Is there Life on M rs concept of an unmanned sample-return-mission and the necessary delta-v requirement by Toni Engelhardt 14.6.12 Thursday, June 14, 12 Outline - Introduction - Life on other planets Follow the water (H2O) & manned missions to Mars Text - Related Missions - Quick Overview Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter & Curiosity (Mars Science Laboratory) - Mission “Red Dust” - Sample Return from Mars Surface * Trajectories * Delta-v Requirement * Loss & m0 estimation * Available Launchers / in development - Aurora Joint ESA & NASA Mars program, ExoMars, Sample Return Thursday, June 14, 12 Follow the water (Introduction) Vastitas Borealis Crater • • • • evidence for life as we know it North Polor Region Mars has trenches and rifts maybe originating from fluid water water ice Frozen water at poles? liquid water under ground H2O also important for future manned missions source to Mars of life long-term manned missions Follow the water NASA initiative Thursday, June 14, 12 High Resolution [1m/pixel] mapping to determine areas of interest for Rover Missions like Curiosity e.g. cracks in rocks Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Thursday, June 14, 12 Curi sity [MSL] Robot arm up to 7m h ac re complete laboratory onboard drilling unit camera etc. search for organic carbon (elements of life) REMOTE Spectrum analyzer with Laser ablation Thursday, June 14, 12 Land on Mars to collect 1kg of rock/dust samples and bring them back to Earth < OBJECTIVE > >> Launch System (to be determined) will carry the following components to Mars >> Lander Wimble Xs will descent from Low Mars Orbit (LMO) to Mars surface with drilling unit to collect dust/rock and a Mars Launcher Brimo to return the samples to LMO >> Orbiter Hermes remains with propellant for return and a docking unit in LMO will have a rendeveuz with Brimo to bring its cargo safely back to Earth Mission “Red Dust” Thursday, June 14, 12 Land on Mars to collect 1kg of rock/dust samples and bring them back to Earth < OBJECTIVE > >> Assumptions for the Matlab simulations most efficient direct transfer to Mars > Hohmann * Earth & Mars Orbit around the sun in a plane (actually di=1.85°) * tilt of equatorial plane neglected * assumptions for air drag, steering and gravity loss (g0, gT, gM and gM500 are constant during burn phase) * typical propellant for all vehicles with Isp=300s * no influence from moon, planets or any other celestial body besides mars, sun & earth * re-entry and landing on earth without steering, just by aerobrake and parachute (see apollo missions) * parachute on mars from 550m/s to 60m/s (taken from curiosity mission) Thursday, June 14, 12 Trajectories of Launch system and Hermes Aphelion Earth Matlab Simulation focal point of Hohmann Ellipse Perihelion Mars duration for transfer 239days 18hrs (one way) Orbit: 500 km above surface >> r_MOrb = 3896.2 km Thursday, June 14, 12 Ideal delta-v calculation (with Matlab) Matlab Simulation Aphelion Earth focal point of Hohmann Ellipse 1 Direct Hohmann to Mars dv1 = v_EarthEscape - v_LaunchSite + (v_H1 - v_EarthAphelion) = Perihelion Mars = 13,594 m/s - v_LaunchSite 1 - definitions - dv positive in S/C flight direction dv = v_after - v_before maneuver Thursday, June 14, 12 total delta-v dv_total = 13,594 m/s - v_LaunchSite Ideal delta-v calculation (with Matlab) Aphelion Earth Matlab Simulation focal point of Hohmann Ellipse 2 Hohmann to LMO dv2 = v_MarsOrbit - (v_H2 + v_GravityMars - v_MarsPerihelion) = Perihelion Mars = 1,790 m/s 1 2 - definitions - dv positive in S/C flight direction dv = v_after - v_before maneuver Thursday, June 14, 12 total delta-v dv_total = 15,384 m/s - v_LaunchSite Ideal delta-v calculation (with Matlab) Aphelion Earth Matlab Simulation focal point of Hohmann Ellipse a LMO to parachute dvMa = 550m/s - v_MarsOrbit = - 2,766 m/s Perihelion Mars 1 2 a - definitions - dv positive in S/C flight direction dv = v_after - v_before maneuver Thursday, June 14, 12 total delta-v dv_total = 18,150 m/s - v_LaunchSite Ideal delta-v calculation (with Matlab) Aphelion Earth Matlab Simulation focal point of Hohmann Ellipse parachute phase dvP_Mars = 60m/s - 550m/s = - 490 m/s (not counting) Perihelion Mars 1 2 a - definitions - dv positive in S/C flight direction dv = v_after - v_before maneuver Thursday, June 14, 12 total delta-v dv_total = 18,150 m/s - v_LaunchSite Ideal delta-v calculation (with Matlab) Aphelion Earth Matlab Simulation focal point of Hohmann Ellipse b Parachute to touchdown dvMb = 0m/s - 60m/s = - 60 m/s Perihelion Mars 1 2 a - definitions - b dv positive in S/C flight direction dv = v_after - v_before maneuver Thursday, June 14, 12 total delta-v dv_total = 18,210 m/s - v_LaunchSite Ideal delta-v calculation (with Matlab) Aphelion Earth Matlab Simulation focal point of Hohmann Ellipse c Relaunch to LMO dvMc = v_MarsOrbit = = 3,316 m/s Perihelion Mars 1 2 a - definitions - b c dv positive in S/C flight direction dv = v_after - v_before maneuver Thursday, June 14, 12 total delta-v dv_total = 21,526 m/s - v_LaunchSite Ideal delta-v calculation (with Matlab) Aphelion Earth Matlab Simulation focal point of Hohmann Ellipse 3 Mars Orbit to Return dv3 = - v_H2 - ( - v_MarsPerihelion + v_MarsOrbit - v_MarsEscape500) = Perihelion Mars = 1,225 m/s 1 2 a - definitions - 3 b c dv positive in S/C flight direction dv = v_after - v_before maneuver Thursday, June 14, 12 total delta-v dv_total = 22,751 m/s - v_LaunchSite Ideal delta-v calculation (with Matlab) Aphelion Earth Matlab Simulation focal point of Hohmann Ellipse aerobrake + parachute > aerobrake (with heat shield) > parachute phase to splashdown Perihelion Mars ( similar to Apollo Missions ) 1 2 a - definitions - 3 b c dv positive in S/C flight direction dv = v_after - v_before maneuver Thursday, June 14, 12 total delta-v dv_total = 22,751 m/s - v_LaunchSite Loss estimation + Real delta-v calculation # integration into matlab chain air-drag nozzle loss steering loss burning time gravity loss additional dv 140 m/s * 80 m/s * 20 m/s * 600s 1590 m/s 1830 m/s dv2 (Launcher) - 30 m/s 100 m/s 100s 76 m/s 206 m/s dvMa (Wimble Xs) - 20 m/s 50 m/s 250s 190 m/s 260 m/s dv1 (Launcher) Launch to direct Hohmann Hohmann to LMO LMO to parachute dvMb (Wimble Xs) included in estimation parachute to touchdown 0 dvMc (Brimo) - 20 m/s 100 m/s 350s 350 m/s 470 m/s dv3 (Hermes) - 30 m/s 100 m/s 400s 304 m/s 434 m/s Mars surface to LMO LMO to direct Hohmann Gravity loss = T * g0 / 3.7 ( to adapt to real values [ sample from Ariane V ] ) * from lecture notes - launch to LEO Thursday, June 14, 12 Additional dv due to losses: Real total dv requirement: 3200 m/s 25951 m/s - Proton-M - Falcon Heavy - Falcon XX - Ares I-X & V - Delta IV - Atlas V Kennedy Space Center United States 28.521494° N 80.682392 W vKSC = 406 m/S Velocity gain from Earth rotation Thursday, June 14, 12 Kourou Baikonur French Guiana - Ariane V - Soyuz-2 5.15925° N 52.64966° W vKourou = 463 m/ S Kazakhstan 45.61908° N 63.313179° E vKourou = 325 m/S payload to Mars [LMO] calculation mL, Mars = m0, WimbleXs + m0, Hermes weight of dust/rock samples + container + equipment >> Brimo Mars Launcher >> >> Hermes Return Carrier >> planning backward! Wimble Xs Mars Lander total payload to Mars Orbit LMO Thursday, June 14, 12 from payload mL to total mass m0 optimal payload ratio from dv calculation optimal number of stages source: book - Astronautics I ( Walter Ulrich ) [ page 54 ] ratio payload to total mass source: book - Astronautics I ( Walter Ulrich ) [ page 48 ] source: lecture notes Prof. Rott ( Spacecraft Technology I ) Thursday, June 14, 12 given values Components > Minimum Weight Estimation integration into matlab chain total payload to Mars [LMO] Wimble Xs *Power ( payload: Brimo + 50kg ) 20kg *Docking Mechanism 18kg Brimo ( payload: 72kg ) *Dust & Rock samples 20kg *Electronics *Navigation 1kg *Parachute 9kg 24kg 40kg RIG *Drilling Unit *Embarking Mechanism *Scientific Equipment 196kg just wildly guessed Thursday, June 14, 12 *Solar Panels 22kg *Power *Container Unit Hermes ( payload: 36kg ) *Docking Mechanism 32kg *Parachute *Heat Shield 18kg 58kg *Brimo Payload (Samples + Container + Nav) 34kg λ Isp [ typical ] = 300s ε - structural factor Wimble Xs ε = 0.12 single stage dv = -2766 m/s >> m0 = 2.04 mT Brimo dv = 3786 m/s ε = 0.14 single stage >> m0 = 454 kg dv Thursday, June 14, 12 [m/s] λ ε - structural factor Isp [ typical ] = 300s Hermes ε = 0.1 single stage dv = 1660 m/s >> m0 = 1.65 mT total payload to LMO 3.69 mT dv Thursday, June 14, 12 [m/s] available Energia Soyuz-2 available available available available STATUS in development proposed MANUFACTURER Khrunichev Proton Ariane V Atlas V Delta IV TYPE Falcon 9 M ECA HLV Heavy CONFIG Heavy Falcon XX canceled canceled TBD TBD Ares I Ares V X transfer orbit to LMO kick stage with 60kg adapter Isp = 320s & ε = 0.1 CAPACITY 7.9 mT (esc) 692 kg NO Thursday, June 14, 12 20.7 mT (LEO) 1.8 mT NO 4.3 mT (esc) 1.76 mT NO 9.04 mT (esc) 3.67 mT NO 9.31 mT (esc) 3.78 mT YES TRANSFER ORBIT LMO ~53 mT (LEO) ~6.0 mT SUITABLE YES ? ? 25.5 mT (LEO) 2.22 mT ~53,3 mT (esc) ~21.40 mT NO YES ExoMars NEXT Sample Return far future Manned Mission Mars Lander & Orbiter Aurora Thursday, June 14, 12 thank you presentation + matlab simulation are available online @ toni88x.bplaced.net/LifeOnMars QR code > Download Thursday, June 14, 12 Info on ExoMars exploration.esa.int

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