""', Poll Res. 23 (3)-: 427-432 (2004) Copyright @Enviromedia Published in Pollution Research, 2004, Vol 23, Iss 3 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION STATUS AS A RESULT OF LIMESTONE AND DOLOMITE MINING- A CASE STUDY P.c MISHRA, H.B. SAHU AND R.K. PATEL *P.G.Department of Chemistry, NIT, Rourkela, India **Department of Mining Engg., NIT, Rourkela, India ABSTRACT Rapid industrial and developmental activities have put the emphasis on opencast mining for greater and economic recovery of minerals. But mining operations not only disrupt the natural ecosystem in a significant way, but also bring about a number of health hazards and socioeconomic disturbances to the local people. In the present paper the air and water pollution aspects of limestone and dolomite mines on the nearby locality has b~en investigated. It was observed that the common parameters of air and water are within the prescribed limits. A number of people in this area are affected by tuberculosis, which may be due to prolonged exposure to dust in mines. INTRODUCTION Mining is a vital industry for industrial and economic growth of any country. The development of infrastructure and core sector is directly linked with increased production of minerals, like coal for power sector, iron ore for steel sector limestone for cement for housing and infrastructure development. With increased industrialization, urbanization and other developmental activities; there is greater need for increased production of minerals. The emphasis therefore is now on surface mining which is adopted for quick and economic extraction with higher percentage of recovery compared to underground mining. In fact bulk of the minerals obtained in India now comes from opencast mines. Some of the important minerals like limestone, dolomite, iron ore, bauxite, granite, silica and magnesite etc. are obtained exclusively by opencast mining. Opencast mining is more damaging to the ~nvironment than underground mining. It starts within a natural ecosystem and it not only disturbs the existing ecosystems, but also generates an artificial one, which has its own factors including pollutants and contaminants. The important environmental problems that arise out of the opencast mining operation are air, water and soil pollution. Air pollution is brought about by the suspended particulate matters generated from the drilling, blasting, crushing and transportation operations. The main problem of water pollution in mining areas arises from the addition of fine dust, oil and grease wastes and in some cases acidic water and chemicals. In this paper various aspects of air and water pollution a~d their effect on the local habitat of a limestone and dolomite mine are discussed. Study Area The small town of Biramitrapur is situated in the Sundargarh district of Orissa, beside NH-23 and is at a distance of about 35 KM. North of the Steel City of Rourkela. In 19th century this mining town was developed by British engaging the local people through Bird's India Limited, Calcutta, which is now called Bisra Stone Lime Company Limited (BSL), Biramitrapur. About the Mines The deposit is complex type sedimentary deposit and belongs to Biramitrapur stage of Gangpur series of Indian Dharwar. It has a co-ordinate of N 22°15' E Addrt!ss for Corresponding: Dr. RK. Patel, Lecturer, Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela - 769008, Orissa E-mail: [email protected]; Phone: 0661-2476518-Ext-2301 (0) 0661-2472815 (R) MISHRA ET AL 428 84°30'. The average dip of the limestone and dolomite is 65° towards North. The general strike is East-West and the strike length is 7.5 km. The deposit occurs in the form of overlapping layers of limestone and dolomite. The hangwall consists of quartzite and the footwall of schists. Stratigraphy : Mica, Schists, Slates and Phyllites. : Carbonaceous slates and Phyllites : Limestones, Dolomites and cross bedded Quartzites Laingar stage : Slates, Phyllitesand Schists Raghunathpalli stage: Conglomerates, Quartzites, Slates Ghoriajor stage Kuarmunda stage Biramitrapur stage For convenience of mining, the deposit has been divided into four mines, viz. Kaplas East, Kaplas West, Gurpahar and Patpahar. There are very low grade stones in between the limestone and dolomite bands which means mining has to be carried out in a selective manner. The estimated reserves of ~, majority of the common people depend upon the wells and ponds. It is noticed that many people in the area suffer from gastroenteritis problem, which may be due to higher concentration of Calcium and Magnesium found in the drinking water. A number of people in this area suffer from diseases like Anemia, Asthma, Tuberculosis, Malaria, Jaundice and a few people suffer from Cancer and other diseases. However, tuberculosis is found most commonly in this area. In fact cases of patients having tuberculosis are reported every month. Details of the major diseases causing death of patients are presented in Table 1. " An attempt has been made to study the water pollution aspects by taking samples from drainage water from the mines and also the drinking water from the residential areas. Similarly, air samples Table 1. Report of major diseases Biramitrapur area in 2001 Month limestone and "olomite are 375 MT and 265 MT respectively. Th'e composition of limestone and dolomite in these quarries are as given below: Composition Diseases causing death January Parameters February Lime Stone (CaCO3) (%) CaO MgO SiOz AlzO3 FezO3 Total alkali Loss on ignition 46 4 5 1.4 0.9 0.4 40 Dolomite (CaCO3, MgCO) (%) 28-30 19-20 6-7 1.4 0.9 0.4 45 The limestone and dolomite mines of BSL are situated adjacent to the Birmitrapur Municipality area. The population of this Mining town is about 29742 on the basis of 2001 census report and is divided into eleven wards. The area is tribal dominated and most of the people are living below the poverty line. The total area of the town is 34.46 sq. Km. After winning the minerals, a number of working mines have been abandoned by the mining companies, which are now the main source of drinking water for the local people. Though the municipality with the help of PWD has provided only few drinking water pipeline connections, the March April May June July August September October November December causing death in No. of people Age Anemia TB Asthma TB Malaria Cancer Anemia Asthma TB Malaria Cancer Asthma 1 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 50 22 55 50,20,30 76,45 60 20 80 40 22 60 TB Cancer Asthma TB TB Malaria Jaundice TB 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 35,40 52 45 42,35 26,26 20 34 TB Anemia Pneumonia Jaundice TB Malaria Cancer Anemia Jaundice TB 1 2 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 3 50 50,34 7 days child 3 28,48,18 - - 10 10 10,35,22 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION STATUS AS A RESULT OF LIMESTONE AND DOLOMITE were also collected from two stations, i.e. one near the residential area nearer to the mines and another in the mining area. The samples were then brought to the laboratory for physico-chemical analysis. Parameters like Turbidity, pH, Temperature, Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids were measured at the sampling site using water analysis kit model 191E. All the multi-probes were calibrated together using the same standard procedures. All the other parameters were determined as per the standard methods of analysis of water by APHA, AWWA, WPCF (1985, 16th edition), Trivedi and Goel (1984), Manivaskanam (1986) and NEERI (1986). For the study of mines drainage water some parameters like oil and grease, Ammoniacal MATERIALS AND METIIODS Water samples were collected using 3 litre polythene bottles with stopper. Each of the bottles were washed with 2% Nitric acid and then rinsed with distilled water. The bottles were then preserved in a clean place. Prior to sampling, the bottles were rinsed thoroughly with the water of the source from which the samples were to be collected. Table 429 2.Physico-chemicalparameters of water samples Parameters Temperature Drainage water 300C Tolerance limit - Odour U - pH 7.2 5.5-9.0 29 - 100 Nil 1.0 0.21 11.0 50 100 0.24 29 110 3.1 447 Nil 1.45 1.51 Dissolved PO41.58 Sulphide 0.89 NO3-- Nitrogen Phenolic compounds Nil Pestisides 5 30 250 10 500 0.2 2.0 5.0 2.0 10.0 1.0 Colour (Hazen) Taste Turbidity (NTU) TSS TDS Total residual Chlorine Ammoniacal-N Total Kjeldhal's Nitrogen Free Ammonia BOD COD Oil and Grease Hardness Cyanide Fluoride Chlorides Nil - - - - - - - Mineral oil - Coliform organisms (MP N/1oo ml) - Sulphates Township Patpahar Tube well Tolerance limit (DW)* Desirable Permissible 300c Nil - - Nil 5 25 Normal Normal U 7.9 U 7 Agreeable Nil 8 475 Nil Nil 12 410 Nil 5 500 500 0.2 450 Nil 1.2 155 Nil 1.1 300 0.05 1.0 600 No relaxation 1.5 0.18 Nil 0.45 Nil 45 0.001 100 0.002 Absent Absent Absent 0.001 21 15 250 1000 400 0.03 300C U 6.8-8.5 - 90 Not traceable 66 Not traceable 200 0.01 - 3 2 10.0 N.B. The units of all the chemical parameters except pH are in mg/L. *U - unobjectionable, DW-drinking water No relaxation 10 500 2000 MISHRA ET AL 430 It may be observed from Table 2 that pH of water is neutral to slightly alkaline in nature and it varies from 7 to 7.9. Turbidity of the drinking water sample are found to be nil. Similarly Residual Chlorine is also found to be nil in all the samples determined. The values of the parameters like Total Suspended Solids (TSS), oil and grease, Ammoniacal nitrogen, Total Kjeldahl's nitrogen, free Ammonia, BOD, COD, Dissolved Phosphates, Sulphides of the mine drainage water are well below the tolerance limit for industrial effluent discharged. Similarly the values of the parameters like Chlorides, TDS, Sulphates, Mineral oil and Coliform organisms of the drinking water samples of the residential areas are well below the tolerance limit for drinking water. However, the value of the parameters like Cyanides, Fluorides, Nitrate Nitrogen are well below the tolerance limit in both drainage and the drinking water samples. The value of Hardness is very high in the mines drainage and township water and varies from 447 to 450 mg/L. It exceeds the desirable limit (300 mg/L), but is within the permissible limit (500 mg/L). The survey of heavy metal content in the water is of great concern because of its high potential toxicity to the various biological forms. The results of heavy metals analysis of all water samples along with their tolerance limits are given in Table 3. Metal ions and their complex exhibit a wide of the toxicity to the organisms that ranges from sub lethal to lethal depending upon the time of exposure Nitrogen, Total Kjeldahl's Nitrogen, Free Ammonia, BOD, Dissolved phosphates, Sulphides has been determined. Similarly for the study of drinking water of the residential areas parameters like Turbidity, Pesticides, Total Hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Chlorides, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Sulphates, Conductivity, Mineral oil and Coliform Organisms has been determined. Similarly, monitoring of Ambient air quality (AAQ) was undertaken by collecting air from each sampling stations and the sampling was carried out for a period of 24hr during each sampling. Samples were analysed for S02 using West-Gaeke method for air samples using Systronics spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 560 nm. NO. samples were analysed using Jacob Hoseiser modified method spectrophotometer at 540 nm. For SPM, What man GF / A filter paper was used in Hi-volume sampler model no. 486. The flow rate of air was maintained at 1.0 m3/ min. The Hi-volume sampler was calibrated at the sampling site to avoid error due to shift. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The different physico-chemical parameters of the collected samples were analyzed and these are presented in Table 2 along with the tolerance limits for mining drainage and water in residential areas for drinking [Schedule-VI of Environment (protection) Rules, 1986; IS : 10500, 1919]. Table 3. Heavy metals in the water samples (mg/L) Tolerance Metals Drainage Township limit water Arsenic Mercury Lead Cadmium Chromium Calcium Magnesium Total Chromium Copper Zinc Selenium Nickel Iron Vanadium Manganese Nil Nil Nil Nil 0.2 0.01 0.1 2 80 60 0.015 0.016 Nil Nil Nil 0.52 Nil Nil 2.0 3.0 5.0 0.05 3.0 3.0 0.2 1.0 Patpahar tube well Tolerance limit Desirable Permissible Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil 90 56 Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil 45 10 0.05 0.001 0.05 0.01 0.05 75 30 Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil 0.05 5.0 0.01 - 0.3 Nil - 0.24 Nil - 0.3 0.1 No No No No No relaxation relaxation relaxation relaxation relaxation 200 100 - 1.5 15.0 No relaxation - 0.1 0.3 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION STATUS AS A RESULT OF LIMESTONE AND DOLOMITE and the prevailing conditions in the ambient water (Goel, 1997). Some metals such as Copper, Zinc, and Iron are essential for biological system while Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Nickel, Arsenic, Selenium and Mercury are highly toxic even in low concentration. Copper is widely distributed and is an essential metal required by all living organism, in the enzyme systems, but at higher concentration it works essentially as a pollutant. Metals like Arsenic, Mercury Lead, Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Zinc, Selenium, Nickel and Manganese are absent in all the water samples analysed. In all the samples Iron is found in very small traces and is well below the prescribed limit. For drainage water and Township water, Calcium and Magnesium exceeds the prescribed limit i.e. 75 and 50 mg/L respectively. However, for tubewell water these metals are well below the prescribed limit. Total Chromium is well below the prescribed limit in drainage water sample i.e. 0.015 mg/L. The ambient air quality (AAQ) data with respect to the th1ee parameters are presented in Table 4 and the ambient air quality standards of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) are given in Table 5. It was observed from table 4 that the average of suspended particulate matter of both the sampling points are within the permissible limit for the residential areas, i.e. 140 (~g/m3 (24 hr average, Table 5). The average for sulphur dioxide and oxides of Nitrogen concentration are within the permissible limits i.e. 60 (~g/m3 and 60 ~g/m3 respectively (24 hr average, Table 5). Table 4.Average value of SPM,502 and NOx Sampling SPM stations (!J.g/m3) Residential area 115.7 Mining area 135.8 502 (!J.g/m3) 3.80 4.50 Table 5. Ambient air quality standards Pollution Control Board (CPCB) Sampling stations Industrial Residential Sensitive area SPM (!J.g/m3) 500 300 200 140 100 70 (8 hr) (24 hr) (8 hr) (24 hr) (8 hr) (24 hr) 502 (!J.g/m3) 120 80 80 60 30 20 (8 hr) (24 hr) (8 hr) (24 hr) (8 hr) (24 hr) NO (!J.g/~3) 2.60 2.70 of Central NO x (!J.g/m3) 120 90 80 60 30 20 (8 hr) (24 hr) (8 hr) (24 hr) (8 hr) (24 hr) 431 CONCLUSION It may be observed from the above study that most of the pollutants are below the prescribed limit. The cases of patients having tuberculosis every month may be because of the exposure of the patients to dust for long periods of time, though the air pollutants are within the limit. Since the life of the mines is very long, the mining authority should plan and implement comprehensive environmental protection measures. A major problem in these areas is the non-planning of the dumping site in the initial stages of the mining. The waste materials should be stored in planning dumping sites, or else they can be dumped in the mined out areas. Dust masks should be provided to all the persons engaged in operations like drilling, mineral crushing etc. which produce large quantities of dust. Water should be sprinkled with water sprinklers on the haul roads and crushing sites at regular intervals to minimize the emission of dust. The dust from these sites should also be removed at regular intervals. The drainage water should be diverted away from the populated area and biological analysis as well as regular monitoring of drainage water should be done by sophisticated instruments. The mining authority should think of developing a green belt all around the mining area. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The Authors are thankful to Prof. S.K. Sarangi, Director, NIT, Rourkela for his permission to publish the paper. The authors are also thankful to Prof. K.M. Purohit, Professor and head; and Prof. B. 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