the order was to promote competition and protect all consumers; provide
meaningful access to transportation capacity, which a lot of people had not had; assure the quality
of service; and, encourage market driven pricing for pipeline sales and services. Owens-Corning is
primarily a process gas user. Therefore, the switch to fuel oil would be difficult, perhaps propane
could be used but not without a great amount of difficulty. The problems facing large volume users
of natural gas are discussed.
In contrast to understanding consumer behavior for the benefit of business organizations,
transformative consumer research (TCR) seeks to understand consumer behavior for the benefit of
consumers themselves. Following Mari's (2008) call for the incorporation of TCR in doctoral
programs in marketing, this article outlines the relevance of TCR to the undergraduate consumer
behavior course experience and develops topical and structural recommendations for
implementation. Empirical evidence indicates positive student perceptions of TCR-based course
projects in terms of complementing traditional projects, personal relevance, awareness of social
responsibility issues, and marketing applications. (Contains 3 tables.)
The condition for when a price control increases consumer welfare in perfect competition is tighter
than often realised. When demand is linear, a small restriction on price only increases consumer
surplus if the elasticity of demand exceeds the elasticity of supply; with log-linear or
constant-elasticity, demand consumers are always hurt by price controls. The results are best
understood - and
The distribution of consumer preferences plays a central role in many marketing activities. Pricing
and product design decisions, for example, are based on an understand- ing of the di?erences
among consumers in price sensitivity and valuation of product attributes. In addition, marketing
activities which target specific households require household level parameter estimates. Thus, the
modeling of consumer heterogeneity is the
Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those
they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer
concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of
This study is related to public policy issues, such as the ethics of marketing practices and the
dynamics of popular culture. Although textbooks often present the consumer as a rational decision
maker, often harmful for consumer activities of the individual or society. Often, the consumer's worst
enemy is himself. Growth is still important, even morally required, if individuals and society
Because coupon advertising has both the characteristics of advertising and sales promotion, it may
have distinctive effects on consumers that cannot be explained solely by coupons or advertising.
Past studies present contradictory results as to the consumers' response to coupon advertising. Our
experiment shows that while the coupon may be an incentive for loyal consumers of competing
brands, it may
This package consists of various bilingual instructional materials for use in helping Indochinese
refugees learn basic food purchasing and food storage skills. Included in the package are a
Vietnamese/English bilingual booklet explaining 12 secrets of wise food buying and translations of
guidelines for keeping foods safe (English, Vietnamese, Lao) and storing foods in a refrigerator
(English, Lao, Cambodian). (MN)
Successful implementation of tutorials includes establishing norms for learning in the tutorial
classroom. The teaching assistants (TAs) who lead each tutorial section are important arbiters of
these norms. TAs who value (buy into) tutorials are more likely to convey their respect for the
material and the tutorial process to the students, as well as learning more themselves. We present a
case study of a TA who does not buy into certain aspects of the tutorials he teaches and
demonstrate how his lack of buy-in affects specific classroom interactions. We would hope to design
professional development programs to help TAs appreciate the power of tutorial instruction.
However, our research suggests that the typical professional development activities offered to
tutorial TAs are not likely to be effective. Instead, it appears that what we call the �social and
environmental context� of the tutorials�including classroom, departmental, and institutional
levels of implementation�has the potential to strongly affect TA buy-in to tutorials and probably
outweighs the influence of any particular activity that we might prepare for them.
This study tried to determine the prevalence of compulsive buying (CB) and to identify among
compulsive buyers a specific relation to money, a different buying style, and a lowered level of
self-esteem. We included 203 medical students and diagnosed CB with the Mc Elroy criteria and a
specific questionnaire. The money attitude was characterized by the Yamauchi and Templer's scale
and self-esteem with the Rosenberg scale. 11% of the medical students presented compulsive
buying (CB+). Sex ratio and mean ages were comparable in the CB+ and control groups. CB+
students drank less alcohol and smoked an equivalent number of cigarettes. Compulsive buyers had
higher scores of distress (tendency to be hesitant, suspicious, and doubtful attitude toward
situations involving money) and bargain missing (fear of missing a good opportunity to buy an item).
They bought more often gifts for themselves, items they use less than expected and choose goods
increasing their self-esteem. Their score of self-esteem was not different from the one from controls.
Frogs may buy time for organ transplants Monday Aug 7 18:21 AEST A tiny frog that freezes itself.
But on melting, the animal's vital functions resume within minutes, the Carleton University
researcher will tell fiction, but there's no evil humans hanging from the ceiling in big bags," he said.
"All you need
This study examines the influence of harmonious passion and obsessive passion on online auction
behavior and online auction addiction. It also investigates whether the individuals with compulsive
buying behavior have spent more time on online auction web sites. The study conducted
paper-and-pencil questionnaire and received 322 completed responses for data analysis. The
results indicated that individuals with obsessive passion were
BY HENG SINITH -- ASSOCIATED PRESS W ho wants to buy a baby? Certainly not most people
who try countries as in rich ones, healthy babies are rarely abandoned or relinquished -- except in
China, with its finally implemented the Hague Adoption Convention, a 1993 treaty designed to
address these problems
A new evolutionary method named ``Genetic Network Programming with control nodes, GNPcn'' has
been applied to determine the timing of buying or selling stocks. GNPcn represents its solutions as
directed graph structures which has some useful features inherently. For example, GNPcn has an
implicit memory function which memorizes the past action sequences of agents and GNPcn can
re-use nodes repeatedly
Engaging in trading sex is associated with many co-occurring problems, including elevated risk for
sexually transmitted infections. Various dimensions of social support from parents, schools, and
mentors may be protective against sex trading and may ameliorate the impact of risk factors. This
study analyzes data from respondents to Waves I and III of the National Longitudinal Study of
Adolescent Health (Add Health) who had not participated in sex trading for money or drugs in Wave
I so that risk and protective factors for first initiations of selling or buying sex could be examined
longitudinally. About 2% of the study sample began selling sex and about 2% began buying sex
between Wave I and Wave III. The respondent's sex, race/ethnicity, history of sexual abuse,
shoplifting, marijuana use, and experiences of homelessness or running away were significant
predictors of trading sex (p?
Matulka, Laurice A (2004) Effects of bovine respiratory syncytial virus or bovine viral diarrhea virus
infection and N-acetyl cysteine supplementation on intracellular glutathione levels, proliferation and
interferon-gamma transcription by bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and natural killer cells
Krieger, Marcos Fernando (1998) An English translation and commentary on Andreas
Werckmeister's ``Organum Gruningense Redivivum Oder kurtze Beschreibung des in der
Gr"uningischen Schlos-Kirchen ber"uhmten Orgel-Wercks Wie dasselbe anfangs erbauet und
beschaffen gewesen: Und wie es anitzo auf allergn"adigsten Befehl Sr. K"on. Preuss. Majest"at ist
renoviret und merklich verbessert worden''
Mechalke, Eric Joe (1996) Determination of electrolyte activity coefficients in acetonitrile using the
isopiestic technique for the construction of reliable reference half cells for nonaqueous
electrochemistry and the dynamic monitoring of osteoblast cell attachment with a quartz crystal
Lonergan, Steven Michael (1995) Inducible expression of bovine calpastatin in $\rm C\sb2C\sb{12}$
mouse myoblasts and the relationship of restriction fragment length polymorphisms at the bovine
calpastatin locus to postmortem calpastatin activity and Warner-Bratzler shear force in beef
longissimus steaks
Tunison, Harmon M (1992) Electrochemical investigations of polymer films and monolayers on
electrode surfaces: Determination of the reaction entropy for Os(bpy)$\sb3\sp{3+/2+}$ in nafion, and
the influence of supporting electrolyte activity on the formal potential of a monolayer containing a
ruthenium redox center, and, Synthesis and characterization of monometallic and bimetallic
complexes of ruthenium(II) and iron(II) with 4,4$\sp\prime$bipyrimidine (4,4$\sp\prime$BPM) and
pyridyl viologen (PV$\sp{2+}$)
Forkner, Matthew W (1988) I. Synthesis of substituted naphthalenes utilizing active nickel. II.
Synthesis of substituted naphthoquinones and formation of a charge transfer complex. III. Synthesis
Borkar, Nitin Laxmidas (1987) Part~A. Stereochemical consequences of chlorine substitution
reactions with enantiomers in the liquid state. Part~B. Molecular mechanics calculations for dl, meso
2,3-dichlorobutanes and 2-halopropionyl halides. Part~C. Simultaneous determination of selenite
and trimethylselenonium ions in urine by anion-exchange chromatography and molecular neutron
activation analysis
The astronomical almanac for the year 2006 and its companion The Astronomical Almanac Online :
data for astronomy, space sciences, geodesy, surveying, navigation and other applications / issued
by the Nautical Almanac Office, United States Naval Observatory ... [and] Her Majesty's Nautical
Almanac Office, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory.
The Cambridge World history of human disease / editor, Kenneth F. Kiple executive editor, Rachael
Rockwell Graham associate editors, David Frey, Brian T. Higgins, Kerry Stewart, H. Michael Tarver,
Thomas W. Wilson, Brent Zerger assistant editors, Alicia Browne, Roger Hall, Paul Henggeler,
Bruce O. Solheim, Dalila de Sousa.
One step at a time : the staged development of geologic repositories for high-level radioactive waste
/ Committee on Principles and Operational Strategies for Staged Repository Systems, Board on
Radioactive Waste Management, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council of
the National Academies.