What is Ambient Air? 2

What is Ambient Air?
The monitoring stations does not generate any noise,
and therefore, will not cause a disturbance. The equipment is calibrated in accordance with ISO 17025 on a
quarterly basis, which is essential for accreditation purposes.
2
Ambient air refers to any unconfined portion of the
atmosphere or outdoor air. It is a mixture of the gases:
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Nitrogen (78%)
Oxygen (21% )
Carbon dioxide (0.03% )
a small amount of Argon and other gases.
Past, present and proposed future locations for monitoring stations
6
1
Air Pollution occurs if there is a change in the composition
of the ambient air caused by smoke, dust, gases, fumes,
aerosols and odorous substances.
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3
4
8
The first three monitoring stations were located in:
5
 Paarl — Cape Winelands District Municipality
(2008-2009)
 Vredenburg — West Coast District Municipality
Why do we have to monitor ambient air?
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It is a legal requirement in terms of National Environmental Management: Air Quality Act No.39 of 2004
for the provincial authority to monitor ambient air.
The Western Cape Department of Environmental
Affairs and Development Planning (D:EA&DP) have
developed an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP).
The information obtained from the monitoring can be
used to determine the impacts of the air pollutants
on the environment, as well as health impacts on the
community.
This information provides an indication of the quality
of the air in the Western Cape and thus aided in the
development phase of the AQMP as well as to monitor the effectiveness of the Implementation Plan of
the AQMP.
(2008-2010)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Rain gauge
Anemometer (measures wind
speed)
Stevenson screen (temperature
and relative humidity)
Radiometer (measures radiation)
5.
6.
7.
8.
VOC passive sampler (Diagram 3)
PM10 inlet
Gas analyzer inlet
Air-conditioned Housing unit
Diagram 1: Monitoring station depicting the movable
housing unit to the right and meteorological station to
the left.
2
Possible sources of air pollution include transportation,
power generation, industries and domestic sources, etc.
Poor air quality can cause various health problems; primarily respiratory and cardiac diseases. Some air pollutants such as benzene are categorised as carcinogens
(cancer-causing substances).
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(2008-2010)
These have subsequently been moved to Worcester,
Malmesbury and George; respectively.
The D: EA&DP is currently operating 8 monitoring stations and envisages to be operating 11 monitoring stations by the end of March 2012.
The current monitoring stations are located at:
1
How does air pollution affect us?
 Mossel Bay — Eden District Municipality
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Worcester- De Jong Sub-station
Malmesbury- Swartland High School
Stellenbosch– Bird Street
George- George Swimming Pool
Oudtshoorn- Bongolethu clinic
St. Helena Bay- H.P. Williams Primary School
Khayelitsha- Khayelitsha Training Center
Dana Bay - Mossel Bay Water Reservoir
Vissershok - Small holding, Morning Star
The locations were chosen because it is downwind from
major air pollution sources (e.g. industries and traffic)
and will be used to assess ambient air pollutant concentrations which the community is exposed to.
How do we monitor air pollution?
The D:EA&DP has installed Continuous Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations across the province. The monitoring stations consist of mobile units containing instruments
to measure certain air pollutants and would be placed in
selected areas throughout the Western Cape for a period
of approximately one year.
3
4
1.
2.
3.
4.
PM10 Analyser
O3 Analyser
SO2 Analyser
NOx Analyser
1
2
1.
2.
Shelter
Radiello VOC passive sampler
Diagram 2: Analysers inside housing units.
Diagram 3: VOC passive sampler with shel-
AREA
Cape Winelands
Paarl
Worcester
Stellenbosch
Mossel Bay
YEAR
2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
/09 /10 /11 /12 /13
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
George
Oudtshoorn
Eden
X
Dana Bay
West Coast
Vredenburg
Malmesbury
St. Helena Bay
Overberg
X
X
Caledon
Maitland
Vissershok
City of Cape
Town
Khayelitsha
Hout Bay
X
X
Table: Past, present and proposed locations of the monitoring
stations
What is measured?
Pollutants, commonly known as criteria pollutants, for which
there are local and international standards to evaluate them
against, are measured. These are:
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O3 (Ozone)
PM10 (Particulate Matter less than 10 micron)
SO2 (Sulphur Dioxide)
NOx (Oxides of Nitrogen)
CO (Carbon Monoxide)
Other pollutants of concern that are being measured are:
 H2S (Hydrogen Sulphide)
 CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)
 PM2.5 (Particulate Matter less than 2.5 micron)
 TRS (Total Reduced Sulphur)
Some monitoring stations also have Continuous Volatile
Organic Compound (VOC’s) analysers, while VOC’s are
measured with VOC passive samplers at the other monitoring stations. Meteorological data (wind speed, wind
direction, temperature, relative humidity, radiation and
rainfall) is also measured to better understand the pollution patterns in the area.
What are Ambient Air Quality Standards?
Air Quality Standards refer to the level of pollutants prescribed by regulations that cannot be exceeded during a
given time in a defined area. It is necessary to monitor
these pollutants to ensure compliance to the Air Quality
Standards.
What value does the data possess?
The monitoring data is analysed and compiled into daily,
monthly and annual reports that describe the status of
the air quality within the province.
The monitoring data can also be used for Atmospheric
Dispersion Modeling to inform decision making.
How can the community get involved?
You can become involved by reporting any air pollution,
or odour problems in your area and by attending public
participation meetings, which are advertised in your local newspaper.
For more information, contact any of the
following officials:
Western Cape Department of
Environmental Affairs and Development Planning
Dr. Joy Leaner
Director: Pollution Management
Telephone: 021 483 2798
Cellphone: 084 409 6909
E-mail: [email protected]
Mr. Kamaseelan Chetty
Deputy Director: Air Quality Management
Telephone: 021 483 2749
Cellphone: 074 502 8023
This brochure was produced and printed by the Directorate: Pollution Management, SubDirectorate: Air Quality Management.
Printed on organic glossy paper
INFORMATION BROCHURE:
MOBILE
AMBIENT AIR QUALITY
MONITORS IN THE
WESTERN CAPE
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