List of Plant Species Present on Forest Permanent Sample Plots in

List of Plant Species Present on
Forest Permanent Sample Plots in
Interior and Southcentral Alaska
Thomas Malone,1 CF, Edmond C. Packee Sr.,2 PhD, CF, and
Jingjing Liang,3 PhD, CF
Permanent Sample Plot 24B, a white spruce and aspen stand on the
Nenana Ridge. The plot was established in 1995, this photo taken in 2005.
Four pictures are taken from the northwest corner of each PSP during each
site establishment and subsequent remeasurements (every five years). The
first picture is taken with the camera pointed toward the northeast corner.
The second picture is taken with the camera pointed at PSP center. The
third picture is taken with the camera pointed at the southwest corner. The
fourth picture is taken pointing up toward the sky to show crown cover.
—Photo by Thomas Malone.
2
Introduction
Literature Cited
n 1994 the University of Alaska Fairbanks, School of Natural
Resources and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural and Forestry
Experiment Station began a project to establish permanent
sample plots (PSP) throughout the forests of northern and
southcentral Alaska. Objectives of the project are to establish
and maintain a system of PSPs to monitor forest growth, yield,
forest health, and ecological conditions/change (Malone et al.,
2009).
To date, 603 PSPs have been established on 201 sites
throughout interior and southcentral Alaska. The PSPs are square
and 0.1 acre in size and in clusters of three. PSPs are remeasured
at a five-year interval. The number of plot remeasurements after
establishment ranges from one to three times.
A large amount of data is collected at each site at time of
establishment and at subsequent remeasurements. Four databases
contain all the data: tree measurement and characteristics, site
description, regeneration, and vegetation data.
Vegetation data collected on the 0.1 acre PSPs includes
species (trees shrub, herb, grass, and non-vascular plants) and
cover, an estimate of the amount of the plot covered by the crown
of each species (cover class) (Daubenmire, 1959). The vegetation
database can be used by land managers and researchers to study
species diversity and forest succession in addition to long-term
monitoring of forest health.
The species listed in Appendix 1 and in the vegetation
database are presented by categories: tree, shrub, herb, grass,
rush, sedge, fern, club moss, lichen, moss, and liverwort.
The PSP databases are available by contacting Tom Malone at
[email protected]
I
Collet, D.M. 2004. Willows of Interior Alaska. USDI, Fish and
Wildlife Serv.
Acknowledgements
Viereck, L.A. and E.L. Little, Jr. 1972. Alaska Trees and Shrubs.
USDA For. Serv. Agric. Handbook No. 410.
T
his project is supported by the University of Alaska, School
of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences, and a
federal McIntire-Stennis Fund Grant. In addition to the plant
identification books listed in this publication, we would like
to thank Dr. Patricia Holloway and Ms. Carolyn Parker of the
University of Alaska Fairbanks and Dr. Teresa Hollingsworth
of the US Forest Service for assisting in plant identification. We
also acknowledge the students and technicians who helped with
data collection since 1994.
Daubenmire, R. 1959. A canopy-coverage method of vegetation
analysis. Northwest Sci. 33: 43–66, Seattle, Washington.
Hulten, E. 1968. Flora of Alaska and Neighboring Territories: A
Manual of the Vascular Plants. Stanford University Press,
Stanford, California.
Johnson, D., L. Kershaw, A. MacKinnon, and J. Pojar. 1995.
Plants of the Western Boreal Forest and Aspen Parkland. Lone
Pine Publishing, Edmonton, Alberta: Canada.
MacKinnon, A., J. Pojar, and R. Coupe. 1999. Plants of Northern
British Columbia. Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton,
Alberta.
Malone, T., J. Liang, and E.C. Packee. 2009. Cooperative Alaska
Forest Inventory. USDA For. Serv. PNW-GTR-785.
Pojar, J. and A. MacKinnon. 1994. Plants of Coastal British
Columbia. Lone Pine Publishing, Edmonton, Alberta.
Pratt, V.E. 1991. Wildflowers Along the Alaska Highway.
Alaskakrafts, Inc., Anchorage, Alaska.
USDA, NRCS. 2012. The PLANTS Database (http://plants.
usda.gov). National Plant Data Team, Greensboro, NC
27401-4901 USA.
Vitt, D.H., J.E. Marsh, and R.B. Bovey. 1988. Mosses, Lichens and
Ferns of Northwest North America. Lone Pine Publishing,
Edmonton, Alberta.
PSP 264B is a birch and white spruce stand near Trapper Creek. PSP
established in 2000; photo in 2010.
—Photo by Thomas Malone.
1. Research Forester, School of Natural Resources and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska; corresponding author.
2. Professor of Forest Management, Emeritus, School of Natural Resources
and Agricultural Sciences, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska.
3. Assistant Professor of Forest Ecology, Division of Forestry and Natural
Resources, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.
List of Plant Species on Forest Permanent Sample Plots • Malone, Packee, Liang • MP 2012-01
3
Appendix 1. List of Plant Species Present
in PSPs in Interior and Southcentral Alaska.
Vegetation
Class
Species
Code
Scientific Name
BETKEN
BETNEO
LARLAR
PICGLA
PICLUT
PICMAR
Betula kenaica
Betula neoalaskana
Larix laricina
Picea glauca
Picea X lutzii
Picea mariana
Common Name
Trees
POPBAL
POPTRE
TSUMER
Kenai birch
Alaska birch
tamarack
white spruce
Lutz spruce
black spruce
balsam poplar, includes black
Populus balsamifera, includes ssp trichocarpa
cottonwood
Populus tremuloides
aspen
Tsuga mertensiana
mountain hemlock
Understory Regen
BETKEN-R
BETNEO-R
PICGLA-R
LARLAR-R
PICLUT-R
PICMAR-R
Betula kenaica
Betula neoalaskana
Larix laricina
Picea glauca
Picea X lutzii
Picea mariana
POPTRE-R
TSUMER-R
Kenai birch
Alaska birch
tamarack
white spruce
Lutz spruce
black spruce
balsam poplar, includes black
Populus balsamifera, includes ssp trichocarpa
cottonwood
Populus tremuloides
aspen
Tsuga mertensiana
mountain hemlock
ALNTEN
ALNVIR
AMEALN
ANDPOL
ARCRUB
ARCUVA
BETGLA
BETNAN
CASTET
CHACAL
COMPAL
DASFRU
DRYINT
DRYOCT
EMPNIG
Alnus incana subspp. tenuifolia
Alnus viridis (crispa)
Amelanchier alnifolia
Andromeda polifolia
Arctostaphylos rubra
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Betula glandulosa
Betula nana
Cassiope tetragona
Chamaedaphne calyculata
Comarum palustre (Potentilla palustris)
Dasiphora fruiticosa (Potentilla fruticosa)
Dryas integrifolia
Dryas octopetala
Empetrum nigrum
POPBAL-R
Shrubs
mountain alder
green alder
serviceberry
bog-rosemary
red-fruit bearberry
bearberry
resin birch
dwarf birch
four-angled mountain heather
leatherleaf
marsh cinquefoil
shrubby cinquefoil
entireleaf mountain avens
white mountain avens
crowberry
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JUNCOM
JUNHOR
LEDGRO
LEDPAL
LINBOR
MENFER
OPLHOR
RHOLAP
RIBGLA
RIBHUD
RIBLAC
RIBTRI
ROSACI
ROSNUT
RUBARC
RUBCHA
RUBIDA
RUBPED
SALARC
SALBEB
SAMMYR
SALPUL
SALRET
SALspp
SAMRAC
SHECAN
SORSCO
SPIBEA
VACCAE
VACOVA
VACOXY
VACULI
VACVIT
VIBEDU
Juniperus communis
Juniperus horizontalis
Ledum groenlandicum
Ledum palustre
Linnaea borealis
Menziesia ferruginea
Oplopanax horridus
Rhododendron lapponicum
Ribes glandulosum
Ribes hudsonianum
Ribes lacustre
Ribes triste
Rosa acicularis
Rosa nutkana
Rubus arcticus
Rubus chamaemorus
Rubus idaeus
Rubus pedatus
Salix arctica
Salix bebbiana
Salix myrtillifolia
Salix pulchra
Salix reticulata
Salix species
Sambucus racemosa
Shepherdia canadensis
Sorbus scopulina
Spiraea beauverdiana
Vaccinium caespitosum
Vaccinium ovalifolium
Vaccinium oxycoccos
Vaccinium uliginosum
Vaccinium vitis-idaea
Viburnum edule
red elderberry
soapberry
western mountain-ash
Beauverd’s spirea
dwarf blueberry
oval-leaf blueberry
bog cranberry
bog blueberry
lingonberry
highbush cranberry
ACHMIL
ACODEL
ACTRUB
ALLSCH
ANECAN
ANEMUL
ANEPAR
ANERIC
ANGLUC
Achillea millefolium (borealis)
Aconitum delphinifolium
Actaea rubra
Allium schoenoprasum
Anemone canadensis
Anemone multifida
Anemone parviflora
Anenome richardsonii
Angelica lucida
yarrow
monkshood
baneberry
wild chive
Canada anemone
cut-leaf anemone
northern anemone
yellow anemone
kneeling angelica
common juniper
creeping juniper
Labrador tea
marsh Labrador tea
twin flower
rusty menziesia
devils club
Lapland rosebay
skunk currant
northern black currant
black swamp gooseberry
red swamp currant
prickly rose
Nookta rose
nagoonberry
cloudberry
red raspberry
five-leaved bramble
arctic willow
Bebb willow
blueberry willow
diamond-leaf willow
netleaf willow
Herbs
List of Plant Species on Forest Permanent Sample Plots • Malone, Packee, Liang • MP 2012-01
5
ANTPUL
ARAHOL
ARCALP
ARNLES
ARTTIL
ASTALP
ASTAME
ASTUMB
BOSROS
BOYRIC
BUPAME
CALBUL
CAMLAS
CAMROT
CASTET
CASCAU
CASUNA
CHAANG
CIRALP
CNICNI
CORTRI
CORCAN
CORAUR
CORPAU
CYPPAS
DELBRA
DELGLA
DODFRI
DROROT
EQUARV
EQUPRA
EQUSCI
EQUSYL
EURSIB
FRAVIR
GALBOR
GALTRI
GENPRO
GEOLIV
GERERI
GOOREP
HEDALP
HERMAX
Antennaria pulcherrima
Arabis holboellii
Arnica alpina
Arnica lessingii
Artemisia tilesii
Aster alpinus
Astragalus americanus
Astragalus umbellatus
Boschniakia rossica
Boykinia richardsonii
Bupleurum americanum (triradiatum)
Calypso bulbosa
Campanula lasiocarpa
Campanula rotundifolia
Cassiope tetragona
Castilleja caudata
Castilleja unalaschcensis
Chamerion angustifolium (Epilobium
angustifolium)
Circaea alpina
Cnidium cnidiifolium
Corallorrhiza trifida
Cornus canadensis
Corydalis aurea
Corydalis pauciflora
Cypripedium passerinum
Delphinium brachycentrum
Delphinium glaucum
Dodecatheon frigidum
Drosera rotundifolia
Equisetum arvense
Equisetum pratense
Equisetum scirpoides
Equisetum sylvaticum
Eurybia sibirica (Aster sibiricus)
Fragaria virginiana
Galium boreale
Galium triflorum
Gentiana propinqua
Geocaulon lividum
Geranium erianthum
Goodyera repens
Hedysarum alpinum
Heracleum maximum (lanatum)
showy pussytoe
Holboell’s rockcress
alpine arnica
nodding arnica
mountain sagewort
alpine aster
American milkvetch
tundra milkvetch
broom rape
Richardson’s brookfoam
throw wax
fairy slipper
mountain harebell
common harebell
Lapland cassiope
pale indian paintbrush
unalaska paintbrush
fireweed
enchanter’s nightshade
Jakutsk snow parsley
yellow coralroot
bunchberry
golden corydalis
fewflower fumewort
Franklin’s lady’s slipper
northern larkspur
larkspur
northern shooting star
round-leaved sundew
common horsetail
meadow horsetail
dwarf scouring rush
wood horsetail
arctic aster
wild strawberry
northern bedstraw
small bedstraw
four-part dwarf gentian
bastard toad flax
northern geranium
rattlesnake plantain
alpine sweet-vetch
common cow parsnip
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HIETRI
IRISET
LATPAL
LISCOR
LUPARC
MAISTE
MERPAN
MIMGUT
MOELAT
MONUNI
ORTSEC
OSMDEP
OXYCAM
PARPAL
PEDCAP
PEDLAB
PEDLAN
PEDVER
PETFRI
PETHYP
PETSAG
PLAHYP
PLAOBT
POLACU
POLBOR
POLPUL
POLALA
POLVIV
PRIINC
PRITSC
PULPAT
PYRASA
PYRCHL
PYRGRA
PYRMIN
RANFLA
RANGME
RANLAP
RANNIV
RHOROS
RORISL
RUMARC
SANCAN
SANOFF
Hieracium triste
Iris setosa
Lathyrus palustris (introduced species)
Listera cordata
Lupinus arcticus
Maianthemum stellatum (Smilacina stellata)
Mertensia paniculata
Mimulus guttatus
Moehringia lateriflora
Moneses uniflora
Orthilia secunda
Osmorhiza depauperata
Oxytropis campestris
Parnassia palustris
Pedicularis capitata
Pedicularis labradorica
Pedicularis langsdorffii
Pedicularis verticillata
Petasites frigidus
Petasites hyperboreus
Petasites fridigus var. sagittatus
Platanthera hyperborea
Platanthera obtusata
Polemonium acutiflorum
Polemonium boreale
Polemonium pulcherrimum
Polygonum alaskanum
Polygonum viviparum
Primula incana
Primula tschuktschorum
Pulsatilla patens
Pyrola asarifolia
Pyrola chlorantha
Pyrola grandiflora
Pyrola minor
Ranunculus flammula (reptans)
Ranunculus gmelini
Ranunculus lapponicus
Ranunculus nivalis
Rhodiola rosea (Sedum rosea)
Rorippa islandica
Rumex arcticus
Sanguisorba canadensis (stipulata)
Sanguisorba officinalis
woolly hawkweed
wild flag
marsh peavine
heartleaf twayblade
arctic lupine
starry false lily of the valley
bluebells
yellow monkey-flower
sandwort
single delight
one-sided wintergreen
blunt-fruited sweet-cicely
locoweed
grass-of-parnassus
capitate lousewort
Labrador lousewort
Langsdorf’s lousewort
whorled lousewort
goosefoot
arctic sweet coltsfoot
arrow-leaved coltsfoot
bog orchid
one-leaved rein-orchid
tall Jacob’s ladder
northern Jacob’s ladder
showy Jacob’s ladder
Alaska wild rhubarb
alpine bistort
silvery primrose
Chukchi primrose
pasque flower
pink wintergreen
green wintergreen
grandflowered wintergreen
lesser wintergreen
creeping buttercup
small yellow water buttercut
Lapland buttercup
snow buttercup
roseroot stonecrop
marsh yellow cress
arctic dock
Canadian burnet
great burnet
List of Plant Species on Forest Permanent Sample Plots • Malone, Packee, Liang • MP 2012-01
7
SAUANG
SENLUG
SENTRI
SENVUL
SOLMUL
SOLSIM
SPIROM
STECRA
STELOF
STELOP
STEMED
STRAMP
SYMBOR
TAROFF
THAALP
THASPA
TRIEUR
VALCAP
VERVIR
VIOEPI
VILPAL
ZIGELE
Saussurea angustifolia
Senecio lugens
Senecio triangularis
Senecio vulgaris
Solidago multiradiata
Solidago simplex (decumbens)
Spiranthes romanzoffiana
Stellaria crassifolia
Stellaria longifolia
Stellaria longipes (laeta)
Stellaria media
Streptopus amplexifolius
Symphyotrichum boreale (Aster junciformis)
Taraxacum officinale
Thalictrum alpinum
Thalictrum sparsiflorum
Trientalis europaea
Valeriana capitata
Veratrum viride
Viola epipsila
Viola palustris
Zigadenus elegans
narrowleaf saw-wort
small black-tipped groundsel
arrow-leaved groundsel
common groundsel
northern goldenrod
dwarf goldenrod
lady’s tresses
fleshy starwort
longleaf starwort
longstalk starwort
chickweed
twistedstalk
marsh aster
common dandelion
alpine meadowrue
few-flower meadowrue
European starflower
capitate valerian
false hellebore
dwarf marsh violet
marsh violet
mountain deathcamas
CALCAN
EYLspp
FESALT
POAARC
POAGLA
POAPAL
POASEC
POAspp
grass
Calamagrostis canadensis
Elymus species
Festuca altaica
Poa arctica
Poa glauca
Poa palustris
Poa secunda (juncifolia)
Poa species
grass species
bluejoint
wildrye
altai fescue
arctic bluegrass
glaucous bluegrass
fowl bluegrass
Sandberg bluegrass
bluegrass
JUNspp
Juncus species
CARGLA
CARspp
ERIANG
ERIBRA
ERIspp
sedge
Carex glacialis
Carex species
Eriophorum angustifolium
Eriophorum brachyantherum
Eriophorum species
sedge species
narrow-leaved cotton grass
close-sheathed cotton grass
ATHFIL
DRYEXP
Athyrium filix-femina
Dryopteris expansa
lady fern
spreading wood fern
Grass
Rush
Sedge
glacial sedge
Fern
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GYMDRY
WOOGLA
Gymnocarpium dryopteris
Woodsia glabella
oak fern
smooth woodsia
LYCALP
LYCANN
LYCCLA
LYCCOM
LYCOBS
Lycopodium alpinum
Lycopodium annotinum
Lycopodium clavatum
Lycopodium complanatum
Lycopodium obscurum
alpine clubmoss
stiff clubmoss
running clubmoss
ground cedar
ground pine
BRYFUS
CETISL
CETDEL
CLAMIT
CLARAN
CLASTE
CLABEL
CLABOT
CLACAR
CLACEN
CLACHL
CLACOC
CLACON
CLACOR
CLACRI
CLADEF
CLAECM
CLAGRA
CLAMAC
CLAMUL
CLASQU
CLAUNC
CLAspp
DACARC
EVEMES
FLACUC
FLANIV
HYPPHY
LEPSAT
LOBLIN
LOBPUL
MASRIC
NEPARC
NEPEXP
NEPspp
Bryoria fuscescens
Cetraria islandica
Cetrariella deliseii
Cladina mitis
Cladina rangiferina
Cladina stellaris
Cladonia bellidiflora
Cladonia botrytes
Cladonia cariosa
Cladonia cenotea
Cladonia chlorophaea
Cladonia coccifera
Cladonia coniocraea
Cladonia cornuta
Cladonia crispata
Cladonia deformis
Cladonia ecmocyna
Cladonia gracilis
Cladonia macilenta (bacillaris)
Cladonia multiformis
Cladonia squamosa
Cladonia uncialis
Cladonia species
Dactylina arctica
Evernia mesomorpha
Favocetraria cucillata (Cetraria cucullata)
Flavocetraria nivalis (Cetraria nivalis)
Hypogymnia physodes
Leptogium saturninum
Lobaria linita
Lobaria pulmonaria
Masonhalea richardsonii
Nephroma arcticum
Nephroma expallidum
Nephroma species
speckled horsehair
Iceland lichen
snow-bed Iceland lichen
yellow reindeer lichen
green reindeer lichen
star reindeer lichen
toy soldier lichen
wooden soldier lichen
split-peg lichen
powdered funnel cladonia
mealy pixie cup
pixie cup lichen
common powder lichen
bighorn cladonia
organ-pipe lichen
lesser sulphur cup lichen
frosted cladonia
smooth cladonia
lipstick powderhorn lichen
sieve lichen
dragon cladonia
thorn cladonia
Cladonia species
Arctic finger lichen
boreal oakmoss lichen
Club moss
Lichen
snow lichen
hooded tube lichen
saturn skin lichen
cabbage lungwort
lungwort
arctic tumbleweed lichen
arctic kidney lichen
alpins kidney lichen
List of Plant Species on Forest Permanent Sample Plots • Malone, Packee, Liang • MP 2012-01
9
PANPEZ
PARSUL
PARAMB
PELAPH
PELCAN
PELMAL
PELNEO
PELPOL
PELVEN
PLAGLA
STEALP
STEspp
USNSUB
VULPIN
VULTIL
lichen
Pannaria pezizoides
Parmelia sulcata
Parmeliopsis ambigua
Peltigera aphthosa
Peltigera canina
Peltigera malacea
Peltigera neopolydactyla
Peltigera polydactyla
Peltigera venosa
Platismatia glauca
Stereocaulon alpinum
Stereocaulon species
Usnea subfloridana
Vulpicida pinastri (Cetraria pinastri)
Vulpicida tilesii (Cetraria tilesii)
lichen species
ABIABI
AULPAL
AULTUR
BRASAL
CAMSTE
CIRCIR
CLIDEN
DICspp
HEDCIL
HYLSPL
HYPSUB
PHIFON
PLAMED
PLESCH
POLCOM
POLJUN
POLPIL
PTICRI
RHIGLA
RHYRUG
Abietinella abietina (Thuidium abietinum)
Aulacomnium palustre
Aulacomnium turgidum
Brachythecium salebrosum
Campylium stellatum
Cirriphyllum cirrosum
Climacium dendroides
Dicranum species
Hedwigia ciliata
Hylocomium splendens
Hypnum subimponens
Philonotis fontana
Plagiomnium medium
Pleuozium schreberi
Polytrichum commune
Polytrichum juniperinum
Polytrichum piliferum
Ptilium crista-castrensis
Rhizomnium glabrescens
Rhytidium rugosum
Sanionia uncinata
(Drepanocladus uncinatus)
Sphagnum species
Splachnum luteum
Timmia austriaca
Tomenthypnum nitens
moss species
matted lichen
hammered shield lichen
green starburst
freckled pelt lichen
dog lichen
veinless pelt lichen
carpet pelt lichen
many-fruited pelt lichen
fan lichen
varied rag lichen
alpine snow lichen
beard lichen
limestone sunshire lichen
Moss
SANUNC
SPHspp
SPLLUT
TIMAUS
TOMNIT
moss
wiry fern moss
aulacommium moss
turgid aulacomnium moss
golden ragged moss
golden star moss
cirriphyllum moss
tree climacium moss
ciliate hedwigia moss
step moss
hypnum moss
spring moss
common leafy moss
red-stemmed feather moss
common haircap moss
juniper haircap moss
awned haircap moss
knight’s plume moss
large leafy moss
crumpled-leaf moss
sickle moss
yellow moosedung moss
false polytrichum moss
golden fuzzy fen moss
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10
Liverwort
LEPREP
LOPVEN
MARPOL
Lepidozia reptans
Lophozia ventricosa
Marchantia polymorpha
little-hands liverwort
tri-tip leafy liverwort
green tongue liverwort
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The latter two remain as the Fairbanks Experiment Farm and
the Matanuska Experiment Farm. The USDA established the
Fairbanks experiment station in 1906 on a site that in 1915
provided land for a college. The land transfer and money to
establish the Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines
was approved by the U.S. Congress in 1915. Two years later the
Alaska Territorial Legislature added funding, and in 1922, when
the first building was constructed, the college opened its doors
to students. The first student graduated in 1923. In 1931, the
experiment station was transferred from federal ownership to
the college, and in 1935 the college was renamed the University
of Alaska. When campuses were opened at other locations, the
Fairbanks campus became the University of Alaska Fairbanks.
Early experiment station researchers developed adapted
cultivars of grains, grasses, potatoes, and berries, and introduced
many vegetable cultivars appropriate to Alaska. Animal and
poultry management was also important. This work continues,
as does research in soils and revegetation, forest ecology and
management, and rural and economic development. As the state
faces new challenges in agriculture and resource management, the
Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station continues to bring
state-of-the-art research information to the people of Alaska.
List of Plant Species on Forest Permanent Sample Plots • Malone, Packee, Liang • MP 2012-01