Document 2777

CITY OF HAMILTON
Glanbrook Landfill
Assessment of Odour Sources and
Associated Health Related Impacts
333047-0000-4EER-0002
1.0
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2007-08-31
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INTRODUCTION
Purpose
The Glanbrook Landfill Site (the Site) is owned by the City of Hamilton (the City) and is
operated on their behalf by Waste Management of Canada Corporation (WMCC). The Site was
opened in 1980 and is designed to accept approximately 11,800,000 cubic meters of domestic,
commercial and non-hazardous solid industrial wastes at capacity.
In recent years, the City has received a number of odour complaints relating to the Site, in
particular from neighbours situated directly northeast of the Site along Hall Road. Similar
complaints have also been received in the past from other residents along Hall Road, and a few
residents situated further away from the Site to the northeast.
In early 2007, one of the neighbouring property owners contacted the City’s Public Health
Services, Health Protection Division requesting information as to potential health impacts which
could result from air emissions from the Site.
Subsequently, SNC-Lavalin Engineers & Constructors Inc. (SLE&C) was retained by the City to
conduct an assessment of odour sources at the Site and the associated health related impacts to
residents on Hall Road.
The report comprises 8 sections. Section 1, presents the objectives of the work and provides a
description of Site conditions during the study and an overview of the historic filling pattern and
composition of the waste accepted at the Site. A history of the Site’s odour complaints is
presented in Section 2. Section 3 summarizes previous landfill gas and air quality health related
investigations. The study approach and methodology is provided in Section 4 while the results
are summarized in Section 5. Section 6 provides a synopsis of potential health related impacts of
the sampling results, specifically for landfill gas related emissions and fungi using measurements
obtained during the study. Conclusions and recommendations are provided in Section 7 and
applicable references are noted in Section 8. The report also includes figures, tables and
appendices containing relevant information regarding the Site and results obtained during the
study. Section 9 provides a glossary of terms and abreviations.
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CITY OF HAMILTON
Glanbrook Landfill
Assessment of Odour Sources and
Associated Health Related Impacts
333047-0000-4EER-0002
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No.
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2007-08-31
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Site Description
The Site is located on Part of Lots 26, 27 and 28, Concession 9 and Part of Lots 26, 27 28 and
29, Concession 10 in the Township of Glanbrook (See Figure 1.1). The Site is approximately
220 hectares in area (approved fill area and buffer lands). Of this area, approximately 74 ha has
been allocated for waste disposal with the remaining 146 ha forming a buffer zone between the
waste mound and adjacent properties. The Site is accessed from Haldibrook Road, east of
Highway 56.
The Site is bounded by two surface water courses; Buckhorn Creek to the south and west and the
Welland River to the northeast. The nearest residences to the Site are situated northwest and
northeast of the active fill area. The landfill property line is shared with the northwest residence
and is separated by Hall Road from the northeast resident.
The Site operates under Provisional Certificate of Approval (C of A) No. A130604, originally
issued on December 28, 1979 and most recently amended on June 7, 2007.
The landfill has been divided into four stages of development. Stage 1 covers roughly the
southern half of the current landfill footprint and has been completed to final grade and capped.
Stage 2 is currently active. Stage 3 and Stage 4 will be developed in the future, and will be
located the west of the present fill area.
Leachate containment for the first two stages of landfill development relies on the low
permeability in situ lacustrine clay and silty soils which underlie the site. The original leachate
management system included a perimeter toe drain. It consisted of perforated pipe within a
granular surround installed at the toe of slope inside a perimeter containment berm. The toe
drain discharges into a perimeter transmission pipe which, in turn, conveys leachate to
designated manholes where the leachate is pumped to a forcemain for off-site treatment.
A new perimeter drain collection system to enhance leachate management was installed at the
Site between 2001 and 2003. The new system is intended to provide positive control of leachate
by reducing leachate mounding within Stages 1 and 2. The design incorporated finger drains and
two lateral collectors to facilitate drainage within the mound.
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CITY OF HAMILTON
Glanbrook Landfill
Assessment of Odour Sources and
Associated Health Related Impacts
333047-0000-4EER-0002
Revision
No.
Date
Page
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2007-08-31
12 of 68
A state-of-the-art landfill gas utilization system, comprising collection, flaring and power
generation is currently being installed. The system consists of a grid of horizontal trenches and
vertical gas extraction wells, centrifugal blower, enclosed flare, and supporting mechanical and
electrical subsystems which are necessary to collect and combust the landfill gas. Further, it is
intended that a power plant with landfill gas engines will be built to utilize most of the landfill
gas collected, which will combine odour mitigation, greenhouse gases’ reduction and renewable
electricity generation objectives.
1.3
1.3.1
Site Operation and Development
Historical Landfill Operations
As previously noted the site was opened in 1980 and accepts domestic, commercial and
industrial non-hazardous solid industrial wastes.
Stages 1 and 2, representing the completed and active filling areas, have a combined waste
footprint of 41.7 ha and had accepted approximately 4,277,912 tonnes as of January, 2007. At
this time, it is estimated that 1,281,146 tonnes of capacity remained, with operations in Stage 2
anticipated to continue until at least 2019 to 2023 depending on the ability to improve diversion
rates and the potential use of alternate daily cover (ADC).
A summary of the historic tonnages accepted at the site is included as Table 1.1.
Table 1.1: Historical Waste Quantities Accepted at the Glanbrook Landfill
Year
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
Total Waste
(tonnes)
200,882
190,440
230,716
214,006
209,262
282,046
249,448
235,298
228,644
% Ash
11%
10%
11%
11%
11%
2%
9%
10%
12%
Cumulative Total Landfilled
(tonnes)
200,882
391,322
622,038
836,044
1,045,306
1,327,352
1,576,800
1,812,098
2,040,742
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CITY OF HAMILTON
Glanbrook Landfill
Assessment of Odour Sources and
Associated Health Related Impacts
333047-0000-4EER-0002
Year
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
1.3.2
Total Waste
(tonnes)
219,171
181,235
107,676
119,164
121,809
121,232
113,890
97,798
98,620
101,592
102,107
96,288
98,570
166,164
178,854
177,203
162,797
% Ash
17%
14%
23%
28%
24%
22%
33%
48%
45%
43%
40%
37%
36%
0%
0%
0%
0%
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Cumulative Total Landfilled
(tonnes)
2,259,913
2,441,148
2,548,824
2,667,988
2,789,797
2,911,029
3,024,919
3,122,717
3,221,337
3,322,929
3,425,036
3,521,324
3,619,894
3,786,058
3,937,912
4,115,115
4,277,912
Waste Composition
While the majority of the waste accepted at the Site has historically comprised typical municipal
solid waste (MSW), from the period of 1981 to 2002 varying degrees of residual ash from the
SWARU incinerator were disposed of at the Site. The ash comprised both bottom ash and fly
ash. The fly ash was stabilized before acceptance at the landfill where it was mixed into the
bottom ash to create a non-hazardous, mixed material. This was landfilled over the period
except for the years from 1990 to 1992 when the MOE required separate disposal of fly ash at a
hazardous waste handling facility. Other materials which have been accepted at the Site are
residuals from municipal Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs), including grit, ash and scum.
In 2003, with the closure of the Solid Waste Area Reduction Unit (SWARU) incinerator facility,
a substantial change in waste composition was noted, as processed ash was replaced by the raw
waste which had previously been directed to the SWARU facility.
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CITY OF HAMILTON
Glanbrook Landfill
Assessment of Odour Sources and
Associated Health Related Impacts
333047-0000-4EER-0002
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No.
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2007-08-31
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In 2006, another substantive change in waste characteristics occurred following the phased rollout of the City’s Green Bin program, where organics are source separated and diverted to the
new state-of-the-art composting facility. Enforcement of a three container limit for garbage has
resulted in a considerable decrease of organic-type material being received at the Site.
It should be noted that the initial surge of organic waste received following the closure of
SWARU will be approaching its projected maximum landfill gas generation rate period, based
on standard waste decomposition assumptions.
1.3.3.
Leaf and Yard Composting
The Leaf and Yard Waste Composting facility (Facility) is located at the west area of the
Glanbrook landfill site. The Facility receives leaf and yard compostables, collected from the curb
and at the Kenora, Dundas and Mountain Transfer Stations. Waste material collected and
composted at this site generally consists of leaves, grass, brush and garden waste with the
acceptance of Christmas trees during the winter months. The Facility utilizes an outdoor
windrow composting technology (aerobic) and is capable of processing 28,000 tonnes of leaf and
yard waste per year. Past compost quantities accepted are listed in Table 1.2.
Table 1.2: Historical Compost Quantities Accepted at the Glanbrook Landfill
Year
Tonnage
(tonnes)
Year
1996
1,143.49
2002
1997
5,048.81
2003
1998
5,583.40
2004
1999
5,131.89
2005
2000
6,081.83
2006
10,454.55
2007 (Till
July)
2001
Tonnage
(tonnes)
14,642.23
17,131.14
17,901.39
19,215.20
13,277.19
5,041.06
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CITY OF HAMILTON
Glanbrook Landfill
Assessment of Odour Sources and
Associated Health Related Impacts
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HISTORY OF SITE ODOUR ISSUES
Summary of Complaints
The City first began receiving consistent odour complaints in 2005 and has been responding to
these complaints and implementing both short and long term measures to prevent and control
odours. A total of seven complaints were received in 2005, 16 in 2006 and 22 have been
received to June 12, 2007. Each complaint is documented and inspection and mitigation
measures are taken in a timely manner by the City. Residents have been encouraged to report
any odour complaints as soon as they occur and have been provided with contact cell number for
the City’s Waste Management staff for 24-hours a day and 7-days a week access.
For each odour related complaint from the near-by residents, City staff followed-up with the
resident and/or conduct a site visit immediately following notification of the issue. Details
regarding the specific complaints received, findings of follow-up investigations, and mitigative
measures taken are kept in a complaint log for record keeping and reporting purposes.
There are two (2) important observations that need to be made from the 2007 complaints record.
First, that since December 2006, daily cover requirements have been met solely through the
application of clay, which is known to be efficient for odour control. This suggests that the
source of the odour may be other than new waste placed at the tipping face. Second, ten (10) of
twenty-two (22) complaints were registered in May and June, 2007 coincident with the start of
construction works for the active gas system. Current activities involve the excavation of
trenches into older waste, which again would release odours unrelated to day-to-day operations.
As can be seen from Table 2.1 below, thirty-nine (39) of the forty-four (44) complaints received
from 2005 to 2007 were associated with roads located north of the site (See Figure 1.1). Of these
thirty-nine, twenty-five (25) are from the neighbours residing on Hall Road, which is directly
adjacent to the site. The pattern of complainant locations is consistent with the dominant wind
direction, known to be in a north to northeasterly direction.
To the south of the site, a total of three (3) complaints originated from Haldibrook Road, Road 9
(Haldimand) and Highway 56 (Haldimand) residents. These complaints are attributed to
occasional changes in wind direction to the south or southwest.
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CITY OF HAMILTON
Glanbrook Landfill
Assessment of Odour Sources and
Associated Health Related Impacts
333047-0000-4EER-0002
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Table 2.1: Distribution of Complaints around the Site
Location
Hall Road
Woodburn Road
Bell Road
Kirk Road
Haldibrook Road
Road 9
Highway 56
Others (Councillor Office)
Total
2.2
Location Relative to the Site
North
Northeast
North
North
South
South
South
2005
5
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
7
2006
13
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
15
2007
9
6
1
1
1
1
1
2
22
Total
27
8
3
1
1
1
1
2
44
Interim Mitigation Measures
Since late 2005, the City has proactively developed and implemented interim mitigation
measures. These remedial measures have had various degrees of success, however, the current
activities related to the construction of the full-scale landfill gas collection system may have
exacerbated odour related problems at the site during the first three weeks of construction which
started May 7, 2007. The measures currently in use at the site include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
installation of vent pipes in all manholes;
recapping of leachate cleanouts;
Leachate Collection System (LCS) manholes sealed;
the installation of granulated activated carbon air scrubber systems at the outlet of
selected manhole vent stacks;
the installation of a portable, active landfill gas flaring system supplied and operated by
Comcor Environmental Limited, subsequently upgraded with a second flare and blower
system;
remediation of leachate seeps;
use of clay as daily cover;
extensive interim cover remediation and rehabilitation;
implementation of an odour suppression system;
development and implementation of an odour control plan for installation of the full-scale
gas collection system that includes among other things: appropriate selection of
excavation locations, and the minimization of trench lengths and the duration underlying
waste remains exposed; and
use of active misting system by the contractor as required.
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CITY OF HAMILTON
Glanbrook Landfill
Assessment of Odour Sources and
Associated Health Related Impacts
333047-0000-4EER-0002
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monitoring wells were re-capped
Long Term Mitigation Measures
As a long term solution to control off-site odours, the City is installing a state-of-the-art landfill
gas utilization system, comprising collection, flaring and power generation. Construction was
initiated on May 7, 2007 and odour control is the top priority for design objectives, construction
approach and operating procedures. The system consists of a grid of horizontal trenches and
vertical gas extraction wells, centrifugal blower(s), enclosed flare, and supporting mechanical
and electrical subsystems which are necessary to collect and combust the landfill gas. Further, it
is intended that a power plant with landfill gas engines will be built to utilize most of the landfill
gas collected, which will combine odour mitigation, greenhouse gases’ reduction and renewable
electricity generation objectives.
Discussions with representatives of other landfill sites where similar full-scale landfill gas
collection systems were installed suggest that odour related issues will significantly decrease
when the landfill gas to energy project is commissioned. For instance, at the Brock West
Landfill site operated by the City of Toronto (formerly Metro Toronto), the number of
complaints at the operational landfill site were reduced from 504 during the peak year (1986)
which coincided with the start of system installation (continuing through to 1987) and decreasing
progressively each year such that only 33 were received in 1990 and 15 in 1991 (complaint data
was only available to 1991). Reductions in odour complaints were even more pronounced for
the more modern landfill gas collection system installed at Guelph’s Eastview Landfill. Prior to
the installation of an LFG collection system at the Eastview Landfill, 34 and 24 complaints were
received in 2000 and 2001, respectively. Since the commissioning of the system in 2003, no
odour complaints have been reported for the Site. Similarly, for the East Quarry Landfill
operated by Niagara Waste Systems, a partial gas collection system covering approximately 60%
of the waste disposal area has been effective in reducing odour complaints from several per
month to one per month on average.
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CITY OF HAMILTON
Glanbrook Landfill
Assessment of Odour Sources and
Associated Health Related Impacts
333047-0000-4EER-0002
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LITERATURE REVIEW OF PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS
Glanbrook Landfill Studies
Several studies related to landfill gas have been carried out historically at the Glanbrook Landfill
Site by a number of consultants. In 1998, SLE&C (formerly Fenco Maclaren Inc.) conducted a
study directed to an assessment of landfill gas conditions and recommendations for effective
control systems at the Site. The work involved field investigations test pit excavation, gas
probes’ installation, landfill gas monitoring, landfill gas generation/dispersion modelling and
assessment of potential impacts from landfill gas.
Gas monitoring did not detect any methane in the buffer zone gas probes and no vegetation stress
was noticed in the buffer zone. The monitoring results suggested that the presence of Buckhorn
Creek and the Welland River provide natural barriers to subsurface migration of gas for the
landfills southwest and northeast quadrants, respectively.
Air dispersion modelling at that time indicated that for all contaminants except vinyl chloride,
parameter concentrations at the landfill boundary (and at off-property locations) were well below
both MOE and MOL criteria for all averaging periods, suggesting that no significant air quality
impacts would be expected. Additional analysis of various non-methanogenic organic
compounds (NMOCs) modelled at the Site boundary or beyond confirmed that annual average
concentrations under all scenarios were below U.S. EPA Reference Concentrations, indicating
emissions could be assumed to be unrelated to non-cancer related health impacts. Further, with
the exception of 1,3-butadiene and 1,2-dibromoethane, off-property annual average parameter
concentrations which were modelled under all scenarios were below U.S. EPA Risk-Specific
Concentrations, indicating that there was no increased cancer related risks from these emissions.
In 2003, Rowan Williams Davies and Irwin Inc. (RWDI) were retained by the City to perform an
assessment of the ambient air quality (AAQ) downwind of the Site. The AAQ monitoring
program was designed to assess a variety of parameters often associated with landfill emissions,
including; volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulate matter (including total suspended
particulates; inhalable particulates and respirable particulates), airborne metals and dioxins and
furans.
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CITY OF HAMILTON
Glanbrook Landfill
Assessment of Odour Sources and
Associated Health Related Impacts
333047-0000-4EER-0002
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Samples were initially obtained in the fall of 2003, with subsequent re-monitoring of dioxins and
furans in 2004 to obtain additional data. Both short-term (1/2 hour duration) and long-term (24
hour duration) samples were obtained, and results were correlated with data from a temporary
weather station installed at the site. Analytical results were compared to both point of
impingement (POI) criteria and 24-hour ambient air quality criteria (AAQC), as relevant.
Following collection of VOC samples, analysis of the results indicated that there was a statistical
increase in the downwind concentrations compared to the upwind concentrations, but that no
parameters exceeded the relevant MOE POI criteria. The highest concentration parameters,
vinyl chloride and naphthalene, considered to be typical parameters associated with landfill
emissions, were both on the order of 14% of the allowable limits.
Particulate monitoring likewise did not indicate any exceedences of the MOE AAQC criteria.
Dioxin and furan samples from both 2003 and 2004 indicated that maximum concentrations in
the samples were more than 2 orders of magnitude below the allowable criteria, that is, less than
1% of the allowable limits for these parameters.
The conclusions of the two RWDI studies indicated that while the landfill was contributing to
both VOC and particulate loading downwind of the site, no parameters exceeded their relevant
criteria, and thus there was little reason for concern regarding health related impacts due to
landfill related air quality emissions, in particular with VOC and dioxin and furan parameters.
In 2005 and 2006, SLE&C conducted odour assessment work which related to suspected offgassing from the Site’s leachate management system. This work resulted in the development of
staged interim remedial action plans to address odour related impacts. Site investigations during
that time, identified three distinct odour types: compost (sweet), a typical decomposing waste
smell, and raw landfill gas smell (sour, acrid). A primary source for odours was identified on the
landfill perimeter side slopes, in the vicinity of a number of leachate manholes and cleanouts,
and at the top of a number of manholes following removal of their covers. No specific odour
compounds were sampled/measured as part of this work, nor were odours detected off-site
during these specific field investigations.
It was concluded, at that time, that the odour complaints were the result of relocating the tipping
face to the northeast area of the site, coupled with landfill gas escaping from the leachate
collection system. A phased mitigation approach was recommended, commencing with
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CITY OF HAMILTON
Glanbrook Landfill
Assessment of Odour Sources and
Associated Health Related Impacts
333047-0000-4EER-0002
Revision
No.
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2007-08-31
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installation of vent pipes in all manholes followed by other solutions as necessary, including
installing activated carbon scrubber systems for the vents and a temporary gas collection/flaring
system, which was coupled to the leachate management system. Mitigation measures included
in this approach were geared towards managing odour emissions from the on-site leachate
collection system only, and not related to the tipping face operations.
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