2013 Missouri Academy of Science Schedules and Abstracts April 20, 2013 College of the Ozarks AGRICULTURE SESSION: Oral Presentations: Youngman Agriculture Building, Room Y-120 Poster Presentations: Youngman Upper Level Section Chair: Michael Aide and Sven Svenson, Southeast Missouri State University Time Oral Presentations 8:30- *Aide, M.T. Department of Agriculture and the University Foundation, Southeast Missouri State University. ARSENIC IN SOILS. 8:50 *Azarpajouh, S., T. Wuliji, W. Fales, A. Bax. Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Lincoln University. A. ISOLATION OF AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC BACTERIA FROM FOOT ROT INSPECTIONS OF SHEEP AND GOATS. 9:10 Schwerzenbach C., K. Sharp, T. Giblin. Department of Natural Sciences, Stephens College. DETERMINING SHEDDING STATUS IN EQUINE IN ORDER TO REDUCE WORMING PRACTICES. 9:30 Aide, M.T. Department of Agriculture and the University Foundation, Southeast Missouri State University. ARSENIC IN RICE. Time Poster Presentations (10:30-11:30) *Wuliji, T., W. Lamberson, B. Shanks, J. Caldwell, C, Clifford-Rathert, J. Pennington, H. Swartz, S. Azarqajouh, A. Bax. Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Lincoln University; University of Missouri. MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION FOR FOOT-ROT DISEASE RESISTANCE IN SHEEP. *Johnson, H.Y., J. Wilson, and J.C.Piñero. Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Lincoln University. GETTING BENEFITS OUT OF A BAD BUG: ON-FARM COMPOSTING OF JAPANESE BEETLE. *Kuehn, E.A., M.R. Owen, R.T. Pavlowsky. Department of Geography, Geology, and Planning, Missouri State University, Ozarks Environmental Watershed Research Institute.CONTRIBUTIONS OF STREAM BANK EROSION TO SEDIMENT LOADS IN A SOUTHWESTERN MISSOURI RIVER. *Schulte B. A., L. S. Wilbers, J. D. Caldwell, C. Clifford-Rathert, and A. K. Wurst. Department of Bologyy, Lincoln University. EXCESS ESTRUS IN MEAT GOATS. *Svenson, S.E., J. D. Weathers, W. D. Mauk, I. Braden, W. Mueller, and M. T. Aide. M.T. Department of Agriculture and the University Foundation, Southeast Missouri State University. CREATING A HORTICULTURE OPTION IN AN AGRIBUSINESS CURRICULUM. *Denotes scheduled presenter. Agriculture Session Oral Presentations Abstracts: *Aide, M.T. Department of Agriculture and the University Foundation, Southeast Missouri State University. ARSENIC IN SOILS. Understanding of arsenic (As) transformations in soil is important to discriminate between natural background and anthropogenic arsenic (As). Twenty one soil series were characterized to estimate the As soil profile distributions. The majority of pedons exhibiting argillic horizons show a Fe-oxyhydroxide and As maxima in the argillic horizon. Coarse-textured, well-drained to moderately-well drained Entisols and Inceptisols have Fe-oxyhydroxide accumulation in their cambic horizons, promoting As accumulation. Conversely, siltytextured and poorly to somewhat poorly drained Entisols and Inceptisols have somewhat uniform Fe and As soil profile concentration distributions. Pedons having well- to moderately well-drained soil profiles have greater As and Fe concentrations in the clay separate. Pedons having cohesive masses of Fe and Mn accumulation in the sand separate had greater arsenic concentrations in these nodules, sugesting alternative pedogenic transformations. *Aide, M.T. Department of Agriculture and the University Foundation, Southeast Missouri State University. ARSENIC IN RICE. Understanding of arsenic (As) uptake in rice is a new concern. In this field project, arsenic uptake by rice was estimated. Three rice varieties were planted in a randomized block design. At harvest, the harvest index demonstrated that the seed to leaf-stem dry weights were roughly equivalent. Nitrogen, phosphorus and copper were primarily partitioned into the seed, whereas potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, manganese, boron and arsenic were not readily assimilated into seed and remained sequestered in the stem-leaf component. Arsenic showed the least tendency to be assimilated into the seed component. The total arsenic seed contents were not varieity dependent; however the total arsenic biomass accumulation was greatest for the ‘CL111’ variety. *Azarpajouh, S., T. Wuliji, W. Fales, A. Bax. Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Lincoln University. ISOLATION OF AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC BACTERIA FROM FOOT ROT INSPECTIONS OF SHEEP AND GOATS. One hundred eighty two sheep and 14 goats were inspected and graded for footrot lesion score from 0 (no infection) to 4 (severe infection). Culture swab specimen was collected in transport culture tube from infected lesions. Most of sick animals were appeared suffering from less virulent footrot. Swab samples were inoculated on either Blood agar or Nutrient broth plates, and incubated in anaerobic jars (BBL) at 37 °C and aerobic incubator at 32 °C. The isolates were examined under microscope on Gram-stained slides, with two intervals in a week for 2 weeks and purified colonies were identified for bacteria genus or species with the Sensititre AP-90 and AP-80 Gram identification systems. Footrot lesion score data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. From both aerobic and anaerobic cultures, 419 purified bacteria colonies were isolated; of which 143 isolate colonies were identified anaerobes and 276 isolate colonies as aerobes. From animals (n=15) with foot rot score of 4, 40 anaerobe isolate colonies and 38 aerobic isolate colonies were identified. Sixty eight anaerobic isolate colonies and 104 aerobic colonies were isolated from animals (n=38) with foot rot score of 3 and 35 anaerobic colonies and 113 aerobic colonies from those (n=38) with foot rot score of 2. There were no significant differences between the number of anaerobe and aerobe isolate colonies in score groups of 2, 3 and 4. *Schwerzenbach C., K. Sharp, and T. Giblin. Department of Natural Sciences, Stephens College. DETERMINING SHEDDING STATUS IN EQUINE IN ORDER TO REDUCE WORMING PRACTICES. Without proper worming strategies in place, immunity to worming medications is becoming an increasing concern in the equine industry. If wormed when not necessary worms may build up resistance, leading to the medication becoming ineffective; new medications are not being created at the same rate that immunity is occurring. The Stephens College Equestrian Department, home to a combined herd of approximately fifty-sixty horses, hopes to develop a strategic worming plan in order to aid with this rising dilemma. In this experiment we hope to assign each horse in the department a shedding status in order to determine how often worming is needed and therefore only worm when needed so that resistance is not being built. We looked at samples collected from fifty-one horses, varying in breed, age, and turn out regiments, all of which currently reside on a shared sixteen acres of the equestrian department. Using the McMaster’s method, fecal samples were observed for the presence of two separate egg types, ascarids, and strongyles. Based on this method, the number of eggs found in each sample was multiplied by a constant to give the resultant EPG (eggs per gram), and a shedding status was determined. We were able to determine trends regarding turn out regiment and locate a possible horse of origin. This will allow for proper management practices to be put in place including de-worming methods, and pasture management. Agriculture Poster Abstracts Poster Presentations: Youngman Upper Level *Johnson, H.Y., J. Wilson, and J.C. Piñero. Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Lincoln University. GETTING BENEFITS OUT OF A BAD BUG: ON-FARM COMPOSTING OF JAPANESE BEETLE. The Lincoln University (LU) Integrated Pest Management program evaluated mass trapping using traps baited with a sex pheromone and floral attractants for the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica. More than 540 pounds of Japanese beetles were trapped in central Missouri in 2012. This study was designed to examine (1) the feasibility of composting Japanese beetle carcass on a farm, and (2) the quality of the compost. Three types of high carbon/woody waste stream such as animal (horse) barn debris, cedar wood chips, and aged tree trimming wood chips, were used to compost with the beetles using the layering and the complete mixing methods. All composting piles showed elevated temperature for two months with the horse barn debris and beetle mix generating the highest temperature (above 130° F). Beetle exoskeleton remained at the end of composting. The degradation of beetle soft biomass contributed to the increased nutrients such as N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and nitrate in the final composted products. In a greenhouse evaluation, corn and tomato plants treated with beetle based compost, which was incorporated in potting medium at 25% rate, increased plant height, leaf area index, fresh and dry weight compared to those of the control plants. However some nutrient deficient symptoms were observed in corn. This study demonstrates that beetle carcass can be easily composted with woody farm waste. Composting can also reduce the odor of beetle decomposition. Beetle-based compost is a quality soil amendment and can be used to augment fertilization to support crop production. *Kuehn, E. A., M.R. Owen, and R. T. Pavlowsky. Department of Geography, Geology, and Planning, Missouri State University, Ozarks Environmental Watershed Research Institute. CONTRIBUTIONS OF STREAM BANK EROSION TO SEDIMENT LOADS IN A SOUTHWESTERN MISSOURI RIVER. Bank erosion can be a significant source of in-stream sediment that can negatively affect water quality and aquatic habitat. The purpose of this study is to quantify the contribution of bank erosion to the suspended sediment load along a 7.4 km segment of the James River in the southwest Missouri Ozarks. The area is presently rural, but is being threatened by urban development spreading from Springfield and Branson, Missouri. The objectives of this study are to evaluate sediment loads at three different scales: (i) erosion pin study of a 300 m reach that was eroding rapidly and is now being controlled by willow staking; (ii) aerial photograph analysis rapid geomorphic bank assessments at 400 meter intervals for the entire segment is used to evaluate historical bank erosion rates, and (iii) discharge and suspended sediment data from USGS monitoring stations on the James River will be used to evaluate segment-scale loadings in comparison to watershed-scale suspended sediment transport. Over the 8 month monitoring pin period, two main processes of bank erosion were observed. Hydraulic scour occurs during high in-channel flows or bankfull floods, but the effects of regional drought have limited scour rates to date. The sub-aerial mass-wasting occurs as granular disintegration along the upper bank line which is resulting in deposition on the bank toe. The results of this study have implications for nonpoint sediment and nutrient management in the James River. *Schulte B.A., L.S. Wilbers, J.D. Caldwell, C. Clifford-Rathert, and A.K. Wurst. Department of Biology Department. Lincoln University. EXCESS ESTRUS IN MEAT GOATS. Excess estrus (EE) occurs when animals exhibit behavioral estrus, or standing heat, after conception. EE can occur frequently in some domestic farm animals; however, information regarding its frequency in goats is limited. The causes and effects of EE on the reproductive cycle and pregnancy in goats have not previously been studied. The specific aim of this project was to determine the frequency of excess estrus in meat goats. Hormone profiles during pregnancy as well as embryonic and fetal losses were recorded to determine if animals displaying EE may be more prone to reproductive dysfunction. In winter 2011, ultrasonographic examination was used to determine pregnancy in 132 bred Boer and Boer-cross does. One vesectomized buck with a marking harness was placed with the does following breeding. Does were checked for breeding marks daily. Preliminary results of this study indicated that of 102 does confirmed pregnant, 22 showed EE. Overall, fetal and embryonic losses were greater in does that showed EE than does that did not show EE. There was no difference in kidding rate of does that showed EE vs. does that did not show EE. Hormone concentration appeared to be different in animals that showed EE. These results suggest that EE occurs in a significant portion of pregnant meat goats and may be associated with differences in reproductive functions of these animals. *Svenson, S.E., J.D. Weathers, W.D. Mauk, I. Braden, W. Mueller, and M.T. Aide. M.T., Southeast Missouri State University. CREATING A HORTICULTURE OPTION IN AN AGRIBUSINESS CURRICULUM. Southeast Missouri State University is located in a region where agricultural and horticultural employers prefer to hire college graduates with Agribusiness training and experience. Students with a foundation in sales, marketing, management, and finance are more employable in the current economic environment than students who are only horticulture based. However, students remain interested in specializations among the various areas of horticulture. The Department of Agriculture at Southeast Missouri State University provides a core curriculum enabling students to obtain the Agribusiness skills desired in the region. The Horticulture option to this core curriculum has recently been redesigned to address student interests. By comparing student interests with required horticulture courses at other universities, polling students, and interviewing regional employers and past graduates, a curriculum has been designed to match student and potential employer expectations. The Horticulture Option now includes elective courses, such as Vineyard Operation and Management, which provide common-sense production skills with scientific principles. The Agribusiness:Horticulture curriculum maximizes student exposure to regional agribusiness needs while providing for professional specialization, if desired. The Agribusiness:Horticulture option develops graduates prepared for the workforce, and for other academic, scientific, or business pursuits. *Wuliji, T., W. Lamberson, B. Shanks, J. Caldwell, C. Clifford-Rathert, J. Pennington, H. Swartz, S. Azarqajouh, and A. Bax. Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Lincoln University; University of Missouri. MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION FOR FOOT-ROT DISEASE RESISTANCE IN SHEEP. Developing a genetic marker for marker assisted selection of foot rot resistance in sheep presents a greater advantage over traditional selection techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of genetic marker assisted selection for foot rot disease resistance in sheep flocks. The genetic markers (footrot gene marker test: FDMT) developed in New Zealand was adopted to screen for footrot resistance and susceptibility genotype within Lincoln University experimental flocks. Initially, 120 Katahdin ewes and 16 rams were selected for marker assisted selection of footrot resistance. We screened and evaluated 7 genotypes including three sheep breeds (Katahdin, Dorper, and Texel) and their crosses. All animals were blood tested for the DNA marker screening. The crossbreeding of Katahdin x Dorper was conducted and F1 lambing was completed in May, 2012. Footrot marker test screening was conducted on 192 blood samples of sheep including the footrot resistant selection (n=82) and control (n=110) flocks. The preliminary DNA marker screening results were classed into five gene allelic marker categories (M) ranging from a high, moderate or low resistance. The allelic frequency distribution by category was analyzed using Chi-square. The frequency distribution ratios were found differed significantly (P < 0.01) among groups (M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5). The sample population frequency presented normal distribution mode. Therefore, a high selection differential and genetic gain can be achieved once animals were identified for the marker. Keywords: Genetic marker, Sheep, Selection, Footrot resistance. ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE SESSION: Oral Presentations: Pfeiffer Science Building, P-223 Section Chair: Patrick Market, University of Missouri-Columbia No Schedule at time of printing Atmospheric Sciences Session Oral Presentations Abstracts: Bell, J.R.1, A.R. Lupo1, and P.E. Guinan 1,2. 1Department of Soul, Environmental, and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia, 2The Missouri Climate Center, University of Missouri- Columbia. THE UNUSUAL WARMTH OF MARCH 2012: SOME POSSIBLE CAUSES. Using the National Centers for Atmospheric Research – National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCAR/NCEP) reanalyses and the 20th Century Reanalysis project, the warm March of 2012 will be analyzed for possible causes of the anomalous warmth over the Eastern United States. This event will also be compared to an event that was likely of similar magnitude during December 1889. Reliable station information from the Northeast US was examined in order to gauge the extent of the warm December 1889. During the winter of 2012, there was relatively little blocking, especially over the North Pacific. This was reflective of a more zonal jet stream which is characteristic of a strong positive Arctic Oscillation – type flow regime. Additionally, strong ridging was noted in the stratosphere. Over North America, the winter was warm and dry leading up to March 2012. Then a strong 500 hPa ridging event developed, which set the stage for an anomalously warm and dry March. Here we propose that surface forcing was important in setting the stage for the development of ridging, which further amplified the surface conditions. Thus, the anomalous warmth was driven by processes considered to be more prevalent in the summer. Similar conditions persisted during the months leading up to December 1889. Both years were considered to be in a weak La Nina phase within the Pacific. *Buonanno, C.C., B.D. Smith, and C. Dalton. National Weather Service - WFO Little Rock. CLIMATE RESEARCH SUPPORTING LOCAL DECISION SUPPORT SERVICES. A review of Arkansas weather history reveals a wide variety of high impact events which have affected every part of the state, including significant snowfalls, severe thunderstorms, and pronounced droughts. A database of local high impact weather events is currently being developed at WFO Little Rock, and potential linkages to climate indices are being investigated. This information has already been used to provide decision support services to primary partners such as agricultural and forestry groups. Examples of the ongoing research and examples of supporting local decision support services will be presented. *Crandall, K. L., and P. S., Market. Department of Soul, Environmental, and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia. A SEVERE WINTER STORMS CLIMATOLOGY FOR MISSOURI FROM 1960-2010. Severe winter storms have been and continue to be responsible for tremendous economic loss for the state of Missouri. Up to this date, there has never been an all-inclusive climatology on severe winter storms compiled for the entire state of Missouri. This research follows the severe winter storms climatology for Illinois by Changnon (1969), but is updated for Missouri in the years 1960-2010. For a winter storm to be included in this 50 year climatology and to be considered “severe” it must have produced at least 6 inches of snow, or at least ¼ of an inch of ice accumulation. From 1960-2010 there have been 161 severe winter storms identified that meet the previously mentioned criteria. The greatest number of severe winter storms occurred in the month of January with a total of 44 followed by the month of December with 42. Of the 161 severe winter storms, 101 were storms with snow only, 33 were glaze only storms, and 27 were mixed precipitation storms. Cyclone regime analysis performed on the 161 severe winter storms indicated that 47 were Texas/West Gulf lows, 42 were Colorado lows, and only 7 were Alberta lows. The remaining 65 storms did not fit into just one synoptic pattern. Data from this climatology can be used by meteorologists to better understand winter weather patterns and their impacts on Missouri. *Gilmore, W.T., M.M. Clay, and C.C.Bounnano. National Weather Service-Little Rock. SIGNIFICANT ARKANSAS WEATHER EPISODES DURING THE HISTORIC UNITED STATES 2011 SEVERE WEATHER SEASON. A very active spring weather pattern developed across the United States in April 2011, during which a record number of tornadoes were reported. Several large-scale, major severe outbreaks occurred, affecting large sections of the country. These included the April 14-18th episode, during which over 200 tornadoes were observed across 16 states. Another very notable and deadly severe weather episode occurred during the period of April 2228th, in which over 500 tornadoes occurred across 21 states. Several episodes of severe weather during this historic period affected Arkansas, which created a number of substantial impacts, and associated warning challenges. This study will review some of these cases that occurred within the National Weather Service-Little Rock Forecast Area, focusing primarily on the April 14-15th and April 25-26th events. This case study will also provide some suggestions for future warning best practices. Jensen, A.D.,1, A.R. Lupo1, I.I. Mokhov2, and P. Pereluk3. 1Department of Soil, Environmental, and Atmospheric Science, University of Missouri-Columbia, 2A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, and 3Moscow, Russia, 119107. USING ENSTROPHY TRANSPORT AS A DIAGNOSTIC TO IDENTIFY FLOW REGIME TRANSFORMATION. Previously obtained results conjectured that, in an atmosphere that is barotropic or approximately so, the sum of the positive Lyapunov exponents in the attractor would be approximately equal to the area integrated enstrophy. As such, area integrated enstrophy (IRE) can be viewed as a measure of the stability or the predictability within a flow regime. Low values represent a more stable, predictable regime. Subsequent studies demonstrated the utility of IRE in identifying the onset and decay of blocking events. In identifying block onset and decay it was found that IRE increases dramatically over a small window of time, and then decreases again when the flow stabilizes. The IRE may also have utility as a variable that can identify flow regime transformation in a general sense. However, the weakness in this technique is that it is unclear whether there is a certain rate of increase or a threshold value that must be crossed in order to successfully identify regime transformation. The barotropic Vorticity Equation can be multiplied by vorticity to get an enstrophy equation, and then integrated with time. Applying the conjecture above, the sum of the Lyapunov exponents can be set approximately equal to the advection or flux of enstrophy in a Cartesian atmosphere with pressure as the vertical coordinate. As a result, the transport or flux of enstrophy can also be used for a diagnostic of flow instability. This was tested using a case study of blocking and shown to be a useful diagnostic for regime transformation. *Market, P.S. Department of Soil, Environmental, and Atmospheric Science, University of Missouri-Columbia. A NEW METHOD FOR CALCULATING TOTAL VERTICAL MOTION IN ISENTROPIC SPACE. With this work, we develop a method of estimating the diabatic term in the isentropic vertical motion equation. This method is predicated on the idea that an ascending parcel will undergo expansional cooling, and that the lapse rate for saturated ascent is simply that for unsaturated ascent, with a modification. In a synoptic scale environment, layered clouds and stratiform precipitation form because of upglide and the ascent of isentropic surfaces. The thinking here is akin to the background forced ascent that must take place in order for a parcel to reach its lifting condensation level and level of free convection and lead ultimately to convection. In the same way that we approach Gamma_s as just Gamma_d with a modification for condensing moisture and latent heat release, we view the total vertical motion as the background, dynamically-forced ascent with a similar “correction” for condensing moisture and latent heat release. Of the three cases evaluated so far, calculated vertical motions have been 103%, 107% and 122% of the model vertical motion at the same 3-D location. Thus, the method proposed here appears to capture the entire vertical motion, with only modest over-estimation. *Workman, B. P. Department of Soil, Environmental, and Atmospheric Science, University of MissouriColumbia,University of Missouri - Columbia. AN APPLIED ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON MORPHOLOGIES AND TORNADOGENESIS WITHIN QUASI-LINEAR CONVECTIVE SYSTEMS. Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) often take the form of quasi-linear convective systems (QLCSs) within the mid-latitudes of the United States. QLCSs have a quasi-linear convective precipitation structure and often produce strong winds, hail, and tornadoes. A study of these QLCSs was performed by selecting thirty-two cases for investigation from the central United States, comprising of 8 “tornado” events, 8 “pseudo” events, 8 “wind” events, and 8 “marginal” events. The objectives of this research were to: (i) determine thresholds of certain atmospheric conditions that can be monitored to better forecast QLCS events and (ii) develop a “decision tree” from those thresholds to aid forecasters in determining what type of QLCS event may occur. Box-and-whiskers statistical plots for each event type are examined in order to create the decision tree for use by forecasters. BIOLOGY/BIOCHEMISTRY SESSION: Oral Presentations: Pfeiffer Science Building, P-9 Poster Presentations: Youngman Upper Level Section Chairs: Staria Vanderpool, William Woods University Rafiq Islam, Northwest Missouri State University Time Oral Presentations 9:30 C 9:45 C *Roy, P., D. Schneringer*, and L. Sly*. Drury University and Boyd Elementary School. UNIVERSITY/ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PARTNERSHIP HELPING SECOND GRADE STUDENTS DEVELOP SCIENCE FAIR PROJECTS. 10:00 C 10:15 C 10:30 ? 10:45 Likins, L., G. Wyckoff and A. Smith. University of Missouri Kansas City. STRUCTURAL ANALYSES PROVIDE INSIGHTS INTO HEMOPEXIN FUNCTION AND EVOLUTION. 11:00 C Time Poster Presentations (10:30-11:30) *Exner, M. J., R.L. Snyder. College of the Ozarks. USING BIOFILTRATION IN HYDROPONICS TO OPTIMIZE WATER QUALITY FOR FISH GROWTH? *Politte, T. S., and R.L.Sndyer. College of the Ozarks. RUT AND GENDER RATIOS OF WHITETAILED DEER CAPTURED AT BAITED GAME-CAMERA SITES. *Palanisami, S., K. Lee, P.Nam. Lincoln University and Missouri University of Science and Technology. EXPLORATION OF EFFLUENCE AND INEXPENSIVE MEANS FOR MICROALGAL BIOMASS PRODUCTION. *Miller, F.A. and J.H. Rettig. College of the Ozarks. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN TEGETICULA YUCCASELLA AND YUCCA ARKANSANA IN MISSOURI. *Grant, L.M., G.P. Rensch, L.U.Nwachukwu, E.A. Weigel*, C.M. Scholes, and J. Chapman. Department of Biology, Rockhurst University. THE EFFECT OF ACORN TANNINS ON BACTERIAL GROWTH. *Acheampong A. A., and R.L. Ayyagari. Lindenwood University. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF (Rana pipens) SKIN SECRETIONS. *Baena, V. E., and R.L. Ayyagari. Lindenwood University. ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF AN ANTIFREEZE PROTEIN FROM CARROT TISSUE. *Balakrishnan1, B., S. Palanisami1, K. Lee1, and P. Nam2. 1Center for Bioenergy, Cooperative Research, Lincoln University, and 2Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology. SCREENING OF GREEN MICROALGAE ISOLATED FROM MIDWEST USA FOR PRODUCTION OF BIOMASS, LIPID AND CAROTENOID. *Evans, D.K., and R. L. Ayyagari. Lindenwood University. ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS OF TENEBRIO MOLITOR. *Harris, J., and C. Welsh. Lindenwood University. ANALYSIS OF HUMAN ORAL MICROORGANISMS USING THE BIOLOG ECOPLATE™. *Haslag1, J., S. Palanisami1, K. Lee1, and P. Nam2. 1Center for Bioenergy, Cooperative Research, Lincoln University and 2Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology. NUTRIENT MODULATION AND FEEDING STRATEGY INFLUENCED BIOMASS AND LIPID YIELD IN SCENEDESMUS SP. *Key, E.A., C. Welsh. Lindenwood University. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS ON GROWTH AND POPULATION DIVERSITY OF SOIL MICROBES FROM VARIOUS BACTERIAL PHYLA. *Kirchner, N.A. and G. F. Johnston. Lindenwood University. TESTING THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF MULTIPLE STRESSORS ON AMERICAN BULLROG TADPOLES (LITHOBATES CATESBEIANUS). *Linton, E.D., K.M. Clifton*, G.F. Johnston. Lindenwood University. DAILY ACTIVITY PATTERNS AND GROUP SIZE EFFECTS ON FEEDING BEHAVIOR IN TADPOLES OF THE AMERICAN BULLFROG. *Maaz A., M.L. Walker, M. Greene M., and G.R. Pisani. Rockhurst University. A REVISED TAXONOMY OF THE SMOOTH EARTH SNAKE. Virginia valeriae elegans, V. v. pulchra, and V. v. valeriae are three subspecies of Virginia valeriae (the Smooth Earth Snake). *Martin, A.T., Lindenwood University. DETERMINING SPECIES VARIATION ON BOONE CAMPUS BASED ON CAMERA TRAP AND BAIT STATION SUCCESS. *Ruth, K.A., and G.F. Johnston. Lindenwood University. EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE AND REDUCED HYDROPERIOD AND BEHAVIOR AND GROWTH OF AMERICAN BULLFROG TADPOLES. *Schroeder, M.J., and J.A. Crawford. Lindenwood University. ASSESSING AND IMPROVING THE ACCURACY OF WHITE BLOOD CELL DIFFERENTIATION COUNTS IN RINGED SALAMANDERS. Bradley, R., J. Clark, S. England, T. Ewing, A. Tucker, and A. Widrig. Missouri Western State University. DOES THE WAY WEALTH IS EARNED AFFECT CONTRIBUTIONS IN A SOCIAL DILEMMA? Biology/Biochemistry Session Oral Presentations Abstracts: *Exner, M. J., and R.L. Snyder. College of the Ozarks. USING BIOFILTRATION IN HYDROPONICS TO OPTIMIZE WATER QUALITY FOR FISH GROWTH? Hydroponics is a combination of aquaculture and hydroponics. The benefits of integrating the two technologies include production of both vegetables and fish in a single system, conservation of water resources, and recycling of waste nutrients (Diver, 2000). In any intensive recirculating system, waste products of fish can reduce growth and impair fish flesh quality. However, fish waste in the forms of ammonia and nitrate are nutrients for plants (Diver, 2006). Nitrite, which is toxic to fish, is also produced in recirculating systems via nitrification of ammonia but it cannot be taken up by plants. This latter problem can be solved by reducing available ammonia and ensuring surface area for bacteria to fix nitrite into nitrate (Helfrinch, 2012). A traditional recirculating system depends solely on a biofilter to provide surface area for bacteria to fix nitrogenous waste, thereby providing a healthy environment for fish. However, biofilters can be sensitive and struggle to maintain nitrogen loads at or below the optimum for fish growth (Ebeling, 2007). In an aquaponics system, plant beds provide the primary means of filtration. We evaluated the impact on water quality of a hydroponics-tilapia system with and without a traditional biofiltration unit. It is hypothesized that a biofilter enhances the ability of a hydroponics system to maintain nitrogen at levels optimal for fish growth. Results are pending. *Grant, L.M., G.P. Rensch, L.U. Nwachukwu, E.A. Weigel, C.M. Scholes, and J.C. Chapman. Rockhurst University, Kansas City, MO 64110. THE EFFECT OF ACORN TANNINS ON BACTERIAL GROWTH. Tannins are polyphenolic substances which bind and precipitate protein and are implicated in antimicrobial activity. We screened the activity of whole tannin extract from several species of white and red oak. Pin oak (Quercus palustris) extract collected from the campus of Rockhurst University proved most effective at inhibiting bacterial growth in comparison with extracts from other species of oak such as sawtooth and burr oak. Due to this observation, we decided to use pin oak extract to examine how different concentrations of tannins affect the growth of bacteria in culture. Methanol and water were used to isolate the tannins from the rest of the ground acorn powder. Various dilutions of extracted tannins in solution with methanol and water were applied to discs, which were placed on agar plates with specified bacteria. The diameter of the zone of inhibition caused by the tannins of each disc was measured. A trend was observed; as the concentration of tannins was decreased, the antimicrobial effects also decreased. Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis and Bacillus sp.) were more inhibited by tannins than gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes). *Miller, F.A. and J.H. Rettig. College of the Ozarks. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN TEGETICULA YUCCASELLA AND YUCCA ARKANSANA IN MISSOURI. The bond between Yucca flowers and the moth Tegiticula yuccasella is exceptional to the world of science. Depending on the species of Yucca, they can be codependent on each other, and if one were to fail the other would fail with it. This research project involved trying to determine whether Y. arkansana is truly co-dependent with T. yuccasella and to establish whether T. yuccasella act as true pollinators. Two flowers were selected to be hand pollinated using cotton swabs; neither flowers produced a seed set, but were killed by larvae. Seed viability was compared with previous research. Our proportions had a higher viability rate than the previous collection. Moths were collected from Y. arkansana to determine if T. yuccasella was present. The results of the moth collection found that all 56 moths caught and identified were Prodoxius, a false pollinator, not T. yuccasella. In previous research a single T. yuccasella was successfully identified at the study site. Although no T. yuccasella were found at the study sites, the Y. arkansana still produced seed sets for the first time in years. *Palanisami1, S., K. Lee1, and P. Nam2. 1Center for Bioenergy, Cooperative Research, Lincoln University; 2 Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology. EXPLORATION OF EFFLUENCE AND INEXPENSIVE MEANS FOR MICROALGAL BIOMASS PRODUCTION. Microalgal biomass is a valuable source for biodiesel production. For achieving maximum biomass, it is necessary to supply the culture with a sufficient amount of carbon dioxide. However, CO2 sparging is cost intensive. In order to reduce the production cost, flue gas originating from a coal-fired power plant was used as a source of carbon dioxide. In this viewpoint we studied the effectiveness of five different commercially available fertilizers individually and in various combinations to meet the equimolar concentration of microalgal nutritional requirement. This study has been segregated into two perspectives, (I) biomass production and (ii) increasing the lipid content. Fertilizer combination the one; which yielded good results in laboratory scale, was selected to test in outdoor open circular ponds (1000 gallons). Among the five fertilizers used (FR1, FR2, FR3, FR4 and FR5) FR1 yielded higher biomass. Based on the indoor results, combination of FR1 & FR4 has been selected to test outdoor. The results revealed 21% higher biomass than that of commercially available F/2 medium, and the production (chemical) cost was 1.21$/kg dry biomass and 2.56$ for commercial grade F/2 medium. The same combination of fertilizers showed 23.25% higher growth while sparging flue gas. In addition FR1 increased the lipid content upon modulating the nutrient content and feeding strategy. *Politte, T.S. and R.L.Snyder. College of the Ozarks. RUT AND GENDER RATIOS OF WHITE-TAILED DEER CAPTURED AT BAITED GAME-CAMERA SITES. White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) populations in many areas of Southwest Missouri have grown to density levels above cultural carrying capacity. Increasingly, wildlife managers incorporate infrared game cameras as a tool to monitor populations and estimate densities. Various models have been developed for using antlered bucks captured by game cameras in mark: recapture estimations of deer numbers. However, these calculations assume no bias in the way bucks and does frequent baited camera traps over time. Research on the College of the Ozarks campus in 2010-2011 (Payne and Snyder, 2011) indicated that the time of year might cause a gender bias in camera capture. In 2012-2013 a revised version of the previous study was carried out to test the hypothesis that seasonal variation of behavior surrounding the period of rut alters buck: doe ratios found at baited camera sites. Deer visits to baited camera sites were monitored for 14 days during each of three different periods beginning in late August and ending in early January ( pre-rut, rut, and postrut). Spotlight counts were also conducted in the week following each sampling period. Our data show that there is a statistically significant difference in buck: doe ratios visiting baited sites in the three time periods. *Roy, P., D. Schneringer*, and L. Sly*. School of Education & Child Development, Drury University, Boyd Elementary School. UNIVERSITY/ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PARTNERSHIP HELPING SECOND GRADE STUDENTS DEVELOP SCIENCE FAIR PROJECTS. The science fair idea began with two schools partnering together to provide an ideal hands-on inquiry experience for inner city elementary children as well as university students. This collaborative project provided children with small group learning experiences to meet their learning objectives. Pre-service teachers from the university facilitated discussion as the second graders developed their own testable questions, hypotheses, and experimental procedures. At the university, these pre-service teachers developed science fair projects as a part of their course requirements. This experience helped them to guide children to do science fair projects. Second graders were able to select their research problem; hence they had ownership in their project. The children conducted experiments, collected data, made conclusions, and created their own display boards guided by the elementary education majors. Community people, including university professors and the science curriculum facilitator from the public schools, were involved in judging the projects. Second graders got an opportunity to meet with real scientists. Each child got a chance to explain the project to a judge. Children were able to communicate their findings successfully and were recognized in front of the community. It was a mutually beneficial learning experience for the students of both the institutions. Brief description of this project will be presented. Biology/Biochemistry Poster Abstracts: Poster Presentations: Youngman Upper Level *Acheampong A. A., and R.L. Ayyagari. Lindenwood University. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FROG (Rana pipens) SKIN SECRETIONS. Amphibian skin secretions have been known to secrete a variety of alkaloids, peptides and proteins, which enable survival in murky water without microbial infections. In this project we are examining the role of frog secretions on microbial growth. Dorsal skin secretions were obtained and then centrifuged to remove solid contaminants and shaken with hexane to separate the non-polar molecules. The aqueous components of the extracts were analyzed for proteins with Bradford Analysis. Aliquots of extracts were added to wells of microtiter plates and incubated at 350 C with Escherichia coli. Microbial growth was measured at 595 nm. Initial studies did not show significant decrease in microbial growth. To examine if this result is due to a diluted activity presently we are extracting skin secretions from a larger number of frogs. We are also attempting to separate the alkaloids, peptides and proteins from each other. Once inhibition is observed, further characterization of the active component will be carried out. *Baena, V. E. and R. L. Ayyagari. Lindenwood University. ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF AN ANTIFREEZE PROTEIN FROM CARROT TISSUE. Antifreeze proteins (AFP) are secreted by some organisms that are subject to temperatures below zero to prevent tissue damage due to freezing. AFPs inhibit ice-crystal formation and recrystallization by decreasing the freezing point of cell fluids. They are also known to possess antibacterial and antifungal properties. For this research, in-vitro grown carrot root tissue was induced to synthesize AFPs. Root tissues were grown in petri dishes with shoot and root development nutrients for 3 weeks. They were then placed in a freezer between 4°C and -6°C for a total of 2 weeks for cold acclimatization and antifreeze protein expression. The AFPs were extracted with an ascorbic acid buffer PH 6 and were separated from other macromolecules by centrifugation. Presently, we are separating the various proteins by Sephadex G-25 gel chromatography. The proteins will be ultimately tested for microbial inhibition property and for Chitinase activity which is an indicator of the associated antifungal property. *Balakrishnan1, B., S. Palanisami1, K. Lee1, and P. Nam2. 1Center for Bioenergy, Cooperative Research, Lincoln University and 2Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology. SCREENING OF GREEN MICROALGAE ISOLATED FROM MIDWEST USA FOR PRODUCTION OF BIOMASS, LIPID AND CAROTENOID. Microalgae are extensively studied for their ever increasing commercial value. Among the microalgae, green microalgae (Chlorophyta) are widely recognized for its biotechnological applications. For the extended ways of these groups of microalgal applications require further hunt from the natural environment. In this context, a total of 21 green algal species were isolated from the water samples collected from various ecological niches of the Midwestern United States. The isolates were identified by molecular characterization using 18S rDNA and RuBisCO gene sequencing analysis beside morphological identification. Selected unialgal cultures were subjected for biomass, lipid and carotenoid production analysis. Among the selected species, 16 such as Acutodesmus obliquus, Ankistrodesmus sp., Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Chlorella sorokiniana, Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella sp., Chlorococcum ellipsoideum, Chlorosarcinopsis sp., Desmodesmus communis, Monoraphidium sp., Scenedesmus abundans, Scenedesmus armatus, Ourococcus multisporus, Micractinium pusillum, Micractinium sp., and Scenedesmus sp., were able to produce good biomass as well as lipid and carotenoids contents in the laboratory conditions applied. Further studies on selected species will lead large-scale outdoor cultivation for various biotechnological applications. *Evans, D.K., and R.L. Ayyagari. Lindenwood University. ANTIFREEZE PROTEINS OF TENEBRIO MOLITOR. Antifreeze proteins are found in various organisms that are commonly exposed to extended periods of cold. Antifreeze proteins are much more efficient and depressing the freezing point than typical solutes due to the prevention of ice crystals. In addition, the antifreeze proteins from certain species also have been found to have an inhibitory effect on the growth of mold and bacteria. In this study we are examining the mold growth inhibitory properties of antifreeze proteins obtained from the common meal worm Tenebrio molitor. Gel chromatography with Sephadex G-25 was used to separate the proteins extracted from the meal worms. A Bradford analysis showed three peaks of proteins in the samples for both the cold climatized and control meal worms. Gel electrophoresis is being performed on these proteins for further characterization.We have used a microtiter plate chitinase assay to quantify the antifreeze protein activity in these worms with pure chitinase enzyme. *Harris, J. and C. Welsh. Lindenwood University. ANALYSIS OF HUMAN ORAL MICROORGANISMS USING THE BIOLOG ECOPLATE™. The purpose of this project was to determine the genes present within the population of oral bacterial and fungal organisms using a Biolog Ecoplate™. Twenty-nine participants provided saliva samples and were asked 3 questions to separate the participants into 3 demographic groups based on their diet, smoking, and water source. The Ecoplate allowed the investigator to qualitatively analyze the population based on the ability to metabolize the 31 different carbon sources: if an organism present was capable of metabolizing the carbon source present in the well a colored precipitate would form. After incubating the plates for 48 hours, the plates were read using a standard colorimetric plate reader and the data was analyzed qualitatively: yes, there were bacteria capable of metabolizing the carbon source in the sample; no, the gene was not present within the oral population sample. Of the 3 groups, a participant’s smoking preference appeared to have the biggest impact on the microorganisms present. A significant difference was found between non-smokers and smokers in the ability to utilize sources such as DGalactonic Acid γ-Lactone, D-xylose, and i-erythritol. Vegetarians’samples exhibited the inability of metabolizing ierythritol or 4-hydroxy benzoic acid compared to other members of the population sample. The different water sources showed little or no difference between the two different groups and is not considered a factor in oral microbial populations. *Haslag1, J., S. Palanisami1, K. Lee1, and P. Nam2. 1Center for Bioenergy, Cooperative Research, Lincoln University and 2Department of Chemistry, Missouri University of Science and Technology. NUTRIENT MODULATION AND FEEDING STRATEGY INFLUENCED BIOMASS AND LIPID YIELD IN SCENEDESMUS SP. The commercial success of large scale microalgae cultivation is dependent on producing a large biomass with high lipid content. Modulation in nutrient supply/availability is a kind of stress which makes the algal cells alters their physiology and results in more lipid accumulation. After several attempts, the outdoor medium has been standardized using commercial fertilizers. The working volume was 2000 L and the carbon dioxide sourced from flue gas from a coal fired power plant. Four different conditions were tested to investigate the biomass and lipid yield, (i) Every 3 days feeding 20mg/L nitrate, (ii) Corresponding to the growth rate - nutrients feeding will be increased (relying on optical density as growth determinant). (iii) Same as like condition (ii), but every time of feeding - nutrient concentration will be stepped down gradually. At the final feeding the concentration of nitrate would reach zero, and (iv) Same as like condition (ii), but unlike condition (iii), once the culture reaches the stationary phase feeding will be stopped suddenly. Growth estimated in terms of optical density, ash free dry weight, whole cell protein and pigment, and the stress responses monitered in terms of stress stabilizing enzymes. *Key, E.A. and C. Welsh. Lindenwood University. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSTRAINTS ON GROWTH AND POPULATION DIVERSITY OF SOIL MICROBES FROM VARIOUS BACTERIAL PHYLA. This project was designed to test for different groups of soil bacteria and their primary carbon source. The samples were taken at varied locations throughout the United States in order to give a wide array of information regarding how temperature, precipitation, agriculture and vegetation can affect the diversity of soil microbes in a given location, as well as the types of carbon nutrients they require or prefer. Soil samples were taken around trees at the four cardinal directions, approximately six inches from the base of the tree. To date, thirteen trees have been sampled from eight different states for a total of fifty-two individual samples. Samples were processed using Biolog Eco-Plates and a Bio-Rad iMark Absorbance Microplate Reader that quantified the use of thirty-one carbon sources from six different classes: nine carboxylic acids, six amino acids, four polymers, two amines/amides, three carbohydrates, and three miscellaneous carbon sources (Wei et. al 2008). DNA isolation and PCR identification are currently being done to identify the major groups of bacteria present in the soil. Preliminary data from the Eco-Plates shows that locations with greater annual precipitation and plant diversity contain bacteria that process a wider range of carbon sources to a higher degree. For example, the samples from the Anchorage, Alaska showed a wide diversity and high intensity of carbon source usage while Lawton, Oklahoma showed minimal diversity and low intensity. The data obtained from this research is the first of its kind at national level and will likely bring about new information and questions for agronomists. *Kirchner, N.A. and G.F. Johnston. Lindenwood University. TESTING THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF MULTIPLE STRESSORS ON AMERICAN BULLROG TADPOLES (LITHOBATES CATESBEIANUS). Amphibian populations can be used as an indicator of biological stressors due to their sensitivity to changes in the environment and because their lifecycles depend on both terrestrial and aquatic habitats. There is an insufficient amount of information regarding the possible harmful effects of the low level pesticide concentrations that are found in many breeding ponds across the Midwest. Often, the study of a single stressor’s effect is not a real indication of the environmental conditions because it is only one of the many factors that act upon an individual in its natural habitat. The main goal of this study is to quantify the synergistic effects of predatory stress and exposure to low levels of the pesticide atrazine (5 µg/L) on bullfrog tadpoles (Lithobates catesbeianus). Tadpoles were exposed to stressors singly and in combination (none, predator only, atrazine only, and combined predator and atrazine). Video recordings were taken to study behavioral effects. Body mass was measured before and after treatment and compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Measurements of body proportions were made at the end of the study to examine stress-induced morphological changes. Tadpole growth was slowed in the presence of a predator and mass declined under both stressors. *Linton, E.D., K.M. Clifton*, and G.F. Johnston. Lindenwood University. DAILY ACTIVITY PATTERNS AND GROUP SIZE EFFECTS ON FEEDING BEHAVIOR IN TADPOLES OF THE AMERICAN BULLFROG. Most frogs have a complex life cycle with an aquatic larval stage. The growth and development of the tadpole stage has been shown to affect the success of the adult stage (Vences 2002). General activity and feeding behavior are influenced by a number of environmental factors and vary with time of day (McClure 2009). In this study we investigate the effects of time of day and the presence of conspecifics (group size) on feeding behavior and general activity of tadpoles of the American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus). The tadpoles were grouped into size classes: “small” (≤50mm), “medium” (≥60mm and ≤80mm) and “large” (≥85mm) and were divided into groups of 1, 3 and 5. Video recordings were made in the morning (7am-10am) and afternoon (12pm-3pm) and analyzed to determine the amount of time spent inactive, feeding, and swimming. Our data suggest that tadpoles are more active in the morning and in a larger group of conspecifics. *Maaz A., M. L. Walker, M. Greene and G. R. Pisani. Rockhurst University. A REVISED TAXONOMY OF THE SMOOTH EARTH SNAKE. Virginia valeriae elegans, V. v. pulchra, and V. v. valeriae are three subspecies of Virginia valeriae (the Smooth Earth Snake). These snakes can be described as small (7 to 10 inches), gray to reddish brown in color with 15 to 17 rows of dorsal scales. Very little is known about their natural history due to their small size and secretive habits. The current distribution pattern and subspecific morphologies have led us to hypothesize that the variation seen in these subspecies reflects their evolutionary history. To test this hypothesis, morphometric data analyzing 30 characters were collected from approximately 800 museum specimens, and phylogenetic trees were constructed based on these data. Phylogenies indicated that V. v. pulchra is nested within a V. v. elegans clade, with this clade being both independent of and primitive to V. v. valeriae. The current distribution patterns suggest dispersal and vicariance of the V. v. elegans ancestral stock from a southern Pleistocene refugium, a pattern supported by ecological niche modeling and seen in other snake species. Thus, we recommend that V. v. pulchra be subsumed by V. v. elegans; and, in accordance with a morphological, phylogenetic, and evolutionary species concept, that these two sister taxa be considered separate species: Virginia valeriae and Virginia elegans. *Martin, A.T., Lindenwood University. DETERMINING SPECIES VARIATION ON BOONE CAMPUS BASED ON CAMERA TRAP AND BAIT STATION SUCCESS. A survey of the mammals on Lindenwood University’s Boone Home campus (Defiance, MO) using remote camera traps was conducted beginning in August 2012 and will continue through May 2013. Camera sites were initially located in areas that showed obvious signs of large mammal activity (tracks, trails, scat, and markings). The efficacy of baits (such as salt and mineral blocks, road kill, and urine) was tested to determine if the mammal activity was increased in response to those bait types. Traps were relocated occasionally to areas showings activity of smaller mammals (such as burrows or den sites) in order to increase the diversity of habitats and mammals observed. Remote digital camera traps were left in place undisturbed for one week intervals, after which the memory cards and batteries were replaced. Photographs and videos were analyzed for evidence of mammal activity and species were identified. The results of this pioneering large mammal survey of the area will be discussed. *Ruth, K.A., and G.F. Johnston. Lindenwood University. EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE AND REDUCED HYDROPERIOD AND BEHAVIOR AND GROWTH OF AMERICAN BULLFROG TADPOLES. Amphibians are generally sensitive to their surrounding environments and are often used as bioindicators to predict effects of environmental stresses and changes. Global declines in amphibian populations have been connected to the interaction of several biotic and abiotic factors (Rohr et al. 2004).The tadpole stage of most frogs is exposed to many water pollutants, notably a variety of agricultural pesticides. The impact of these pollutants may be compounded by other environment stressors, such as reduced hydroperiod during drought. Stressors that negatively affect the aquatic larval stage will potentially affect the adult stage and the population. In this study, we used American Bullfrog tadpoles to examine their response to the stress of exposure to atrazine (a common agricultural pesticide) and reduced hydroperiod, singly and in combination. The effect on growth and development was studied by comparing mass of the animals, before and after the three week study period and measuring body proportions. Video recordings were made for each study group and analyzed to determine behavioral effects. *Schroeder, M.J. and J.A. Crawford. Lindenwood University. ASSESSING AND IMPROVING THE ACCURACY OF WHITE BLOOD CELL DIFFERENTIATION COUNTS IN RINGED SALAMANDERS. There has been growing interest in using differential white blood cell counts in ecology as a stress indicator; specifically neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios. However, non-mammalian vertebrates have nucleated red blood cells and nucleated thrombocytes which can be incorrectly identified as white blood cells yielding faulty results. The identification difficulty coupled with conflicting sources and outdated references can make this technique difficult to execute for ecologists. Within current ecology sources there is neither a detailed methodology available nor a proper determination of the limitations of this technique. We assessed white blood cell counts from Ringed Salamanders and found that neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios can vary dramatically based on incorrect assignment of lymphocytes. Further, we found greatly elevated eosinophil counts when compared to other genera of amphibians. Setting a baseline standard for amphibians (and other lower vertebrates) is not possible when identification errors are made and reported in the published literature. In order to accurately use white blood counts to assess stress levels in natural populations, development of a standardized classification and limitations of this technique is essential. Bradley, R., J. Clark, S. England, T. Ewing, A. Tucker, and A. Widrig. Missouri Western State University. DOES THE WAY WEALTH IS EARNED AFFECT CONTRIBUTIONS IN A SOCIAL DILEMMA? The present study examines the effect of endowment size and amount of effort given to obtain endowment on contributions to a public good. It is believed that those who have more wealth (points) will be less likely to cooperate and that making the situation competitive will amplify this effect. The hypothesized effect is based on the idea that people decide to give less of something they have worked harder to obtain as perceived by the individual. We will be using a 2 (competitive vs. pure effort) x 2 (high vs. low endowment) factorial design with the dependent variable being the proportion of wealth contributed to a public good. Each participant will complete a visual-spatial performance task in order to earn the amount of points they will use in the public good dilemma. One group of participants will earn points with the pre-task knowledge that all parties can earn the highest starting amount, or “pure effort”, and one group of participants will earn points with the pre-task knowledge that only one individual can earn the highest starting point total, or “competitive effort”. We will be using Analysis of Variance to analyze the data and determine if the hypothesized interaction occurs. BIOMEDICINE/BIOTECHNOLOGY SESSION: Oral Presentations: Pfeifer Science Building, room P10 Poster Presentations: Youngman Agricultural Center Upper Level Section Chair: Colette M. Witkowski, Missouri State University Time Oral Presentations 8:30 *Harvey1, R. Garrad1, L. Erb2, V. Huxley3, and J. Wang1. 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Missouri State University, 2Department of Biochemistry and 3Med. Pharm. and Physiol., U. of Missouri-Columbia. INCREASED FOCAL ADHESION ACTIVITY BY ENDOTHELIAL NUCLEOTIDE P2Y2 RECEPTOR. 8:45 *Andreas, L.A. and J.J. Smith. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Missouri State University. GCN5, ESA1, AND CHD1: MORE THAN JUST TRANSCRIPTION REGULATORS? 9:00 *Hill, S.A. and J.J. Smith. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Missouri State University. CHARACTERIZATION OF NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR IN TETRAHYMENA THERMOPHILA. 9:15 *Huxel, C.A. and J.J. Smith. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Missouri State University. CHARACTERIZATION OF SIRTUINS IN THE PRESENCE OF DNA DAMAGE AND NICOTINAMIDE IN TETRAHYMENA. 9:30 *Smith, J.J. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Missouri State University. AN INQUIRY-BASED SCIENCE CLASSROOM LABORATORY MODULE APPROACH INTEGRATES RESEARCH AND TEACHING. 9:45 *Corrigan, G.E. Corrigan Laboratory. RECENT ADVANCES IN BIOMEDICAL RELATIONAL DATABASES 10:00 Ziehm,J., J. Harvey, C. Bise*, and J. Wang. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Missouri State University. NUCLEOTIDE RECEPTORS, P2Y, HAVE BEEN DEMONSTRATED TO BE CRITICAL IN ATP AND UTP-INDUCED MICROVASCULAR INFLAMMATION, INCLUDING LEUKOCYTE RECRUITMENT AND FILTRATION. 10:15 Biomedicine/Biotechnology business meeting *Denotes scheduled presenter. Time Poster Presentations (10:30-11:30) *Gilley, D.R., J. Reyes-Reveles, R. Sedaghat-Herati, K.C. Ghosh, J.M. Dean, H.E. Gann, S. Kramer, W.A. Dowler, and K. Delong, Missouri State University. ENHANCED STABILITY AND RNA PROTECTION VIA THE FORMATION OF MPEG-PAMAM-G4 DENDRIMER AND NUCLEIC ACID COMPLEXES. BIOMEDICINE/BIOTECHNOLOGY SESSION: Oral Presentations: Pfeifer Science Building, room P10 *Andreas, L.A., and J.J.Smith. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Missouri State University. GCN5, ESA1, AND CHD1: MORE THAN JUST TRANSCRIPTION REGULATORS? The packaging of chromatin plays a vital role in the ability of the genes to be accessible or inaccessible to transcription which leads to expression or prevention of protein formation. Acetylation decreases the DNA-histone interaction allowing the chromatin to become euchromatin or transcriptionally active DNA. GCN5, ESA1, and CHD1 are three proteins that are involved in this process. GCN5 and ESA1 are histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and CHD1 is a bromodomain containing protein that is recruited to sites of acetylation. Tetrahymena thermophila are the ideal organism to study chromatin packaging because they contain a macronucleus and micronucleus that separate acetylation and transcription. It has been shown that chromatin modification can also allow access for DNA repair mechanisms. This research specifically focuses on GCN5, CHD1, and ESA1’s function in Tetrahymena in chromatin regulation and DNA repair. The characterization of these proteins in Tetrahymena will allow for a better understanding of their exact role in DNA repair and genome stability. An interesting phenotype of GCN5 overexpression has been observed when cells are under starved conditions and was also studied in this research. Ziehm, J., J. Harvey, C. Bise*, and J. Wang. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Missouri State University. EXPRESSION OF NUCLEOTIDE RECEPTORS, P2Y, IN MICROVASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS. Nucleotide receptors, p2y, have been demonstrated to be critical in atp and utp-induced microvascular inflammation, including leukocyte recruitment and filtration. Most recently, we found that UTP induced 5-fold increase in vascular permeability to albumin from the baseline in mouse skeletal muscle venules. However, the mechanisms underlying these responses remain to be investigated. The objective of this study is to identify the expression of P2Y receptors in microvascular endothelial cells (ECs) because ECs play critical roles in EC-leukocyte interaction and vascular barrier function. We isolated and cultured microvascular ECs derived from mouse skeletal muscles. Messenger RNA expressions of P2Y Rs were determined by using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We found that P2Y1, P2Y2, and P2Y6 receptors were expressed while P2Y4 mRNA was undetectable in primary cultured microvascular ECs derived from wild type mice (wild type ECs). Furthermore, the expression of P2Y R was assessed in microvascular ECs derived from P2Y2 R knockout mice (ECs-deficient P2Y2R). Our data suggest that the expression of P2Y1 and P2Y6 receptors in ECs-deficient P2Y2 R was comparable to wild type ECs. The P2Y4R was not detectable in wild type ECs or P2Y2-deficient ECs. Future studies will use real-time RT-PCR to quantitatively assess the expression of P2Y1, P2Y2, and P2Y6 receptors in WT and P2Y2R-deficient EC. These results will be important in understanding which subtype receptors and how they mediate ATP and UTP-induced in microvascular responses, including barrier function. *Corrigan, G. E. Corrigan Laboratory. RECENT ADVANCES IN BIOMEDICAL RELATIONAL DATABASES. The relational databases i.e. MS Access, My SQL Oracle, Firebird, etc. have taught the science and utility of lists. Now the new editions of Windows (8) and MS Access 2013 permit the translations of these lists into "apps" forms. The objects of the relational database are now "mobile". This allows entire teams of scientists and associated technicians to work together on the establishment of relationships between listed objects. The utility and availability of the new apps allows for substantial inter-relational work not previously available. It remains to be seen how this new operative mode will be used. Initial demonstrations will be presented. The relationship of statistical analysis and relational database analysis is contrasted for our analytical purposes. * Harvey, J.1, R. Garrad1, L. Erb2, V. Huxley3, and J. Wang1. 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Missouri State University, 2 Department of Biochemistry, and 3Med. Pharm. and Physiol., U. of Missouri-Columbia, MO. INCREASED FOCAL ADHESION ACTIVITY BY ENDOTHELIAL NUCLEOTIDE P2Y2 RECEPTOR. Most recently, we found that UTP (10-5M) induced 5.2 ± 1.7-fold (n=5) transient increase in permeability to albumin (Ps) in skeletal muscle venules from basal levels in wild type (WT) mice. In contrast, UTP did not significantly alter basal Ps in P2Y2R knockout mice (P2Y2R KO mice). P2Y2R signaling was demonstrated to activate integrin via the RGD domain of this receptor. Integrin is an essential protein connecting the extracellular matrix to the cell cytoskeleton through the focal adhesion complex which profoundly regulates vascular permeability. Therefore, we hypothesized that UTP increases endothelial focal adhesion activity, associated with Ps response. To test this hypothesis, we established primary cultured microvascular endothelial cells (MEC) derived from skeletal muscle microvessels in mice that were used in vivo study. We assessed the activity of focal adhesion by measuring phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) at tyrosine-397 (FAK-Tyr 397). We found that UTP (10-5M) increased FAK-Tyr 397 in WT MEC. The prominent increase in FAK-Tyr 397 took place most likely after 15 min UTP treatment. Our preliminary functional data also implicate that UTP-induced transient increase in Ps is RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling-dependent. Thus, to determine whether increased FAK-Tyr 397 is mediated by RhoA/ROCK signaling, ROCK inhibitor, Y-27632 (10-5M), was employed. We found that Y-27632 (10-5M) did not alter UTP-induced FAK-Tyr 397 response in MEC. In general, these findings demonstrate that phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr 397 increases in MEC after UTP treatment, which is independent of RhoA/ROCK signaling cascade. Consistent with our hypothesis, UTP increases focal adhesion activity, associated with increased Ps response. For future studies, we will determine whether FAK-Tyr397 is functionally responsible for P2Y2R-induced hyperpermeability and whether RhoA/ROCK-mediated Ps response to UTP requires FAK-Tyr 397. *Hill, S.A., and J.J. Smith. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Missouri State University. CHARACTERIZATION OF NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR IN TETRAHYMENA THERMOPHILA. DNA damage by UV irradiation can occur during various states of chromatin organization. The ciliated protozoa Tetrahymena thermophila contains a transcriptionally silent micronucleus (MIC), where chromatin is relatively tight, and a transcriptionally active macronucleus (MAC), where chromatin is relatively loose. This unique characteristic provides an opportunity to assess the effects of DNA repair at different states of chromatin organization. During development, genomic rearrangement occurs as portions of the MIC DNA are excised at specific internal eliminated sequences (IES) and removed from the new MAC DNA, and telomeres are added at chromosome breakage sites (CBS). A novel assay utilizing quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and primers specific for the CBS locus Tt819 and the IES loci M- and R-Elements allows for assessment and comparison of DNA damage and repair following various levels of UV irradiation and repair times. Additionally, a knockdown of the essential NER protein Rad4 was developed using shRNA and may be used to further assess repair efficiency in T. thermophila. Together, the damage-sensing qPCR assay coupled with the shRNA knockdown of Rad4 will yield a better understanding of NER in T. thermophila. *Huxel, C.A. and J.J Smith. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Missouri State University. CHARACTERIZATION OF SIRTUINS IN THE PRESENCE OF DNA DAMAGE AND NICOTINAMIDE IN TETRAHYMENA. Chromatin is tightly compacted DNA wrapped around a histone tetramer core. The accessibility of the DNA is regulated by either the addition or subtraction of chemical groups to the ends of the histone proteins. These modifications, such as phosphorylation or methylation, can lead to a conformational change and access to genes. One such class that alters the chromatin is histone deacetylases (HDACs) that remove acetyl groups from histones. This leads to a gene silencing effect. Sirtuins make up a whole class of HDACs that are specifically NAD+-dependent. Research has shown that sirtuins affect a variety of cellular responses, and holds promise as a therapeutic agent for a number of diseases. Seven sirtuins (SIRT1-SIRT7) have been identified in human, and eleven homologs have been found in Tetrahymena (THD8-THD18).These proteins have been shown to play either a direct or a support role in repair in the presence of DNA damage. This project will focus on how well does Tetrahymena respond during various types of DNA damage and in the presence of nicotinamide, a known HDAC inhibitor. *Smith, J. J. Department of Biomedical Sciences Missouri State University. AN INQUIRY-BASED SCIENCE CLASSROOM LABORATORY MODULE APPROACH INTEGRATES RESEARCH AND TEACHING. To further annotate the genome of the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena an inquiry-based class laboratory approach was developed. This involves multiple classrooms from freshman to upper division labs. Through this multi-classroom inquiry-based laboratory approach students learn basic techniques required for research while further annotating the Tetrahymena genome. In 2006 the Tetrahymena genome was sequenced and predicted gene annotation has been completed. Tetrahymena is a unicellular model organism that has been used for molecular and cellular biological discoveries such as telomeres, histone modifications, and catalytic RNA. In order to further annotate the genome of Tetrahymena and start the proteomic annotation of this organism a multi-institutional inquiry-based class laboratory approach has been developed. In this approach the predicted Tetrahymena genes are cloned into entry plasmids in an introductory level biomedical science lab (honors students). The cloned genes can then be used in upper division molecular biology classroom labs in order to characterize the localization and protein interactions. Students in all classes conduct bioinformatics and gene expression experiments in order to further characterize and confirm the annotation of the predicted genes. Through this multi-classroom inquiry-based laboratory approach students learn the basic techniques required for laboratory research in science as well as aid in the further genomic and proteomic annotation of Tetrahymena. The students classroom laboratory experience culminates in the submission of their results for publication on the Student/UnPublished Results database (SUPRdb) website (http://ciliate.org/suprdb/; for student classroom research data). Biomedicine/Biotechnology Poster Abstracts: Poster Presentations: Youngman Upper Level *Gilley, D.R., J. Reyes-Reveles, R. Sedaghat-Herati, K.C. Ghosh, J.M. Dean, H.E. Gann, S. Kramer, W.A. Dowler, and K. Delong. Missouri State University. ENHANCED STABILITY AND RNA PROTECTION VIA THE FORMATION OF MPEG-PAMAM-G4 DENDRIMER AND NUCLEIC ACID COMPLEXES. Background: PAMAM dendrimers are unique compounds that are being tested as prospective gene delivery agents due to their ability to bind nucleic acid. Two common complications are associated with nucleic acid delivery: aggregation and instability. Thus, there is a need for novel and more effective polymers that can be used as prospective gene delivery agents with little to no cytotoxicity. PEGylation of the PAMAM polymer has been reported to decrease cytotoxicity and increase biocompatibility of the polymer. The interactions of mPEG-PAMAM-G4 with nucleic acid were considered here at various N/P ratios, demonstrating nanoplexes were capable of independently forming (range=240-430 nm) while maintaining stable, non-aggregate structures over time. AFM imaging established DNA compaction through dendrimer encapsulation. RNase digestion experiments clearly demonstrate protection of RNA when complexed with G4 dendrimer. Objectives: A) To examine the interactions of mPEG-PAMAM dendrimer generation 4 with RNA at various N/P ratios. B) To determine the average size of the complexes formed at various N/P ratios. C) To analyze stability over time using the DLLS. D) To analyze the protective properties of the dendrimer against RNase. E) To examine cytotoxicity and delivery mechanisms. Results: The study demonstrates that at different N/P ratios on an agarose gel, interactions between RNA and mPEG-PAMAM occur. As the N/P ratio decreases below one, the RNA was able to move freely through the agarose gel compared to when it was retained at an N/P ratio >1. Dynamic laser light scattering (DLLS) was used to analyze the aggregation of the mPEG-PAMAM:RNA nanocomplexes at various N/P ratios. The timeframe of the DLLS experiments was from 0-72 hours, with sizes remaining relatively constant (range=240-430 nm). Aggregation did not occur, as seen in the size data over time. AFM imaging established DNA compaction through dendrimer encapsulation. RNase digestion experiments clearly demonstrate protection of the RNA when complexed with G4 dendrimer. Cytotoxicity of the mPEG-PAMAM G4 at various concentrations indicated some cytotoxicity at higher levels. mPEG-PAMAM also proved an efficient transfection agent, as shown in the transfection of luciferase genecontaining plasmids. CHEMISTRY SESSION: Oral Presentations: Pfeiffer Science Building, Room P-313 Section Chairs: Alan James - Columbia College Carol Breaux – College of the Ozarks Time Oral Presentations 1:00 *Laber, C. H. and K. Garrison. College of the Ozarks. ELECTROCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CATECHOLAMINES AT CARBON PASTE ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH COPPER(II) PHTHALOCYANINE. 1:15 *Brehe, R.J. and J. Gordon. Central Methodist University. DETERMINATION OF WATER HARDNESS--A CONDUCTOMETRIC TITRATION. 1:30 *Enns, B.D. and J. Easdon. College of the Ozarks. REACTION OF PYRAZOLONES AND HETEROCYCLIC ALDEHYDES. 1:45 *Tommey, T., D. Wagner*, M. Bellamy and J. Shaw. Department of Natural Sciences, Northwest Missouri State University. AN EDUCATIONAL ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER AND FLUORIMETER. 2:00 *Engel, C. B., C. Breaux. College of the Ozarks. INVESTIGATION OF INTERFERENCES BY CINNAMON ON GLUCOSE TESTS. 2:15 *Glaspy, K.S. and J.C. EasdonCollege of the Ozarks. SYNTHESIS OF (3-METHYL-1-PHENYL-5SULFONYL-PYRAZOL-4-YL)-PHENYL-METHANONE FOR METAL ION CHELATION. 2:30 *Fallon, B., E.R. Rae*. State Fair Community College. INQUIRY INTO THE PREVALENCE OF HARMFUL PLASTIC ADDITIVE BPA. 2:45 Engebretson, A.S., K.L. Fulghum, A.N. Stephenson* and C.J. Brown. Evangel University. THE EFFECT OF MOLECULAR BRANCHING ON SPECIFIC ROTATION IN ISOMERS OF ALCOHOLS: SEPARATION OF RACEMIC ALCOHOLS INTO PURE ENANTIOMERS. *Denotes scheduled presenter. CHEMISTRY SESSION: Oral Presentations: Pfeiffer Science Building, Room P-313 *Brehe, R.J. and J. Gordon. Central Methodist University. DETERMINATION OF WATER HARDNESS--A CONDUCTOMETRIC TITRATION. For the majority of Missouri, the accepted range for water hardness, presented as calcium carbonate, is 121-180 mg/L. Although the hardness of water is usually determined via a traditional EDTA titration using a visual indicator, this experiment utilized EDTA in a conductometric titration. A change in the solution conductivity was clearly evident following the equivalence point of the titration. The indicactor method yielded an average hardness of 100.9 ± 1.6 ppm CaCO3 (n=6) while the conductometric method yielded an average hardness of 92.2 ± 3.6 ppm CaCO3 (n=6). As with most spectrophotometric titrations, the conductometric titration increases the accuracy of the titration because it utilizes a series of data points, rather than a single point in determining the equivalence point volume. While there is a statistical difference between the two methods, there really is no practical difference between the results. Engebretson, A.S., K.L. Fulghum, A.N. Stephenson*, C.J. Brown. Evangel University. THE EFFECT OF MOLECULAR BRANCHING ON SPECIFIC ROTATION IN ISOMERS OF ALCOHOLS: SEPARATION OF RACEMIC ALCOHOLS INTO PURE ENANTIOMERS. Literature data (20°C, Sodium D) show a direct correlation between the surface area and specific rotations of (2S)-(+)-3-methylbutan-2-ol ([α]=+5.34°) and (2S)(+)-pentan-2-ol ([α]=+7.65°). This study aims to use differences in the specific rotation in chiral isomers of alcohols to predict the specific rotation of various branched isomers. Hexan-2-ol, 3-methylpentan-2-ol, 4-methylpentan-2-ol, and 3,3-dimethylbutan-2-ol will be synthesized, and these enantiomers will be separated by converting the alcohols to diastereomers. Specific rotations will be measured using a polarimeter, a solution of 0.10g/mL, and a cell length of 1dm. Surface area decreases with increased molecular branching. Our preliminary data shows a direct correlation between surface area and the magnitude of specific rotation. Subsequent data is expected to follow this correlation, eventually allowing for the magnitude and direction of specific rotation to be predicted for a chiral molecule when compared to a differently branched isomer.The purpose of this study, and the content of this paper, was to develop a technique that would separate racemic alcohols into pure enantiomers for specific rotations to be measured. Current progress has resulted in 36% enantiomeric exc *Engel, C. B. and C. Breaux. College of the Ozarks. INVESTIGATION OF INTERFERENCES BY CINNAMON ON GLUCOSE TESTS. A well-known method of reducing blood glucose levels is to include cinnamon in the diet. Recent experiments, however, show the presence of cinnamon could be causing false glucose test results. This research studied the interference of cinnamon in glucose testing. Measuring glucose levels of known aqueous solutions of glucose with and without cinnamon by the glucose oxidase-peroxidase enzymatic method showed cinnamon interfered and caused glucose levels of the solutions with cinnamon to be lower. The hexokinase enzymatic method showed no interference when cinnamon was present but actually gave higher readings. Watersoluble components of cinnamon and other similar compounds have been tested to identify which ones are responsible for the interference in the glucose oxidase-peroxidase enzymatic method. Five of the compounds tested showed interference. All five compounds that showed interference were oxidized by hydrogen peroxide that was produced during the glucose oxidase-peroxidase test. This research shows that testing of blood glucose levels in patients could be compromised using the glucose oxidase-peroxidase test if the water-soluble components of cinnamon are present in the blood. *Enns, B.D, and J.C. Easdon. College of the Ozarks. REACTION OF PYRAZOLONES AND HETEROCYCLIC ALDEHYDES. 3-methyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one was reacted with aldehydes to produce 4-alkenyl substituted pyrazolones. These compounds are expected to have uses in the medicinal, agrochemical, electronic, and metal extracting fields. The reaction is performed with and without base and in some cases gives good results by grinding the two solid reactants together. We have explored the reaction conditions and the stereo chemical outcomes using NMR and NOESY. Initial stereochemical assignment indicates the E isomer is the only product. *Fallon, B. and E.R. Rae*.State Fair Community College. INQUIRY INTO THE PREVALENCE OF HARMFUL PLASTIC ADDITIVE BPA. Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a chemical used in the production of some plastics to add durability and rigidity in thinner products. BPA is one of the cheapest and, until recently, the safest chemical used for this purpose by manufacturers. Some evidence suggests that this estrogen mimicking compound is harmful to humans causing cancers and developmental issues. The prevalence of BPA in common household items was tested, focusing mainly on plastic/canned products used in the kitchen and food storage. The plastic/canned items were tested for the alcohol soluble BPA using the ferric chloride phenol test to determine the presence of phenols. *Glaspy, K.S. and J.C. Easdon. College of the Ozarks. SYNTHESIS OF (3-METHYL-1-PHENYL-5-SULFONYLPYRAZOL-4-YL)-PHENYL-METHANONE FOR METAL ION CHELATION. Multiple methods were explored to synthesize 4-acyl-3-methyl-1-phenyl-5-thiopyrazolones. Along with agricultural and medicinal uses, these compounds are useful in metal ion extractions. Target molecules include 4-benzoyl-5thiopyrazolone, 4-propanoyl5-thiopyrazolone, and 4-carbamoyl-5-thiopyrazolone. Reactions involve based catalyzed acylation to make 4acylpyrazolones. Conversion of the hydroxyl group into an ideal leaving group was done by either trisylation or insitu formation of trifluoroacetate. Then hydrosulfide was added by a nucliphilic aromatic substitution reaction. *Laber, C.H. and K. Garrison. College of the Ozarks. ELECTROCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CATECHOLAMINES AT CARBON PASTE ELECTRODE MODIFIED WITH COPPER(II) PHTHALOCYANINE. Phthalocyanines are used as modifiers for carbon paste electrodes (CPE) for their attributes of stability to heat, light and a variety of chemical environments, their binding abilities, and improvement in signal detection. Modified carbon paste electrodes were constructed with ten percent Copper (II) phthalocyanine (Cu (II) Pc) for the detection of catecholamines in a tris buffer system by Cyclic Voltammetery. The Comparison between non modified CPEs and Cu (II) Pc modified CPEs was performed to show Cu (ll) Pc’s increased sensitivity and reduced over potentials *Tommey, T., D. Wagner*, M. Bellamy, and J. Shaw. Department of Natural Sciences, Northwest Missouri State University. AN EDUCATIONAL ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER AND FLUORIMETER. The basic requirements to perform experiments that measure the absorbance of light, or the intensity of light emitted through the fluorescence process include a source of electromagnetic radiation, a wavelength selector, and an electromagnetic radiation detector. An instrument was constructed and used to measure the concentration of chlorine in drinking water. The instrument can be reconfigured in minutes to perform literally hundreds of different chemical tests either as a visible spectrophotometer or a UV fluorimeter. The instrument is constructed on a breadboard to allow students to more easily understand how the basic components of spectrophotometry work. *Fallon, B., *Rae, E.R., State Fair Community College. INQUIRY INTO THE PREVALENCE OF HARMFUL PLASTIC ADDITIVE BPA. Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a chemical used in the production of some plastics to add durability and rigidity in thinner products. BPA is one of the cheapest and, until recently, the safest chemical used for this purpose by manufacturers. Some evidence suggests that this estrogen mimicking compound is harmful to humans causing cancers and developmental issues. The prevalence of BPA in common household items was tested, focusing mainly on plastic/canned products used in the kitchen and food storage. The plastic/canned items were tested for the alcohol soluble BPA using the ferric chloride phenol test to determine the presence of phenols. COMPUTER SCIENCE And MATH SESSION: Oral Presentations: Pfeiffer Science Building – P9 Section Chair: Chip Gubera, University of Missouri-Columbia Time 1:00 – 3:00 Oral Presentations 1:00 *Gubera, C.C, and C.E. Gubera.University of Missouri and Missouri Southern State University. DIGITAL STORYTELLING IN A DISASTER. 1:15 *England, S., Missouri Western State University. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE STRIKE ZONE: HOW UMPIRE'S AFFECT ON-BASE PERCENTAGE. 1:30 *Li, Q. and D. Wagner*, D. Lincoln University. COURSE REDESIGN IN ELEMENTARY STATISTICS. COMPUTER SCIENCE And MATH SESSION: Oral Presentations: Pfeiffer Science Building – P9 *England, S. Missouri Western State University. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF THE STRIKE ZONE: HOW UMPIRE'S AFFECT ON-BASE PERCENTAGE Evidence has been provided that suggests Major League Baseball (MLB) umpires “make-up” for incorrect calls by following with another incorrect call that favors the opposite team, (Cervone & Moskowitz, 2010; Moskowitz & Wertheim, 2011). This research addresses the effect umpire calls have on on-base percentage. MLB records pitch data via Pitch f/x, a camera system installed in every MLB ballpark that assesses many variables of each individual pitch thrown, tracking such information as speed, movement, type of pitch, and- most important to this study: location. Data was culled from the Pitch f/x database released by MLB via www.baseballheatmaps.com, including nearly two million pitches from the beginning of the 2010 MLB season (3/29/2010) through roughly the end of the 2012 season (9/10/12). Three inches were added to the outside of the official strike zone to account for baseball width and t-tests were conducted in SPSS comparing the on-base percentage of at-bats in which “bad” calls were made to the on-base percentage of at-bats in which “good” calls were made. The data shows that there is an overall “opposite effect”: “bad” calls help the party they were called against; for example, a ball called a strike will- on average- help the batter get on base at a higher rate than an at-bat in which the correct call was made and a strike called a ball will- on average- lessen the likelihood that a batter reaches base, favoring the pitcher. *Gubera, C.C, and C.E. Gubera. University of Missouri and Missouri Southern State University. DIGITAL STORYTELLING IN A DISASTER. This case study examines the creation of a feature documentary digital film within a disaster zone. We focus on digital media issues involved in image capturing, audio capturing, video editing, and the digital workflow; in addition we will discuss the non-digital issues of heat, shot composition, and background audio noise. We examined the pros and cons of DSLR image capturing and the h.264 video compression in a QuickTime wrapper file that the camera produces natively. We also inspect the digital workflow that includes video file transcoding, syncing dailies, and integration of visual effects using the Adobe Creative Suite. The presentation will explore the non-digital limitations of image and audio capturing within a disaster area. These limitations include shot composition to gain perspective, heat that causes equipment malfunction, and the noise of demolition and construction that makes for challenging audio capture. The final outcome was the feature length digital film Joplin, Missouri – A Tornado Story. *Li, Q. and T. Buggs*. Lincoln University, COURSE REDESIGN IN ELEMENTARY STATISTICS. This presentation is a research report of Applying Performance Pyramid in STEM Education (APPS) funded by National Science Foundation at Lincoln University. The APPS proposal seeks to enhance the understanding of differential STEM participation rates among student groups. It uses the theoretical model of the Performance Pyramid in three studies: Needs Assessment, Math2 Course Redesign and STEM Alliance. In the study of course redesign, researchers will focus their efforts on curricular changes and program evaluation assessing these changes. The course redesign seeks to examine whether Math2 course redesign is effective in increasing knowledge, critical thinking, support systems and retention of students in Math courses. In this presentation, we will introduce the goals and objectives of APPS grant, the objectives of Math2 course redesign and the literature review which supports the redesign. In the second part of the presentation, we will demonstrate a sample activity “Think as a CEO and Study Statistics” which we have designed for Elementary Statistics at Lincoln University starting from the fall semester of 2013. CONSERVATION SESSION: Oral Presentations: Youngman Agriculture Building, Y-118 Poster Presentations: Youngman Upper Level Section Chairs: Cary Chevalier, Western Missouri State University No Schedule at time of printing CONSERVATION SESSION: Oral Presentations: Youngman Agriculture Building, Y-118 *Blanchard, B. Department of Biology and Environmental Health, Missouri Southern State University. INVERTEBRATES, COPPER, AND ZINC CONCENTRATIONS FROM CORES IN A SPRING POOL IN SOUTHWESTERN MISSOURI. I evaluated sediment cores from a spring pool that has lost its macrophyte community, Cabomba and Ceratophyllum, after 2006. From sediment cores I measured both invertebrate skeletal remains and copper and zinc concentrations. Sediment cores were taken from five different areas of the spring pool using PVC pipe with cores evaluated in 5 cm increments. Each core was quarter-sampled with ¼ analyzed for skeletal remains and the remainder dried and sent to Ozarks Environmental and Water Resources Institute for metal analyses. Chironomidae and Ostracoda dominated the fauna found in all cores. Ostracoda were abundant in the lower core sections, but declined at 20 - 25 cm from the bottom, and then recovered slightly at 25 - 30 cm. Chironomidae were abundant in the lower core sections, declined again at 20 - 25 cm, and then stayed consistent at upper core sections. Zinc and copper were found in high concentrations at all levels (Zn range 3200 – 5500 ppm, Cu 27 – 65 ppm). While Zn levels were consistently high, Cu levels spiked at the 5-10 cm depth. Copper levels at all depths may be high enough to inhibit rooted macrophytes. Heth, R. L. and R.K. Heth*. Department of Entomology, University of Missouri; Department of Biology and Environmental Health, Missouri Southern State University. LONGITUDINAL AND TEMPORAL PROFILES OF STONEFLIES (PLECOPTERA) IN A SOUTHWESTERN MISSOURI OZARK STREAM. We collected stonefly nymphs, exuvia, and adults from 6 longitudinal sites over a 10 year period 2002-2012 in a southwestern Missouri Ozark stream, including a Missouri Department of Conservation reference site. Benthos, light trapping, net, and hand collections represented all months of the year but were most intensive November –June. We collected 5560 individuals representing 7 families, 18 genera, and 30 species including 4 species of Capniidae (38% of 5560), 3 Leuctridae (29%), 2 Taeniopterygidae (1.2%), 1 Nemouridae (0.81%), 3 Chloroperlidae (0.95%), 12 Perlidae (27%), and 5 Perlodidae (3.1%). Allocapnia rickeri, followed by Zealeuctra classeni, Agnetina capitata, Acroneuria frisoni, and Perlesta decipiens were the most commonly collected species. An expected longitudinal downstream gradient of increasing richness was apparent, ranging from 9 species collected at the headwaters to 21 species at the lowermost site. Identifiable richness throughout the watershed was high January-May (peak 19 in April) but declined sharply after June (low 2 October). Longitudinal position, however, had little apparent effect on individual species temporal emergence patterns. Stonefly diversity in this stream compares favorably to collections in two high-quality streams in the western Ozarks in northeastern Oklahoma and in four streams in the Ouachita Mountains in central Arkansas. CONSERVATION SESSION: Poster Presentations: Youngman Agriculture Center Upper Level *Bailey, S.M., and J.A. Crawford. Lindenwood University. CONSERVATION OF COMPLEX HABITATS REQUIRED BY WOOD FROGS. Recent data suggests that more than half of the wetlands in the United States have been permanently altered or destroyed. Wood frogs are currently listed as a species of conservation concern in Missouri and are dependent upon complex habitat that includes both wetland and woodland environments. In order to protect populations in highly fragmented areas of the Midwest, land managers require information on the habitat requirements of this species. We sampled 25 potential breeding wetlands to quantify the important parameters for breeding populations of wood frogs. Evidence of breeding was assessed through both passive (minnow traps) and active (egg mass counts) methods and all wetlands were repeatedly sampled to account for imperfect detection. There were no significant differences in leaf litter depth, canopy cover, or slope of occupied and unoccupied ponds. However, forested buffer area surrounding ponds (P < 0.001) was significantly greater for occupied ponds; pond depth (P = 0.008) and pond size (P = 0.003) were significantly smaller for occupied ponds. Our results show that wood frogs require large amounts of forested habitat surrounding breeding ponds and that breeding ponds need to be smaller in size (likely to prevent the colonization of fish). This information is important for land managers to consider when restoring or creating wetlands to enhance wood frog habitat at the landscape level. *Bunch, N.A. and J.A. Crawford. Lindenwood University. DEMOGRAPHIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS OF PYGMY SALAMANDERS IN PERIPHERAL POPULATIONS. Peripheral populations of amphibians are often of conservation concern and a number of studies have hypothesized that there will be demographic, genetic, and physiological costs for animals in peripheral populations. Pygmy salamanders (Desmognathus wrighti) are restricted to the southern Appalachian region of the United States (found primarily in Great Smoky Mountains National Park). This species is typically found at elevations above 1000 m; however, peripheral populations have been found as low as 600 m. Using both demographic and physiological indicators, we tested the hypothesis that pygmy salamanders in peripheral populations would experience higher levels of stress and have smaller body sizes than those in core populations due to environmental differences. We assessed stress via differential white blood cell counts and measured 25 individuals from both a core and peripheral population. We found no significant difference in stress levels, but body sizes (length and weight) were significantly reduced for both males (length – P < 0.001; weight – P < 0.001) and females (length – P < 0.006; weight – P < 0.011) in the peripheral population, likely due to increased temperature and decreased moisture at lower elevations. A change in the montane climate (warmer, drier, or both) may result in reduced body size and fitness of core populations. *Hass, R.R. and J.A. Crawford. Lindenwood University. EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE ON HIBERNATION SUCCESS AND SURVIVAL OF CRICKET FROGS. Amphibians play a major role in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, often making up the majority of biomass in an ecosystem. They are a critical part of the food web serving as predators of invertebrates and prey for larger vertebrates. For these reasons, their declining populations are having significant impacts on numerous ecosystems. Recently, the pesticide atrazine has been a focus of studies for amphibians. Atrazine is a common agricultural pesticide used in the United States where approximately 62 million pounds per year are applied to agricultural fields (primarily in the Midwest). Atrazine has been linked to increasing mortality in embryonic stages of some species of amphibians. Further, when exposed to even low levels of atrazine at earlier stages of larval development atrazine affects amphibian gonad differentiation with additional effects such as decreased growth and survival. Cricket frogs are known to hibernate beneath the soil surface within 5 meters of agricultural ponds. In a simulated hibernation environment, we exposed adult cricket frogs to increasing atrazine concentrations in the soil for a total of 15 weeks. While there were no significant differences among control and treatment groups for growth or survival, there was trend for greater weight loss and increased mortality in higher concentration environments. These trends may indicate a negative effect of atrazine on adult stages of amphibians. *Lewis, B.D. and J.A. Crawford. Lindenwood University. POPULATION ECOLOGY OF FALL-BREEDING SALAMANDERS IN CREATED WETLANDS. Over the past century the number of natural wetlands has rapidly decreased due to the increase in productivity of agricultural and business industries degrading such land. Recently, national policies of mandatory mitigation have slowed the rate of wetland loss, and from 1998-2004 there was an estimated net gain in total wetland area for the first time in more than a century. Through wetland creation and restoration, the United States has been trying to protect more wetland habitats, but there continue to be questions about the ecological effectiveness of mitigation wetlands. Isolated vernal wetlands can play a significant role in the maintenance of species diversity within a landscape. To assess the effectiveness of created vernal wetlands, we sampled two natural wetlands and six created wetlands for two species of fall-breeding salamanders (which are excellent indicators of wetland health). While most created wetlands were colonized by both study species (Ringed Salamanders and Marbled Salamanders), there were significantly fewer breeding adults (P < 0.001) in the created wetlands when compared to natural wetlands. Overall, an average of 80 salamanders entered natural wetlands and an average of 7 salamanders entered created wetlands. Snout-vent length and weight measurements were also taken, but no significant differences between wetlands were found. The created wetlands are only two years old and may not yet be functioning like a natural wetland. Continued monitoring is necessary to determine if newly created wetlands become more similar to natural wetlands, and thus, play an important role in amphibian conservation. *Roberts, A.L. and J.A. Crawford. Lindenwood University. INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON TRAPPING SUCCESS FOR ILLINOIS POND TURTLES. Weather conditions have the potential to greatly affect the ability to successfully sample for semi-aquatic species. This study investigates the influence of temperature and precipitation variables on trapping success for Illinois pond turtles. In the fall of 2012, we trapped two ponds for a total of 16 nights. We captured turtles of three different species (Chrysemys picta, Trachemys scripta, and Sternotherus oderatus). We found that daily high temperature (P = 0.009), daily low temperature (P = 0.037), and pond temperature (P < 0.001) were all significantly higher on days preceding turtle captures; precipitation had no significant effect on capture success. Understanding how a species responds to variable weather conditions may yield insight into better sampling techniques. These techniques can lead to greater trapping success resulting in a more reliable data set. We will use the data acquired during the fall trapping season in a mark-recapture study during spring and summer of 2013. Our goal for this project will be to gain insight into how human activity within urban habitats affects pond turtle populations. Human induced disturbances may threaten the viability of freshwater turtle populations. Collecting sufficient data on how human activity has impacted local turtle populations can result in the ability to implement appropriate conservation practices in urban areas. GEOGRAPHY SESSION: Oral Presentations: Pfeiffer Science Building, P-217 Poster Presentations: Youngman Agriculture Building Upper Level Section Chairs: David P. Fox, Park University Brian L. Hoffman, Park University Time Oral Presentations 8:30 *Parks, S.L. Northwest Missouri State University. LIGHT POLLUTION AND ITS EFFECTS. 8:50 *Easley, N.J. University of Missouri-Columbia. MODELING THE LOCATION OF MIDDLE MILE INFRASTUCTURE. 9:10 *Dove, T.A. and D.M. Drake. Missouri Western State University. TWENTY YEARS LATER: THE ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY OF FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS. 9:30 *Hoffman, B.L. Park University. RACE SPECIFIC PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA-RELATED MORTALITY PATTERNS IN 104 US CITIES DURING THE 1918-1920 INFLUENZA PANDEMIC. 9:50 *Drake, D.M. Missouri Western State University. GEOGRAPHIC VARIATIONS IN MARKETING NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR FARM MACHINERY IN THE US AND CANADA. Time Poster Presentations (10:30 -11:30) 10:30- *Carroll, J.D. and R.T. Pavlowsky. Missouri State University. PHYSICAL HABITAT MAPPING IN BLUEFIELDS BAY FISH SANCTUARY, WESTMORELAND, JAMAICA. *Kuehn, E.A., M.R. Owen and R.T. Pavlowsky. Missouri State University. CONTRIBUTIONS OF STREAM BANK EROSION TO SEDIMENT LOADS IN A SOUTHWESTERN MISSOURI RIVER. *Mayus, A.L., R.T. Pavlowsky, and M.R. Owen. Missouri State University. MINING SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION IN FLOODPLAIN DEPOSITS ALONG THE BIG RIVER, MISSOURI OZARKS. *Romig, K.A.,. and D.P. Fox. Park University. HOW GIS CAN HELP RECOGNIZE THE SPREADING OF THE WEST NILE VIRUS. *Vaughan, A.L., M.R. Owen, L.M. Olson, and R.T. Pavlowsky. Missouri State University. GEOMORPHOLOGY OF A CONTAMINATED URBAN FLOODPLAIN ALONG WILSONS CREEK, SPRINGFIELD, MISSOURI. *Denotes scheduled presenter. GEOGRAPHY SESSION: Oral Presentations: Pfeiffer Science Building, P-217 *Dove, T.A.,and D.M. Drake. Department of History and Geography, Missouri Western State University. TWENTY YEARS LATER: THE ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY OF FORMER SOVIET REPUBLICS. A little over twenty years after the fall of the Soviet Union, the independent states that emerged have experienced varying levels of economic success. This paper examines the current economic geography of former Soviet states like Estonia, Ukraine, and Belarus in an attempt to determine if they are better off economically competing in the global marketplace, or were they in a better position under the control of Soviet Russia? Rather than concentrate on governmental policy (communism vs. capitalism) this paper examines economic data from the former Soviet bloc, targeting the current situation in Estonia, Ukraine, and Belarus. Focusing on economic geography such as agricultural and manufacturing production, imports and exports, and trade relationships, the current economic climate in each country should be readily apparent. Comparing these findings with anecdotal evidence from each region in the era of the Soviet Union will then allow for meaningful conclusions. The goal of the paper is to determine if independence from a “mother-state” and the economic shield of communism has helped or hindered these countries in the 21 years since the fall of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. *Drake, D.M. Department of History and Geography, Missouri Western State University. GEOGRAPHIC VARIATIONS IN MARKETING NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR FARM MACHINERY IN THE US AND CANADA. The global farm machinery industry is composed of more than 1,000 manufacturers, but is dominated by three US firms: Deere and Company, Case New Holland, and the Allis-Gleaner Corporation. The decisions that these “Big Three” make about technology and marketing have massive impacts on the entire industry as well as the manufacturing economies of the US and Canada. Through the use of comparative trade show reconnaissance, and positioned in the literature on green technology driving competitive advantage, this research examined how companies market new technology to skeptical farmers in the US and Canada, focusing primarily on the actions of the Big Three, as they are the most influential firms in the industry. Using content analysis of field notes and photographs taken by the author at various trade shows, as well as literature made available by the companies, the research compared and contrasted marketing strategies used by the Big Three in both the US and Canada. The research found that during the initial introduction of the new technology, marketing strategies varied greatly between US and Canadian shows. As the technology became more accepted, differences decreased, although a push to market the new technology most heavily to US farmers remains. *Easley, N.J., University of Missouri-Columbia, MODELING THE LOCATION OF MIDDLE MILE INFRASTUCTURE. Broadband internet is a necessity in today’s society. Providers of these services are expanding access and speed of high-speed internet. Typically, broadband providers do not release coverage areas, or footprints, to the public in any detail. Additionally, the location of middle mile infrastructure, which serves as a link connecting each internet provider to the backbone, is not readily available. In some cases, there is low confidence by middle mile providers about the precise location of every foot of their networks. Middle mile is the most expensive portion of a broadband network, so determining the location of all current middle mile is the first step in the decision about where to fortify or expand the reach of middle mile and broadband access. This study created a spatial model to determine the location of middle mile infrastructure within the state of Missouri. A medial axis script converted terrestrial broadband footprints into middle mile networks. Combining these networks with publicly available right of way ducts and corridors carrying other public utilities, such as roads, utilities, and pipelines, provided a spatial foundation for determining the location of unknown middle mile. A recently built middle mile extension in south-central Missouri validated the model and provided guidance to determine which features received higher weighting when attempting to determine the location of middle mile. The completed model provides opportunities for replication in other areas where there is low confidence in middle mile location. *Hoffman, B.L. Park University. RACE SPECIFIC PNEUMONIA AND INFLUENZA-RELATED MORTALITY PATTERNS IN 104 US CITIES DURING THE 1918-1920 INFLUENZA PANDEMIC. Relatively little is known about race and ethnic-group specific mortality patterns during the 1918-1920 influenza pandemic in the US. In the 1920s, a handful of studies based on limited samples, a pool of insurance claims and US military records suggested that the pandemic influenza virus impacted African-American populations to a lesser extent than the White population in the US. In an earlier study, I showed that the relative mortality rate from pneumonia & influenza (P&I) for US African-Americans was 180% that of Whites during the pandemic, compared to about 200% in prepandemic years. This study utilized mortality records compiled by the US Department of Commerce from 104 US cities to examine P&I mortality in these populations. Results indicate that P&I death rates in African-Americans were significantly less than those of Whites in only 11 cities. P&I death rates were nearly equal for the two groups in an additional 14 cities. When excess death rates were examined, P&I death rates in African-Americans were lower than those of Whites in 35 of the 102 cities for which a baseline could be set. P&I death rates were nearly equal for African-Americans and Whites in another 17 cities. These results suggest that relative risk of death from P&I causes in African-Americans compared to Whites fell slightly only because P&I mortality rose faster in the White population than the African-American population. *Parks,S.L., Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, Northwest Missouri State University. LIGHT POLLUTION AND ITS EFFECTS. There is something about the grandeur of the night sky that puts the scale of a human life into perspective. What happens when we lose sight of the stars and forget our small place in the universe? How will this night-less perspective shape society and the world we live in? Unfortunately the night is becoming much more illumined all over the Earth. There are few areas truly unaffected by light pollution of some degree or type. These questions need our immediate attention because light pollution is growing fast. Light pollution does not just lessen our view of the night sky; it also negatively affects health, endangers wildlife, and drains economies. While citizens and policy makers have become more aware of light pollution over the last few years, there is still a fight going on to prove the significance of its effects. The most recent strategy to bring awareness is to focus on the economic benefits light pollution reform would bring. In this presentation I will address why light pollution is such an important issue and what is being done to reduce and prevent light pollution in Missouri. GEOGRAPHY SESSION: Poster Presentations: Youngman Agriculture Building Upper Level *Carroll, J.D. and R.T. Pavlowsky. Missouri State University. PHYSICAL HABITAT MAPPING IN BLUEFIELDS BAY FISH SANCTUARY, WESTMORELAND, JAMAICA. Rising coastal populations in the Caribbean have caused the decline of marine resources as demands exceed sustainable levels. The decline of fish populations and critical fish habitats like seagrass beds, coral reefs, and mangroves is costly because the regional economy depends heavily on tourism and fishing. Major causes of damage are overfishing, climate change, pollution, and sedimentation. In order to address this problem in Jamaica, the Agriculture Ministry created a network of marine protected areas in 2009 including the Bluefields Bay Fish Sanctuary in Westmoreland. The legislation specified the need for a baseline survey of each new fish sanctuary. This study reports on the of the baseline physical habitat survey of Bluefields Bay fish sanctuary which is located between Belmont and Savanna-La-Mar and is about 8 km long, 2 km wide, and 10 m in depth in its deepest areas. Satellite imagery was used for initial benthic cover mapping and shoreline change. Shoreline photo-logs were completed with water quality data to assess intertidal habitat. Depth, water quality, and benthic habitat were recorded via GPS along offshore transects. Bathymetric mapping of the bay was completed using GIS interpolation to generate bathymetry contours. Benthic cover mapping was ground-truthed using field observations and diver validation yielded ninety percent accuracy. Detailed bathymetry and benthic habitat maps create a greater spatial understanding of marine resources and serve as vital tools for effective management and protection. Future monitoring should be conducted using comparable methodology in order to track temporal trends in the fish sanctuary. *Mayus, A.L., R.T. Pavlowsky, and M.R. Owen. Ozarks Environmental and Water Resources Institute, Missouri State University. MINING SEDIMENT CONTAMINATION IN FLOODPLAIN DEPOSITS ALONG THE BIG RIVER, MISSOURI OZARKS. Historical mining for lead (Pb) has left a legacy of floodplain soil contamination along 170 km of the main stem of the Big River. The Big River watershed (2,500 km2) is located south of St. Louis within the Meramec River Basin. Mining occurred in two areas within the Big River watershed. Upstream in St. Francois County, large-scale underground Pb-Zn mining from 1900 to 1962 produced large volumes of dolomiterich tailings which were left as large piles or washed into the river. Downstream in Washington County, Pb mining in crude surface pits began around 1800 and ended by 1920. However, more intensive and productive open pit surface mining for Barite (Ba) occurred until the 1990s. The purpose of this study is to quantify the percentage of contaminated sediment within the Big River floodplain that originated from Washington County compared to St. Francois County. High resolution sediment cores were collected from floodplain deposits along the Big River to evaluate geochemical and sedimentological profiles. Analytical methods included gamma spectrometry for Cs-137, X-ray fluorescence for metals, and CNS analysis. The relative contribution of each mining source area was assessed using geochemical ratios among calcium, iron, Pb, and Ba. Preliminary results suggest that St. Francois County is the predominant source (>95%) of lead contamination within the floodplains along the middle and lower Big River. *Romig, K.A., Fox, D., Park Univeristy. HOW GIS CAN HELP RECOGNIZE THE SPREADING OF THE WEST NILE VIRUS. West Nile Virus (WNV) is a disease that is still a major issue in the world today. It first came from an area in Africa known as the West Nile region in Uganda. WNV is a disease that is fast spreading and can be very deadly if it is not caught right away. GIS is helping to prevent and recognize the signs of spreading through spatial analysis in hopes of more prevention. The number in cases from the largest outbreak in 2003 to now is showing how awareness and this GIS technology is letting people know how dangerous and fast this disease can spread. The weather can greatly affect how the disease spreads. In warmer and wetter locations the disease will create more mosquitoes' breeding grounds, which creates more hosts’ carrying around the disease. With no current vaccine right now for WNV, all we have to go by is surveillance and prevention of the disease so the number of infected humans, birds, mosquitoes, and reptiles continues to decline. This study is showing how GIS can greatly aid in making sure that there is not another massive outbreak like the one in 2003, killing thousands of people alone in the United States. *Vaughan, A. L., M.R. Owen, L.M. Olson, and R.T. Pavlowsky. Missouri State University. GEOMORPHOLOGY OF A CONTAMINATED URBAN FLOODPLAIN ALONG WILSONS CREEK, SPRINGFIELD, MISSOURI. Elevated concentrations of toxic metals in sediments represent an environmental threat and can also be used as tracers for dating of floodplain deposits, particularly if the pollution history is known. Following, metal profile variations within floodplain soil cores affected urban releases can provide an understanding of human-related watershed changes and geomorphic history. Wilson Creek in Springfield, Missouri drains the old industrial center of the city that dates back to the mid-1800s. Previous studies found high levels of lead, zinc, and copper in near channel floodplain deposits downstream of the industrial center. However, less is understood about the age of the deposits and lateral variability metal concentrations within the valley floor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the geomorphic history of urban floodplain deposition along a 1-kilometer long segment of Wilson’s Creek. The drainage area of this segment is 31.4 mi2. Soil samples were extracted with a Giddings coring machine and analyzed for metal concentrations. Sampled locations were surveyed and mapped to display variability of elevation in the land. Aerial photography is also used to compare channel location and land use changes since the 1930’s. Understanding historical land use changes and the effects on channel stability and soil contamination can help provide a baseline for better environmental management in the future. Furthermore, remobilization of contaminants in floodplain soils is a major concern as further urbanization can cause channel instability. GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICS SESSION: Oral Presentations: Pfeiffer Science Building, P-218 Poster Presentations: Youngman Upper Level Section Co-Chairs: John Pope, Northwest Missouri State University Damon Bassett, Missouri State University Time Poster Presentations (10:30-11:30) *Cheek, S. and R. Pavlowsky. Department of Geography, Geology, and Planning, Missouri State University. WATER TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS OVER MULTIPLE SCALES IN THE JAMES RIVER, SW MISSOURI POWER STATION. *Breckenridge, K. and R. Pavlowsky. Department of Geography, Geology, and Planning, Missouri State University. FIELD-BASED MEASUREMENTS OF BED-LOAD TRANSPORT IN AN URBAN STREAM IN THE MISSOURI OZARKS. Time Oral Presentations 1:00 *Evans, K. and D. Bassett. Department of Geography, Geology, and Planning, Missouri State University. PRE-OUACHITA TECTONICS OF THE OZARK. 1:15 *Bassett, D1,2, K. Evans1, and K. MacLeod2. 1Department of Geography, Geology, and Planning, Missouri State University, 2Department of Geological Sciences, University of Missouri. THE EARLY MISSISSIPPIAN δ13C RECORD IN SOUTHWEST MISSOURI AND IMPLICATIONS FOR REGIONAL TECTONISM. 1:30 *Johns, E. and D. Gouzie. Department of Geography, Geology, and Planning, Missouri State University. SITE SPECIFIC GEOCHEMICAL MODELING OF GROUNDWATER, ROCK AND CARBON DIOXIDE INTERACTIONS; IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION. 1:45 *Shields, S. and T. Plymate. Department of Geography, Geology, and Planning, Missouri State University. PETROGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF THE LAMOTTE SANDSTONE: POTENTIAL FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION. 2:00 *Nold, J.1, M. Dudley1, and P. Davidson2. 1Department of Biology and Earth Science, University of Central Missouri, 2ARC Centre of Excellence in Ore Deposits, University of Tasmania. THE MISSOURI PROTEROZOIC IRON METALLOGENIC PROVINCE – THE TYPES OF DEPOSITS AND THEIR INTERRELATIONSHIPS. 2:15 *Blackwell, C., Glaspie, L., and Nold, J. Department of Biology and Earth Science, University of Central Missouri. A PETROGRAPHIC STUDY OF A COMPLETE SECTION OF THE SHEPHERD MOUNTAIN GABBRO DIKE IN DRILL HOLE PKM-1159, ST. FRANCOIS MOUNTAINS TERRANE, SOUTHEAST MISSOURI. 2:30 *Hagni, D., Department of Geological Sciences and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology. MORPHOLOGY OF GALENA IN THE VIBURNUM TREND, SOUTHEAST MISSOURI. 2:45 *Stinchcomb, B. St. Louis Community College. OCCURRENCE OF THE STROMATOLITE CONOPHYTON IN THE CAMBRIAN OF MISSOURI. *Denotes scheduled presenter. GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICS SESSION: Oral Presentations: Pfeiffer Science Building, P-218 *Bassett, D., K. Evans and K. MacLeod. THE EARLY MISSISSIPPIAN δ13C RECORD IN SOUTHWEST MISSOURI AND IMPLICATIONS FOR REGIONAL TECTONISM. Carbon and oxygen isotope values were measured from Kinderhookian-Osagean Stage boundary (early Mississippian) in southwest Missouri. Forty bulk carbonate samples were collected at 0.3 meter intervals through a section exposed along Highway 65 at the Chestnut Ridge roadcut, ~30 miles south of Springfield, MO. Stratigraphic units exposed at this section include the Bachelor, Compton, Northview, Pierson, and Reeds Spring Formations. Powdered micrite milled from each sample was analyzed by GC-IRMS at the University of Missouri and both carbon and oxygen show a positive excursion at the K-O boundary. This research is a continuation of a project designed to establish a high resolution carbon isotope stratigraphy for the early Mississippian throughout southwest Missouri in order to better understand the region’s tectonic history. Lower Mississippian sections in Nevada, Utah, Iowa, and Belgium record a positive δ13C excursion of 6-8‰ across the Kinderhookian-Osagean Stage boundary. In southwest Missouri the d13C excursion has a peak magnitude of approximately 4‰. When combined with stratigraphic features such as low-angle truncation surfaces, fault-aligned allocthonous mounds, and significant regional variations in formational thickness (such as the locally quite thin Northview Formation), these data suggest and incomplete chemostratigraphic record in the region. We argue that the size of the δ13C excursion in SW Missouri reflects the removal or non-deposition of sediment at the K-O boundary due to the onset of tectonism during the Ouachita orogeny, indicating an earlier initiation than previously thought. *Blackwell, C., L. Glaspie, and J. Nold. Department of Biology and Earth Science, University of Central Missouri. A PETROGRAPHIC STUDY OF A COMPLETE SECTION OF THE SHEPHERD MOUNTAIN GABBRO DIKE IN DRILL HOLE PKM-1159, ST. FRANCOIS MOUNTAINS TERRANE, SOUTHEAST MISSOURI. The Shepherd Mountain gabbro dike is known primarily from several core holes drilled during the exploration of the Pilot Knob magnetite deposit during the 1960s. The dike is approximately horizontal, averages about 400 feet in thickness, and sharply cross-cuts the Pilot Knob magnetite deposit. Previous work by Lowell and Ramo (1999) yielded a Sm-Nd isochron age of 1333 Ma. The current study was done on 23 samples from a 430 foot dike intersection in core hole PKM-1159, and is part of a more comprehensive study currently being done by John Nold and students. The gabbro is mainly medium- and coarse-grained and has an aphanitic basalt chill zone at the bottom and top contacts. The dike is principally composed of calcic-plagioclase and clinopyroxene, and 18 of the 23 samples contain olivine in amounts up to approximately 15 percent. Lesser abundant minerals in the dike include hornblende, biotite, apatite, and opaques. Late-stage igneous deuteric alteration minerals include green amphibole, chlorite, sericite, epidote, and calcite. The opaques have been shown by Nold, Dudley, and Phillips (2009) to be composed mostly of the oxides magnetite and ilmenite, with lesser amounts of sulfides, principally pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite, and covellite. *Evans, K. and D. Bassett, D. Missouri State University. PRE-OUACHITA TECTONIC HISTORY OF THE OZARKS. Southern Laurentia in the Ozarks region has been characterized as a Late Proterozoic rift shoulder that developed into a passive margin; docking with the Ouachita allochthon during the Early Pennsylvanian led to development of the Arkoma Basin and Ozark Uplift. Yet, pre-Mississippian strata progressively were truncated to the north, the Chattanooga Shale partly was preserved and erosion ally truncated, and in southwestern most Missouri, deep-water Mississippian carbonates accumulated on peritidal lower Paleozoic strata. We consider that epeirogenic uplift and denudation of much of the Ozarks preceded the Ouachita orogeny, occurring in the Early to Middle Devonian and persisted through Mississippian and Early Pennsylvanian time. The onset of convergence led to development of the Devonian to mid-Mississippian Arkansas Novaculite fore deep, and in the Ozarks, loading and flexure resulted in progressive truncation of the pre-Mississippian succession. Up to 500 m of strata were cut out, yet impact structures, isolated sink-fills, and faults record the presence of stratigraphic units that are missing regionally. During Early Mississippian time, continued flexure resulted in back stepping of the shelf margin, and deep-water facies accumulated in southwestern Missouri. Major faults are associated with some anomalous units of sandstone, limestone, or olistoliths, providing a record of syn-tectonic sedimentation during the Mississippian. *Hagni, R.D. Department of Geological Sciences and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology. MORPHOLOGY OF GALENA IN THE VIBURNUM TREND, SOUTHEAST MISSOURI. Galena occurs in the Viburnum Trend of Southeast Missouri primarily in two crystallographic forms, octahedrons and cubes. Octahedral galena was deposited early in the mineral paragensis, is the more abundant of the two forms, and commonly is modified by the cube. By contrast, cubic galena was deposited later in the paragenesis, is less abundant than the octahedrons, and may exhibit minor octahedral modifications. Viburnum Trend galena crystals with a flat, platy crystal form have received almost no study because they are rare. Platy galena crystals have been found in about one-half of the mines in the Trend. They formed early in the paragenetic sequence of the ores, prior to and coated by subsequently deposited cubic galena and drusy quartz. They are very similar in crystal morphology to platy galena crystals interpreted to be spinel twins in the Dalnegorsk Pb-Zn mine in southeast Russia, the Madan Pb-Zn-Ag deposits of southern Bulgaria, and the large Naica Pb mine of northern Mexico. In the Madan districts, the formation of octahedral galena has been attributed to the incorporation of elevated contents of certain trace elements, especially Sb. Analysis of Viburnum spinel-twinned octahedral galena crystals shows very low contents of trace elements: 3.1 ppm Ag, <2 ppm Bi, <2 ppm Sb, and <2 ppm As. Trace element content cannot be the cause for the formation of Viburnum platy galena. It is speculated that the Viburnum spinel-twinned galena crystals were the result of rapid crystallization from oversaturated ore fluids. *Johns, E.J., and D. Gouzie, D., Missouri State University, SITE SPECIFIC GEOCHEMICAL MODELING OF GROUNDWATER, ROCK AND CARBON DIOXIDE INTERACTIONS; IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOLOGIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION, Geologic carbon sequestration is a process of mitigation that has the potential to reduce the impact of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere through the injection of carbon dioxide into a saline aquifer. This study investigated the extent to which carbon dioxide can be sequestered in the Lamotte Formation, a Cambrian aged saline aquifer, due to solubility and mineral trapping. The program Geochemist’s Workbench was used for the geochemical modeling simulations performed for this study. Site specific data such as temperature, carbon dioxide fugacity, pH, mineral content and groundwater composition were the input parameters needed to simulate the sequestration of carbon dioxide in a saline aquifer due to geochemical trapping mechanisms. Preliminary simulations have been performed for the first site and for both hypothetical injection and post injection phases of carbon sequestration. For an example site, preliminary results show approximately 67 g/kg aqueous and 4 g/kg solid phase sequestered CO ₂, during the inject and 37 g/kg solid phase sequestered CO2. Aqueous species most involved in solubility trapping included CO ₂(aq), HCO ₃⁻, NaHCO₃ , CaHCO included dawsonite, dolomite and siderite. For this example site a possible preliminary effective sequestration capacity was calculated as .36 gigatons per 100 km². GEOLOGY & GEOPHYSICS SESSION: Poster Presentations: Youngman Agriculture Building Upper Level *Breckenridge, K.E., and R. Pavlowsky. Missouri State University. FIELD-BASED MEASUREMENTS OF BEDLOAD TRANSPORT IN AN URBAN STREAM IN THE MISSOURI OZARKS. This study uses native gravel tracers to determine field-based transport distances for bed load in an urban Ozark stream reach during high flow events. The objectives of this project are to (i) determine downstream transport distances of painted tracers of different sizes over a range of flow conditions; (ii) evaluate the influence of channel unit and thalweg location on transport; and (iii) compare field results to those predicted by mobility equations and the BAGS bedload transport model. Painted tracers of four different sizes were released to the stream including the D50 (16 mm), D75 (22.6 mm), D84 (32 mm) and D90 (45 mm). After a near bankfull flow event, many tracers could not be located implying that the tracers were either carried out of the study reach or buried in bar deposits. During this event, 34 D50 tracers were deployed, 79% were not recovered, and 7 tracers traveled an average distance of 64 m. Thirty-three D75 tracers were deployed, similarly 79% were not recovered, and 7 traveled an average distance of 43 m. Thirty D84 tracers were deployed, again 80% were not recovered, and 6 were transported an average distance of 63 m per tracer. For the largest size class tested, 30 D90 tracers were deployed, 47% were not recovered, and 16 moved an average of 35 m. The findings of this study will be used to validate bedload model results and evaluate expected gravel bar migration rates to better understand bed form changes in Ozark streams. *Cheek, S. L., Pavlowksy, R. Department of Geography, Geology, and Planning, Missouri State University. WATER TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS OVER MULTIPLE SCALES IN THE JAMES RIVER, SW MISSOURI POWER STATION. Thermal pollution is a consequence of utilizing a water body as cooling water discharge for a power plant. Heated water released by power plants to rivers can affect aquatic organisms by increasing metabolism, putting them at greater risk for diseases, and even death, due to reduced dissolved oxygen levels and other harmful effects. In 2002, approximately 200 fish were found dead near the dam at Lake Springfield that serves as cooling water for the James River Power Station. This study evaluates the influence of thermal releases to the James River within the context of daily, seasonal, and annual scales of temperature variability in the main stem of the James River. Temperature records were evaluated from ambient water quality stations, TMDL and other studies, and a recent study by the authors which monitored changes in water temperature above and below a coal-fired power plant discharge point. Preliminary water temperature data were collected using an Horiba U-22XD multi-parameter probe on a weekly basis from October to December 2012. Average temperature increased by 7oC in the James River from 13.8 oC above the plant to 20.8 oC below the plant outfall. Presently, long-term records are being analyzed and more monitoring data is being collected that will include dissolved Oxygen levels to determine if river temperatures fall below Missouri guidelines of 5.0 mg/L. PHYSICS/ENGINEERING SESSION: Oral Presentations in Pfeiffer Science Building, Room 213 Section Chairs: John E. Tansil, Southeast Missouri State University Daniel B. Marsh, Missouri Southern State University Time Oral Presentations 8:30 Welcome and Opening Remarks, Section Chairs 8:45 *Hill, P. Department of Physics & Engineering Physics, Southeast Missouri State University, INCORPORATING ACTIVE LEARNING TECHNIQUES IN A MATERIALS SCIENCE COURSE. 9:00 *Ottinger, M.B. Department of Computer Science, Mathematics, and Physics, Missouri Western State University. USING A SPREADSHEET, SUCH AS MS-EXCEL, TO SOLVE THE PARTICLE IN A WELL PROBLEM WITH ARBITRARY POTENTIAL ENERGY. 9:15 *Dahiya1, J. N., J.A. Roberts2, and S. Ghosh1. 1Department of Physics & Engineering Physics, Southeast Missouri State University and 2Department of Physics, University of North Texas. A STUDY OF DIELECTRIC RELAXATION USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY. 9:30 *Whitaker, R. J. Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Materials Science, Missouri State University. IMAGES: REAL AND VIRTUAL. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO THEIR LOCATION. 9:45 MAS Physics Section and MAPT Business Meeting 11:30 MAS Luncheon and Business Meeting Youngman Agriculture Building, upper level PHYSICS/ENGINEERING SESSION: Oral Presentations in Pfeiffer Science Building, P-213 *Dahiya1, J. N., J.A. Roberts2, and S. Ghosh1. 1Department Department of Physics & Engineering Physics, 1Southeast Missouri State University and 2Department of Physics, University of North Texas. A STUDY OF DIELECTRIC RELAXATION USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY. An insulating material placed in an electric field is polarized. A material like this when placed between the plates of a parallel plate capacitor increases the capacitance of that capacitor due to the polarization behavior of that material. It is because of this behavior, the insulating material is known as a dielectric and this process is called dielectric relaxation. The dielectric relaxation of a number of materials has been studied using microwave technology at fixed frequency and varying temperatures. The results of some very interesting materials are presented in this paper. The dielectric relaxation of these materials is a function of microwave frequencies used in these materials. *Hill, P. Department of Physics & Engineering Physics, Southeast Missouri State University, INCORPORATING ACTIVE LEARNING TECHNIQUES IN A MATERIALS SCIENCE COURSE. EP462: Materials Science is an upper level Engineering Physics course traditionally offered as a three credit lecture-based class. It is a required course for several of the upper level Engineering Physics options, but is accessible to and has broad applicability to other science majors as well. The focus of the course is to introduce students to the various classifications of materials and their properties so that wise decisions may be made when selecting materials for various applications, or to assist researchers in designing totally new materials to meet modern needs. For example, what sorts of materials are best suited for artificial joints, such as hips or knees? Since the properties of materials are dependent on both the elements they are made up of and the way they are processed, previous knowledge of chemistry and physics are applied in order to design and evaluate new materials. Since the main purpose of the course is not to communicate a lot of new physics or chemistry knowledge, but to review and integrate previous knowledge and build new skills in analysis and design, a more interactive and hands-on format seems more appropriate than the traditional lecture. Over the past semesters I have reduced lecture and added hands-on activities on a piecemeal basis, which have been very successful. Here I will describe some of the techniques I am using and talk about the introduction this semester of case-based learning modules. *Ottinger, M.B. Department of Computer Science, Mathematics, and Physics, Missouri Western State University. USING A SPREADSHEET, SUCH AS MS-EXCEL, TO SOLVE THE PARTICLE IN A WELL PROBLEM WITH ARBITRARY POTENTIAL ENERGY. In a typical Introduction to Modern Physics Course, Schroedinger's equation is initially solved for a particle confined in a one-dimensional well. Since most students enrolled in the course have little experience with differential equations, instructors are limited to presenting solutions for very basic cases. In this presentation, I will demonstrate how to finite difference Schroedinger's equation and use the Solver in MS-Excel to find the allowed energy levels in a one-dimensional potential well with graphical representations for the wave functions, and probabilities for the particle to be found in designated regions of the well. Using this method, solutions can be found for arbitrary potential energy functions within the well. *Whitaker, R. J. Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Materials Science, Missouri State University. IMAGES: REAL AND VIRTUAL. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO THEIR LOCATION. The method of parallax is commonly used as a means of locating a virtual image. An alternative method, using a second lens, will be described. SCIENCE EDUCATION SESSION: Oral Presentations: Pfeiffer Science Building, P-217 Poster Presentations: Youngman Upper Level Section Chair: Gouranga Saha, Ph.D., Lincoln University of Missouri Time Poster Presentations (10:30-11:30) *Moody, S.C., E.G. Ennis, and L.J. Gilbert-Saunders. Missouri Southern State University. SEPARATION PROCESSES FOR HIGH PURITY ETHANOL: THE IMPACT OF THE AZEOTROPIC AFFECT. Time Oral Presentations 1:10 *Haskins, M.F. Rockhurst University. COMMON BIOLOGICAL MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT LIVING ORGANISMS AND METHODS TO RECONSTRUCT THOSE CONCEPTS. 1:25 *Saha, G. C. Lincoln University. A TECHNOLOGY-SUPPORTED MULTI-SENSORY APPROACH TO SCIENCE TEACHING. 1:40 *Whitaker, R. J., Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Materials Science, Missouri State University. IMAGES: REAL AND VIRTUAL. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO THEIR LOCATION. 1:55 *Roy, P., D. Schneringer*, and L. Sly*. School of Education & Child Development, Drury University, Boyd Elementary School. UNIVERSITY/ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PARTNERSHIP HELPING SECOND GRADE STUDENTS DEVELOP SCIENCE FAIR PROJECTS. 2:25 *Burchett, S. and J. Hayes. State Fair Community College. A SOLUTION TO DISTANCE LEARNING FOR CHEMISTRY LABS. 2:40 *Smith, J. J. Missouri State University-Biomedical Sciences Department. An Inquiry-based Science Classroom Laboratory Module Approach Integrates Research and Teaching. SCIENCE EDUCATION SESSION: Oral Presentations: Pfeiffer Science Building, P-217 *Burchett, S. , and J. Hayes. State Fair Community College. A SOLUTION TO DISTANCE LEARNING FOR CHEMISTRY LABS. Distance Education has continued to face the challenge of providing a lab component that is equivalent to on ground labs. After exploring the commercially available options for Introduction to Chemistry lab kits, State Fair Community College decided to develop labs that were comparable to those being used on campus and package the kits in house. Through several semesters of trial and error, equipment and laboratory experiments have been identified that are appropriate for home use and that fulfill the requirements for the course. *Haskins, M.F. Rockhurst University. COMMON BIOLOGICAL MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT LIVING ORGANISMS AND METHODS TO RECONSTRUCT THOSE CONCEPTS. “Biology” means the study of life, however, most students, including those enrolled in introductory biology courses, have difficulty both identifying and applying the characteristics typically used to define life. This presentation will share information about a lab in which we ask students to identify traits they would use to determine if entities are living, dead, or non-living. Through their discussions many misconceptions are revealed and, hopefully, corrected. Common misconceptions about fertilization, seeds, dormancy, fruit, cellular respiration and photosynthesis will be shared during this presentation. In addition to the discussion, students complete a simple wet-lab designed to elicit their misconceptions about plants and cellular respiration. Details of the wet-lab and student responses will also be shared. Lastly, students are asked to relate their understanding of these concepts to the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, an Arctic repository capable of storing over two billion seeds . *Roy, P., D. Schneringer*, and L. Sly*. School of Education & Child Development, Drury University, Boyd Elementary School. UNIVERSITY/ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PARTNERSHIP HELPING SECOND GRADE STUDENTS DEVELOP SCIENCE FAIR PROJECTS. The science fair idea began with two schools partnering together to provide an ideal hands-on inquiry experience for inner city elementary children as well as university students. This collaborative project provided children with small group learning experiences to meet their learning objectives. Pre-service teachers from the university facilitated discussion as the second graders developed their own testable questions, hypotheses, and experimental procedures. At the university, these pre-service teachers developed science fair projects as a part of their course requirements. This experience helped them to guide children to do science fair projects. Second graders were able to select their research problem; hence they had ownership in their project. The children conducted experiments, collected data, made conclusions, and created their own display boards guided by the elementary education majors. Community people, including university professors and the science curriculum facilitator from the public schools, were involved in judging the projects. Second graders got an opportunity to meet with real scientists. Each child got a chance to explain the project to a judge. Children were able to communicate their findings successfully and were recognized in front of the community. It was a mutually beneficial learning experience for the students of both the institutions. Brief description of this project will be presented. *Saha, G.C. Lincoln University. A TECHNOLOGY-SUPPORTED MULTI-SENSORY APPROACH TO SCIENCE TEACHING. Classroom teachers' fears of science n particular limit their ability to promote reform-based science instruction. This study supported by Teacher Quality Grant focused on a technology-centered inquiry approach to impart pedagogical-content knowledge in some targeted physical science content areas. A mixed method of research was used. Twelve in-service science teachers from mid Missouri participated in this professional development workship. Pre- and post-test and anecdotal data analyses indicate that participant teachers' attitude toward inquiry science and their depth of content kbowledge enhanced significantly from this program. In addition, these experiences have had a long-term impact on these participant teacher's confidence and comfort levels to implement inquiry science instruction in their classrooms. Their students' interest in science learning and conceptual knowledge increased significantly. Limitations and opportunities for futher reseach are discussed. *Smith, J.J. Missouri State University-Biomedical Sciences Department. An Inquiry-based Science Classroom Laboratory Module Approach Integrates Research and Teaching. To further annotate the genome of the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena an inquiry-based class laboratory approach was developed. This involves multiple classrooms from freshman to upper division labs. Through this multi-classroom inquiry-based laboratory approach students learn basic techniques required for research while further annotating the Tetrahymena genome. In 2006 the Tetrahymena genome was sequenced and predicted gene annotation has been completed. Tetrahymena is a unicellular model organism that has been used for molecular and cellular biological discoveries such as telomeres, histone modifications, and catalytic RNA. In order to further annotate the genome of Tetrahymena and start the proteomic annotation of this organism a multi-institutional inquiry-based class laboratory approach has been developed. In this approach the predicted Tetrahymena genes are cloned into entry plasmids in an introductory level biomedical science lab (honors students). The cloned genes can then be used in upper division molecular biology classroom labs in order to characterize the localization and protein interactions. Students in all classes conduct bioinformatics and gene expression experiments in order to further characterize and confirm the annotation of the predicted genes. Through this multi-classroom inquiry-based laboratory approach students learn the basic techniques required for laboratory research in science as well as aid in the further genomic and proteomic annotation of Tetrahymena. The students classroom laboratory experience culminates in the submission of their results for publication on the Student/UnPublished Results database (SUPRdb) website (http://ciliate.org/suprdb/; for student classroom research data). SCIENCE EDUCATION SESSION: Poster Presentations: Youngman Agriculture Building Upper Level *Moody, S.C., E.G. Ennis, and L.J. Gilbert-Saunders. Missouri Southern State University. SEPARATION PROCESSES FOR HIGH PURITY ETHANOL: THE IMPACT OF THE AZEOTROPIC AFFECT. With the growing emphasis on the development of renewable resources by the United States, biofuels have become an important example of the use of chemistry to aid in preserving the environment while producing several much needed commodities. An industrial challenge in the production of high purity ethanol is the azeotropic effect of water and ethanol, which was examined through classical organic and analytical methods. First, traditional distillation procedures via an open system were employed to separate the ethanol from a sample of Mirror Pond Pale Beer, resulting in the conformation of a reported 5% ethanol composition to an experimental value of 4.93% ethanol. Next, a simulated water and ethanol sample was used to examine an extractive separation, by which a “salting out” of the ethanol by CaCl2 in various concentrations was performed. An optimum 0.3-0.4 mg/ml of CaCl2 additive produced an increase in ethanol distillation up to 80.5%. Fractional distillation, density measurements, and analysis by Gas Chromatography confirmed the overall increase in distillation performance. Finally, CaCl2 was again added to the water and ethanol simulated feedstock in order to break the strong intermolecular forces between water and ethanol; volume change experiments confirmed the augmentation of the interactions and provided for an illustrative view of the localized chemistry. SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES SESSION: Poster Presentations: Youngman Agriculture Building Upper Level Section Chair: Mara Aruguete, Ph.D., Lincoln University Time Poster Presentations (10:30-11:30) *Bernat, H.N., S.M. Atkinson, S.M. Jones, and K. J. Clark. Central Methodist University. THE EFFECTS OF RACE ON FIRST IMPRESSIONS. *Bradley, R., J. Clark*, S. England*, T. Ewing*, A. Tucker*, and A. Widrig*. Missouri Western State University. DOES THE WAY WEALTH IS EARNED AFFECT CONTRIBUTIONS IN A SOCIAL DILEMMA? *Gallagher, K.M., and M.E. Taylor*. Drury University. GLOBAL EXPERIENCE IN TEACHING SCIENCE. *Matthys, Z., T. Souther*, M. Varner*. Missouri Western State University. INVESTMENT DECISION MAKING IN A PUBLIC GOODS DILEMMA. *Singer, T., and G.P. Homann. Lincoln University. WHAT IS HEALTHY EATING? RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERCEPTIONS OF A HEALTHY DIET, ACTUAL DIETARY HABITS, AND BMI. *Denotes scheduled presenter. SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES SESSION: Morning Session Oral Presentations: Pfeiffer Science Building, P-124 Section Chair: Mara Aruguete, Ph.D., Lincoln University Time Oral Presentations 8:30 *Katrevich, A. and J.D. Register*. Lincoln University. THE EFFECTS OF SELFOBJECTIFICATION ON YOUNG ADULTS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY. 8:45 *Griffin, M. and H. Swan*. Cottey College. THE A-B-Cs OF BULLYING. 9:00 *Khan, Y. and C. Horn. Lincoln University. CORRELATES OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA USE IN COLLEGE STUDENTS. 9:15 A 9:30 BREAK 9:45 10:00 *Jefferis, B., C.A. Gosselink*, K. Maloney, E. Kiehne, and K. Sinor. Missouri State University. GRAYING GEEKS OR DISENGAGED GRANNIES: TECHNOLOGY AND OLDER ADULTS. *Johnson, K. and S. Garrard. Lincoln University. COLLEGE STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARD NONTRADITIONAL MARRIAGES. *Whipple, T.L. Park University. ESTIMATING PREVALENCE OF DISABILITIES IN CHILDREN. *Denotes scheduled presenter. A Not in competition SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES SESSION: Afternoon Session Oral Presentations: Pfeiffer Science Building, P-124 Section Chair: Mara Aruguete, Ph.D., Lincoln University Time Oral Presentations 1:00 *Hardy, P. Lincoln University. THE STUDENT SUPPORT NEEDS SCALE (SSNS). 1:15 *Messick, M.A., P.N. Nichols, and J. Silva Brown. Drury University. JOPLIN IN RECOVERY: AN INVESTIGATION OF RESILIENCE AMONG TORNADO SURVIVORS. 1:30 *Katrevich, A. Lincoln University. GAY OR STRAIGHT: DOES INSTRUCTOR SEXUAL ORIENTATION MATTER? 1:45 *Peters, C., J. Morris*, A. Katrevich*, and G.P. Homann. Lincoln University. EFFECT OF FEEDBACK VALENCE ON LEARNING AND MOTIVATION. 2:00 Break 2:15 *Bradley, S.L. and S. Tesfaye. Lincoln University. THE AFAR-A PERSPECTIVE OF THE EAST AFRICAN RIFT SYSTEM 2:30 A *Homann, G. P. Lincoln University. DOES LOSS AVERSION LOOM LARGER FOR SOME STUDENTS THAN OTHERS? *Denotes scheduled presenter. A Not in competition SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES SESSION: Morning Session Oral Presentations: Pfeiffer Science Building, P-124 Afternoon Session Oral Presentations: Pfeiffer Science Building, P-124 *Bernat, H.N., S.M. Atkinson, S.M. Jones, and K. J. Clark. Central Methodist University. THE EFFECTS OF RACE ON FIRST IMPRESSIONS. Within thirty seconds of seeing a person for the first time, impressions are made. First impressions affect a person’s reputation for a lifetime, and are usually based solely on the appearance of the person. Pager, Western, and Bonikowski (2009) conducted a field experiment to determine whether employers were discriminating against applicants because of their race. All the applicants were sent out to the same job interviews and were given equivalent resumes and backgrounds. The researchers found that employers were more likely to call back/offer a job position to Caucasian applicants than to African American or Latino applicants. In order to see if this trend applies to first impressions, fifty students from a small midwestern university will be surveyed about their first impression of a male subject. One group will be shown an African American male; the second group will be shown a Caucasian male. Both groups will be given identical basic background information about each male and the clothing each male wears will be similar. We expect to find that participants will judge the Caucasian male as more trust-worthy and a better candidate for friendship than the African American male and that participants will be more likely to judge the Caucasian male as more employable than the African American male. *Bradley, S.L. and S. Tesfaye. Lincoln University of MO, Department of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences. THE AFAR-A PERSPECTIVE OF THE EAST AFRICAN RIFT SYSTEM. The African continent’s eastern region is home to one of the geological wonders of the world, the East African Rift System (EARS). Within the EARS, the active geological process known as rifting is underway. The rifting of this region spans thousands of kilometers providing scientists an excellent field laboratory for studying modern, actively developing, extensional processes. Rifting can be thought of as a fracture in the earth's crust that widens over time. These fractures, through time, develop into elongated basins bounded by opposed steeply dipping walls (normal faults). These basins are the precursors to a nascent ocean that will eventually inhabit this region. Prime examples of this phenomenon are the present day Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. In December of 2012, I had the great pleasure of joining a team of geoscientists on a fieldtrip to the Afar region of East Africa, a key component in the EARS. This multifaceted experience exposed me to much more than the EARS and physical science. With a background in agriculture and environmental science, the focus here is to draw attention to the fascinating rift system from a non-geologist perspective. I will discuss its impact on the culture and economic livelihood of the Afar people. Johnson, K., and S. Garrard*. Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Lincoln University. COLLEGE STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARD NONTRADITIONAL MARRIAGES. Our study sought to define desirable or undesirable marriages in college students. We anonymously surveyed 80 college students to see how willing they were to participate in 18 alternative forms of marriage (e.g., polygamy, swinging, role reversal etc.). Based on previous research, we hypothesized that 5-10% of college students will show willingness to participate in alternative forms of marriage. These results may indicate that college students are more open-minded and socially liberal than often assumed. A *Jefferis, B., C.A. Gosselink*, K. Maloney, E. Kiehne, and K. Sinor. Missouri State University. GRAYING GEEKS OR DISENGAGED GRANNIES: TECHNOLOGY AND OLDER ADULTS. In our information society, many aging individuals, particularly graying boomers, are embracing mobile phones, e-Readers, Skype, and a host of other technologies to stay connected. At the same time, some elders are becoming increasingly stigmatized, marginalized, and socially isolated due to their failure to utilize the latest gadget or communication trend, e.g., texting (Ling, 2008). As gerontologists, we view the latter group as problematic not only for social commerce but because if health and safety measures, increasingly deployed to protect elders’ well-being, are being shunned by aging individuals, they could be physically as well as socially at risk. To address this concern, we conducted qualitative and quantitative surveys, field observations, and focus groups of individuals age 60+ who were recruited from libraries and senior centers to explore what technologies elders are using and why (i.e., what are the perceived benefits to the user). We also examined why some elders do not adopt many technological devices. Preliminary findings suggest that individual agency alone does not sufficiently explain the difference. In fact, familial and social pressures to become engaged also play a factor. Cohort effect also exerts an influence on use-non-use. We will conclude with suggestions for how older adults can best be educated and encouraged to become active users of technology. *Griffin, M. and H. Swan. Cottey College. THE A-B-Cs OF BULLYING. This study was an exploration of the antecedents and consequences of aggressive behavior for young adult women, with a specific focus on life satisfaction, stress, and emotional intelligence. For the purpose of this study, aggressive behavior was defined as any action intended to harm another person, either physically or psychologically. We focused on both recipients and perpetrators of aggression.Young adult women 18 to 24 years of age completed an on-line survey. The on-line survey contained mostly multiple choice and Likert-style questions and was expected to take approximately 30 minutes to complete. Upon completion of the survey, participants had the opportunity to enter a random drawing for one of six $25 Amazon.com gift certificates. Participants also had the opportunity to request the survey findings.We anticipated that low life satisfaction, high stress, and low emotional intelligence would, to varying degrees, play roles as antecedents and consequences of aggressive behavior for both recipients and perpetrators of aggression. *Hardy, P. and M.S. Aruguete. Lincoln University of Missouri. THE STUDENT SUPPORT NEEDS SCALE (SSNS). Retention is a major problem in most colleges and universities. High drop-out rates, especially in the sciences, have proved intractable despite offering supplemental instruction. A broader model of support systems that includes psychological factors is needed to address retention. The purpose of our study was to develop an instrument to identify the support needs of students in colleges and universities. We adapted the theoretical model of the Performance Pyramid (Wedman & Graham, 1998) to create a 48-item measure called the Student Support Needs Scale (SSNS). We examined the psychometric properties of our scale by subjecting our measure to a factor analysis which resulted in a robust 36-item, six-factor solution. Finally, we established the reliability and validity of the resulting instrument. Once student needs have been assessed using our survey, interventions may be tailored to the needs of a minority group, geographic area, and/or institution. This instrument could help university programs to make informed decisions about resource allocation based on students’ needs. *Homann, G. P. Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Lincoln University. DOES LOSS AVERSION LOOM LARGER FOR SOME STUDENTS THAN OTHERS? Loss aversion is the tendency for losses to be more motivating than equivalent gains. Previous research has found the threat of loss to be as much as twice as potent as the opportunity for gain. In the current study, I would like to go beyond this general finding and examine differing effects of loss aversion between high and low performing students. I hypothesize that loss aversion will have a more powerful motivating effect on lower performing than on higher performing students. In the fall semester, introductory psychology students were given a retest on the class period following each exam. Students could add points to their original test score by passing the retest. In the spring semester, the class was changed so that students could not only gain points for good performance on the retest, but also lose points for poor performance. Although the threat of loss may be a potent motivator in the short-term, particularly to lower performers, it may not be optimal for long-term outcomes. Drawbacks of utilizing punitive methods and potential alternatives will be discussed. *Katrevich, A. Lincoln University. GAY OR STRAIGHT: DOES INSTRUCTOR SEXUAL ORIENTATION MATTER? This research measures college students' attitudes toward gay men, religiosity, instructor competence and instructor likability. Data were collected from 156 undergraduate students (18 – 56 years old) enrolled in Introductory Psychology, Social Psychology, and Speech courses. Sections of the speech and psychology courses were taught by 2 gay instructors and 2 heterosexual instructors. Herek’s (1998) Attitudes Towards Gay men scale was administered at the beginning and the end of one semester. During the time between collection of data, all four professors disclosed their sexual orientation to their classes as a part of their lectures. In similar research, Waldo and Kemp (1997) showed that after an instructor’s gay identity was disclosed to students, their attitudes towards homosexuality became more accepting. We anticipate that students’ responses towards gay men will be more accepting at time two of data collection (in comparison to time one) in the course sections that were taught by gay men, while no such shift will occur in the other sections. *Katrevich, A, J. D. Register*, M.S. Aruguete. Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Lincoln University of Missouri. THE EFFECTS OF SELF-OBJECTIFICATION ON YOUNG ADULTS: AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY. Objectification is the act of viewing a person as a collection of sexualized body parts rather than as an individual. Self-objectification occurs when people internalize this observer’s perspective onto their own bodies. Previous research has shown that self-objectification increases depression, impaired sexual functioning, and eating disorders in women. This study experimentally examined the impacts of self-objectification on college students. A state of self-objectification was induced by having undergraduate students in an experimental condition describe their bodies in writing, from an observer’s viewpoint. Participants then completed a questionnaire measuring eating pathology, depression levels, and sexual functioning. When compared with a control group, self-objectification caused an increase in eating pathology in both men and women. The results support other research finding broad, negative impacts of self-objectification. Horn, C. and Y. Khan*. Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Lincoln University of Missouri. CORRELATES OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA USE IN COLLEGE STUDENTS. This study examined the correlation between electronic media use (e.g., TV, Internet), sleep habits, and mood in 75 college students. Participants were given the Pittsburgh Sleep-Quality Index (PSQI), the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and measures of depression, anxiety, and BMI. We also measured hours spent watching TV and playing video games, in addition to media access while lying in bed. Based on past studies, we hypothesized that electronic media use relates to poor sleep habits, sleep quality, and mood. We recommend further experimental research to determine causal effects of electronic media on sleep habits and other variables. *Messick, M.A., P.N. Nichols and J. Silva Brown. Drury University. JOPLIN IN RECOVERY: AN INVESTIGATION OF RESILIENCE AMONG TORNADO SURVIVORS. On May 22, 2011 an F5 tornado struck the Joplin, Mo community. This tornado quickly became one of the most destructive tornadoes to hit the Midwest. Current literature regarding the influences of multiple traumatic experiences on survivors focuses on veterans (Davis, 2012; Pantin, et al., 2003), tsunami survivors (Wahlstrom et al. 2008), and earthquake survivors (Bland et al., 1996) There are few studies regarding tornado survivors. For this investigation, 87 survivors of the Joplin tornado were recruited from a mission three months post-storm (Wave 1). Forty-six survivors were re-assessed 12 months post-storm (Wave 2). Participants completed a battery of instruments designed to assess their psychological and physical well-being. Self-reported levels of depression and anxiety were evaluated using Public Health Questionnaires. Post-traumatic stress levels were documented utilizing the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version scale (Weathers et al., 1994), while resilience was measured using the Connor-Davison Resilience Scale (Connor & Davidson, 1997). Researchers first sought to identify differences in mental health functioning and resilience between Wave 1 and Wave 2. Researchers also sought to determine if prior disaster exposure influenced self-reported levels of depression, anxiety, PTSD, and post-storm resilience. It is expected that those survivors with prior disaster experience will report a different rate of change regarding PTSD, depression, anxiety and resilience compared to those without prior disaster experience. The conclusions made within this research will be used to help future disaster survivors and mental health professionals. *Peters, C., J. Morris*, A. Katrevich*, and G. P. Homann. Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Lincoln University. EFFECT OF FEEDBACK VALENCE ON LEARNING AND MOTIVATION. Learning can occur following both positive and negative feedback, and it would seem reasonable that a mix of both would promote optimal learning . However, modern animal training methods such as clicker training emphasize the exclusive use of positive reinforcement with some arguing that even occasional use of punishment or negative reinforcement “poisons” training. In the current study, we are conducting an experiment with human subjects to test which of these viewpoints receives the most support. Participants in the study will receive positive, negative, or mixed feedback while completing a short online mapping quiz 20 times. After completion of the 20 trials, the participants will be asked to rate how much they enjoyed doing the task and given another quiz to complete. They will be told that they can do the second quiz as many times as they like until they are satisfied with their performance and that the top performers will be given a small prize (i.e. a candy bar). Dependent measures will include level of performance, number of times completing the second quiz, and the enjoyment rating of the first task. Implications of the findings for teaching and training will be discussed. *Sieminski, B.A. Park University. THE RELIGIOUS BRAIN. With the emergence and wide distribution of modern day brain scanners, the field of neurology is now capable of studying a complex cultural phenomenon, which was once best left to fields in humanities (i.e. anthropology, sociology, and psychology). Now, with the advances in modern technology, researchers are able to design and test neurological implications (i.e., biological and physiological processes) regarding the age old questions such as religion. More specifically, are religious experiences dominated by emotion or reason? Are religious experiences a unique mental phenomenon or are they simply a by-product of human thought? Is it possible to induce religious experiences? This oral presentation will aim to provide an introduction to experimental neuroscience approaches to understanding individual concepts of religion. Further, by examining specific cases and studies completed in this field, this presentation will note relevant conclusions concerning religious experiences addressed from the perspective of neurology. These conclusions, may lead viewers of the presentation to further questions or skepticism of such conclusions. *Whipple, T.L. Park University. ESTIMATING PREVALENCE OF DISABILITIES IN CHILDREN. This study researched students’ abilities to estimate the prevalence of children with learning disabilities and children with mental illnesses in the United States, and the effects of a knowledge seed on their estimates. Ten undergraduate Psychology students at Park University participated in the survey. The students were given two chances to provide estimates of the population of children in the USA with one of four developmental disabilities and four mental illnesses. The students were provided their knowledge seed (the correct percentage of children with one disability from each category). With the provided information, the students were asked to make second estimates, adjusting them to be more accurate. Students estimated children to have developmental disabilities more often than mental illnesses. The second set revealed an improvement in accuracy of estimation within a smaller range than the first estimates. SOCIAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES SESSION: Poster Presentations: Youngman Agriculture Building Upper Level *Bradley, R., J. Clark*, S. England*, T. Ewing*, A. Tucker*, and A. Widrig*. Missouri Western State University. DOES THE WAY WEALTH IS EARNED AFFECT CONTRIBUTIONS IN A SOCIAL DILEMMA? The present study examines the effect of endowment size and amount of effort given to obtain endowment on contributions to a public good. It is believed that those who have more wealth (points) will be less likely to cooperate and that making the situation competitive will amplify this effect. The hypothesized effect is based on the idea that people decide to give less of something they have worked harder to obtain as perceived by the individual. We will be using a 2 (competitive vs. pure effort) x 2 (high vs. low endowment) factorial design with the dependent variable being the proportion of wealth contributed to a public good. Each participant will complete a visual-spatial performance task in order to earn the amount of points they will use in the public good dilemma. One group of participants will earn points with the pre-task knowledge that all parties can earn the highest starting amount, or “pure effort”, and one group of participants will earn points with the pre-task knowledge that only one individual can earn the highest starting point total, or “competitive effort”. We will be using Analysis of Variance to analyze the data and determine if the hypothesized interaction occurs. *Gallagher, K.M., and M.E. Taylor*. Drury University. GLOBAL EXPERIENCE IN TEACHING SCIENCE. The impact of global science teaching experiences in Durgapur, India will be shared by two undergraduate students. Preservices teachers taught a total of three weeks at Hem Sheela Model School (HSMS) and a tribal school located in a village. HSMS is a private school where English is the medium of instruction, whereas the tribal children learn English as a second language and the instruction is provided in Bengali. Student teachers observed the socioeconomic diversity in the tribal school. Pre-service teachers covered various science topics using more student centered methods. They used mainly inquiry strategy with hands-on activities and cooperative learning groups. Three teachers from HSMS guided these undergraduate students to teach science in third grade classrooms. Data were collected by videos, one-on-one interviews with randomly selected third grade students, and paper-pencil assessments. Through their research, complete immersion experience, family visits in India, and the time spent in student teaching in the U.S.A., pre-service teachers were able to compare similarities and differences in the education systems and science curriculum between Indian and American schools. A brief account of the overall impact on global experience will be discussed. *Matthys, Z., T. Souther*, M. Varner*. Missouri Western State University. INVESTMENT DECISION MAKING IN A PUBLIC GOODS DILEMMA. Public goods are maintained primarily through contributions given from the public. At the individual level, it is most lucrative to not contribute and enjoy the good, but if all decide to withhold contributions, the good will cease to exist. We examined the effect that different wealth levels would have on contribution decisions in a public good dilemma. Forty-one undergraduate students from a subject pool participated. All participants were divided into groups of four. Within those groups, each member was randomly assigned one of four initial wealth levels for a starting allowance in the public good dilemma: poor, middle-class, rich and superrich. Experimenters explained the decision task to participants, and then placed them in private rooms where participants decided whether and how much to contribute to the public good. After the decisions were made, the participants completed a questionnaire, were debriefed and dismissed. We found that the poor, middle and super rich classes contributed proportionately the same amount to the good whereas the rich classes gave proportionately less. This finding is consistent with previous research which found that the rich gave less than the poor, but reveals that the relationship between wealth and contribution is not perfectly linear. *Singer, T., and G. P. Homann. Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Lincoln University. WHAT IS HEALTHY EATING? RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERCEPTIONS OF A HEALTHY DIET, ACTUAL DIETARY HABITS, AND BMI. Most people have a conception of what it means to “eat healthy,” but the term is ambiguous and varies considerably between individuals. The purpose of this study is to explore what people mean when they refer to healthy or unhealthy eating, and to examine the relationships between these beliefs, actual diet quality, reported dietary habits, recent intake, weight outcomes, body satisfaction, and a variety of other variables in this domain. Several hundred introductory psychology students over the past five years completed a battery of surveys and questionnaires related to dietary habits and opinions that were used in this study. We believe we will find intriguing relationships between dietary beliefs, actual behaviors, and physical outcomes and will discuss the implications of the findings.
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