New policy and technology for water and sanitation

New policy and technology for water and sanitation
N. Funamizu
Department of Environmental Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
Keywords: New policy; water; sanitation
1. To Achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
How to wipe out poverty is a problem common in the world. Taking various measures is
necessary to cut the cycle of poverty. Giving people access to safe water and sanitation is
one of the important strategies to cut the cycle of poverty. Currently, about one billion people
in the world cannot access safe drinking water. Moreover, about 2.4 billion people do not
have access to appropriate sanitation. Therefore, it is said that 80% of the disease and 25%
of the cause of death in the developing countries can be blamed on polluted water.
2008 was the International Year of Sanitation. A common understanding is that
achieving MDGs is a difficult task in spite of all the effort made all over the world. Particularly,
in the case of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, accessibility to safe water and to sanitation
is not expected to be achieved until 2040 and 2076, respectively.
2. Limitations and Issues Concerning the Current Water System
With the awareness of the difficulty in achieving MDGs in the field of water, it is
necessary to think about the international cooperation in the field of water with an
understanding of the limitations and issues concerning the current water system. The main
issuess are as follows:

Issues of the management of water authorities and/or enterprises
Water service systems are comprised of users, an water authorities or
enterprises and technologies that support them. Problems that occur in water business
significantly affect the sustainability of the water system.
Water authorities, especially which provide sewerage services, often face
financial difficulty in Japan. In fact, financial pressure has been placed on small scale
authorities, which results in needing the help of the local government. In other words, it is
necessary to be aware that there are cases where the operation and maintenance cost
of the water business cannot be covered only by the tariff from users. As the expression,
“marginal village” represents the diminishing financial capability of the local governments,
the management of the current water business is a challenging issue in Japan. In
developing countries, considering the perspectives of the sustainability of water business
is indispensable.

Restriction of water resource and applicable water management system
The current Japanese water system uses drinkable water just for transporting
pollutants such as flus from toilet, ; however, this system is not available all over the
world. Essentially, the current water system can not be applied to the regions where the
water resources are severely restricted.

Construction and management of pipe networks
The part which requires the largest initial cost and maintenance and operation
cost in the water system is the pipe network (water distribution network and sewer pipes).
In Japan, it is a challenging issue how we should manage and maintain the pipe
networks.

Common global goals: developing a resource recycling-based society
Recycling water and useful resources contained in waste water is in high
demand. We must make a careful judgment whether the current water system can meet
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the needs of a resource recycling-based society. It is particularly important to develop a
mechanism that will remove micropollutants, such as pharmaceuticals we use, from the
loop of the resources for recycling.
3. Proposals from Hokkaido University
(1) Searching for and Utilizing Local Perspective
We would like to propose a development plan that starts from the investigation and
understanding of the local cultures, traditions and social systems as well as considers the
perspectives of the local people. The motivation for local participation will decrease if we do
not establish a management system for water system that adapts to local conditions.
Moreover, it is important to develop technologies that suit the water management system.
This system must become part of their daily lives by penetrating in their lifestyle so that such
technologies can be sustainably maintained. The local people will not only seek immediate
interests such as economic income but also long term effects such as improvement of the
environment and sanitary conditions as well as a reduction in infectious diseases. We will
provide information and choices on how to improve the lives of the local people by explaining
the mechanism of water management and new technologies based on data and information
gleaned from scientific investigation and evaluation.
(2) Sharing Global Values such as Basic Human Rights and the Future of the Earth
Values such as basic human rights and human security are shared by everyone
around the world. Moreover, both developed and developing countries share common goals
such as measures against global warming and the formation of a recycling society. We must
start from sharing global values and having common future goals in the field of water.
(3) Proposing Measures from the Long-Term Perspective
It is expected that the GDP per capita will increase from $1 to $10 to $100 (US$) even
in poor countries with a GDP per capita of $10 or less. The water system will be provided to
adapt to various levels of economic conditions; however, it is not in the best interest to invest
and make great changes in terms of soft and hard infrastructure according to the economic
growth. It is necessary to establish a long term system for the future so that we can facilitate
the improvement of the water system.
(4) Gathering Local Information and Fostering a Multi-faceted Human Resources
It is necessary to construct a knowledge base by organizing the successful and
unsuccessful cases. Moreover, it is important to foster multi-faceted human resources (local
people, community leaders, management specialists, technicians, tertiary educators,
scholars) both in Japan and the local community. The role of higher education such as
Japanese universities is significant.
(5) Establishing New Approaches to Development
Actors responsible for development and human security will create various networks that
transcend national boundaries in today‟s international society. Base of the pyramid (BOP)
business is a new trend that promotes collaboration between the government and private
sectors as well as sharing the know-how and experiences of companies and NGOs to
develop products that meet the cultural and social needs of those in poverty and provide
sustainable development to improve lives. Social business, a business model that invests in
entrepreneurship by providing micro credit to those living in poverty, is an idea to remove
people from the bottom of the social pyramid and to wipe out poverty. Such trends should
continuously be analyzed and evaluated. Taking these factors into consideration, new
developments must coordinate with supranational actors to provide and maintain conditions
that encourage independent projects to be developed even in a local community under an
authoritarian regime or where the administrative system is at times inefficient.
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Trends of Safe Drinking Water Supply in the Sahel Region:
Global Principles, Foreign Assistances and National Policy
Fumiko Hakoyama
Fuji women‟s University
Keywords: National Policy, Safe drinking water, Sahel Region
This paper describes the trends in the area of safe drinking water supply in rural areas in
the Sahel region, with focus on the relations between international assistance and national
policy, and the impact of global principles such as UN MDGs,
Due to a rural exodus caused by desertification, the inhabitants of the Sahel Region are
experiencing tremendous changes which they have never endured before. One of the most
serious problems they have to face is how to ensure safe drinking water. Besides the quantity
issues, numerous measures for quality improvement have been undertaken. At present, so
called modern wells of different sorts and boreholes are the main sources of safe drinking
water, but many of them are no longer functional due to maintenance problems, thus
diminishing the rate of access to safe drinking water. The distance from houses to a water
source is another problem. In many countries the official norm is fixed at “less than 1 km”, and
sometimes up to 5 km in rural areas.
After independence, many assistance agencies introduced various systems of water
supply and maintenance, creating a chaotic situation in the region. Facing these problems,
the government and the international aid agencies tried to harmonize their efforts. The most
common way was the “sector wide approach” where the government and the aid agencies
concentrated their efforts on the government‟s national priorities in water and sanitation. Here
it was the government who took the lead, at least in theory, and the foreign organizations
stayed in the background to help the government.
The “right basis approach” and “community participation” were also the key principles.
The “Right to Water for All” served as the basic slogan in the area of water and sanitation.
This means, on the one hand, the rights of inhabitants for having a decent life as a human
being were recognized, but on the other hand, they now had the obligation to maintain water
sources and equipment. Administratively speaking, a “drinking water maintenance committee”
composed of local people, was organized for each water source. Pushed by the principle of
“Gender in Development”, half the members of each committee were women. However at this
stage, the equal number served as a sort of “alibi” for gender consideration, and the reality
was far from the theory.
Together with the “Poverty Reduction Strategy Program (or Paper)”, off-set with debt
relief, whose principle asserts that human welfare is a priority for national policies, UN
Millennium Development Goals have given a tremendous impact on the Sahel countries. Its
Goal 7, target 7c aims at halving by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access
to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. In order to reach this norm, each country sets the
goals it wants to achieve by 2015.
Many governments undertook a policy reform in the late 90s-2000s. The key factors
were: decentralization, privatization and legalization, as well as a fee based on the amount of
water used, instead of a flat fee. Responsibility for the drinking water supply systems was
shifted from national governments to local administrations. The necessary costs are now born
by inhabitants. Local maintenance committees are legally obliged to do the task, and
maintenance and repair is consigned to private companies, which are supervised by the local
government. Advocacy of inhabitants and training of local technicians have become the
center of water projects. Here emerges one question: can the inhabitants really pay for all the
necessary costs to maintain the water supply at their level? The same question can also be
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put to the local governments as their capacity, both financial and human, is not usually big
enough to undertake their new responsibilities.
The situation of drinking water is still critical in the Sahel region. The fact is the goals set by
each government will, in many cases, be difficult to meet by 2015. It will still take a long time
to resolve the problem. The dimension exceeds the capacity of an individual or a small
community. It is now clear that the role of governments and international communities in this
area has become bigger and bigger, despite the decentralization and privatization policy.
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Water and Sanitation Model for Peri-urban Area:
A Case of Appropriate Technology Application and Community
Water Management in Sub-Sahel Africa
Masahiro MURAKAMI
Professor, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kochi University of Technology,
185 Miyanokuchi, Tosayamada-cho, Kami City, Kochi 782-8502 Japan
E-mail: [email protected]
Keywords: groundwater and sanitation; ecological slow sand filtration; community management
1. Introduction
Scarcity and security of water resources and securing good water quality environment are
one of the most crucial concerns in the arid regions of developing countries. In many
countries, safe and stable drinking water is insufficient, and water source is likely
contaminated by inappropriate treatment of wastewater.
Water problems are continuously discussed in the international society to acheve the target of
Millennium Development Goals including a target to halve the proportion of people without
sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by the year of 2015.
In the semi-arid regions in Middle East and Africa, where rapid population growth and socioeconomic development are demanding more water with good quality, safe and sustainable
supply of water with integrated management policy is urgent agenda. The Japanese
government (and JICA) has implemented variety of cooperation through technical assistance
including capacity development for policy makers in water and environment sector to expand
their involvement in Africa in recent years
2. Community Water Supply and Sanitation Management in Africa
JICA conceived the importance of safe water supply for the vulnerable people in rural
community to develop groundwater wells in Sub-Sahel region since 1970s . Level 1
groundwater project, which comprises deep borehole drilling, started in rural area including
equipment supply of drilling machines with technical transfer of training technical staffs at the
site. Immediately after completing the tehnical transfer of borehole drilling technologies and
machines, Level 2 groundwater project, which equips with water tower in the ceter of
community, was mobililzed to apply the grand aid scheme of JICA since 1980s. It came to
know, however, that more than half of the groundwater supply projects in the scattered rural
villages were not actually effectively used owing to the lack of maintenance of pumping
equipments. The problem was not groundwater resources but the lack of experince and
education to maintain the pumping equipments. The question was, who is responsible for
operation and maintemance of rural groundwater supply project at either level 1 or level 2,
local government or beneficiaries of local people?. Rual comunity water users association
was conceived to sustain the water supply system by charging the minimum water fees for
each user. Low income families are, however, not likely to be involuved in the mommunity
management owing to the lack of cash money at hand. The community management
asscociation tried to integrate the community activity with dual deep groundwater wells, which
aims not only to supply safe drinking water but also to assist the micro-farming project of
cultivating cash crops such as fresh vegetables. The paradigm of technical assistance of JICA
for Africa was shifted from groundwater development to integrated comunity management
such as PECTAC in Senegal to enhance the capacity of vulnerable rural community since
2000. Schemtic of rural comunity water management project (PECTAC) is shown in figure.1.
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Figure 1 Schemtic of rural comunity water management project
3. Capacity Development and JICA Group Training Course
JICA group training course on integrated water resources and environmental management
has been carried out for 10 years since 1999 at Kochi University of Technology (KUT) in
Japan. The course is being succeeded to focus on the policy-making on water resources and
environment management in Middle East and African countries sicne 2009. Appropriate
technolgy application is the main agenda of training course to comprise the following 5
concepts.
●Low/Least Investment Cost (Using local materials)
●Simple and Least Cost of Operation & Maintenance (Self-reliance and sustainability)
●Less Energy Requirement (Global environment perspective)
●Eco-system Approach (3R-Shimanto policy, Reduce-Reuse-Recycle)
●Environmental Education Initiatives (For next generation)
4. Appropriate Technology Application in Peri-urban Community Model in Burkina Faso
Provisional action plans has just been proposed the final report of JICA group training course
in 2009, which aims to secure both safe water supply and sanitation in the semi-urban area
including the case of semi-arid region in Brukina Fasoso. Peri-urban comunity model is geing
proposed to integrate safe groundwater supply using existing shallow dug wells and deep
boreholes and ecological sanitation system with bio-toilet.
Some shallow groundwater in the dug well are not likely to satisfy the drinking water quality
standard owing to the risk of contamination with fecal coliform bacterium. Ecological slow
sand filtration (ESSF) using mulipul sand bucket unit, which is the typical low cost optional
technology requiring simple operation and maintenance, is being taken into account for the
problem solution in small rual communities as shown in figure 2.
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Figure 2 Schematics of Ecological slow sand filtration (ESSF)
The organic composit from the bio-toilet will be incorporated to supply natural fertillizer
enhancing the agriculture activity by local small farmers with aim of zero-emmission. The periurban community model may incorporate the micro-catchment water harvesting technology,
which aims to conserve the soil moisuture of micro-farm land and leach the excess salt
accumulation in the soils as shown in figure 3.
Figure 3 Water and sanitation comunity management model with bio-toilet
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Figure 4 shows the schemtic ground design of the peri-urban comunitywater management
model (CWSSM) for safe water supply and sanitaion.
Figure 4 Schemtic of peri-urban comunity water management model
5. Summary
The peri-urban comunity model integrates water and sanitation including safe groundwater
supply system with shallow dug wells and deep boreholes and sanitation system with biotoilet in semi-arid region in Sub-Sahel Africa.
Water purification to apply ecological slow sand filtration (ESSF) with mulipul sand bucket unit
is a typical low cost technology application requiring simple operation and maintenance,
which is viable method to secure safe drinking water in the scattered small scale communities
in rural area.
Micro catchment rainwater harvesting will be a key optional technology in semi-arid region to
susutain the micro-farming with organic compost from the Bio-toilet.
References
Sato, N., Sakamoto S., Hayashi N., Suzuki I., Inoue K., and Murakami M. (2002) Eco-engineering
applications in reclamation of treated wastewater and constructed wetland. Proc. Of EPCOWM, 710 Jan. 2002, Tunis, 823–830.
8
Social Scientific Approach for the Sanitation in Africa:
Restructuration of Actors‟ Relations for Water Management
T. Nabeshima
Dr. of Political Science, Associate Professor,
Research Faculty of Media and Communication Studies, Hokkaido University
(Kita-17, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido 060-0817, Japan)
E-mail: [email protected]
Keywords: water management; cross-national linkage; acculturation; actors‟ relations;
In spring, 2010, the JICA-JST project named “Improving Sustainable Water and
Sanitation System in Sahel Region in Africa: Case of Burkina Faso” began as the joint
scientific research project between 2ie and Hokkaido University. I have a role of sociological
research for this project. Before the symposium in Paris, I did research on water and
sanitation situation of popular life in Burkina Faso with Ms Fumiko Hakoyama, professor of
Fuji Women‟s‟ University and Mr. Frédéric Traoré, professor of 2ie. We are going to give a
lecture on scientific analyze of this research.
As a researcher of African politics, I try to give a consideration to a question: What
does it mean to bring new foreign technologies to social and cultural situation in Africa? I
hope that this consideration guides us to find out a new concept of Nation-state in the context
of environmental problems and sustainable development. I‟ll develop this consideration,
introducing some theories.
At first, I introduce an article “ Question about Technology” of German philosopher,
Martin Heidegger. He says technology is not only a means but also human activity.
Technicians have to step up idea to technology. It is necessary to use it well and to look for its
reality. Using it, we, human being, must confront what has been caused by technology. For
that, it is important to clarify the relation between cause and effect of phenomenon. According
to Heidegger, the reality of technology is in the nature environment and technical experts
often are under the impression that all nature phenomenons are calculated. We take nature
environment in account and revise technology in the nature context.
He published this point of view in 1950‟s during economical development era. I am
interested to his idea for applying new foreign technology to dry nature condition in Burkina
Faso. It is suggestive that technical capacity is to revise the negative heritage which the old
technology brought.
Then we have to think about social and cultural condition that accepts new technology.
It is also important to take account of acculturation. That is the historical change of people‟s
cultural life in the processes of modernization and State system change.
Junzo Kawada is Japanese anthropologist of African culture. His theory on civilization
is interesting for us to understand African culture. He recognizes three types of civilization.
First type is Japanese civilization. Japanese use human capacity to operate a machine.
Second is European one. In this civilization, people can economize physical energy, using
tool and technology. And the last is African culture. Kawada is famous for the research on
Mosi language communication in Burkina Faso. African people can adapt their physical
capacity to the severe nature environment. So they need strong and limber bodies. It is low
cost and ecological culture. They try to coexist with nature.
Kawada emphasizes the possibility of human capacity and various types of civilization.
But, final object of development had been the second type of civilization. Considering this
point of view, in our project for water and sanitation in Burkina Faso, we will be able to respect
local social and cultural situation. Moreover, Amartya Sen‟s theory is useful for us to look for
the local ways to development.
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He thinks that notion of well-being depends on local people‟s cultural worth.
According to him, it is important to develop such people‟s “capability” to realize their
happiness. For that, the good medical and educational conditions are necessary. His theory
can resolve an economical development difference between Northern and Southern countries.
It reminds us of our project‟s effectiveness that can harmonize with local actors‟ demands,
social and cultural condition and new technology. I think that a new African concept of nationstate consists of African social autonomy and the cross-national linkage.
New foreign technology has the impact of acculturation. It can occur systematic
change of life. It also brings a change of mind, because something dirty like excreta becomes
useful as a compost and that marginalized thing can be acceptable in the society. I will
observe that the rural community will use knowledge of new water and sanitation system and
develop as autonomic organization. It is a water management where all actors participate. But
any theory cannot well explain internal and external actors‟ interrelationships. I prove this
restructuration of actors‟ relation for water management as opposing argument against
regime theory of international politics. International regime system has a risk to make
ambiguous decision because of power struggle. I verify this restructuration for water
management is more substantial and efficient than Kyoto Protocol or COP 16 to realize
protection of nature environment and sustainable development.
References
Association « Découvertes du Burkina » (1993) Découvertes du Burkina, Paris-Ouagadougou, SÉPIAA.D.D.B.
Balandier, G. (1971) Sens et puissance, Paris, Quadrige / PUF.
Bates, R.H.(1981) Markets and States in Tropical Africa: The Political Basis of Agricultural Policies,
University of California Press.
Bayart, J-F. (ed.) (1992) Le politique par le bas en Afrique noire, Paris, Karthala.
Bourmaud, D. (1997) La politique en Afrique, Montchrestien.
Douglas, M. (2002) Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concept of Pollution and Taboo, London and
New York, Routledge Classics.
Elbadawi, I.A. (2001) “Social Cohesion, Conflict Management and Economic Growth in Africa”, Assefa,
T., Rugumamu, S.M. & Ahmed, A.G.M. (ed.), Globalization, Democracy, and Development in
Africa: Challenges and Prospects, Addis Ababa, OSSREA, pp. 39-60.
Heidegger, M. (2009) Vorträge und Aufsätze, translated in Japanese by Hiroshi Sekiguchi, Tokyo,
Heibon-sha.
Hyden, G. (1996) “Rethinking Theories of the State: An Africanist Perspective”, Africa Insight, Vol.26,
No.1, pp.26-35.
Kawada, J. (1999) “Ima Nase Kaihatu to Bunka nanoka (Why is it necessary to think about development
and culture?)”, Kawada, Iwai, Kamo, Tsunekawa, Hara et Yamauchi (eds.) Iwanami Kouza
Kaihatsu to Bunka (Iwanami Edition Series: Development and Culture) No.1, Tokyo, Iwanami,
pp.1-57.
Le Roy, E. (1988) « Communautés d‟Afrique noire et protection des droits de l‟individu face au pouvoir :
problématique, modalités et actualité », Recueils de la société Jean Bodin pour l’histoire
comparative des institution, Paris, Dessain et Tolra, pp.37-63.
Ministère de l‟Agriculture de l‟Hydraulique et des Ressources Halieutiques, Direction Générale de
l‟Assainissement des Eaux Usées et Excrétas, Opérationnalisation de la stratégie de mise en œuvre de
la composante « infrastructures d’assainissement en milieu rural » du PN-AEPA, Volet 1 :
Contexte socio-économique des populations et motivassions liés à l‟assainissement, Rapport
final, mai 2009.
Sen, A.K. (1992) Inequality Reexamined, Oxford, Oxford University Presse.
Wendt, A. (1999) Social Theory of International Politics, Cambrige University Press.
10
Social Sciences‟ contribution to Sanitation issues in Burkina
Faso
Aude Nanquette
2ie, PHD Sociology
The purpose of this presentation is to share some information about social sciences‟s
contribution to water and sanitation issues in developing countries, through the Burkina
Faso‟s case.
Regarding to the link between water, sanitation, health and poverty, access ton water and
sanitation became an international and national priority.
When we talk about improving water and sanitation services in a developing countries, we
talk about technologies and infrastructues, but also about behaviour and mentality‟s changes.
Social sciences enable to understand and explain people perceptions concerning water and
sanitation in order to facilitate knowledges transmission and to improve local livelihoods.
I would like to share some methods and tool which can be used to collect some economic,
social and cultural informations, through exemples from the Burkina Faso‟s expérience.
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12
Politiques et stratégies d‟assainissement au Burkina Faso
Denis Marie Sondo/Savadogo
1
1
Direction Générale de l‟Assainissement des Eaux Usées et des Excretas
1. Contexte
Le Gouvernement du Burkina Faso a adopté en décembre 2006 le Programme National
d‟Approvisionnement en Eau Potable et d‟Assainissement à l‟horizon 2015 [PN-AEPA 2015]
en vue d‟atteindre les Objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement (OMD) en lien avec le
Cadre Stratégique de Lutte contre la Pauvreté (CSLP).
Le PN-AEPA vise :
 en milieu rural, à faire progresser le taux d‟accès en eau potable de 60 % en 2005 à
80 % en 2015 et celui de l‟assainissement (eaux usées et excrétas) de 10% en 2005
à 54 % en 2015
 en milieu urbain, à passer d‟un taux d‟accès à l‟eau potable de 74% en 2005 à 87 %
en 2015 et celui de l‟assainissement (eaux usées et excrétas) de 14% en 2005 à
57 % en 2015.
La stratégie de mise en œuvre du PN-AEPA a pour objectifs :
 une gestion efficace du secteur AEPA
 un environnement favorable au développement soutenu des infrastructures d'eau
potable et d'assainissement
 un service d'eau et d‟assainissement durable.
Les composantes du PN-AEPA sont :
 Composante 1 « Développement des infrastructures d‟eau potable »
 Composante 2 « Développement des infrastructures d‟assainissement Eaux Usées et
Excréta » (EU&E)
 Composante 3 « Cadre Unifié d‟Intervention » (CUI) du PN-AEPA.
Le Gouvernement du Burkina Faso a adopté en juillet 2007 le document de Politique et
Stratégie Nationales d‟Assainissement (PSNA). Ce document a défini les 4 sous secteurs
composant l‟assainissement :
 sous secteur déchets liquides
 sous secteur eaux pluviales
 sous secteur déchets solides
 sous secteur déchets gazeux.
Chaque sous secteur doit faire l‟objet d‟un plan d‟action.
2. Stratégie de Mise en œuvre de la composante « Infrastructures d‟assainissement en
milieu rural » du PNAEPA
2.1 Objectif globale
Mettre en place un dispositif de promotion adapté au contexte rural afin de susciter une
demande massive de la population et d‟impulser le développement des infrastructures y
afférentes.
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2.2 Les objectifs spécifiques
 l‟analyse du contexte socio-économique des populations et les motivations liées à
l‟assainissement (gestion des excrétas et des eaux usées)
 des propositions d‟options technologiques et de critères de choix
 la définition de méthodes d‟animation, de diffusion et de pérennisation des actions
d‟hygiène et d‟assainissement.
2.3 Résultats attendus
Volet 1 : Contexte socio-économique des populations et motivations liées à
l‟assainissement
 R1.1 : Une analyse de la motivation et de la capacité des populations rurales à
investir dans l‟assainissement privé et contribuer à l‟entretien des équipements
scolaires et publics est conduite.
Volet 2 : Offre technologique appropriée
 R2.1 : Les options technologiques pour la réalisation d‟assainissement autonome les
mieux adaptées au contexte rural sont préconisées, et intègrent la problématique de
la commodité de l‟entretien et de la maintenance.
 R2.2 : Les systèmes de valorisation agricole des boues et sous-produits de
l‟assainissement sont évalués et proposés.
 R2.3 : La conception technique des ouvrages est décrite (schémas-types/plans
d‟exécution, prescriptions techniques pour la réalisation, sujétions particulières) et les
coûts respectifs d‟investissement / fonctionnement sont évalués.
 R2.4 : La notion de la réhabilitation en matière d‟assainissement est définie, les
opérations correspondantes évaluées financièrement.
 R2.5 : Les conditions préalables, critères de choix et recommandations pour la mise
en œuvre sont établis pour les différentes technologies proposées, et comparés.
Volet 3 : Méthodes d‟animation pour la promotion « hygiène / assainissement » et
conditions de pérennisation / diffusion des activités
 R3.1 : Les approches de promotion de l‟H&A sont comparées et les conditions de
pérennisation et dissémination des techniques et bonnes pratiques H&A sont établies.
 R3.2 : Les méthodes d‟IEC recommandées pour la promotion de l‟H&A sont
proposées et décrites et le chronogramme-type d‟intervention est établi précisant le
rôle des acteurs concernés, les activités et messages dispensés.
Volet 4 : Principes et mécanismes d‟opérationnalisation de la stratégie
 R4.1 : La pertinence d‟un appui à l‟investissement ou d‟une subvention est analysée
et justifiée ; la nature et les modalités de mise à disposition des différents types
d‟appuis sont proposés.
 R4.2 : Les orientations générales de la stratégie opérationnelle d‟assainissement sont
définies, et les procédures et modalités précisée pour la mise en œuvre.
 R4.3 : Les mécanismes de suivi évaluation et ses indicateurs clés liés à la mise en
œuvre de la stratégie opérationnelle d‟assainissement sont définis.
 R4.4 : Les besoins en termes de renforcements de capacité sont évalués pour la
mise en œuvre de la stratégie opérationnelle d‟assainissement EU&E.
2.4 Les options technologiques retenues
 Les latrines Sanplat améliorée (avec fermeture du trou de défécation et muni de
tuyau de ventilation;
 Les latrines VIP;
 Les latrines Ecosan;
14
 Les latrines à chasse d‟eau ;
 La fosse étanche;
 La fosse septique.
L‟étude a décrite les avantages et les inconvénients de chaque option technologique et leur
coût
Type de latrine
Coût moyen
Fosse non maçonnée
Latrine traditionnelle/
Fosse maçonnée
20.000 FCFA
latrine Sanplat ordinaire
Latrine ventilée à fosse unique
100 875
131 165
Latrine VIP double fosse
155 905
206 805
Latrine chasse manuelle double fosse
135 640
186 690
Latrine à séparation d‟urine ( Ecosan)
187 450
2.5 Technologies à subventionner
A l‟exception de la fosse septique, toutes les options pourront être subventionnées.
2.6 Nature de la subvention
Les problèmes d‟assainissement majeurs relevés, suite à l‟étude socio-économique en milieu
rural sont :
(i) certains obstacles socioculturels (honte de déféquer et de souiller l‟espace de vie immédiat,
l‟insuffisante voire l‟absence de conscience de l‟importance de l‟hygiène dans le
développement humain; ce qui le fait classer bien bas dans l‟échelle des priorités des
populations;
(ii) l‟insuffisance de capacités financière à se procurer les matériaux de construction
exogènes et à prendre en charge la main d‟œuvre qualifiée;
(iii) les défauts de construction dont le plus dangereux est celui lié à la sécurité de la fosse.
Dans beaucoup de cas de latrine réalisée par les bénéficiaires, les fosses s‟effondrent.
L‟apport extérieur dans la mise en œuvre des projets doit essentiellement viser les objectifs
suivants :
 Faire prendre conscience de l‟importance de l‟hygiène;
 Mettre à disposition la main d‟œuvre qualifiée;
 Sécuriser l‟infrastructure de la latrine (dalle et revêtement éventuel des fosses).
En dehors de la sensibilisation et la formation des maçons, la durabilité des ouvrages doit
être visée. Dans cette perspective, l‟apport extérieur (subvention) dans la réalisation des
ouvrages serait axé sur la stabilité des fosses et la résistance des dalles.
Cette option de subvention est d‟autant plus pertinente que les populations consultées ont
exprimé lors des enquêtes leur disponibilité à fournir les matériaux locaux et la main d‟œuvre
non qualifiée pour réaliser la fouille des fosses et la superstructure .
3. Conclusion
L‟objet du PN-AEPA est de 395 000 latrines familiales à l‟horizon 2015. Le budget nécessaire
pour la réalisation de ces ouvrages (sans le volet intermédiation sociale) varie entre 44 et 74
milliard selon le taux de subvention retenu.
15
Policy and Strategy concerning water and sanitation in
Burkina Faso
Ousséini THANOU(Mr.)*, Denis Maris SONDO(Ms.)**,
* Directeur Général des Ressources en Eau, Ministère de l'Agriculture de l'Hydraulique et des
Ressources Halieutiques, 03 BP 7025-Ouagadougou 03, BURKINA FASO
** Directeur Général de l‟Assainissement des Eaux Usées et Excréta, Ministère de l'Agriculture de
l'Hydraulique et des Ressources Halieutiques, 03 BP 7025-Ouagadougou 03, BURKINA FASO
Keywords: PN-AEPA;
In Burkina Faso, PN-AEPA (National strategy plan in water and sanitation) had been
adopted in 2006, establishing the goals and pathways to achieve Millenniums Development
Goals. This presentation describes the circumstances in the view of water and sanitation, the
financial investments, the achievements, the status on reformation in the sector in Burkina
Faso.
The overall goals of the plan are a) to supply drinking water for additional 4 million people
in rural area, and 1.8 million people in urban area b) to supply sanitation service to additional
5.7 million people in rural area and 2.1 million in urban area. The budget to achieve the goals
is estimated up to 570 billion FCFA (870 million EURO). Until June 30 2010, the government
and his partners mobilised 367 billion FCFA (560 million EURO).
The achievements until the end of 2009 had been counted 57% for the access to potable
water in rural (the objective is 76% in 2015), 72% in urban (87% for 2015), for the access to
sanitation, 19% in urban area (57% in 2015). The challenges are the achievement of
infrastructure, financing mobilization, capacity building in management, and the increase of
improved sanitation system demand in rural area.
At the same time, the government engaged some reforms in water and sanitation sector in
order to remove the following constraints : i) strong centralization of administrative procedures
which causes less profitable service, ii) low rate of individual tap water connection in principal
cities in average 53%(1990), Ouagadougou: 55% and Bobo-Diulasso: 50%, iii) lack of
solvency of clients and impossibilities to invest or renovate existing infrastructure. The
government with the engagement of ONEA (National office for water and sanitation), made
some efforts to improve the situation.
As the results of action taken, the institutional and regulation action plan has clarified
ONEA mission. The quality of service and the rate of water and sanitation coverage was
improved. For the peri-urban and rural area, the reform allowed to assure sustainable and
effective management system, which guarantee continuity and quality of public service.
There are alternatives to be considered for improvement of infrastructures as follows: (i)
the implication of private sector should be considered to introduce greater production of
potable water; (ii) the capacity building of technical services of communes should be
considered; (iii) the development, diffusion of methodological guide of water and sanitation
project, and initiation of promoting campaign of hygiene and sanitation in rural area should be
also considered.
16
Production and characteristics of human excreta in Indonesia
related to dry toilet application
Neni SINTAWARDANI#*, Jovita TRI ASTUTI**, Dewi NILAWATI***
*Research Center for Physics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI). Jl. Cisitu/Sangkuriang 154 D,
Bandung 40135, INDONESIA. E-Mail: [email protected]
**Research Center for Physics, LIPI
***Research Center for Physics, LIPI
Keywords: urine; faeces; composition; human excreta
World Bank‟s Research on 2008 reported that poor sanitation in Indonesia, including hygiene,
causes at least 120 million disease episodes and 50,000 premature deaths annually. The
important result of the study was the significant correlation between poor sanitation and
hygiene to financial and economic costs, with major implications for the socio-economic
development of Indonesia and the attainment of short-, medium- and long-term MDGs.
Sanitation can reduce the incidence of infectious diseases by 20% to 80% by inhibiting
disease generation and interrupting disease transmission (WHO, 1998). Forty-five percent
(45%) of the Indonesian population or corresponds to 100 million Indonesian have less
sanitation facilities mirroring less accessibility to private and safe place to urinate and
defecate.
Due to promote the ecological sanitation, Bio-Toilet technology has been introduced since
year of 2004 in Bandung city (West Java Province) using japanese BT with specifications as
decribed by Terazawa and Kitsui (2003). This technology is one of promising solution to
overcome the problem of poor sanitation facilities in Indonesia and less clean water
availability in some regions. Study by Sintawardani et al. (2003) in a slum area in Bandung
showed that the accessibility and availability to clean water for low-income community (the
poor) became tougher then ever. Using Ecosan‟s philosophy dealing with human excreta with
three-connected-step process, i.e. containment, sanitization and recycling, the BT‟s
technology can protect human health and environment, while reducing the use of water in
sanitation systems and recycling nutrients back to the nature. Process of introduction this
technology using the existing situation, including clean water scarcity and hygienic problems
in an area, could increase the acceptance and hindering the cultural barrier of this dry toilet
technology (Sintawardani and Tri Astuti, 2007).
After a certain time BT‟s application, some developments in design and technology were done
to improve the performance of BT in adaptation to the Indonesian conditions. The quantity of
fresh faeces and urine production and its composition is once of important factors related with
the implementation of bio-toilet technology in the future. Due to the limited of these data in
Indonesia, and considering to the relation between food habits of people to the production of
faeces, both quantitatively and qualitatively, this study was conducted to collect and
investigate the range of faeces and urine production and its characteristics separately per
person per day in some communities in Bandung city. The amount of discharge urine and its
frequent were measured to collect the complete data of discharge excreta per person in
certain time. Characteristics of faeces in Indonesia were less observed. Some existing data
just showed about black water characteristic. The study was carried out in a period of 20
months intensively. Fifteen (15) respondents consist of women and men in age of 24-57 years
old joined in this study. The quantity of faeces was determined by weighing of the body weight,
before and after defecated. The different between the two data is the faeces weight or urine
or a mixed of faeces and urine. Characteristic of faeces and urine was analyzed using the
standard method.
Data showed that the production of faeces was between 100 to 378 g/person per day, with an
average of 282 g/person per day. Moisture of faeces is 83.95% (81.53-86.28%); dry matter
content 16.05% (13.72-18.61%); Organic matter 90.84 %DM (84.32 – 95.53 % DM); and pH
17
is 6.71 (6.42-7.19). Moisture of urine is in between 69.38-94.45% (85.09%); dry matter 5.42
(3.93-6.69%), Organic matter of 14.91% DM (8.96-30.62%); pH of urine is 5.77 (4.93-6.99).
Chemical composition, especially of N-total, phosphates, and potassium was identified in this
study as an consideration for introducing of bio-toilet. Fungus and bacteria were found in the
feces and urine sample, such as Candida sp, Enterobacter aglomerans, Staphylococcus
saprophyticus, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aglomerans, and Serratia liquifaciens.
Candida sp was only in women‟s excreta. But, there is no worm egg existing in it. The
discharge of human excreta, quantity and qualitatively, was considered to improve and modify
the BT technology, which it will be discussed further in this paper.
References
World Bank Research Report (2008) Economic Impacts of Sanitation in Indonesia. A five-country study
conducted in Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, the Philippines, and Vietnam under the Economics of
Sanitation Initiative (ESI). Water and Sanitation Program East Asia and the Pacifi c (WSP-EAP),
World Bank Office Jakarta.
WHO (1998).”Regional meeting in Harare for the Africa 2000 initiative on water supply and sanitation”.
Press Release WHO/70, 13/10/98. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
Neni Sintawardani and Jovita Triastuti (2003) Public Toilet Utilization in Bandung: A Preparation for
st
Introducing Bio-Toilette in Indonesia. Proc. of the 1 International Symposium on Sustainable
Sanitation, Nanjing, 117-121
Minoru Terazawa, Toshihiro Kitsui (2003) Sawdust Saves Globe―Environmentally friendly dry toilet for
st
st
the 21 century―, Proc. of the 1 International Symposium on Sustainable Sanitation, Nanjing, 912. 2003
Neni Sintawardani and J. Tri Astuti (2007) Acceptability of Dry Toilet Technology in Indonesia as an
th
Effort to Improve Sanitation Condition. Proc. The 5 International Symposium on Sustainable
Sanitation, Tokyo, 19-21 September 2007
18
Effective Utilization of Sewage Sludge for Agricultural land
in Japan
Shunsuke Nishimura*, Ikuo Tsushima*, Ayako Miyamoto*,
Masashi Ogoshi*, Nobuyuki Horie*
* National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management (NILIM), Ministry of Land, Infrastructure,
Transport and Tourism (MLIT), Asahi 1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0804, Japan
Keywords: sewage sludge recycling; compost; sustainable development
Sewerage systems have been developed mainly to improve living environment, control floods
and water environment from pollution. In Japan, the sewerage system cover expanded from
29.5% in 1978 to 72.7% in 2008. The amount of sewage sludge accumulated in wastewater
treatment process has been increasing. In recent years, more than 2 million dry solids tons
(DS-t) of sewage sludge were generated in Japan. Therefore, efficient sewage sludge
utilization is a significant key to establishing a sustainable society.
2,500
74
Sewage sludge recycle rate
80
77
70
Others
60
2,000
56
Agricultural land
1,500
48
50
52
64 67
70
60
50
Construction material
(for cement)
45
38
1,000
Construction material
(Not for cement)
30
500
40
30
20
24 24
17
15 15 16
20
Landfill
10
0
0
88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07
(FY)
Fig.1 The variation of effective utilization of sewage sludge.
Sewage sludge contains rich nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus for plants and
crops. Therefore, in Japan, people have used sewage sludge for green and agricultural land
as a soil conditioner and fertilizer since the sewerage system has started.
The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT) has investigated the
effective utilization of sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants since
1),2)
1970‟s . According to the investigation, there are 3 major ways that sewage sludge is used
in Japan: an estimated 14% of the produced sewage sludge is used on agricultural land, as
compost and soil supplement, 62% is used for building materials, and the remaining 23% is
disposed in landfills in 2007 (Fig. 1). In 1978, Association for Utilization of Sewage Sludge
was organized by local public agencies, agricultural groups, and academic experts in order to
respond to various problems about sewage sludge. This association have mainly worked on
information exchanges, investigation researches, standardizations, and public relations
activities so far. They suggested that composting is one of the most effective utilizations for
19
agricultural land in terms of hygiene, safety, effectiveness of fertilizer, handling, and
establishing of sustainable society. Figure 2 shows the profile of treated sewage sludge for
3
agricultural land in Japan. The amount of compost is more than 250 x 10 Ds-t, account for
77% of total treated sludge for agricultural land, whereas, the amount of dewatered sludge,
3
dried sludge, incinerator ash and melt-solidified slag are 20-33 x 10 Ds-t. However, sewage
sludge is an industrial waste itself so it may contain heavy metals that contaminate soil.
Therefore, in order to use compost as a fertilizer and soil conditioner, we need to treat it
appropriately and to strictly manage its quality and risk. Effective utilization of sewage sludge
for green and agricultural land in Japan has been regulated under the laws such as Fertilizers
Regulation Act and Agricultural Land Soil Pollution Prevention Act for the safety and security
utilizing system.
We would like to introduce an example of large composting plants, which was built in 1984.
The compost is made from dewatered sludge cake, which contains ferric chloride or/and
slaked lime as chemicals without sub-materials as chaff or straw. In FY 2006, this plant
produced 3,353 DS-t of compost, from 5,772 DS-t as dewatered sludge cake. Municipal
administrators have sold the products to farmers and households, cooperated with agricultural
groups. Thus, the smooth marketing and selling of compost is important on promoting
effective utilization of sewage sludge for agricultural field.
The utilization of compost derived from sewage sludge is one of the valuable answers to
recycle industrial waste. Thus, the accumulation of successful results and active promotion of
land application are essential in sustainable society.
300
Compost
250
200
150
Dewatered Sludge
100
Others
Dried Sludge
50
0
2000
2002
2004
2006
2008
(FY)
Fig.2 Changes of utilized sewage sludge for agricultureal land.
References
1) MLIT:The investigation of Sewage Sludge for agricultural using , 1985. (In Japanese)
2) MLIT:The investigation of management to use sewage sludge compost for agricultural land , 1993.
(In Japanese)
20
Fractionation and Characterization of dissolved organic
matter containing endotoxin in reclaimed waste water
M. Guizani#*, M. Dhahbi **, N. Funamizu *
*Environmental Engineering Department, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13,
Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628, Japan
**Laboratoire Eau et Technologies Membranaires, CERTE, Borj Cedria Technopark, BP 273 Soliman
8020, Tunisia
# corresponding author
Potable reuse is gaining widespread acceptance all over the world due to increasing stress on
water resources. Endotoxins, interchangeably named Lipo-polysaccharide (LPS), are among
the constituents of concern and abundant in raw sewage and secondary treated wastewater
contain. The current knowledge on the characteristics of organic matter showing endotoxicity
in raw and biologically treated wastewater is still limited. Such knowledge is imperative for
selecting removal alternatives of these chemicals from wastewater.
It is assumed that LPS is the main cause of endotoxicity. LPS consists of three parts: a
Lipid A, an O chain of Oligosaccharide and a core 2-keto-3deoxyoctulosonic acid (KDO)
(Williams et al. 2007). The KDO is unique and invariably present in LPS (Kenneth T. 2008).
Therefore KDO can be used as an indicator of LPS found in biologically treated wastewater.
In this study, a batch experiment (decay test for 12hours) was conducted to confirm whether
LPS is the cause of endotoxicity or not. KDO was used as an indicator of presence of LPS.
Samples were taken every 2 hours, with KDO, endotoxin and d-COD levels measured in each
sample. Two different trials were performed for each sample.
As illustrated in Figure 1a, d-COD decreased during the first 6 hours, whereas KDO
increased (peaking after 6hrs). This difference is indicative of the non-bacterial organic matter
(OM) contained in the samples. The decrease in d-COD, shows that the organic matter
originally existing in the sludge had been degraded. In addition, the KDO increase reflects the
release of the LPS during the decay test. Also, the KDO decrease shows that some KDO is
biodegradable.
Similar patterns of KDO and endotoxin were observed (Figure 1b): Increase of endotoxin and
KDO concentrations, followed by a decrease. The highest values of endotoxin and KDO
concentration were observed at almost the same time (6 hours aeration time). Knowing that
KDO is released from the core part of lipo-polysaccharide endotoxin after hydrolysis, it can be
said that decaying bacteria release endotoxic active material such as LPS.
Further, a size and structural characterization of several samples from raw and domestic
wastewater was also carried out. A micro-filter (MF) and ultra-filter (UF) membrane with
molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) ranging from 25KDa to 0.1μm were used to identify the
molecular weight (MW) distribution of wastewater OM in terms of dissolved d-COD and
endotoxicity. Moreover, Sep-Pak C-18 cartridge was employed to quantify the amounts of the
hydrophilic (HPLC)/hydrophobic (HPBC) organic fractions in different MW ranges.
Figure 2a illustrates that the majority of dissolved organic matter is composed of MW size
of 25KDa~0.1µ. 60% to 83% of the total d-COD is composed of molecules larger than 25KDa.
Figure 2b shows that the majority of endotoxin is composed of molecules larger than 100KDa.
80% of the endotoxin concentration is composed of MW size of 100KDa~0.1µm. The size of
endotoxin molecules can range from smaller than 10KDa in a monomeric form to larger than
10,000KDa in an aggregated form (Belanich 1996). Therefore, because they are larger than
100KDa, the endotoxins in domestic wastewater are composed of aggregates. In general,
endotoxins can self-assemble in a variety of shapes, with diameters up to 0.1mm and MW of
1000KDa.
As shown in Figure 3a, the majority of d-COD is composed of hydrophilic fractions
representing from 60 to 80% of the total dissolved organic matter. However, the majority of
endotoxins are composed of hydrophobic fractions (Figure 3b). They represent at least 60%
21
of the total endotoxin concentration in the influent and are slightly more than 59% in the case
of effluent. It was reported that LPS is composed of two major parts, the hydrophobic and the
hydrophilic portion (Williams et al. 2007). Yosuke et al 1986 reported that a hollow fiber
hydrophobic membrane with a pore size of 0.04μm removed small-size endotoxin, indicating
a hydrophobic character of endotoxin which is removed by adsorption to the membrane
surface. Therefore, HPBC fractions can be removed by making use of their tendency to attach
to colloids and particulate matter.
0.50
KDO (μg/ml)
30
COD(mg/l)
5.4E+03
4.5E+03
0.40
20
10
3.6E+03
0.30
2.7E+03
0.20
1.8E+03
0.10
9.0E+02
KDO
Endotoxin
0.00
0
0
2
4
6
Time (Hrs)
8
10
0.0E+00
0
12
Endotoxin Concentration (EU/ml)
40
2
4
6
8
10
12
Time (Hours)
Table 1.1 Time course of COD, KDO and endotoxin during decay test (Guizani et al., 2010).
0.1um~0.45um
25KDa~100KDa
35.0
5.0E+03
100KDa~0.1um
<25KDa
30.0
100KDa~0.1um
<25KDa
Endotoxin (EU/ml)
4.0E+03
25.0
COD(mg/l)
0.1um~0.45um
25KDa~100KDa
20.0
15.0
3.0E+03
2.0E+03
10.0
1.0E+03
5.0
0.0E+00
0.0
Influent A
Effluent A
Influent B
Effluent B
Influent C
Influent A Effluent A Influent B Effluent B Influent C Effluent C
Effluent C
Samples
-5.0
Samples
Figure 1.1 Molecular weight characterization of endotoxic indicative OM (Guizani et al., 2010).
4.0E+03
80
HPBC
3.5E+03
60
3.0E+03
Endotoxin (EU/ml)
COD (mg/l)
HPLC
70
50
40
30
HPLC
HPBC
2.5E+03
2.0E+03
1.5E+03
20
1.0E+03
10
5.0E+02
0.0E+00
0
Influent A
Effluent A
Influent B
Effluent B
Influent C
Influent A Effluent A Influent B Effluent B Influent C Effluent C
Effluent C
samples
samples
Figure 1.1 Hydrophobic and hydrophilic characterization of endotoxic indicative OM
(Guizani et al., 2010).
References
Belanich, M., March (1996). Reduction of endotoxin in a protein mixture using strong anion-exchange
membrane absorption. Pharmaceutical Technology, 142-145.
Guizani, M., et al., Characterization of endotoxic indicative organic matter (2-keto-3deoxyoctulosonic
acid) in raw and biologically treated domestic wastewater, Water Research (2010),
doi:10.1016/j.watres.2010.08.013
Kenneth,
T.,
(2008).
Bacterial
Endotoxin
(Online
Textbook
of
Bacteriology).
www.textbookofbacteriology.net.
Yosuke, S., Reiko, F., Ikuo, I., Atsushi, K., Teruo, K., Makoto, N., (1986). Removal of endotoxin from
water by microfiltration through a microporous polyethylene hollow-fiber membrane. Applied and
Environmental Microbiology 51 (4), 813-820.
Williams, K.L., Roberts, K., Weary, M., Nnalue, N.A., Jorgensen, James H., F.C, (2007). Endotoxins:
Pyrogens, LAL Testing and Depyrogenation. In: Endotoxin Structure, Function and Activity.
Published by CRC (Chapter4).
22
Evaluation system for environmental safety by monitoring
biomarkers; heat shock protein gene expression
,
,
H Isoda#* **, K Sasaki**, F Ben Fredj**, T Morio*, J Han* **, N Funamizu***
*Alliance for Research on North Africa, Univ. of Tsukuba
**Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Univ. of Tsukuba
***Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido Univ.
# corresponding author, e-mail: [email protected]
Keywords: Heat Shock protein , Caco-2, Lipopolysaccharides
Currently, evaluation of the toxicity of environmental pollutants such as heavy metals,
natural and synthetic organic materials has been mainly carried out by physicochemical
analyses. However, it is quite difficult to assess combinational effects of large number of
pollutants and those with unknown physicochemical properties. Thus, it is necessary to
establish simple and economical methods to investigate their effects on organisms and the
environment.
In a previous study, we established a method to evaluate biological risk of pollutants by
monitoring stress-induced expression of heat shock protein 47 (hsp47) gene in Chinese
hamster ovary (CHO) cells (Isoda et al., 2004). Heat shock protein 47 is known as a
biomarker of toxic heavy metals such as arsenic, mercury and lead (Hart et al., 2000). In
addition, we previously found that Hsp90 β (Heat Shock Protein 90β) was induced by
exposure of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) in human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma
Caco-2 cells (Narita et al., 2007). Lipopolysaccharides are released from activated sludge
bacteria and its contamination is a considerable issue for treated wastewater reuse. In the
present study, we established a system to evaluate LPS related risk by monitoring the
expression of hsp90 as a marker gene.
Five (5‟)-upstream fragment of hsp90β gene including its promoter elements was inserted
in the upstream of lacZ coding sequence as the reporter gene. The promoter-reporter gene
constructs were introduced in Caco-2 cells and stable transgenic lines were obtained. By
examining whetherβ -galactosidase activity was induced by application of heat shock, we
established transgenic lines which showed significant hsp90 β ::lacZ expression. We
investigated whether the cell lines showed hsp90β::lacZ expression in response to LPS. One
line of Caco-2/ hsp90β::lacZ showed an induction of reporter gene activity in response to
0.1~10μg/ml LPS treatment. We are investigating the cells response to other environmental
pollutants, and their sensitivity in comparison with hsp47 reporter system.
Figure 1.1 Evaluation LPS by Caco-2/hsp90β::lacZ.
Refernce
[1] Isoda, H .. (2004)High sensitive detection of environmental pollutants . US Patent 6099319.
[2] Narita, H., Terence, T., Junkyu, H., Naoyuki, H., and Isoda, H. (2007) Human Intestinal Cells
Incubated with Activated Sludge and Lipopolysaccharide Express Hsp90b. Environmental Sciences,
14, 035-039.
23
Toxicogenomic approach to evaluate adverse effects of
chemical pollutants
Satoshi Okabe
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, North-13,
West-8, Sapporo, 060-8628, Japan.
Keywords: safe water supply; toxicogenomics; in vitro bioassay
Pollution and scarcity of water resources are becoming more serious owing to the global
climate change and industrialization. “Sustainable and adequate safe water supply” is
essential for human well-being. The increasing worldwide pollution of freshwater environment
with thousands of industrial and natural chemical compounds is one of the key environmental
problems facing humanity. Most of these compounds are present at low concentrations and
as components as complex mixtures, which raises considerable human health concerns. To
increase the sustainability of safe water supply, it would be necessary to use water efficiently
multiple times by cascading from higher to lower quality needs. To do so, it is essential that
reclaimed wastewater and polluted natural water for domestic use be of acceptable physical,
chemical and microbiological quality. The main concerns are the adverse health risks of
pathogens and toxic chemical compounds.
Given this background, first, tools to assess the impact of thousands of micropolluants on
human health must be developed. Second, cost-effective, energy-saving and appropriate
water and wastewater treatment technologies must be further explored and implemented. In
this presentation, a novel multi-endpoint bioassay will be introduced for assessment of the
human health risks of micropollutants by applying latest biotechnologies including
toxicogenomics and proteomics.
24
Ecosystem Approach to human health: a research
methodology to build sustainability strategies and practices
to solve environmental and sanitary risks among a local
community
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
J.Wéthé , A.H. Maiga , H. Yacouba , E. S. Traoré , F. Traoré , M. Touré , C. Y. Some , S.
1
1
2
5
3
3
4
Thiam , P. Ginies , E.D. Dapola , A.Tamboura , J.N. Poda , N. Gansoré , Ph. Compaoré ,
1
12
L. Yiougo et D. T. Zoungrana .
1 International Institute for water and environmental engineering, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
2 University of Ouagadougou, Department of Geography, Burkina Faso
3 National Centre of Scientific and technical Research, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
4 Ministry of Public health, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
5 ONG, Woman Action, Environment and Development.
Keywords: Community, Ecosystem approach, Human health, sanitary conditions, Sustainability
Traditional control methods to improve the health, sanitary conditions and well-being of large
portions of the population in the developing countries of the South, have failed. This failure
now poses a challenge to scientists, governments, international organizations, and donors,
who must look for another way to address the root causes of these problems and come up
with sustainable and improved strategies to solve them. The Ecohealth or Ecosystem
approach to human health explores the relationships between the various components of an
ecosystem in order to define and evaluate the priority determinants of human health and the
sustainability of that ecosystem. It recognizes that there are inextricable links between
humans and their biophysical, social and economic environments and these links are
reflected in a population‟s state of health. It encourages positive environmental action that will
enhance both health and welfare at the community level. Ecohealth can be seen as part of
the sustainable development methods that can help to build strategies and practices to solve
environmental and sanitary risks among local community. This communication is presenting a
case study of the Yitenga watershed in Burkina Faso where the Ecohealth approach has
been implemented to tackle and address strategies to the occurrence and increase of gastrointestinal diseases. Results show evidence of different determinants of the gastro-intestinal
diseases risks in the watershed of Yitenga. From these results the research team and the
communities seek for solutions. Some short term actions was carried out to start mitigating
the diseases. Medium and Long term interventions planning are on discussion with the
different stakeholders and constitute the second stage of the study.
25
Wastewater recycling in irrigation: fertilizing value and health
risks assessment.
Case study in a Soudano-Sahelian city: Ouagadougou.
M. SOU , ; H. YACOUBA1; A. MERMOUD3
1
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) - ENAC/IIE/ECHO - Station 2 - CH - 1015
Lausanne - Switzerland
1
International Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering (2IE) - BP 594, Ouagadougou 01 Burkina Faso
Correspondence to Mariam Sou: [email protected] /[email protected]
/[email protected]
Keywords: wastewater, soil, fertilizer, yield, heavy metals, faecal contamination
The major aim of the study is to validate the use of wastewater as an alternative source of
irrigation water and fertilizer, while assessing its impacts on irrigated soil properties and crops
sanitation. More specific objectives are (i) to propose an adjusted treatment of
effluent/fertilizer management (ii) and to evaluate potential risks associated with effluent
irrigated crops consumption.
The paper presents the materiel and methods used and summarizes the results of each
objective. The adjusted treatment applied on lettuce gives higher yields than those obtained
with wastewater treatment. It also shows comparable yields with those of conventional
treatment (i.e. fresh water and synthetic fertilizer). Experiments on carrot and eggplant
however revealed that these crops, which have a longer growth period, need further
investigation. The sanitary assessment indicated no adverse levels of heavy metals (Cd, Ni,
Pb, Cr, and Cu) in the crops. The faecal contamination test performed with Escherichia coli
analysis on the three crops indicated an absence of this bacterium on the edible part of
eggplant and carrots irrigated with wastewater whereas lettuce presented some positives
tests meaning that its consumption could involve a health risk.
26
The mechanism of microorganisms inactivation in
composting toilet
Shinobu Kazama#*, Masahiro Otaki*
* Department of Human Environment Science, Ochanomizu University, 2-1-1 Otsuka, Bunkyo-ku,
Tokyo, 112-8610, Japan
Keywords: mechanism of microorganisms inactivation; pathogen; composting toilet
A composting toilet using sawdust as a matrix has the potential to trap pathogens that might
occasionally be contained in human faces. Therefore, it should be taken care when handling
the sawdust. It should also be noted that pathogenic viruses tend to have stronger tolerance
than pathogenic bacteria. In this study, in order to propose the effective condition of sawdust
to reduce pathogen risk, the mechanisms of their inactivation in composting toilet under
several conditions were investigated.
E.coli and Qß (RNA coliphage) were used as model microorganisms. The experimental
condition of sawdust temperature was kept at 37°C according to the sawdust temperature in
actually operating composting toilet, and also 50°C as a high temperature case. Water
content was kept in 30% and 50% because the water content in actually composting toilet
was usually around 50% and sometimes decreases to 30%. Sawdust pH was changed using
CaO, because high pH condition was effective to reduce E.coli and Qß (Kazama et al., 2008).
In order to investigate the damage on E.coli, three types of mediums were used. The damage
(nucleic acid, metabolism, membrane and/or enzyme activity) of E.coli was assumed to be
detected using them, due to their detection principals. In case of Qß, the double agar layer
method (plaque assay) (Lenore et al., 1998) and quantitative reverse transcription
polymerase chine reaction (qRT-PCR) (Wolf et al., 2008) were used. It was assumed that the
damage on Qß could be estimated the difference ratio between these two method. In addition,
inactivation rates by plaque assay and qRT-PCR were compared to the calculated simulation
value based on the detection probability in a PCR target location to all Qß genome. The
genome of Qß consists of 4215 bases (NCBI No.001890). In the case of qRT-PCR (in this
study) and plaque assay, the length of target location is 77 (Wolf et al., 2008) and 1810
(Giovanni et al., 1997) respectively.
As the results, it was estimated that the membrane and/or enzyme activity of E.coli were
mainly damaged by high temperature, and nucleic acid and/or metabolism by dry or high pH.
On the other hand, it was assumed that Qß capsid was damaged by high temperature and
dry, and nucleic acid by high pH. It was known that high temperature and low water content
condition reduce pathogen effectively. However, it was considered that dry condition was
more effective to give a fatal damage on pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, in order to
inactivate quickly and fatally both pathogenic bacteria and viruses, it was considered that high
pH condition was effective.
References
Lenore, S. C., Arnold, E.G. and Andrew, D.E. (1998) Standard Method for the examination of water and
th
wastewater 20 edition, APHA, AWWA and WEF, 9-24-9-25.
Sandoro Wolf, Hoanne Hewitt, Malet Rivera-Aban, Gail E. Greening (2008) Detection and
characterization of F+RNA bacteriophages in water and shellfish:Application of a multiplex real-time
reverse transcription PCR. Journal of Virological Methods, 149, 123–128.
Shinobu Kazama, Masahiro Otaki (2008) Fate of indicator bacteria for pathogenic viruses in composting
th
toilet. Proceeding 6 International Symposium on Sustainable Sanitation. (16), 91-98.
Giovanni Miranda,Daniel Schuppli, Imma Barrera, Christoph Hausherr, Jose M. Sogo and hans Wber
(1997) Recognition of Bacteriophage Qß Plus Strand RNA as a Template by Qß Replicase: Role of
RNA Interactions Mediated by Ribosomal Proteins S1 and Host Factor. JMB, 267, 1089–1103.
27
Sunlight as a low cost option for domestic wastewater
treatment in Sahelian regions: case study in Ouagadougou
1
1
Ynoussa Maïga , Joseph Wethe et Aboubakar Sidiki Ouattara
2
1
2iE, International Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering, 1Rue de la Science, BP 594
Ouagadougou 01 Burkina Faso.
2
University of Ouagadougou – Burkina Faso
Keywords: Domestic wastewater, Escherichia coli, Ouagadougou, Sunlight
Wastewater is of major concern in Sahelian developing countries for 2 main reasons: (i)
wastewater contains microorganisms which are responsible of diseases and (ii) wastewater is
reused for urban agriculture purposes. Therefore, pathogen removal is an important objective
to achieve during wastewater treatment in these regions. To increase the rate of access to
sanitation services to the poorest population, low cost technologies should be implemented.
Sunlight could be an alternative to increase the removal of microbial pollution in wastewater.
In this study, we used 2 series of microcosms (illuminated and not) to remove indicator
bacteria (E. coli) from wastewater collected after a facultative pond. The results showed that
physico-chemical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature) of the wastewater
increased during the exposition to the sunlight while weak random variations were noticed in
the dark. Bacterial inactivation was significantly higher in illuminated than in non-illuminated
conditions. In addition, in illuminated conditions, shallow microcosms exhibited higher removal
efficiencies than the high depth microcosms. However, in the dark, there was not significant
difference between the removal efficiencies. Depending of the depth of the microcosms, a
treatment of 9 hours was able to fulfill the WHO guidelines for wastewater reuse in restricted
irrigation. These results show that sunlight is a major factor contributing to the bacterial
removal from wastewater and could be used to reduce the time of treatment and improve the
microbial quality of the treated wastewater.
28
Human Urine as a Potential Fertilizer in Agriculture
E.-L. Viskari#*
*Tampere University of Applied Sciences, Environmental Engineering, Kuntokatu 3, 33520 Tampere
Finland
Keywords: urine; fertilizer; agriculture
Introduction
In many countries, including Finland, reclaiming and recycling of human and animal
excreta did not require any special measures in the 18th and early 19th centuries. In the
agrarian society 85 % of the population was working in close connection with agriculture. The
amount of waste per capita was also smaller than today as more than 80 % of the energy in
diets was derived from vegetables. Reuse of recycled nutrients was also a balanced process.
Chemical fertilisers were not available and human and animal excreta were a valuable source
of nutrients for all crops. It was also obvious that no unnecessary dilution of excreta to wastewater took place. Production of organic waste was not significant and if any was produced it
was efficiently utilized and recycled (Suomen maatalouden historia, 2003, 2004a).
Today human excreta reuse in food production is no longer a natural and sustainable
process as it has been during the history of agriculture. We are facing, however, challenges in
food production, that force us to promote the nutrient reuse from all possible sources in the
future. These challenges are for example eutrophication and environmental pollution from
agriculture as well as predicted shortage of phosphate reserves and energy. This paper
discusses the possibilities of using human excreta and especially urine in food production in
the light of safety and efficiency.
Nutrients in urine
Urine contains nutrients that are in soluble form and thus readily available to plants.
Source separated human urine can be used directly as a liquid fertilizer (Jönsson et al., 2004).
The main nutrient (NPK 18:2:5) composition of the urine is favorable to many food crops
(Simons and Clemens, 2003, Tidåker, 2003). Urine also contains many micronutrients, like
Mg, Cu, K etc, that are essential for plant growth. In Table 1.1 the nutrient concentrations of
human urine in different studies is presented.
Table 1.1 Concentrations of certain nutrients in human urine in different studies.
Element
N
P
K
Mg
Cu
Ca
Content in urine (mg/l)
930-8200
60-700
400-1620
78-90
0.067
240-400
References
Pradhan 2010
Pradhan 2010
Pradhan 2010
Yu et al. 2001
Jönsson et al. 2004
Yu et al. 2001
The present knowledge of urine composition also indicate that the use of pure human
excreta compost and urine does not increase the soil heavy metal content. The heavy metals
excreted in urine are the same that we intake in our diet (Viskari et al. 2009).
Use of urine as fertilizer
WHO has presented guidelines (2006) for the safe reuse of urine in agriculture. According
to our studies, urine which is managed according to these instructions is safe for fertilizer
reuse in food production. Table 1.2 presents the microbiological quality of urine which is stored
according to WHO guidelines before use as fertilizer (Viskari et al. 2009).
29
Table 1.2 Occurrence of pathogen indicators as CFU (colony forming units) or PFU (plaque forming
units) in fertiliser products (mean of four parallel samples).
Sample
Salmonella
Faecal
EnteroClostridia
Coliphage
Coliphage
sp.
coliforms
cocci
ATCC 15597 ATCC 13706
Urine
0 CFU/25 ml
0 CFU/40 0 CFU/20 14 CFU/ml
97 PFU/ml*
65 PFU/ml*
ml
ml
Compost
0 CFU/25 g*
0 CFU/1 0
CFU/1 112 CFU/1 0 PFU/1 g**
0 PFU/1 g**
g**
g**
g**
*Detection limit 1 bacterium or 1 coliphage virus particle in sample size given in the table.
** Detection limit10 bacteria or 1 coliphage virus particle in sample size given in the table.
Urine is also efficient fertilizer. Our findings indicate that using urine as fertilizer results even
higher yields than when using inorganic fertilisers. Especially plants that require high nitrogen
inputs, like cabbage and red beet, benefit for the use of urine (Viskari et al, 2009, Pradhan,
2010).
Conclusions and future research needs
Our findings and many other studies throughout the world indicate that human excreta
a) when source separated
b) correctly managed, stored and used, is a safe, efficient and sustainable fertilizer in food
production. The use of the fertilizer products does not pose any significant pathogen risk,
neither for the user of the fertiliser nor to the consumer of the crops, when the precautions in
storage, management and use are taken into account.
Present studies using urine as fertilizer have concentrated mostly on the amount and
quality of yield as well as soil properties. It is clearly shown that crop plants, that require a lot
of nitrogen for their growth, clearly benefit from the use of urine. No significant risks of
pollutant accumulation to foodstuff has been shown. In the future the research attention
should also be paid to the role of micronutrients, like Mg, and possible effects of steroid
hormones in urine.
References
Jönsson, H, Richert Stinzing, A., Vinnerås, B., Salomon, E. (2004). Guidelines on the use of urine and
faeces in crop production. EcoSanRes Publications. Report 2004-2.
Pradhan, S. (2010).Yield and quality of vegetables fertilized with human urine and wood ash.
Publications of the University of Eastern Finland. Dissertations in Forestry and Natural Sciences, 6.
Simons, J., Clemens, J., 2003. The use of separated human urine as mineral fertilizer. Peer reviewed
nd
paper in Conf. Proceedings: 2 International Symposium on ecological sanitation, Lübeck, Germany,
pp. 595–600.
Suomen maatalouden historia. (2003a). Osa 1. Perinteisen maatalouden aika. Esihistoriasta 1870 –
luvulle. Suomalaisen kirjallisuuden seura. Helsinki. (In Finnish).
Suomen maatalouden historia. (2004a). Osa 2. Kasvun ja kriisien aika. 1870-luvulta 1950-luvulle.
Suomalaisen kirjallisuuden seura. Helsinki. (In Finnish).
Tidåker, P., 2003. Life Cycle Assessment of grain production using sourceseparated human urine and
mineral fertilizer. Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering, Uppsala,
Sweden, Report 251.
Viskari, E.-L., Viskari, E.-L., Haapamäki, S., Hamdine, S., Mwakangale, J., Pradhan, S., HeinonenTanski, H. 2009. Dry toilet compost and separated urine as fertilisers – experiences from Finland.
Third International Dry Toilet Conference, August 12-14 2009, Tampere Finland. (oral presentation)
Extended abstract in Proceedings. Available at: www.drytoilet.org/dt2009.
WHO. (2006). Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater. Volume 4: Excreta and
greywater use in agriculture.
Yu Bing-Seng, Qian-Gen Yuan, Li-Hua Nie, Shou-Zhuo Yao. (2001) Ion chromatographic determination
of calcium and magnesium cations in human saliva and urine with a piezoelectric detector. J.
Pharmac. and Biomed. Anal. 25, 1027-1032.
30
Application of water transport model to design the onsite
volume reduction system for source-separated urine
#
Muhammad Masoom Pahore* , K. Ushijima**, R. Ito***, N. Funamizu****
*Ph.D Student, Environmental Engineering Department, Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido
University, Sapporo 060-8628, Phone: +81-11-706-6273, [email protected]
**Ph.D, Assistant Professor, Environmental Engineering Department, Graduate School of Engineering,
Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628, Phone: +81-11-706-6273, [email protected]
***Ph.D, Assistant Professor, Environmental Engineering Department, Graduate School of Engineering,
Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628, Phone/Fax: +81-11-706-6273, [email protected]
***Dr. Engg. Professor, Environmental Engineering Department, Graduate School of Engineering,
Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628, Phone/Fax: +81-11-706-6273, [email protected]
Keywords: climate, onsite volume reduction system, water transport model.
In 1990s, various European groups began working on the basic idea that separating urine at
source could promote sustainability wastewater management (Krichmann and Petterson,
1995; Larsen and Gujer, 1996). The urine source-separation offers many advantages such
as control of pollution, enhancing nutrient recovery and saving energy cost for composting of
feces etc. However, large volume of human urine is required to meet the per hectare crop
requirements. The transport of the raw urine to the farmland using the existing transportation
system could cause significant adverse environmental and financial effects (Nybrant et al,
1996; Hellstrom et al, 1999). The amount of urine solution could be reduced by using the
drying techniques (Hellstrom et al, 1999).To address the transport issues, the onsite volume
reduction system was proposed for treatment of source-separated human urine at household
level (Pahore et al, 2010).
The onsite volume reduction system (OVRS) is based on a vertical gauze sheet which is
placed over a urine collection tank. The water from the urine tank is expected to move up in
the gauze sheet through various small capillaries under the capillary pressure, which is then
evaporated in the atmosphere through the surface of the sheet. This Paper explain the
methodology to design the size of the vertical gauze sheet of the OVRS. 80% volume
reduction of urine per day was proposed to provide incentives to the farmers. Thus, the
estimation shown in this Paper is also based on 80% volume reduction of urine per day.
Since the mass transfer coefficient (Ky), which is an important parameters of the OVRS is
affected by combination of air temperature, air humidity and air flow rate, therefore, we
established inter-relationship between the Sherwood Number and Reynolds Numbers given
as under based on the laboratory scale experiments (Pahore et al, 2010).
Sh= 0.08Re
0.266
(1)
The eq. (1) was applied for estimating the Ky for various climate conditions. Likewise, the
water penetration factor, σ through the gauze sheet was also established based the
experiments (Pahore et al, 2010).
Following water transport model eq. (2) was used for estimating the required height of the
gauze sheet for 80% volume reduction of urine per day.
   H  H 
 dH 
WT 
  M air Ky  Xi  X  A
  WT    max
H
 dt 

 
(2)
where W, T, H and Hmax are respectively the width (cm), the thickness (cm), the current
water level (cm) and the maximum water level of the sheet (cm), σ is the water penetration
-1 -2
-1 -1
factor (g cm h ), μis the water viscosity (g cm s ) , Mair is the molecular weight of the air (g
31
-1
-2
-1
kmol ), Ky is the mass transfer coefficient (kmol cm h ), Xi and X are respectively air
humidity (g-water/ g-dry air) at the wet surface and in the air and A is the effective evaporation
2
area of the sheet (cm ). In this paper W, H , σ and Xi shall be evaluated.
The width of the actual vertical gauze sheet, W (cm) can be estimated from the mass
transfer eq. (3) of this Paper. This eq. (3) was simplified for the sake of easy understanding as
under.
W 
Required ER
M air Ky ( Xi  X ) H
(3)
where Required ER is the quantity of urine to be evaporated per day by taking into account
either 12 or 24 hours operation of the system. A can be expressed here by W x H.
Keeping in view the various climate conditions, the design procedures was applied for
estimating the size of the gauze sheet, which is given in Table 1.
Table 1: Estimated size of vertical gauze sheet for the onsite volume reduction system for 80% volume
reduction of 10 L urine per day using the water transport model.
Air conditions
Climate
Operation
Timings
Temperature
Size of gauze sheet
(°C)
Humidity
(%)
Height
(cm)
Width
(cm)
Comments
Arid
24-h
15
66
8.4
1260
Tropical
24-h
15
77
16
3600
Temperate
24-h
10
80
22
8560
Not effective
Cold
24-h
0
89
-
-
Unsuitable
Suitable
It is evident from Table 1 that the OVRS can be designed and operated with reasonably
small size of the vertical gauze sheet for 80%volume reduction of 10 L of urine per day at
household level for the areas located in the arid and the tropical climates. The areas located
in the temperate climate conditions require relatively larger size of the vertical gauze sheet,
thus making the temperate climate not so effective for volume reduction of urine with the
OVRS. However, the cold climate is unsuitable if this system is designed and operated for the
required volume reduction of urine per day.
Acknowledgement The first author acknowledges financial support extended by Japan
Science and Technology (JST) Agency and JICA for undertaking this research work.
References
Hellstrom, D., Johansson, E. and Grennberg, K. (1999), Storage of human urine: acidification as a
method to inhibit decomposition of urea, Ecological Engineering, 12 (3-4), pp. 253-269.
Krichmann, H., Pettersson, S. (1995) Human urine - chemical composition and fertilizer use efficiency,
Fertilizer Research 40, pp.149-154.
Larsen, T.A, Gujer, W. (1996) Separate management of anthropogenic nutrient solution (human urine),
Water Science and Technology, 34 (3-4), pp.87-94
Nybrant, T., Jonsson, H., Sonesson, U., Forstell, B., Mingarini, K., Thyselius, l., Dalemo, M., Sundqvist,
J-O., 1996, System analysis of organic waste –The ORWARE Model, Case Study Part one. AFRReport 109. Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm Sweden.
Pahore, M. M., Ito, R., Funamizu, N. (2010). Rational design of an onsite volume reduction system for
source-separated urine, Environmental Technology, 31 (4), pp. 399-408.
Pahore, M.M., Ito, R., Funamizu N. (2010). Performance evaluation of onsite volume reduction system
with synthetic urine using water transport model, Paper submitted to Environmental Technology for
publication, February 2010.
32
Characteristics of Components in Fresh Human Urine and
their Fate during Storage Process
T. Kakimoto#*, S. Hotta**, H. Shibuya***, H.Suzuki***, N. Funamizu**
* Center for Environmental Science in Saitama, Kamitanadare 914, Kazo-shi, Saitama 347-0115, Japan
** Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita-13, Nishi-8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8628
Japan
*** Division of Laboratory and Transfusion Medicine, Hokkaido University Hospital, Kita-14, Nishi-5,
Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8648 Japan
Keywords: fresh urine; organic matter; molecular weight distribution
Separation of urine at source followed by onsite storage and adequate treatment has become
a basic idea for more sustainable alternatives in management of household wastewater.
Compared to interests in phosphate, nitrogen (Lind et al., 2000; Udert et al., 2003a,d; Harada
et al., 2006) and micro-pollutants (Maurer et al., 2006; Pronk et al., 2006a) in urine,
discussion about organic matter seemed to be not enough especially on the changes in the
character of urine during storage process. Therefore objectives of this study were 1) to
prepare the list of urine components mainly focused on organic matter 2) to monitor the
evolution of the urine components in storage process.
Fresh human urine was collected within 4 hours from general public 189 people with
information of number of donors, sexual balance, collection time and temperature. In order to
prepare the concentration of urinary components, their concentrations in the fresh human
urine were measured as many as possible: 40 amino acids, 8 organic acids, 4 nitrogen and 6
inorganic ion species, molecular weight distribution of organic matter. Electrochemical
character of urine was also evaluated by voltammetry technique. Then in order to monitor the
o
fate of the components in fresh urine, storage test in batch system at 30 C for 90 days were
conducted. In parallel, concentrations of pharmaceuticals added to the fresh urine were
measured to monitor their stability during storage process.
Regarding the components of urine, results of these experiments indicated that main
change in stored process was degradation of urea, and our monitoring items except urea
account for approximately 16% of organic matter in fresh urine and for 10% in stored urine. In
terms of molecular weight distribution, as shown in Fig.1, the DOC from 100 Da to 1 kDa
readily decreased in the first 3 days whereas the DOC less than 100 Da except urea
correspondingly increased. The same kind of behaviour was found in the fraction of more
than 1000 Da. Concentration of organic acids in stored urine indicated that most of organic
acid increased in the first 15 days during storage process. These results also supported the
transformation of organic matter into smaller size. (350)
5.0
a
4.0
Less than 100Da
TOC (g-C/l)
Organic Carbon (g-C/l)
5.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
20
40
60
Time (day)
80
urine (0 day)
urine (90 days)
3.0
2.0
1.0
100-1kDa
0.0
0
b
4.0
100
0.0
<100Da
100-1000Da
100010000Da
10000Da0.45μm
0.45μm<
Figure 1 Fate of organic matter in urine during storage process. (a) Fate of organic matter less than
100 Da and 100-1kDa. (b) Fate of organic matter in all fractions
Electrochemical character of urine in storage processes were investigated by cyclic
voltammetry. Fresh urine showed oxidation peak in 0.6V (v.s. Ag/AgCl) that is caused by
oxidation of uric acid. This oxidation peak become smaller as time advances, but even in day
33
90, small oxidation currency was found. Our previous study indicated that several kinds of
pharmaceuticals were oxidized around 1.0V (v.s. Ag/AgCl). These results indicated that not
only components of fresh urine but those of stored urine may show inhibitory effect of
electrochemical oxidation of pharmaceuticals.
0.5
35 day
I/mA
0.4
0.3
91 day
0.2
3 day
0 day
8 day
0.1
0
-0.1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
E/V vs. Ag/AgCl
1.5
Figure 2 Change in electrochemical character of urine during storage process.
Stability of selected pharmaceuticals (Carbamazepine, Dicrofenac, Levofloxacin, Metoprolol,
Tetracycline) in stored urine was investigated. The result indicated that carbamazepine,
diclofenac and levofloxacin were stable in urine storage process whereas concentration of
metoprolol and tetracycline were decreased. Kakimoto and Funamizu showed that the
decomposition of Tetracycline profoundly related to the concentration of phosphate ammonia
and pH. concentrations of phosphate ion and ammonium ion in the stored urine were much
higher than in usual wastewater. It was therefore concluded that the Tetracycline could
decompose in storage process of urine due to high levels of phosphate, ammonium and
hydroxyl ion.
Concentration (mg/l)
1.2
CarbamazepineDiclofenac
1.0
Levfloxacin
Metoprolol
0.8
0.6
Tetracycline
0.4
0
50
Time (day)
100
Figure 3 Stability of selected pharmaceuticals during storage process.
References
Lind, B., Ban, Z. and Byden, S., (2000) Nutrient recovery from human urine by struvite crystallization
with ammonia adsorption on zeolite and wollastonite. Bioresource Technology 73(2), 169-174.
Udert, K. M., Larsen, T. A., Biebow, M. and Gujer, W., (2003) Urea hydrolysis and precipitation
dynamics in a urine-collecting system. Water Research 37(11), 2571-2582.
Harada, H., Shimizu, Y., Sato, D., Miyagoshi, Y., Matsui, S., Matsuda, T. and Nagasaki, T., (2006)
Development of a struvite-recovery Plant from Urine using a Urine-Diversion Toilet. Journal of Japan
Science on Water Environment 28(3), 191-196.
Kakimoto, T. and Funamizu, N., (2007) Factors affecting the degradation of amoxicillin in composting
toilet. Chemosphere 66(11), 2219-2224.
Maurer, M., Pronk, W. and Larsen, T. A., (2006) Treatment processes for source-separated urine. Water
Research, 40(17), 3151-3166.
Pronk, W., Palmquist, H., Biebow, M. and Boller, M., (2006). Nanofiltration for the separation of
pharmaceuticals from nutrients in source-separated urine. Water Research, 40 (7), 1405–1412
34
FECAL SLUDGE VALORIZATION BY COMPOSTING PROCESS
WITH MILLET STRAW
1
Yiougo Lydie , Wéthé Joseph
1
1
2iE, International Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering, 1Rue de la Science, BP 594
Ouagadougou 01 Burkina Faso. [email protected] ; [email protected]
Keywords: Fecal sludge Drain, millet straw, composting process
The management of faecal sludge is still a major concern for African cities and particular in
Ouagadougou. Fecal sludge was emptying from pit or septic tank either by truck or manually
and is discharged without any treatment on streets, open spaces, at outskirts of cities or
agricultural land. Faecal sludge is nutrients rich so that it contributes to soil enrichment.
However discharge in non control way lead to significant health risks both for farmers and
consumers.
The global objective of this study is to contribute to better manage fecal sludge by composting
process in Africa. Fecal sludge is compost with different proportion of millet straw as carbon
source. The aim of this study is to determine the best combination of fecal sludge and millet
straw that allowed optimizing the quality of compost. The tested combinations were: (i) 50% of
millet straw, 50% of fecal sludge, (ii) 75% of millet straw, 25% of fecal sludge, (iii) 25% of
millet straw, 75% of fecal sludge. Each combination was repeated three times in order to have
reliable statistical analysis. Thus, we have a total of 9 composts heaps. These heaps were
maintained by regular aeration by turning and watering.
During the process of co-composting, compost samples were collected and analyzed in the
laboratory: physical parameters (pH, conductivity, temperature and humidity), chemical
elements (carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, copper, zinc) and parasitological parameter
(helminthes eggs). First results show that the temperatures reached in the compost pile
allowed eliminating all of helminth eggs.
35
36
Evaluation of agricultural by-products as a composting matrix
Nowaki Hijikata#*, Hiroki Yamazaki*, Natsuru Yamauchi*, Kenta Yabui*, Ken Ushizima*,
Naoyuki Funamizu*
*Department of Environmental Engineering, Hokkaido University.
(Kita 13-Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo-shi, Hokkaido, 060-8628, Japan)
Keywords: Composting matrix, agricultural waste, physical property, degradation ratio
On-site composting toilet, which is able to decompose human waste in aerobic condition, has
advantages for water-free, recovery of fertilizer components and saving investments for pipelines system of waste water. Taking the advantages, the practical application has been
attempted in the area of rural (1.2), suburban (3) and urban slum (4). However, sawdust,
mainly used as a composting matrix in the toilet, can be obtained only limited area. To expand
the versatility of the toilet, therefore, the alternative matrixes substituted for sawdust are
required. Although it has been known that solo corn stalk (5) and soybean stalk mixed with
sawdust (6) are possible to be as the matrix, other agricultural by-products have not been
attempted so far. In this study, therefore, to evaluate the availability of rice hull, rice straw,
wheat straw and bagasse as the alternative matrix, physical properties of the candidate matrix
were compared with those of sawdust. Besides, the fecal degradation with some of the
candidates was monitored.
Totally 12 types of matrixes, which were sawdust, rice hull, 3 types of rice straw (cut
the size of 1 cm, 2 cm and 5 cm), 4 types of wheat straw (cut the size of 1 cm, 2 cm, 5 cm
and powdered) and 3 types of bagasse (sieved the particle size of 2 mm, 2 - 2.8 mm and
more than 2.8 mm), were prepared. Five physical parameters, bulk density, water retention,
constant evaporation rate and critical water content, were determined in this study. The
results of five physical parameters were summarized in Table 1. The bulk densities and
porosities of the matrixes have a negative correlation. The porosities of sawdust, powder of
wheat straw, rice hull and 2 mm bagasse were lower than those of others and 91.0, 92.8, 91.3
and 85.3%, respectively. The water retentions of sawdust and powder of wheat were higher
than those of others and 48% and 52%, respectively. There is a positive correlation between
the constant evaporation rates and critical water contents. The critical water contents of
sawdust, rice hull, 1 cm and 2 cm of rice straw and three type of bagasse were less than 7.00
and lower than those of others. From the results of porosity, water retention and critical water
content, the matrixes were categorized in 5 groups (Table 2).
Two-week and two-month composting experiments were conducted using the several
agricultural by-products as a matrix. In the both experiments, pig feces was used as a
substitute for human feces, since pig feces is easier to obtain than human feces and it has
been known that the compositions of pig and human feces are similar (7). In the two weeks
experiment, 20 L of 1 cm wheat straw, powder of wheat straw and rice hull were used as the
matrix, and 130 g fresh weight of pig feces was input in the matrixes every day. The moisture
content in the matrix was kept during 50-60% by adding adequate amount of water. In the two
month experiment, 40 L of rice hull, 1 cm rice straw and 5 cm rice straw were used as the
matrix, and 800-1500 g fresh weight of the feces was input in the matrixes every day without
the adjustment of moisture content in the matrix by adding water. The degradation ratios of 1
cm wheat straw, powder of wheat straw and rice hull in the two-week experiment were 9, 34
and 43%, respectively. The stable degradation ratios of rice hull and 1 cm rice straw were 38
and 44%, respectively. Although the degradation ratio of 1 cm rice straw was high, it takes 3
weeks until stable degradation-phase and the phase came out after fecal clumps appeared.
Facal degradation in the 5 cm rice straw was not progressed well.
The present study revealed that rice hull and powder of wheat straw are possible to
be an alternative matrix for composting toilet. One possibility that the small particle of
bagasse might be also possible to utilize for the matrix is rose, since the physical properties
are similar to rice hull.
37
Table 1 Physical properties in 12 types of agricultural by-products
Bulk
density
-1)
(g ml
Porosity
Water
retention
(%)
(%)
Constant
evaporation rate
-1
(g g matrix h
Critical
water
content
-1)
Sawdust
0.13
91.0
48
2.22
4.46
Rice hull
0.11
91.3
20
1.29
3.49
Rice straw 1cm
0.05
95.6
20
2.43
5.70
Rice straw 2 cm
0.03
97.0
12
2.22
4.83
Rice straw 5 cm
0.03
97.6
24
5.13
10.27
Powder of wheat straw
0.08
92.8
52
3.87
8.14
Wheat straw 1 cm
0.05
96.1
24
9.14
20.31
Wheat straw 2 cm
0.03
97.0
24
5.41
14.77
Wheat straw 5 cm
0.03
97.7
14
8.70
38.00
Bagasse > 2 mm
0.19
85.3
22
2.28
6.56
Bagasse 2-2.8 mm
0.06
95.6
20
2.27
4.71
Bagasse < 2.8 mm
0.05
96.2
18
2.10
5.11
Table 2 Groups of agricultural by-products categorized by the results of physical properties
Group
Matrix
Porosity
Water
retention
Critical
water
content
A
Sawdust
Low
High
Low
B
C
Powder of wheat straw
Rice hull, Bagasse > 2 mm
Low
Low
High
Low
middle
Low
D
E
Rice straw 1 cm and 2 cm, Bagasse 2-2.8 mm and < 2.8 mm
Rice straw 5 cm, Wheat straw 1 cm, 2 cm and 5 cm
High
High
Low
Low
Low
High
References
(1) Qian, X., et al. (2007). Non-point source pollution control in Taihu lake Basin with composting bioth
toilet. Proc. 5 international Symposium on Sustainable Sanitation, pp.23-36.
(2) Ito, R., et al. (2006). Energy analysis of composting toilet from full scale demonstration project on
th
onsite differentiable treatment system for annual operation. Proc. 4 . International Symposium on
Sustainable Sanitation, pp.313-321.
th
(3) Lin, J., et al. (2006). Application of bio-toilet at a forest park in Xi‟an suburban area. Proc. 5
international Symposium on Sustainable Sanitation, pp.256-263.
(4) Ushijima, K., et al. (2007). Practical model of sustainable sanitation system for urban slum in
th
Bandung. Proc. 5 international Symposium on Sustainable Sanitation, pp.179-188.
(5) Gao, L., et al. (2004). Study on the feasibility of using corn stalk as a matrix to decompose human
th
wastes instead of sawdust. Proc. 2 international Symposium on Sustainable Sanitation, pp.123130
th
(6) Qian, X., et al. (2006). Test on Stalk of soybean as alternative matrix in bio toilet. Proc. 4 .
International Symposium on Sustainable Sanitation, pp.235-244.
(7) Lopez, Z. M. A., et al. (2002) Characterization of feces for describing the aerobic biodegradation of
feces. J. Env. Sys. And Eng. 720, pp.99-105
38
Pilot Study of Onsite Wastewater Differentiable Treatment
System: Japan case
R. Ito#*, K. Ushijima**, N. Funamizu***
* Water, Decontamination, Ecosystem and Health Laboratory, International Institute for Water and
Environmental Engineering (2iE), 01, BP 594, Ouagadougou, 01, Burkina Faso
Laboratory on Engineering for Sustainable Sanitation, Division of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of
Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8628, Japan
** Laboratory on Engineering for Sustainable Sanitation, Division of Environmental Engineering, Faculty
of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8628, Japan
*** Laboratory on Engineering for Sustainable Sanitation, Division of Environmental Engineering, Faculty
of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8628, Japan
Keywords: Composting Toilet; Slanted Soil Treatment System; Energy Consuming Structure
Three pilot studies had performed to evaluate the means of Onsite Wastewater Differentiable
Treatment System (OWDTS, Lopez et al., 2002) at Chichibu, Sapporo and Nago in Japan.
The composting toilet consists of a composting reactor with a mixing device and a heating
device, ventilating system to remove emissions and to supply fresh air into the reactor, and
toilet interface. The composting reactor is filled by sawdust as a composting matrix. The
human excreta reached into the reactor is mixed with the matrix by mixing device and
composted by biological activity. The heating devise keeps the temperature of the matrix in
the composting reactor for well biodegradation rate with compensating the heat loss which
water evaporation from the matrix to the ventilation air involves (Horisawa et al., 2000, Lopez
et al., 2005). Lopes et al. (2004) reported the organic matter in the excreta will be
decomposed in 1 or 2 days, and the pathogens will be inactivated 1 day in high temperature
condition of the composting reactor (Nakata et al., 2002).
The slanted soil treatment system has several stacks of soil layer. The bottom of each layer is
slanted for smooth water flow. Gray water is supplied from top of the system, then permeated
into soil layer. The water moves bottom part of each layer by gravity force. The constituent of
the wastewater is removed physic-chemically or biologically.
According to selection of pilot sites, the climate conditions were considered: cool temperate
climate (Sapporo), temperate climate (Chichibu) and subtropical climate (Nago). In the
Chichibu site, 2 people live in the site and the composting toilet and the slanted soil treatment
system are performed in the site. The composting toilet for the Sapporo site was installed in
the Hokkaido University campus and tourists and people near the campus use it. The Nago
site had the composting toilet in the construction site of a dam.
As a result, the slanted soil treatment system in Chichibu site could remove over 60% of SS
and COD, especially nearly 80% of BOD, but little of T-N and T-P. The composting toilet
system can accumulate nutrients and works well with constant drying rate. Therefore, the
OWDTS can obtain overall removal ratio; 85% of COD, 95% of T-N and 95% of T-P. This
system is concluded that it could effectively treat the wastewater. The composting toilet in the
Sapporo site shows good performance without moisture accumulation in the composting
matrix and 60% of organic matter was biodegraded. In the winter season, the toilet generated
dust of fine sawdust particles because of low utilization frequency resulting in low moisture
content of the matrix. The toilet of the Nago site didn‟t work well with accumulation of moisture
into the matrix owing to the over load of urination. This situation made bad odor resulting from
anaerobic biodegradation.
Concerning the analysis of energy consuming structure, the slanted soil treatment system
didn‟t spend any energy. The composting toilet in Chichibu site consumed about 100kWh of
electricity per month as shown in Fig.1. This energy had just transferred into the ventilation air
as the latent heat of water evaporation and the sensible heat of the ventilation air. The ratio of
latent heat to total consumed energy was 60% constantly. In the Sapporo site, the
39
composting toilet also consumed 100kWh / month, but the ratio was strongly affected by
atmospheric conditions: high efficiency in summer season and low efficiency in winter season.
40000
35000
30000
25000
Power heat[kJ/day]
20000
Heat for
drying[kJ/day]
difference [kJ/day]
15000
10000
5000
0
2006/8/21
2006/11/29
2007/3/9
2007/6/17
2007/9/25
2008/1/3
Figure 1 Time course of energy flow through composting toilet in the Chichibu site.
Figure 2 Typical energy consuming structure of composting toilet.
References
Horisawa, S., Tamai, Y., Sakuma, Y., Doi S., Terazawa M. 2000. Effect of moisture content of a wood
matrix on a small-scale biodegradation system for organic solid waste. J Wood Sci. 46, 317–321.
Lopez Z.M.A, Funamizu N. Takakuwa T. (2002) Onsite Wastewater Differentiable Treatment System:
Modeling Aproach,Water Science and Technology, 46, 317-324
Lopez Z.M.A, Funamizu N. and Takakuwa T. (2004) Temperature effect on aerobic biodegradation of
feces using sawdust as a matrix, Water Research, 38, 2406-2416
Nakata, S., Lopez, M.A.., Funamizu, N., Otaki, M., Takakuwa, T. 2002. Temperature effect on
pathogens decline in the Bio-toilet system. Proceedings of 1st International Dry toilet conference
Tampere.
Lopez Zavala, M.A., Funamizu, N., Takakuwa. T. 2005b. Effect of moisture on the composting process
in the bio-toilet system. Compost Science & Utilization. 13, 208-216.
40
Ceramic membrane filtration at elevated temperature by
solar radiation
S Takizawa#*, R Kawanishi*, K Oguma*
* [email protected] , 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, JAPAN.
# corresponding author
Keywords: disinfection; filtration flux; solar heater
For most of the present-day water treatment, power supply is crucial for the operation of the
system. However, in some countries including Burkina Faso, power supply is often not very
reliable and too expensive. In some rural communities, power supply is not at all available.
Hence, we need to devise a system that does not depend on power supply. Instead of power
supply, the sole energy source that is abundantly available in such countries is solar energy.
The energy efficiency is higher when the solar energy is used to heat water than when it is
converted to electric power by photovoltatic panels.
Various kinds of ceramic membranes are in wide use for water treatment. Ceramic
membranes are produced in many countries for filtering water. One of such ceramic
membranes has a high surface area and well-defined pore size, which enables to filter almost
all of the pathogenic bacteria and some of the viruses. One of the advantages of ceramic
membranes is that they can be operated at a lower filtration pressure than any organic
membranes. Ceramic membranes are also resistant to an elevated temperature for use.
Hence, these facts make ceramic membrane very attractive for filtering water that is heated
by solar radiation. With these backgrounds, this study intends to propose a ceramic
membrane filtration systems driven by solar energy.
The filtration flux is generally expressed by the following equation:
J=
∆
( +  )
Eq. (1)
where J: flux, ΛP: trans- membrane pressure, μ: water viscosity, Rm: membrane resistance,
Rf: membrane fouling resistance. Hence, is we could reduce water viscosity, then we can
obtain a higher membrane flux. Water viscosity is dependent on water temperature as it can
be seem on Table 1. If the water temperature could be elevated from 30C to 70C, then the
viscosity decreased to about a half; hence the filtration flux is expected to increase to nearly
twice.
Table 1.1 Water viscosity at various temperature.
Temp. (C)
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
Viscosity
1.010
0.804
0.659
0.556
0.478
0.416
0.367
1/ viscosity
0.990
1.243
1.517
1.798
2.092
2.404
2.724
2.4
4.2
7.4
12.3
19.9
33.2
47.4
vapour
pressure
-3
3
-1 -1
Units: viscosity (10 Pa.s), 1/viscosity (10 Pa s ), vapour pressure (kPa).
The advantage of solar heating will be more manifest if we could also make use of the
elevated vapour pressure as a driving force of ceramic membrane filtration. If water can be
heated at 70C, then the vapour pressure will reach 33.2 kPa, which is almost the same
operational pressure as the conventional pressure-driven membrane processes. It is also
advantageous if we can make of higher temperature for disinfection of infectious microbes.
41
A preliminary study was carried out to investigate the filtration resistance of the ceramic
membrane. The membrane used in this study had a nominal pore size of 200 nm, and a
2
membrane surface area of 0.035 m . The feed water was stored in a stainless-steel pressure
vessel, wherein water was heated up to 80C. Filtration flux was measured by an electric
balance on the permeate side. Filtration experiments were carried out using Milli-Q water as
the feed water at temperatures varied between 20C and 80C. It was found that there was no
need to pressuring the vessel at 80C because of a higher vapour pressure. The filtration
resistance was calculated using Eq. (1).
Ceramic
membrane
module
Heated
feed water
Digital balance
Figure 1.1 Experimental set-up of solar-heat driven ceramic membrane.
So far, only preliminary experiments have been carried out to verify the concept of solar
driven ceramic membranes. In the next step, raw water samples for this process must be
obtained and be analyzed to investigate the matrices of water quality.
42
Water reclamation and resources recovery from gray water in
urban sub-Sahara
M. Takahashi, Y. Hashimoto,
Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, JAPAN 060-8628
Keywords: water reclamation, high rate algae pond, biomass
The construction and maintenance of the modern sewer system in urban sub-Sahara will
need huge budgets and long period. In addition, the shortage of water resources in subSahara will be the limiting factor to introduce the sewer system which requires a large amount
of water to transport the human waste to the end of pipes. Consequently, the adequate
systems to handle the gray water and black water in urban sub-Sahara should be developed
with an increase in water consumption and population in urban area.
Which kind of the gray water systems will be appropriate for the urban sub-Sahara like
Ouagadougou? The limitation of the finance and the resources such as construction materials
and energy, and a few human resources should be considered. The construction of sewer
pipe systems will spend huge money, so the utilization of existing drainage system is the one
of the options to collect the gray water. In this case, the collection area of drainage system
may be relatively small because of limited transport ability of the existing drainage ditches.
This means relatively small treatment systems will be located within or around the urban area.
The oxidation ponds are operated to treat wastewater in developing countries widely
because of their non-mechanical nature (Shilton, A. et al., 2005). The most common algae
ponds consist of anaerobic, facultative and maturation ponds which require a large footprint.
The high rate algae pond is one of candidates to treat gray water in urban sub-Sahara. The
reasons are as follows, 1) relatively short hydraulic retention time, 2) a little odour annoyance
because of the strong aerobic condition, 3) the suitable climate for the growth of algae, and 4)
less mechanical module. In addition, the effluent from ponds can be used as the reclaimed
water, and potentially, the algae biomass is energy and fertilizer resources. The alga biomass
has a high potential. And the algae harvesting from the effluent is the key technology to
realize the potential benefits effectively. In addition, the effluent from ponds can be used as
the reclaimed water, and potentially, the algae biomass is energy and fertiliser resources. The
alga biomass has a high potential. And the algae harvesting from the effluent is the key
technology to realize the potential benefits effectively. The dissolved air flotation is commonly
applied to remove algae in developed countries. The less mechanical approaches may be
required in developing countries.
In order to enhance the solid-liquid separation, the sedimentation tank and the pump
returning the algae was installed after the high rate algae pond at bench scale experiment.
The high rate algae pond was inoculated using natural pond water, and fed with the artificial
domestic wastewater. The average removal percentage of suspended solid at the
sedimentation tank was 71% during three weeks. Although the design and operation of
sedimentation tank and high rate algae pond must make improvement, the sedimentation and
retuned algae may improve the solid-liquid separation ability.
As mentioned before, the application of high rate algae pond in urban sub-Sahara may be
small scale and dispersed within or around the city. The water reclamation and biomass
utilization will be done within the collection area of the gray water. Assuming the design
conditions and design parameters as listed in Table 1, Figure 1 shows the designed high rate
algae pond. The challenges to establish the high rate algae pond aiming the water
reclamation and biogas production for a small community were 1) improvement of solid-liquid
separation, 2) reducing the operation costs including electricity, 3) increasing the algal
productivity and biogas production, and so on.
43
Table 1 Assumed design conditions and design parameters of high rate algae pond (HRAP).
Popolation
Gray water per capita per day
Influent quality
SS
D-BOD
PO4-P
Inorganic N
Removal efficiency of SS
in primary sedimentation tank
Removal efficiency of SS
in final sedimentation tank
m3/cap./day
mg/l
mg/l
mg/l
mg/l
10000
0.05
Depth of HRAP
m
HRT in HARP
day
SRT in HARP
day
Average water velosity in HARP m/sec
Energy constant of algae
mol/g
Photosynthetic efficiency
%
Biogas production per solid
l/kg
Total solar insolation
mol/m2/day
at pond surface
Rejected percentage of P at
%
sludge treatment
P content in algae
%
300
60
2
4.8
%
40
%
95
0.3
4
20
0.15
0.106
2
400
86.4
70
1.25
Influent Q: 500m3/d
SS: 150kg/d
P: 2.1kg/d 4.25mg/l
Primary sedimentation tank
Primary sludge: 60kg/d
Digestion tank
P: 1.3kg/d
Residue
Algae: 82kg/d
Other solid: 69kg/d
Biogas: 84m3/d
Biogas scrubber
Algae production: 110kg/d
Other solid: 91kg/d
Final sedimentation tank
Effluent SS: 50kg/d
SS: 100mg/l
P: 3.2mg/l
High rate pond MLSS: 2010mg/l
Methane gas: 51m3/d or 36kg/d
Gas holder
Figure 1 High rate algae pond aiming the water reclamation and biogas production for a small
community.
References
Shilton, A. et al. (2005) Pond treatment technology. IWA Publishing. 12Caxton Street, London, UK
44
Graywater Treatment by Slanted Soil System
K. USHIJIMA*, K. ITO**, R. ITO*, N. Funamizu*
*Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, kita13-nishi8,
kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628, Japan
** Department of Environmental Engineering, Graduated school of Engineering, Hokkaido University,
kita13-nishi8, kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628, Japan
Keywords: water reuse for agriculture; onsite wastewater differentiable treatment system; design
Onsite Wastewater Differentiable Treatment System (OWDTS), which propose onsite
treatment for graywater, urine and feces separately, is regarded as one of suitable system for
developing country (Lopez Zavala et al., 2002). It makes graywater, which is large amount
and less contaminated, easy to treat and reuse. Although wastewater reuse is currently
applied for urban agriculture, especially in arid zones in developing countries, the wastewater
was used without any treatment or just with diluted (Asano et al. 2007, Raschid-Sally et al.
2008). Safe reclaimed water should be provided with low-cost simple system such that lowincome people can maintain by themselves.
In this study, Slanted Soil Treatment (SST) was tested as a low-cost and easy graywater
treatment system in OWDTS. SST consists of several boxes containing soil (Fig.1). These
boxes are stacked vertically, and its footprint is very small (1.0×0.5m). No energy is required
because water flows by natural gravity. The SST box is not so expensive (¥3000/each box in
Japan) and it could be constructed by local worker due to its simple structure. SST would be
adaptable for residential on-site treatment in arid zones in developing countries.
In order to design SST for water reuse in agriculture, following points are investigated;
・Pathogens (E.Coli, MS-2) to see health risk and choice of the crops
・Surfactants (LAS) to consider the effect on crops
・TSS to see clogging rate in the BOX
・Organic matter(COD, BDOC) to consider the clogging in irrigation pipe
Artificial graywater containing incubated E.coli and bacteriophage MS2 was prepared and
continuously discharged to SST. Total 8 series of experiments (Table1) were carried out.
Measured items are CODCr, dissolved-CODCr, TSS, VSS, E.coli B strain (NBRC13168),
MS2 phage (NBRC102619), LAS and BDOC.
G raywater
60l/(capita・day・s eries )
Morning
(8:00-11:00)
Noon
(13:00-16:00)
E vening
(18:00-21:00)
KS
6l
T T emp. C ontrol
P P ump
WM
12l
Intermittent dis charge
KS
6l
KS
6l
B OX1
B OX2
SW
30l
B OX3
B OX4
S ampling
point
Inc ubation
(E .C oli & MS 2)
Figure 1 SST applied for the experiment.
45
Table 1 Experimental conditions
D ifference of 8 s eries
S eries
S S T1
S S T2
S S T3
S S T 4-1
S S T 4-2
S S T5
S S T 6-1
S S T 6-2
BOX1
O peration
period
6weeks
60
6weeks
L /s eries /day
5weeks
3weeks
30
4weeks
L /s eries /day
8weeks
B O X 2,3,4 F low volume
K anuma(4-11mm)
C B M(4-11mm)
C B M(1-4mm)
C B M(1-4mm)
C B M(1-4mm)
C BM
C BM
(4-11mm) (1-4mm)
15
C B M(1-4mm)
3weeks
C B M(1-4mm)
L /s eries /day 4weeks
(C B M : C rus h B aked Mud)
COD reduction appears to be linear by length, therefore COD removal can be regarded as
a 1st order reaction: C=C0・Exp(- kl), where k is the reaction coefficient, ranging from 0.20 to
0.51. kCOD did not change in elapsed time, soil particle size and soil type. The relationship
between Q and k was shown by the formula:
kCOD = -0.06Q + 0.6.
TSS and LAS removal also could be regarded as a 1st order reaction, and kTSS and kLAS were
defined as below:
kTSS=-0.09Q+0.9, kLAS = -0.02Q + 1.0.
kTSS and kLAS value was not influenced by the elapsed time, soil type or soil particle size, as
COD reaction. All series could reduce LAS to under 35mg/l, one of reported concentration
causing crop disease (Garland et al. 2004).
SST3, 4-1, 5, and 6-1 experienced clogging in 5weeks, 3weeks, 8weeks and 3weeks
respectively. There was no relationship between clogging time T and estimated cumulative
amount of TSS removal. The fraction of fine soil particles in SST4-1 and ST6-1 were bigger
than those in SST4-2 and SST6-2, and T depends on soil particle size distribution. To enlarge
T, BOX1 should contain coarse soil particles (4-11mm).
Pathogens (E.Coli and MS2) were reduced in SST5 where fine soil particles were used.
Although SST5 could not remove pathogens in BOX1 containing coarse soil particles such as
SST1 and SST2, SST5 achieved 5 Log E.Coli and 3 log MS2 reductions in BOX2 containing
fine soil particles. The box of SST appeared to have the maximum cumulative amount of
E.Coli removal because the breakthrough point occurred after several weeks. In this study,
10
maximum cumulative amount of E.Coli removal was estimated as 10 CFU/box and it means
that the replacement of BOX2 in every 3 weeks is required.
References
Asano, T., Burton, F.L., Leverenz, H.L., Tsuchihashi, R. and Tchobanoglous, G. (2007) Water Reuse,
isuues, technologies and application, Metcalf & Eddy, Inc. an AECOM Company.
Garland, J.L., Levine, L.H., Yorio, N.C., Adams, J.L. and Hummerick, M.E. (2004) Response of
graywater recycling systems based on hydroponic plant growth to three classes of surfactants, Wat.
Res. 38(8), 1952-1962.
Lopez Zavala, M.A., Funamizu, N., Takakuwa, T. (2002) Onsite wastewater differentiable treatment
system:modelling approach, Wat. Sci. Tech. 46(6-7), 317-324.
Raschid-Sally, L. and Jayakody, P. (2008) Drivers and characteristics of wastewater agriculture in
developing countries – results from a global assessment, International Wastewater Management
Institute.
46
Analyzing and evaluating the Physic Nut efficiency purifying
domestic waste water according to the pollutant contents
1
J.WETHE et M.SENE
1
1
2iE, International Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering, 1Rue de la Science, BP 594
Ouagadougou 01 Burkina Faso. [email protected] ; [email protected]
Keywords: Waste water purification, domestic, Physic Nut
The present study conducted at the experimental station of 2iE, consists of evaluating the
Physic Nut efficiency by testing domestic wastewater. Physic Nut is a non aquatic inedible
plant which produces biofuel, contributes to soil structure rehabilitation and owns medicinal
properties. This innovative study is justified by permanent research on macrophyte for
wastewater treatment in order to reuse these water for agricultural purposes so that contribute
to resolve recurrent conflict between irrigation water and drinking water in Sahelian countries.
The experimental system is made of 4 series of microcosm arrange in cascade. Every set has
water supply system with 200 l/day. These microcosms have two types of wastewaters: the
first one comes from a facultative pond and the second one from a maturation pond. For
every type of water, there are sets of planted microcosms (10 plants/microcosm) and non
planted microcosms, every one containing 20 l of water and 17 cm of quartz. The diameter of
every quartz is between 10 and 25 mm and has 0,77% of porosity. The leaves of Physic Nut
plants use in this study are matured. These plants grow normally in quartz substratum. All
water flows discharge is fixed at 0,01s/s or 24 hours operation of the system. Water flows
horizontally through the substratum. The tested system shows that discharge at the beginning
and the end are the same in planted and unplanted systems. This allows the treatment of
177 l/Day/Microcoms. The theoretical retention time is 35mn.
The Physic Nut efficiency shows the following result respectively for facultative and
maturation pond wastewater: 69 % elimination and 67 % for TSS, 39 % and 40 % for COD,
38 % and 29 % for BOD5.The system provides clear water at turbidity point of view. These
results can be compared to unplanted systems (TSS: 60 % and 66 %; COD: 40 % and 40 %;
+
3BOD5: 37 % and 24 %). Nutriment elements reduction (NTK, NH4 , NO3 , PO4 ) is also very
low and do not exceed 25% for any wastewater treated with the system. The planted system
efficiency in terms of E.coli reduction is 0.70 log10 UFC and 1.10 log10 UFC respectively
facultative pond and maturation pond effluent. The analysis of the different parts of this plant
shows, after the experiment, that Physic Nut roots are nitrogen and phosphorus fixatives.
47
CONSTRUCTED WETLAND - TREATMENT PROCESSES AND
APPLICATION
Adrien Wanko, Robert Mosé and Antoine Sadowski
University of Strasbourg/Engees, CNRS, IMFS,
2 rue Boussingault, 67070 Strasbourg, France
Keywords: constructed wetland, pesticide, treatment processes, wastewater
1
Constructed wetlands (CWs) are engineered systems that have been designed and
constructed to utilise the natural processes involving wetland vegetation, soils, and the
associated microbial assemblages to assist in treating wastewaters. They are designed to
take advantage of many of the same processes that occur in natural wetlands, but do so
within a more controlled environment. CWs for wastewater treatment may be classified
according to the life form of the dominating macrophyte into systems with free-floating, rooted
emergent and submerged macrophytes. Most systems constructed around the world are
planted with emergent macrophytes, but the design of these systems varies in terms of media
and flow regime. The most common systems are designed with a free water surface (FWS
CWs) or horizontal sub-surface flow (HF CWs), but vertical flow (VF CWs) systems are
getting more popular at present. Constructed wetlands have traditionally been used for the
treatment of domestic and municipal sewage from both separate and combined sewerage.
However, since the late 1980s CWs have been used for many other types of wastewater,
including agricultural wastewaters (cattle, swine, poultry, dairy), mine drainage, food
processing wastewaters (winery, abattoir, fish, potato, vegetable, meat, cheese, milk, sugar
production), heavy industry wastewaters (polymers, fertilisers, chemicals, oil refineries, pulp
and paper mills), landfill leachate and runoff waters.
Analytical results presented by several authors have demonstrated, with different grades of
success, the capability of constructed and natural wetlands to remove agricultural pesticide
runoff-related non-point source pollution from surface water. The potential of constructed
wetlands to reduce the environmental risk originated from spray drift-related pesticide
pollution has been also highlight. The application concern a study performed during the
summer of 2010 in a pilot plant device at Colmar, Alsace, in France; in the framework of
Artwet Project (European Life project). The experimental pilot device consists in twelve
lysimeters in outdoor conditions made out of the high-density polyethylene (HDPE) avoiding
any adsorption of organic or mineral pesticides because of our targets pollutant including
glyphosate and AMPA. The remediation capacities of glyphosate in the lysimeters and the
retention rate in soils are analysed. Finally a scientific project concerning both 2iE Fondation
and Engees that focus on sludge treatment within constructed wetland will be presented.
1
Constructed wetland definition from Jan Vymazal et al.,2006
48
Hokkaido University, “Special coordinated training program
for Sustainability Leaders and Sustainability „Meisters‟
(StraSS)”
Noriyuki Tanaka
Center for Sustainability Science, Hokkaido University, N9W8, Sapporo, 060-0809, Japan.
TEL: +81-11-706-4532
FAX: +81-11-706-4534
Mail: [email protected]
Keywords: Higher Education for Sustainability ; Problem-Based Learning ; Internship
This program trains new sustainability experts to holistically deal with numerously
interrelated problems threatening global sustainability. There problems include poverty,
environmental degradation, resource depletion, and the infringement of basic human rights.
Together with distinguished Asian and African institutions for higher education, this program
aims to produce active and knowledgeable Sustainability Leaders with excellent practical
ethics to be global citizens. Sustainability Leaders should have the ability to define the
problems threatening human survival and environmental durability while employing a
comprehensive point of view. Also, they need to cooperate with various stakeholders, and
propose and execute solutions in order to solve problems holistically. A Leader should also be
a talented person who can contribute to the spread of environmental literacy through regional
community environment awareness programs. Candidates should be people who have
completed a graduate school master‟s course or who have the equivalent knowledge and
experience. They also should have a good understanding of environmental science,
environmental technology, environmental ethics, environmental policy, environmental
leadership theory, and lastly, knowledge of local Asian/African cultures and/or languages, as
well as a basic comprehension of environmental education. A student completing the course
shall be awarded a “Sustainability Leader Certificate” for practical skills learned through
Problem-Based Learning (PBL), and citizen environment awareness program.
This program also nurtures Sustainability „Meisters‟, who are more highly trained
Sustainability Leaders and to be effective ODA planners as well as executors for solving
many existing and potential problems. In order to determine the underlying problems, the
„Meisters‟ is required to have the highest levels of knowledge and professional skill in the
relevant disciplines. They will be able to draw on their practical know-how to develop
Sustainability Leaders in Asia and Africa with TAs (Teaching Assistantship). The completion
of a Ph.D. program or equivalent learning and experience are required for completion of the
course. In order to obtain practical skills, participants can experience an actual on-going
project to solve existing problems and can engage in ODA planning at Asian and African sites
with a minimum stay period of 3 months. A “Certificate of Sustainability „Meister‟ Course
Completion” shall be awarded upon course completion. “Sustainability „Meister‟” Status shall
only be conferred on those graduates that have consistently demonstrated outstanding
practical ability through the internship, which will be provided for excellent graduates of this
course to acquire practical experiences and skills at JICA overseas offices, government
offices abroad, and so on.
Students can complete their Leader and „Meister‟ program with courses in English.
This program will offer credit transfers and opportunities to receive double degrees to
participating students. In this way, students will enjoy greater advantages when finishing their
own graduate courses in both their home and host universities. In addition to this, exciting
professional career path in the sustainability development field will be provided to participants.
Until now there has been no opportunity for students in higher education to become experts in
international collaboration by utilizing the professional knowledge and experience accessed in
a graduate school. With this program, enrolled students have an opportunity to develop
practical knowledge and skills to create a new paradigm for sustainability development.
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