COVER SHEET FOR PROPOSAL TO THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM ANNOUNCEMENT/SOLICITATION NO./CLOSING DATE/if not in response to a program announcement/solicitation enter NSF 02-2 NSF 02-010 FOR NSF USE ONLY NSF PROPOSAL NUMBER 01/24/02 FOR CONSIDERATION BY NSF ORGANIZATION UNIT(S) 0216560 (Indicate the most specific unit known, i.e. program, division, etc.) BCS - BE: DYN COUPLED NATURAL-HUMAN DATE RECEIVED NUMBER OF COPIES DIVISION ASSIGNED FUND CODE DUNS# FILE LOCATION (Data Universal Numbering System) 943360412 EMPLOYER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (EIN) OR TAXPAYER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (TIN) IS THIS PROPOSAL BEING SUBMITTED TO ANOTHER FEDERAL AGENCY? YES NO IF YES, LIST ACRONYM(S) SHOW PREVIOUS AWARD NO. IF THIS IS A RENEWAL AN ACCOMPLISHMENT-BASED RENEWAL 860196696 NAME OF ORGANIZATION TO WHICH AWARD SHOULD BE MADE ADDRESS OF AWARDEE ORGANIZATION, INCLUDING 9 DIGIT ZIP CODE Arizona State University Box 3503 Tempe, AZ. 85287 Arizona State University AWARDEE ORGANIZATION CODE (IF KNOWN) 0010819000 NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION, IF DIFFERENT FROM ABOVE ADDRESS OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION, IF DIFFERENT, INCLUDING 9 DIGIT ZIP CODE PERFORMING ORGANIZATION CODE (IF KNOWN) IS AWARDEE ORGANIZATION (Check All That Apply) (See GPG II.C For Definitions) FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATION TITLE OF PROPOSED PROJECT REQUESTED AMOUNT 1,999,952 $ SMALL BUSINESS MINORITY BUSINESS WOMAN-OWNED BUSINESS Agrarian Landscapes in Transition: A Cross-Scale Approach PROPOSED DURATION (1-60 MONTHS) 48 REQUESTED STARTING DATE SHOW RELATED PREPROPOSAL NO., IF APPLICABLE 01/01/03 months CHECK APPROPRIATE BOX(ES) IF THIS PROPOSAL INCLUDES ANY OF THE ITEMS LISTED BELOW BEGINNING INVESTIGATOR (GPG I.A) HUMAN SUBJECTS (GPG II.C.11) DISCLOSURE OF LOBBYING ACTIVITIES (GPG II.C) Exemption Subsection PROPRIETARY & PRIVILEGED INFORMATION (GPG I.B, II.C.6) INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES: COUNTRY/COUNTRIES INVOLVED or IRB App. Date HISTORIC PLACES (GPG II.C.9) (GPG II.C.9) SMALL GRANT FOR EXPLOR. RESEARCH (SGER) (GPG II.C.11) VERTEBRATE ANIMALS (GPG II.C.11) IACUC App. Date PI/PD DEPARTMENT HIGH RESOLUTION GRAPHICS/OTHER GRAPHICS WHERE EXACT COLOR REPRESENTATION IS REQUIRED FOR PROPER INTERPRETATION (GPG I.E.1) PI/PD POSTAL ADDRESS Department of Anthropology PI/PD FAX NUMBER Tempe, AZ 852873211 United States 480-965-8087 NAMES (TYPED) High Degree Yr of Degree Telephone Number Electronic Mail Address PhD 1971 480-965-2975 [email protected] PhD 1983 978-724-3302 [email protected] PhD 1976 734-998-9911 [email protected] Ph.D. 1981 206-685-6893 [email protected] PhD 1994 480-965-6838 [email protected] PI/PD NAME Charles L Redman CO-PI/PD David R Foster CO-PI/PD Myron P Gutmann CO-PI/PD Peter M Kareiva CO-PI/PD Ann P Kinzig Page 1 of 2 Electronic Signature AGRARIAN LANDSCAPES IN TRANSITION: A CROSS-SCALE APPROACH PARTICIPANTS Central Arizona–Phoenix (CAP) LTER *Charles Redman (PI/PD) Will Stefanov *Ann Kinzig (Co-PI) John Briggs Peter McCartney Laura Musacchio Nancy Grimm Tony Brazel Monica Elser Jianguo Wu Charlene Saltz * = Executive Committee Harvard Forest (HFR) LTER *David Foster (Co-PI) Billie Turner David Kittredge Elizabeth Chilton John O’Keefe Glenn Motzkin University of Michigan/Shortgrass Steppe (SGS) LTER *Myron Gutmann (Co-PI) Ken Sylvester William Parton Glenn Deane The Nature Conservancy Peter Kareiva (Co-PI) Rebecca Shaw Coweeta LTER *Ted Gragson (Executive Committee) Paul Bolstad Kellogg Biological Station (KBS) LTER *Alan Rudy (Executive Committee) Craig Harris Konza Prairie (KNZ) LTER *Gerad Middendorf (Executive Committee) Leonard Bloomquist John Blair Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) LTER Morgan Grove International Collaborators Sander van der Leeuw (Archaeomedes Project, France) Pamela Matson, Stanford (Yaqui Valley, Mexico Regional Sustainability Study) AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES IN TRANSITION: A CROSS-SCALE APPROACH Abstract This interdisciplinary project will trace the effects of the introduction, spread, and abandonment of agriculture at six U.S. long-term ecological research (LTER) sites, with cross comparisons in Mexico and France. Agrarian transformations represent the most pervasive alteration of the Earth’s terrestrial environment during the past 10,000 years. Many current conceptualizations of these transformations, however, assume a simple linear model—change is driven by present-day economic, demographic, and technological conditions. This project incorporates a more integrated and long-term cycle: of land-use change affecting landscapes, of altered landscapes affecting ecological processes, and of both influencing the ways in which humans monitor and respond to their surroundings, engendering further cycles of change. The central objective of this research is to identify and quantify the ways in which these integrated cycles differ across cultures, across biogeographic regions, and across time. A suite of quantitative and narrative analyses will be used to identify the prime determinants of long-term dynamics, present-day patterns, and reservoirs of ecological and social resilience in these systems. Analytical approaches will include structural-equation modeling, analysis of spatial and causal effects, and cross-site comparisons of case studies. As a practical test of the project’s results, approaches and insights will be examined in the context of conservation planning at The Nature Conservancy (TNC) that includes an emphasis on eco-regional planning and scenario building. This investigation will contribute to both science and society in six ways. First, it will demonstrate the importance of social-science information and approaches in ecosystem investigations, expanding the results of the LTER network and breaching the divide between social and natural science. The data protocols developed will also benefit other communities of social and natural scientists through the involvement of ICPSR, the main national repository of social science data. Second, this project will help to develop general theories on how socio-ecological legacies, as well as lags in the recognition of and response to change, vary across space and time. Third, through detailed case histories and quantitative analyses, the project expects to provide convincing evidence that humans act not only to disturb ecosystems, but also monitor ecosystem values and respond to maintain stability and minimize crises. Fourth, project results will provide information of direct use to policy makers, TNC, and land managers by using an approach that explicitly relates socio-ecological processes to varying levels of political organization. Fifth, the cross-scale data collection and analyses are expected to demonstrate that some patterns of human-ecological interactions are surprisingly long term, vary across space and time, and are non-linear. The greatest contribution will be through education at a variety of levels; this project will train new interdisciplinary scientists at all levels of the educational spectrum, inform public officials, and contribute to more effective land management practices. I. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM The patterns humans impose on the Earth through purposeful and inadvertent land-use change are fundamental determinants of local, regional, and global ecological processes that ultimately influence the sustainability of both biological and cultural landscapes, and thus human quality of life. These landscapes result from integrated socioeconomic and ecological dynamics playing out across potentially vast scales of space, time, and organizational complexity (Turner et al. 1990; Vitousek et al. 1997; Levin 1999). Ecological systems have intrinsic temporal rhythms, driven by such things as generation time, age of reproduction, and disturbance frequencies. They also exhibit patterns on characteristic spatial scales, driven by such things as dispersal distance, topography, and interaction lengths. But these ecological systems also bear the signature of human institutions that act—either directly or indirectly—to alter the dominant spatial and temporal modes (e.g., suppressing fire frequencies or homogenizing landscapes) or to introduce new ones (e.g., 5-year planning cycles, rectangular state boundaries) (Pyne 1997; Carpenter & Gunderson 2001; Scheffer et al. 2001; Turner et al. 2002). At the same time, human institutions are shaped and influenced by the environmental rhythms and ecological arrangements of the biogeographic region in which they emerged (Cronon 1983; Diamond 1997; Dove & Kammen 1997; Ostrom et al. 1997; Berkes & Folke 1998). This reciprocal “imprinting” of scales means that scientists and managers cannot effectively parse landscapes into “natural” and “human” components, but instead must study them as an integrated whole (NRC 1999; Kinzig et al. 2000; Michener et al. 2001). Our central objective is to understand what happens when humans impose their spatial and temporal signatures on ecological regimes and must then respond to the systems they have helped create, further altering the dynamics of the coupled system and the potential for ecological and social resilience. We propose to study this question within the context of agrarian transformations, both current and historical, because of their ubiquity and because of the tight coupling of human and environmental dynamics that are an inherent feature of agrarian landscapes (Geertz 1963). The introduction, spread, and abandonment of agriculture represents the most pervasive alteration of the Earth’s environment during the past 10,000 years, affecting 2/3 of the Earth’s terrestrial surface (Vitousek et al. 1986; Matson et al. 1997; Farina 2000). The transitions of agrarian landscapes and life ways continue to take many forms, ranging from abandonment to urban development to more intensified agriculture. In the US alone, 105 acres of agricultural land go out of production every hour; about half of that is used for urban or suburban growth, and half is used less intensely or actively conserved for its habitat values (USDA 2001). Many current conceptualizations of agrarian transformations, however, are based on simple linear assumptions—that is, people behave monolithically, and land-use decisions are governed by land rent, demographic pressures, and technological capabilities (Kinzig et al. 2000; Agarwal et al. 2001; Lui 2001). The details of this linear dynamic are assumed to translate cleanly across space and time, applying equally well to regions with different ecological features, different development histories, or different natural-resource institutions. In contrast, we conceptualize a more intricate and integrated cycle: of land-use change affecting landscapes, of altered landscapes affecting ecological processes, of both influencing the ways in which humans monitor and respond to their surroundings, and of human responses engendering further cycles of change (see Figure 1). In this view, human institutions are ultimately products of their landscapes, and landscapes are products of the human institutions governing them (Williams 1980; Worster 1984; Peluso 1992; Duane 1999). The present state is intimately influenced by the iterative history of this cycle. We thus do not expect the details of agrarian transformations to hold constant across biogeographic regions or over time, though we do assert variations can be understood, and their patterns described. -1- To understand the richness, diversity, and complexity of agrarian landscapes and their transformations, then, we must monitor them at varying spatial and temporal scales and place them in a context of former cycles of change, human perceptions of the lands and life ways, and the emergence of institutions associated with natural resources. We thus propose research on three stages of that cycle: (1) How do human activities influence the spatial and temporal structures of agrarian landscapes? How does this vary over time and across biogeographic regions? (2) What are the ecological and environmental consequences of the resulting structural changes? (3) What are the human responses to both these structural and ecological changes, and how do these responses drive further changes in agrarian landscapes? We are particularly interested in understanding the non-linearities or “surprises” that emerge in this cycle. We want to know where they come from, how they affect feedbacks in the system, and how to avoid having them precipitate crises. We suspect, and the literature reinforces, that it is the lack of relating Landscape fast- and slow-moving processes, ignoring forces that Transformations seem too distant in time or unconnected from the sysEcological tem, and the mismatch of scales of monitoring the enConsequences vironment relative to making decisions about it that reduce resilience and precipitate crises (Holling 1973; Tainter 1990; Gunderson et al. 1995; Levin 1999; Swetnam et al. 1999; Redman 2000; Carpenter et al. 2001; Holling 2001; Foster & Aber 2002). We proHuman Monitoring pose to identify and describe the influence of several & Response critical structures and dynamics on stability regimes within these coupled human-natural agrarian systems by promoting four significant innovations through our Figure 1: Our general conceptualization of the cycle of agrarian transformations, as described research: in the text. • • • • Our approach is multi-scalar—spanning temporal, spatial, and organizational scales—and emphasizes identification of potential “critical scales” or critical “cross-scale” interactions, elucidating the ways in which processes at one level of the hierarchy can constrain or influence processes at another; We will pay particular attention to long time spans, especially the influence of lags and legacies on present-day dynamics (e.g., in the ecological processes themselves, in the monitoring of change, or in human response to change); We will describe the strength and length of causal and closed loops in the humanenvironment interaction, correlating these feedback loops to shifts in stability regimes and changes in system resilience or vulnerability; Our framework is comparative in order to elicit the more general processes and relationships that drive the patterns observed in particular cases. These comparisons will be cross-site, cross-cultural, and cross-biogeographical. As a practical test of our findings, we have initiated a collaboration with The Nature Conservancy (TNC) so that our approach and insights can be examined in the context of conservation planning, including an emphasis on ecoregional planning (Groves et al. 2002) and scenario building (Wollenberg et al. 2000). Throughout this proposal, we define conservation broadly to include not only the preservation of “natural patches” and environmental quality across a changing landscape, -2- but conservation of the desirable cultural qualities of landscapes, including those described as working landscapes. To implement this ambitious approach to a new understanding of the intricately coupled human and natural systems embodied in agrarian landscapes, we propose to take advantage of the enormous background research and continuing inquiries of the NSF’s Long Term Ecological Research network (LTER). The value of using LTER sites stems from their spatial distribution and the duration and richness of data collection. We have chosen six LTER sites that represent different major biogeographic regions of the US, varying cultures and institutions, and contrasting agrarian landscape transformations. In addition, we will partner with other research groups in data sharing, and with international collaborators whose study systems exhibit similar biogeographies, yet significantly different cultural and political contexts. LTER research encompasses both localized and landscape-level phenomena, and both rapid and longer-term processes. We will complement those scales by collecting data on a regional scale and over a longer duration, from such sources as the US Census and agricultural census, archival records, and remote sensing. We will use TNC’s ecoregional plans to place patterns within LTER sites into a larger regional context of conservation priority setting (Redford et al. in press). Our intention is to develop and implement a theoretical approach and practical framework that would be adopted by the entire LTER network, other relevant regional studies both here and abroad, and natural-resource managers. Although we will center this research at LTER sites, the work proposed represents a significant extension of LTER research. First, the site-specific LTER monitoring and analyses will be supplemented with extensive regional data, allowing a broader understanding of ecological patterns and dynamics. Second, we will extend LTER datasets temporally, to the beginning of the 20th century whenever possible. Third, there has not generally been a focus on agricultural research within the LTER network, though many of the 24 sites have substantial areas that are, or once were, agrarian landscapes (Grimm et al. 2000; Foster et al. 2002). Finally, and most importantly, this research will allow us to define a fundamentally new role for integrative and interdisciplinary science within the LTER network and beyond, by forging new collaborations among natural and social scientists. II. RESEARCH PLAN II.A Overview of Approach No single statistical or analytical tool is ideal for addressing the range of questions we seek to address. Hence, we will employ a suite of techniques in both an exploratory manner and to test or develop specific hypotheses (see Table 1). All techniques will be applied to every site, although we do not expect the different approaches to have equal success in all systems. Our approaches fall into two categories: (1) a quantitative and statistical cross-site comparison using comprehensive and longterm datasets at three spatial scales or levels of organization; and (2) a set of case-study narratives drawing on the specifics of each site, on the complementarities across sites, and using both qualitative and quantitative analyses. To answer our core questions, we will gather extensive long-term and spatially explicit data in three categories (II.C), including: (1) land use and land cover; (2) ecological characteristics and processes; and (3) social characteristics and processes. We will search for causal relationships and spatial autocorrelations in these datasets using a variety of statistical approaches. A key feature of our statistical analyses is that we need not assume any particular variable is either a driver or a response. Instead, we will use: (1) iterative structuralequation modeling (II.E.i) to reveal key interactions in the system, the strength and length of feedback loops, and the return time following perturbation (as a measure of stability); (2) a spatial-effects model (II.E.ii.) to test for the critical spatial scales or levels of organization governing system dynamics; and (3) a two-stage regression test (II.E.ii) to reveal potential causal relationships, including time lags and legacies inherent in those relationships. These activities will be initiated at annual re-3- search workshops under the direction of Gutmann (ICPSR/SGS), Kareiva (TNC), and Kinzig (CAP) in Years 1 and 2 so that sites can agree on common conceptual models, identify needed datasets, and ensure uniform application of statistical techniques. Using these analyses together, we can examine the patterns of spatial organization, component interactions, temporal lags, and stability regimes found in the cycle of land-use change, ecological change, and human response (Fig. 1). Case-study narratives will further elucidate the roles these spatial and temporal modes play in the cycle, and how they might explain the onset of nonlinear events and delayed social response to ecological change, or to reveal the critical scales or interactions governing key dynamics within the cycle (II.E.iv). Foster (HFR) and Redman (CAP) will coordinate the case-study narratives, with research workshops in Years 2 and 3 devoted in part to these activities. A final step in our research plan entails cross-system comparisons—searching for the patterns that allow us to predict how the cycle of land-use change, ecological change, and human response plays out over space and time (Veldkamp & Lambin 2001). In Years 3 and 4, therefore, we will assemble site-specific results and search for empirical generalizations (III.E.i). Similarly, we will ask each site to perform a scenario analysis (III.B). Other key synthetic activities include Education and Outreach (III.C), facilitation of international comparisons (III.D), and a testing of developed understanding and theories in the context of TNC conservation planning (III.E). Table 1: A summary of research activities. Shading under Years 1-4 indicates the intensity of activity. See also “Management Plan” in Supplementary Documentation Research Activity Data Acquisition Remote Sensing Spatial-Effects Analysis Structural-Equation Modeling Narratives: CAP HFR SGS Other Cross-Site Synthesis International Collaboration Conservation & Scenarios Education 1 2 3 4 Main Products Map layers of land use, social and ecological variables over time Regional and local land cover over time, NPP Identification of key spatial auto-correlations, causal relationships Identification of key interactions, lags and legacies, stability regimes Critical scales of monitoring and system response Role of lags and legacies in ecological dynamics Human perceptions of and response to change Cross-system comparisons of key dynamics Generalizable patterns, across time and biogeographic region Cross-cultural perspective, exchange of ideas and approaches Engagement with practitioners, improved conservation planning Deployable curriculum, research opportunities, educated citizenry II.B LTER Site Descriptions II.B.i Central Arizona-Phoenix (CAP) Region Arizona is a state of diverse local climates and closely juxtaposed life zones. With less than 7 inches of annual rainfall, the Phoenix metropolitan area is situated in an arid landscape with concomitant reliance on surface or groundwater, a high evaporation rate, and a continual threat of desertification. At the same time, this area contains 730,000 acres of highly productive farmland. Similar circumstances are faced by those living on 1/3 of the world's land surface. In addition, 6 of the 10 fastest-growing US cities are in the arid west (US Census 2000), making the relationships examined in this LTER both globally and regionally relevant. The Phoenix area's spectacular growth in population—doubling twice in the past 35 years—and its rapid and continuing expansion into former agricultural and desert settings provides a unique opportunity to monitor human-induced ecological transformations resulting from rapid agrarian change. CAP LTER encompasses 6,400 km2, though -4- this proposed study will include the more rural farmlands and small communities immediately to the south, effectively doubling the study area. II.B.ii Harvard Forest (HFR) Region Research in the HFR region has documented how the New England landscape has been transformed by interactions among land use, climate change, and natural disturbance over the last four centuries (Foster & O’Keefe 2000). This region was extensively deforested, farmed intensively through the mid 19th century, and subsequently allowed to reforest as agriculture shifted to the Midwest and as Eastern populations concentrated in urban and suburban areas (Foster 2000a). Today, the region is 60 to 95% forested; in many ways it is more “natural” than at any time since the American Revolution. HFR investigations of ecological pattern and process focus on three spatial scales: sitebased studies of ecosystem composition, structure, and function that draw upon over 100 years of study and data; landscape-scale analyses using extensive historical, paleoecological, archaeological, and ecological archives in subregions that vary in past and present cultural activity and biogeography; and regional-scale studies that address variation and change across all of New England. II.B.iii Shortgrass Steppe (SGS) Region The Shortgrass Steppe (SGS) LTER is located on the Central Plains Experimental Range and the Pawnee National Grassland—tracts of shortgrass rangeland in the piedmont of north central Colorado (Burke et al. 1991). Working closely with the SGS is the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) at University of Michigan, which collects and analyzes historical demographic information for the SGS region and beyond. The climate of the SGS is typical of midcontinental semiarid regions in the temperate zone. Annual precipitation has averaged 322 mm over the past 50 years. Shortgrasses (64%), forbs (7%), succulents (21%), and half-shrubs (8%) dominate the vegetation. SGS research has documented the impacts of expansion of agriculture on local and regional hydrology. II.B.iv Kellogg Biological Station (KBS) Region The KBS site is located at the eastern end of the Midwest cornbelt. The original KBS site was focused on the Kellogg Biological Station, with more recent hydrological work situated in the Augusta Creek Watershed. Work on the social dimensions of agricultural ecology has focused on the four townships surrounding KBS. A large percent of the area of the four townships is woodland. Farming—including cropland, pasture, and reserve—occupies much of the rest of the land cover. The site and surrounding townships were occupied in the mid-1800s by Euro-American settlers who cleared the forest cover and practiced mixed farming (Gray 1994); practices gradually shifted toward cash grains, fruits, and vegetables for regional markets (Cronon 1991). Present-day farming is a mixture of small-scale pluri-activity and medium-scale industrialized farming, with significant reliance on rented land. Farming historically relied on rainfall, but center-pivot irrigation is now increasing. II.B.v Coweeta (CWT) Region The Coweeta LTER has evolved from a site-based to a region-based research project. Coweeta initially emphasized the impact of forestry management practices on the hydrological cycle in small, experimental watersheds at the 2,185 ha Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory; now the program emphasizes interdisciplinary analysis with ecological and socioeconomic components across 54,000 km2 of Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. In this region, 1800 marks the beginning of significant Euro-American settlement; 1820 the take-off of modernization and market segmentation; 1900 the apogee of forest clearing; 1930 the peak in agricultural activity; and 1970 the beginning of the recreation and real estate boom (Yarnell 1998). -5- II.B.vi Konza (KNZ) Region The Flint Hills of eastern Kansas contain the largest remaining area of unplowed tallgrass prairie in North America. This region encompasses over 50,000 km2, covering a considerable portion of the eastern third of the state, from near the Kansas-Nebraska border on the northern edge to northeastern Oklahoma on the southern edge. The terrain is relatively steep sloped and overlain by shallow limestone soils unsuitable for cultivation. The land cover is predominately native tallgrass prairie, which can reach a height of over 2.5 m in the most productive years. The land is now primarily used for grazing cattle and hay production; urban centers such as Manhattan and Emporia, however, continue to expand into prairie lands (Knapp et al. 1998). II.C Data Inputs and Processing We will rely on common and comprehensive datasets, over time and across spatial scales or levels or organization, in the categories of: (1) land-use and land-cover change; (2) ecological or environmental characteristics and processes (in the broad categories of biodiversity, air and water quality, climate, hydrologic regime, and carbon flows and storage); and (3) social characteristics and processes (in the broad categories of demography, political institutions, socioeconomic status, agricultural practices, and conservation practices). The sources for these data will be varied, ranging from aerial photographs to the Breeding Bird Survey to US Census data. Space precludes an exhaustive listing of all datasets, but many are available through the LTER network (e.g., carbon storage), ICPSR/SGS (e.g., US agricultural census), TNC (e.g., spatially explicit maps of “at risk” species or communities), the Web (e.g., US Census Data) or federal and state agencies (e.g., climatological data). Whenever possible, data will be gathered for all sites; common datasets will be supplemented by site-specific data made available through the unique socio-ecological conditions and intellectual strengths characterizing the different partner organizations. Data will be gathered by research technicians assigned to three sites: CAP (primarily responsible for land-cover change, remote sensing, and a subset of social data); ICPSR/SGS (agricultural land use, including agricultural census data, and a subset of social data); and TNC (ecological data, supplemented by existing LTER datasets). We recognize that we will devote a significant portion of our effort to ensuring the comparability of datasets purporting to capture similar features (e.g., bird diversity) and the compatibility of datasets capturing different features (e.g., human population density versus net primary production) across sites and over time. The compilation of cross-scale, cross-site, and cross-time datasets capturing key land-use, ecological, and social features would itself be a significant accomplishment. We will draw on the considerable staff expertise at our core data sites to ensure this coordination; for instance, CAP (under the direction of McCartney), recently hosted a workshop on data compatibility with almost every LTER site in attendance. McCartney also directs a Bioinformatic project (NSF) to define approaches to database comparability (McCartney et al. 2000). We will also take advantage of the communication software platforms being developed by the HERO project (HERO 2000). Workshops and teleconferences will be held to ensure cross-site coordination of data management (see “Management Plan” under Supplementary Documentation). At the larger scales (county to region) data will be gathered for every decade, coinciding with the US Census and extending back to at least 1900, with earlier data gathered whenever possible. At smaller scales (census block group or vegetation patch, for instance), data will be gathered, whenever reasonable, at an annual resolution by drawing on such sources as aerial photographs, remote sensing, tax and administrative records, and ongoing monitoring within the LTER network. For each dataset, at each level of organization (or spatial scale) and for each time period, we will analyze, among other things, patch size and fragmentation, and turnover of patch types. We will examine the patterns in these features within sites, across sites, and over time. The maps and graphs that emerge from this analysis will be used as inputs in our Synthesis Activities (Section III). -6- II.D Remotely Sensed Land Cover and Net Primary Production We propose to incorporate remotely sensed and ancillary data into the multi-scalar and multitemporal models to assess changes associated with agrarian landscape conversion (NRC 1998; McConnell & Moran 2001). The first step consists of determining the spatial/temporal distribution and areal extent of land-cover types using Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data for the LTER site areas (data available from 1975 to present). We will use the expert-system classification procedure of Stefanov et al. (2001) as a framework for obtaining land-cover classifications in each area at spatial scales of 15 to 30 m/pixel. Both remotely sensed (spectral, vegetation indices, spatial texture) and other geospatially explicit ancillary data (topography, soil type, etc.) may be used in this expert system to derive final land-cover classifications. The second step involves direct estimation of ecological variables in our study areas. Remotely sensed data obtained from satellite sensors with high temporal and spectral resolution, such as the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, will be used to estimate Net Primary Productivity (NPP) at the regional (1 km) scale for each site using the production efficiency model of Goetz et al. (1999). We will also investigate using this model with higher spatial resolution data. II.E Analytical Approaches II.E.i Structural-equation modeling Because controlled experiments are impractical for large-scale landscape transformations, we will use structural-equation modeling (Kline 1998) to model interdependencies among response variables, as well as relationships between response variables and input variables. This type of modeling is a form of multiple regression analysis that uses simultaneous equations to estimate interdependencies and feedbacks, with the goal of both describing a system and gaining some estimate of the relative importance of particular variables or linkages. Structural-equation models have been widely applied in the social sciences and economics (Kline 1998, Guinot et al. 2001, Peyre et al. 2001, Grace & Pugesek 1997), where the hope is to infer causal structure. The data input for this analysis will be a large number of geo-referenced positions at which a suite of biological and social variables is recorded, along with changes in land use (II.C and II.D). One first specifies a suite of potential conceptual variables whose interdependencies and interactions are the focus of analysis. These conceptual variables might include, for instance, landscape sustainability, environmental degradation, biodiversity, economic growth, population pressure, and regulatory controls. These conceptual variables are not directly measurable—instead one measures things like proportion of land in green belts or conservation set-asides, % of streams failing to meet EPA water quality standards, breeding bird occurrences, changing land prices, and so on. Structural-equation modeling takes a specified list of measured variables, each of which is associated with a conceptual variable, and then infers the strength of interactions among conceptual variables, from the patterns of variation and covariation among all measured attributes. Obviously, there is the danger of such an exercise becoming a fishing expedition, and in fact if one simply throws in all possible measured and conceptual variables, the procedure typically tells one that “all results are non-significant”. One way in which we will simplify the initial hypothesized model is to collect suites of variables together into single index scores based on their covariation. Before performing the structural equation analysis, one can use principle component analysis to reduce certain data clusters with multiple layers—those relating to human population, or biodiversity, or socioeconomic factors, for instance—to a few key indices. Applying this approach requires a large number of data points, and enough understanding of the system that plausible hypotheses can be formulated. We will pursue structural equation modeling in two ways: (1) each site will evaluate an initial common model that includes the same conceptual -7- variables; and (2) each site will propose their own idiosyncratic conceptual model that they believe best capture the interdependency of land-use change and indices reflecting environmental degradation or key alterations in biological processes. In doing this we will draw heavily on the Case-Study Narratives (II.E.iv.). Development of initial models will take place in a workshop to be held in Year 1; model results and evaluations will be presented at a workshop in Year 2. Both activities will fall under the direction of Kareiva and Kinzig; results of these activities will guide subsequent data acquisition. II.E.ii Spatial-Effects Analysis: Characterizing time lags in critical interdependencies The US has rich and unique data on the history of agricultural land use. Since 1850, the US Agricultural Census has regularly asked farmers about the ways they use the land and then published detailed information at the scale of the county. To go beyond the descriptive, we need to turn to an analysis that accounts for a variety of independent variables, illuminates the differences between biogeographic regions and different time periods, and examines the potential causal relationships among natural and social phenomena. For this part of the project, we employ analyses that take spatial and temporal autocorrelation into account, even when examining the lag structure of the causal processes. The method followed here is a spatial-effects model (Anselin 1988). This two-stage method uses the same set of independent variables in the first- and second-stage regressions (with an addition of a spatial-effects term in the second-stage regression). The dependent variable is also the same in each of the regressions in this method, described more fully in Gutmann et al. (1998). Although causality must ultimately be left to the realm of theory and philosophy, whether one can statistically detect the direction of causality has been given considerable attention in econometrics for time series data. We will test this expectation of reciprocal causation using the WienerGranger causality test (Granger 1969; Sims 1972). In doing so, we introduce new information into the debate about the environmental impact of population change and bring together two state-of-theart methods into a single application for the first time. The basis of this method is that the future cannot predict the past, so if a variable X (e.g., climate variability) causes variable Y (e.g., land use), then changes in X should precede changes in Y. The empirical realization of this can be put into operation through a two-step regression procedure. This approach simultaneously provides information about the duration and structure of lags and legacies in the system. Application of this approach across datasets and across sites will be coordinated by Gutmann, with an introduction to the methods given in a workshop to be held in Year 1. II.E.iii Limitations of Statistical Analyses There are two major vulnerabilities of our research. First, because we start with statistical models that allow a considerable amount of complexity, it is hard to know in advance if the signals representing interdependencies will be detectable amidst local noise. The second concern is the possible error of our initial premise—that biocomplexity can be depicted ultimately via relatively simple conceptual and quantitative models. This does not mean that the analyses, research needed, or phenomena themselves are simple, just that in the end, it will be possible to capture the key ingredients of land-use transformations via relatively concise mathematical descriptions. Biocomplexity research has its origins in theories, such as chaos theory or complex-adaptive systems theory, that champion the idea that simple rules generate enormous complexity. If our premise is correct, it will represent a tremendous advance for biocomplexity theory by providing evidence for this intriguing idea. II.E.iv Case-Study Narratives The case-study narratives are intended to further highlight the critical modes of temporal legacies, cross-scale interactions, shifting feedback loops, and changing stability regimes that govern the cycle of land-use change, ecological change, and human response (Fig. 1). At several sites we will -8- draw upon narratives that are already developed (e.g., SGS, HFR) and whose results to date can inform the choices of variables to include in our statistical analyses, but where additional narrative development will also be conducted in response to the critical relationships and patterns unearthed in these statistical analyses. In other cases (e.g., CAP), relatively new narratives will be developed that are connected to ongoing research and strengths at the site, but heavily influenced by the statistical analyses. The CAP case study will focus on significant events in the management of water operating at different scales of political organization, thus allowing an examination of the influence of scale in determining critical feedback loops or responses. The HFR case study will focus on the role of ecological legacies in structuring current system characteristics and dynamics (Foster & Aber 2002). The SGS case study will focus on two different instances of particular ecological change that resulted in significantly different human responses within a system (limited versus significant human dislocation in response to drought), allowing us to see what temporal or spatial modes in the system might allow crises to precipitate. Other sites will contribute similar narratives, but space precludes us from presenting them all here. Foster and Redman will oversee development and coordination of these Case Studies, with a workshop partially devoted to these activities in Years 2 and 3. II.E.iv.a Phoenix: Irrigation, Ground Water, and the Growth of the Arid West Among the most compelling coupled natural-human system in the arid West is that of water and its human use. Availability of water for irrigated agriculture and municipal growth is subject to the vagaries of climate. Humans attempt to manage this variability, as well as that produced from flooding, by controlling impoundments and water releases and otherwise heavily modifying the hydrosystem (Worster 1985; Reisner 1986). The absolute necessity of supplemental water for farming and human settlement has made its allocation a priority for governments at all levels, a powerful driver of the economy, and pivotal for the continuing growth in the regional population (Gammage 1999). What makes this case study fascinating is that each level of government monitors and allocates water according to different spatial units, and there are differing temporal lags in monitoring the availability of water (Carter et al. 2000; Merideth 2001). These differences are compounded by the differential willingness of each sector to pay for available water, with residential users willing to pay far more than farmers. Despite this market imbalance, agriculture still uses 80% of the water in Arizona. As one example of how critical scales may vary for this set of interactions, the state has established five “active management areas” (AMA) for water that roughly parallel sets of subsurface drainage basins. The Phoenix AMA is largely coterminous with the CAP LTER and is the most populous area of the state (about 3 million people), the largest producer of agricultural products ($760 million/year), and the greatest user of water (2.3 million acre feet—MAF—per year). Just south is the Pinal AMA, also in our study area, which is the third largest agricultural producer ($357 million) and consumer of water (1.1 MAF), but has only about 100,000 inhabitants (AZ Agricultural Statistics 2001; ADWR 2000). Although surface and groundwater mingle between these two AMA’s, political forces led to their very different treatment in the Groundwater Management Act of 1980, designed to stem the alarming drop in groundwater levels across the state. The stated goal of the Phoenix AMA is to obtain “safe yield” (i.e., roughly as much water going into the ground as comes out) by 2025 while in the Pinal AMA the goal is to “preserve existing agricultural economies for as long as feasible”. At a regional scale, land-use change and newly engineered water sources have allowed our study area to more than double in population while reversing groundwater depletion. At the more “human” scale of the landscape, outcomes are far more varied with some local water tables dropping and riparian areas going dry (Grimm et al. 1997). The driving forces and cascading influences associated with patterns of water availability and use operate at varying scales of geography, with lags in response determined by nature and the legal system, and are embedded at the center of an economic system that not only operates on a rapid frequency, but often prices water well into the future. -9- This narrative highlights the critical interactions among climate change, jurisdictional scales, human monitoring and response, and consequences for agrarian transformations. For instance, we will analyze flood and drought recurrence intervals using USGS gauge data, compare those to the scales at which managers perceive the system (as evidenced by, for example, time steps taken in models, spatial units of water distribution), and examine how both have changed over time. We will also examine institutional responses at different levels (political as well as social) by examining the correlation between significant events (e.g., destructive floods, subsidence) and subsequent adjustments in laws, water-planning strategies, and land-use decisions. II.E.iv.b Harvard Forest: Legacies and Conservation Management The dramatic reduction in agriculture in New England over the past 150 years generated a wave of land-cover change as forest cover increased from less than 30% to 70-95% in many regions (Foster & O’Keefe 1999). The reestablishment of forest ecosystem characteristics progressed unevenly, with compositional, structural, and functional attributes exhibiting different lags in development. In all cases, however, the modern distribution of vascular plant species, levels of forest biomass, and soil structure, chemistry, and fertility are strongly conditioned by legacies of varied land-use history (Compton et al. 1998; Motzkin et al. 1996; Foster et al. 1998a, 1998b). The scale and grain of this landscape conditioning is controlled by the physical environmental template, geographical location relative to population centers, and the specific cultural traditions of the regional population, which vary in subtle fashion. In general, however, the broad pattern has been for a homogenization of ecological characteristics at the site scale (due to uniformity in land use) and at the regional scale (due to the broad-scale similarity of changes in land use and cover), and for a more patchy and heterogeneous structure with abrupt ecological discontinuities at a landscape scale (due to the small grained and patchy landownership pattern (Foster & Aber 2002). This changing landscape condition and pattern has generated distinctly different approaches to conservation and management, largely driven by individual value systems and the extent to which the legacies and lags are interpreted correctly (Foster 2000b; Kittredge et al. 2002). Each emerging tradition in conservation has different ecological consequences (Foster et al. 1997, 1999; Boose et al. 2001). This narrative explores when and under what circumstances different conservation strategies emerge, and what that might do to the stability regimes of the landscape. II.E.iv.c Shortgrass Steppe: A history of drought and human response One SGS case study will be the history of drought, agriculture, landscape transformation, and human perception in the US Great Plains, where more than a century of land-use change has coincided with climate variability at time scales that vary from the seasonal to decadal. This process is generally well known to the ecological and environmental history communities, but the specific mechanisms of change and feedback are still contested (Antle et al. 2001). The history of 20th-century droughts and their broad cycles of response and counter-response are often told: land-use change in the 1920s and 1930s led to drought and dust storms in the 1930s (Worster 1979). Land abandonment and improved agricultural practices made the drought of the 1950s less severe for the land, but more migration occurred in the 1950s because of a dynamic national economy (Hurt 1981; Gutmann & Cunfer 1999). In addition, the long-term environmental consequences left by land-use change in the 1950s are likely to be more meaningful than were those of the 1930s because the technology of the 1950s (irrigation, new seed varieties) has already altered weather patterns in the semi-arid grasslands (Epstein et al. 1999). Human perception of these changes, from local farmers to national policy makers, have varied and evolved in response to environmental knowledge, the speed of change, and political and social considerations. This narrative will examine the critical causal relationships and feedback loops governing these responses and their influence on stability regimes. - 10 - III. SYNTHESIS AND EDUCATION III.A Cross-Site Comparisons The success of a multi-site, multi-investigator study depends on preserving site-based idiosyncrasies while enforcing a sufficient number of common metrics to allow for models of basic patterns of interaction, important empirical generalizations, and cross-site testing of key hypotheses. Some of the comparability will be obtained by using the statistical approaches described above. It is expected that the rich description in the case-study narratives will yield insights of their own that can be compared across sites, as well as suggest relevant variables to be examined quantitatively through the structural-equation analysis. The structural-equation analysis will reveal—both across time within sites and across sites—the key interactions in the system, and the resulting differential equations describing system dynamics will allow an examination of stability regimes. We will develop indices to quantify the strength and length of feedback loops, and the width of basins of attraction, for each spatial (organizational) scale at each site at each time. This “matrix” of indices will allow us to search for general patterns in these features. Moreover, we expect the case studies to illuminate when systems were particularly vulnerable or resistant to non-linear shifts. We thus expect the patterns of values in these matrices—particularly during the critical times highlighted by the case studies—to reveal the overall resilience of the system at that point in time and its vulnerability to potential crises. Another set of cross-site analyses will be aimed at characterizing time lags and critical interdependencies at regional and landscape scales. Using the spatial-effects model (II.E.ii), we will examine the influence of various independent variables such as region, time period, climate, political activities, and market forces on changing land-use patterns and test whether there are time lags in the impact of these variables. Because of the consistency of the data collected at these larger scales cross-site comparisons will be facilitated, allowing general interaction patterns and their temporal implications to emerge. Many useful descriptive patterns will be traced, such as the varying trajectories of land-use changes for each region, that will aid in the understanding of the differences between biogeographical regions and their evolving socioecological systems. These trajectories will be examined against key social, demographic, and ecological variables through autoregressive analyses to suggest pattern of temporal priority and potential causality. We expect that this comparative “pattern of patterns” investigation will point to general relations that may help restructure future analyses for members of the LTER network as well as conservation planners at organizations like TNC. III.B Scenarios With the help of a The Nature Conservancy team, each site will perform a scenario analysis for possible landscape trajectories over the next 50 years, under different (but commonly employed) suites of assumptions (business as usual, major conservation efforts, planned development with some land-protection measures, and massive population growth and economic development). TNC is now experimenting with scenario planning to be ready for a variety of contingencies, while recognizing the tremendous uncertainty of future developments (Bunn & Salo 1993; Shoemaker 1995). The new twist we are adding to scenario planning is to preface it with formal structural-equation modeling and spatial-effects modeling, as a means of establishing relationships and interactions that need to be factored into the interpretation of any scenario. Ultimately, one goal for our research is to be able to boldly face future challenges rather than simply retrospectively explain past events and surprises. III.C Education and Outreach III.C.i K-12 Education Developing interdisciplinary modules focusing on the changing agricultural-urban interface presents the opportunity to meet national education standards while connecting students with local and global real-world phenomena. The National Science Standards call for science education to include personal and social perspective standards to help students develop the skills used in making decisions - 11 - as citizens (NRC 1996). In particular, Lieberman & Hoody (1998) found that curriculum based on using the environment for interdisciplinary learning allows students to exercise thinking processes through which they begin to understand interrelationships among natural and socio-cultural systems. Our approach to developing education programs and materials challenges middle- and highschool students to first understand their local region and then broaden their thinking to national and global levels, promoting cross-LTER and international interactions among the students and teachers. Our Education Team will work with project researchers, other LTER education personnel, and teachers to develop modules that reflect the core questions of this proposal. These modules will be aimed at core concepts and inquiry skills already being taught in the schools and will meet local and National Education Standards (including science, math, and social studies standards). These activities will most likely include investigating spatial and temporal patterns of landscapes via aerial photographs, using the current Ecology Explorers protocols (CAP) for investigating bird, insect and plant diversity, and encouraging teachers and children to develop surveys/census projects of local land use. We will coordinate the final selection of activities at the Year 1 Research/Education workshop. The success of any educational program depends on how positively attuned the teacher is to its implementation (Ebenezer & Zoller 1993). Thus, we will emphasize teacher education (both inservice and pre-service) programs through summer internships and school-year workshops. We anticipate developing summer internships similar to the successful Ecology Explorers summer internships at CAP. During these internships, teachers will become familiar with this project, meet local researchers, and learn more about incorporating research into their classrooms. During the school year, they and their students will develop and test hypotheses about the complexity of the local landscape and its transformations. We will also encourage cross-site activities among students and teachers from each of the participating LTER sites. III.C.ii Graduate and Undergraduate Education The research proposed here is based at universities where teaching is emphasized and the involvement of students in research is a high priority. Undergraduates will be involved in this research in a number of ways: conducting their own research, as hired research assistants, and as participants in our Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) programs. Graduate students, as research assistants and while conducting their own research, will be essential to this project, as they already are to the participating LTERs. A unique resource is the Integrative Graduate Education, Research, and Training (IGERT) program at ASU, which is already bringing together students from life, earth, and social sciences to address issues similar to those in this proposal, although focused in the city. III.C.iii Ongoing Education and Outreach Participating LTER’s have already developed effective means of reaching the public with scientific activities and research results. Outreach activities in cooperation with science museums, botanical gardens, zoos, and the like typify the efforts that will expand to include issues and ideas generated from this new research. This project, however, has an even greater potential for public involvement than any one constituent project because of the partnership with The Nature Conservancy and the orientation toward improving conservation science and its relation to public policy. Articles will appear in each of the six state TNC Newsletters, reaching close to 200,000 readers. III.D International Collaboration As important as the ideas and results of this project will be for developing an integrated science and more effective management of lands in the US, the potential outside the US is even greater. Transformations of agrarian landscapes and their importance for meeting food needs, urban growth, and conservation goals take many forms and are central to the future of many countries. Through our workshops, we will invite scientists from a number of international projects to work with us to adopt - 12 - similar protocols and approaches. This collaboration will significantly enhance our own research because it will expand the number of case studies and, most importantly, allow us to examine the impact of these processes in different cultural and political contexts. We have already begun the exchange of ideas with two partners, but expect the number of partners to be six by Year 4. Initially, we will partner with the Archaeomedes project, under the direction of van der Leeuw, in their work in Southern France (Aschan-Leygonie et al. 2000) and the Yaqui Valley group who have been conducting research in northwest Mexico (Naylor et. al. 2001; Matson et. al. 1998). We have selected these two projects because agrarian transformation in France, where the farms are being abandoned allowing regrowth of forests, parallels our Harvard and Coweeta cases, and the irrigated croplands being encroached upon by urban growth in Mexico parallels the process occurring in Arizona. We also hope to include additional key domestic partners in this collaboration, such as the Center for Study of Institutions, Population, and Environmental Change at Indiana University, and Human-Environmental Regional Observatory (HERO) Network at Penn State. The senior researchers on these two international programs, and on the additional domestic programs, have a serious interest in the theoretical issues raised by our proposal and ongoing relationships with many of the Co-PI’s already involved in this project. III.E Testing Applicability with Nature Conservancy Case Studies Our goal is to develop a general understanding of the interdependency of socioeconomic variables, human demography, ecological health, and land-use transformation. The Nature Conservancy has two needs for this type of information. First, TNC is committed to developing ecoregional plans for the entire world. These plans provide a blueprint of actions (conservation easements, land acquisition, etc.) that will protect a well-defined representation of biological diversity. To date, though, ecoregional plans insufficiently represent human and socioeconomic variables. Secondly, ecoregional plans will be regularly revised, but TNC has little information on how often each plan should be revisited. We propose to convene a workshop of leading ecoregional planners for TNC and the researchers of this proposal to explore its implications for the ecoregional planning process (e.g., What other data should they be considering? How often should plans be revised?). To supplement and further inform these activities, Kareiva will build upon existing patch-transition models (e.g., Wu & David 2002) for one or two appropriate sites. The value of this exercise lies in exploring consequences of perturbations that are not present in the original dataset (e.g., the impact of sequestering 30% of the land in a region in a nature preserve). The formal technique for asking this question of patch-transition models has been demonstrated by Neubert & Caswell (1997), whereby in addition to simple resilience metrics, one also can examine changes in reactivity (amplification of perturbation). A major limitation of current patch-occupancy models is that the rates of transition from one landuse category to another are intrinsic constants (Tilman & Kareiva 1997). One premise of our research is that these transitions are not constant, but vary depending on a suite of social and biological drivers. Hence we will use the results of our statistical results to embellish classical patch-dynamic models in a way that accounts for these other drivers of land use, and thereby makes these models more relevant to practical conservation efforts. IV. SIGNIFICANCE OF PROPOSED RESEARCH We expect this research to contribute to both science and society in six fundamental ways, through analyses that effectively couple human and natural systems in order to understand major changes in the human environment. First, as promised in the Biocomplexity incubation grant, this project will demonstrate that social-science information and approaches can effectively expand the research results of the LTER network. Second, by expanding the pioneering work of the Harvard Forest and Coweeta LTERs on ecological legacies, this project will contribute to the development of general theories on how socioecological legacies, as well as lags in the recognition of and response to - 13 - change, vary across space and time. Third, through detailed case histories and associated quantitative analyses, we expect to provide convincing evidence that humans act not only to disturb ecosystems, but monitor ecosystem values and respond to maintain stability and minimize crises. Fourth, we expect to provide information of direct use to policy makers, TNC, and land managers by using an approach that effectively couples aspects of the human and natural systems and explicitly relates these processes to varying levels of political organization. Fifth, on the basis of cross-scale data collection and analysis, our results should demonstrate our proposition that some patterns of human-ecological interactions are surprisingly long term, vary across space and time, and operate in a non-linear fashion. Sixth, and finally, we believe the greatest contribution of this project will be through education at a variety of levels. Our project benefits from the leadership of research scientists with strong records in interdisciplinary research and educational and community outreach who share a belief that communicating science to a broader audience is both a privilege and a responsibility of their profession. Through participation in the research and a variety of outreach programs, we expect to train new multidisciplinary scientists, inform public officials, give guidance to land managers, and excite a new generation of young students about the possibility of improving and sustaining the Earth’s environmental systems through a systematic integration of studies of human and natural systems. V. RESULTS OF PRIOR SUPPORT Toward a Unified Understanding of Human Ecosystems: Integrating Social Science into LongTerm Ecological Research. (C.L. Redman and J.M. Grove, Co-PIs), NSF-BCS 0083744; $99,251; 9/15/00-2/28/03. With this Biocomplexity Incubation grant, CAP proposed a series of workshops to spark interdisciplinary research among social, biological, and earth scientists, with the ultimate goal of promoting the integration of social sciences into long-term ecological research. The three workshops held to date are: (1) Land-Use Change: Models, and Methods; (2) Census, GIS, and Historical Methods; and (3) Ecosystem Services and Valuation. A fourth workshop on Ecosystem Function in Coupled Systems will be held in 2002. Taken together, these efforts will disseminate best approaches and tools for integrating social science into ecological research; develop methods for analyzing multiple scales of time and space; and delineate areas of mutual interest for ecologists and social scientists. The first two workshops generated recommendations for further research on land-use change modeling and agrarian landscape transformations that are embodied in the current proposal. Central Arizona–Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research Project: Land-Use Change and Ecological Processes in an Urban Ecosystem of the Sonoran Desert (N.B. Grimm, C.L. Redman, Stuart Fisher, Jianguo Wu, and Alfredo de los Santos, Hr, Co-PIs), NSF DEB-9714833; $4,769,178, including 11 supplements; 11/1/97-10/31/03. CAP LTER focuses on an arid-land ecosystem profoundly influenced, even defined, by the presence and activities of humans and is one of only two sites that specifically studies the ecology of urban systems. Biological, physical, and social scientists from ASU, and a wide range of local partners, are working together to study the structure and function of the urban ecosystem, and assess the effects of urban development on surrounding agricultural and desert lands. Our investigations into the relationship between land-use decisions and ecological consequences in the rapidly growing urban environment of Phoenix are of broad relevance for studies of agricultural transformations. CAP also has an explicit commitment to engage the broader community in our research effort, both in K-16 education and in the public understanding of science. A hierarchical patch dynamics modeling framework has been developed; research includes studies of arthropods, birds, soil respiration, primary production, nutrient transport, environmental risk, geography of the “urban fringe,” the social and ecological significance of open space, a compilation of historic landuse data, and classifications of land cover from satellite imagery. Over 30 senior scientists, 12 tech- - 14 - nicians, more than 50 graduate students, nearly 25 undergraduates (including REU students), and 20 community partners are currently involved in CAP research. Integrative Graduate Education and Research Training in Urban Ecology. (S. Fisher, C. L. Redman, W. Graf, N.B. Grimm, E. Hackett, Co-PIs), NSF-DGE 9987612; $2,758,194, including one supplement; 05/01/00-7/31/05. The main objective of ASU’s IGERT program is to educate a new kind of life, earth, or social scientist who is broader, more flexible, more collaborative, and more adept at linking science and social issues. CAP LTER provides an established research infrastructure for frontier, multidisciplinary research and graduate training in urban ecology. Training is built on a model emphasizing collaboration and teamwork; fellows earn degrees in six core departments in the life, earth, and social sciences and participate in team research, courses, and seminars that emphasize integration among disciplines. Collectively, these activities afford skills that should be broadly applicable to careers in public and private sectors and in academia. Developing a Research Agenda for Linking Biogeophysical and Socioeconomic Systems. (A. Kinzig, PI), NSF DEB-0073653; $121,706; 01/01/00-06/30/01. A workshop was convened in June 2000 under the leadership of Ann Kinzig to produce recommendations concerning interdisciplinary environmental research (Kinzig et al. 2000). The workshop involved over 45 scientists from a wide variety of social- and natural-science disciplines. NSF personnel have been briefed on the results of the workshop; the strong consensus among workshop participants on needed research directions led to the inclusion of many of these recommendations in the Dynamics of Coupled Natural and Human Systems portion of the Biocomplexity Initiative. The research proposed here draws directly from those recommendations, including the need to include human activities and responses as an integral and integrated part of assessments of ecological dynamics, and the need for a better understanding of the biogeophysical and social drivers of land-use transformation. Harvard Forest Long Term Ecological Research: Forest Ecosystem Dynamics in New England. (D.R. Foster (PI), J. Aber, F. Bazzaz, J. Melillo, K. Nadelhoffer, S. Wofsy, and 12 CoInvestigators), NSF DEB- 9411975; $560,000 annually; 6 Years. The HFR LTER is a collaboration of 60 scientists from seven institutions investigating ecological pattern and process in New England and applying this information to conservation and public policy. Initially the project applied innovative approaches in historical and community ecology, ecophysiology, atmospheric chemistry, and ecosystem studies to the interpretation of long-term, large-scale experiments and mechanistic studies comparing the response of forest ecosystems to natural disturbance versus human stressors and land-use activities. A second phase of research is assessing the interactions and lags in ecosystem response to environmental change and land-use with particular attention to the ecological legacies in ecosystem function, structure, and composition resulting from historical transformation of the landscape from agricultural dominance to forest and semi-natural vegetation. This research has produced: >300 publications; a synthesis volume linking 1000 years of forest dynamics to modern ecosystem structure, function, and composition (Foster & Aber 2002); an annual research program for 25 undergraduates and graduate students; and new approaches to regional and cross-site studies. - 15 - REFERENCES Agarwal, C., C.M. Green, J.M. Grove, T.P. Evans, and C.M. Schweik. 2001. A Review and Assessment of Land-Use Change Models: Dynamics of Space, Time, and Human Choice. CIPEC Collaborative Report Series No. 1. Center for the Study of Institutions Population, and Environmental Change, Indiana University, Bloomington. Anselin, L. 1988. Spatial Econometrics: Methods and Models. Dordrecht, the Netherlands, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Antle, J.M., S.M. Capalbo, E.T. Elliot, H.W. Hunt, S. Mooney, and K.H. Paustian. 2001. Research needs for understanding and predicting the behavior of managed ecosystems: Lessons from the study of agroecosystems. Ecosystems. 4(8):723-735 Arizona Agricultural Statistics Service. 2001. 2000 Arizona Agricultural Statistics. 3003 N. Central Ave., Phoenx, AZ. Arizona Department of Water Resources. 2000. ADWR Third Management Plan 2000-2010. http://www.water.az.gov/documents/TMP/tmp_final/pre-toc.htm. .Aschan-Leygonie, C., S. Baudet-Michel, S. Dubuc, F. Durand-Dastès, D. Gautler, E. Holm, A. Langlet, S. Lardon, and U. Lindren. 2000. A multiscalar investigation into the dynamic of land abandonment in southern France. In S.E. van der Leeuw and L. Garenne-Marot, eds., ARCHAEOMEDES II, Volume 5. MAE, 21, Allée de l’Université, 92023 Nanterre Cedex, France. Berkes, F., and C. Folke, eds. 1998. Linking Social and Ecological systems. Cambridge University Press, London. Boose, E.R., K.E. Chamberlin, and D.R. Foster. 2001. Landscape and regional impacts of hurricanes in New England. Ecological Monographs 71:27-48. Bunn, D., and A. Salo. 1993. Forecasting with scenarios. European Journal of Operational Research 68:291-303. Burke, I.C., T.G.F. Kittel, W.K. Lauenroth, P. Snook, C.M. Yonker, and W.J. Parton. 1991. Regional analysis of the central Great Plains: Sensitivity to climate variability. BioScience 41(10):685692. Carpenter, S.R., and L.H. Gunderson. 2001. Coping with collapse: Ecological and social dynamics in ecosystem management. BioScience 51(6):451-457. Carter, R.H., P. Tschakert, and B.J. Morehouse. 2000. Assessing the Sensitivity of the Southwest’s Urban Water sector to Climatic Variability. The Climate Assessment Project for the Southwest (CLIMAS) Report Series CL1-00, Institute for the Study of Planet Earth, University of Arizona, Tucson. Compton, J.E., R.D. Boone, G. Motzkin, and D.R. Foster. 1998. Soil carbon and nitrogen in a pineoak sand plain in central Massachusetts: Role of vegetation and land-use history. Oecologia 116:536-542. Cronon, W. 1983. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England. Hill and Wang, New York. Cronon, W. 1991. Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West. New York, W.W. Norton. Diamond, J. 1997. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, W.W. Norton, New York. Dove, M., and D. Kammen. 1997. The epistemology of sustainable resource use: managing forest products, swidden, and high-yielding variety crops. Human Organization(1):91-101. -References 1 - Duane, T. 1999. Shaping the Sierra: Nature, Culture, and Conflict in the Changing West. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. Ebenezer, J., and U. Zoller. 1993. Grade 10 students’ perceptions of and attitudes toward science teaching and school science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 30(2):175-186. Epstein, H.E., I.C. Burke, and W.K. Lauenroth. 1999. Response of the shortgrasss steppe to changes in rainfall seasonality. Ecosystems 2(2):139-150. Farina, A. 2000. The cultural landscape as a model for the integration of ecology and economics. BioScience 50(4):313-320. Foster, D.R. 2000a. Using history to interpret current environmental conditions and future trends: an example from the US Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program. PAGES Newsletter 8(3):23-25. Foster, D.R. 2000b. Conservation lessons and challenges from ecological history. Forest History Today Fall 2000:2-11. Foster, D.R., and J. Aber, eds. 2002. Forests in Time. Ecosystem Structure and Function as a Consequence of History. Yale University Press, New Haven. Foster, D.R., J. Aber, R. Bowden, J. Melillo, and F. Bazzaz. 1997. Forest response to disturbance and anthropogenic stress. BioScience 47:437-445. Foster, D.R., M. Fluet, and E.R. Boose. 1999. Human or natural disturbance: Landscape dynamics of the tropical forests of Puerto Rico. Ecological Applications 9:555-572. Foster, D.R., D. Knight, and J. Franklin. 1998a. Landscape patterns and legacies resulting from large infrequent forest disturbance. Ecosystems 1:497-510. Foster, D.R., G. Motzkin, and B. Slater. 1998b. Land-use history as long-term broad-scale disturbance: Regional forest dynamics in central New England. Ecosystems 1:96-119. Foster, D.R., F. Swanson, J. Aber, D. Tilman, N. Bropakw, I. Burke, and A. Knapp. The importance of land-use and its legacies to ecology and environmental management. BioScience, In review, 2002. Foster, D.R, and J. O'Keefe. 2000. New England Forests Through Time. Insights from the Harvard Forest Dioramas. Harvard Forest and Harvard University Press. Gammage, G. 1999. Phoenix in Perspective. Reflections on Developing the Desert. The Herberger Center for Design Excellence. College of Architecture and Environmental Design, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ Geertz, C. 1963. Agricultural Involution: The Process of Ecological Change in Indonesia. University of California Press, Berkeley. Goetz, S.J., S.D. Prince, S.N. Goward, M.M. Thawley, and J. Small. 1999. Satellite remote sensing of primary production: An improved production efficiency modeling approach. Ecological Modelling 122:239-255. Grace, J., and B. Pugesek 1997. A structural equation model of plant species richness and its application to a coastal wetland. American Naturalist 149:436-460. Granger, C.W.J. 1969. Investigating causal relations by econometric models and cross-spectral methods. Econometrica 37:424-438. Gray, S.E. 1994. Limits and possibilities: White-Indian relations in western Michigan in the era of removal. Michigan Historical Review 20:71-92. Grimm, N.B., A. Chacón, C.N. Dahm, S.W. Hostetler, O.T. Lind, P.L. Starkweather, and W.W. Wurtsbaugh.1997. Sensitivity of aquatic ecosystems to climatic and anthropogenic changes: The Basin and Range, American Southwest, and México. Hydrological Processes 11:1023-1041. -References 2 - Grimm, N.B., J.M. Grove, S.T.A. Pickett, and C.L. Redman. 2000. Integrated approaches to longterm studies of urban ecological systems. BioScience 70:571-584. Groves, C.R., D.B. Jensen, L.L. Valutis, K.H. Redford, M.L. Shaffer, J.M. Scott, J.V. Baumgartner, J.V. Higgins, M.W. Beck, and M.G. Anderson. 2002. Planning for biodiversity conservation: Putting conservation science into practice. BioScience: in press. Guinot, C., J. Latreille, and M. Tenenhaus. 2001. PLS Path modeling and multiple table analysis. Application to cosmetic habits of women in Ile-de-France. Chemometrics amd Intelligent Lab Systems 58:247-259 Gunderson, L., C.S. Holling, and S.S. Light. 1995. Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions. Columbia University Press, New York. Gutmann, M.P., and G. Cunfer. 1999. A New Look at the Causes of the Dust Bowl. Publication no. 99-1, International Center for Arid and Semiarid Land Studies. Lubbock, Texas. Gutmann, M.P., A. Peri, and G.D. Deane. Submitted. Migration, environment, and economic change in the U.S. Great Plains, 1930-1990. Demography, December, 1998. Holling, C.S. 1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 41:1-23. HERO. 2002. Human-Environment Regional Observatory, http://hero.geog.psu.edu. Holling, C.S. 2001. Understanding the complexity of economic, ecological, and social systems. Ecosystems 4:390-405. Hurt, D. 1981. The Dust Bowl: An Agricultural and Social History. Chicago, Nelson-Hall. Kinzig, A.P., + 45 others. 2000. Nature and Society: An Imperative for Integrated Environmental Research. Available at http://lsweb.la.asu.edu/akinzig/report.htm. Kittredge, D.B., A. Finley, and D.R. Foster. In review, 2002. Ecological consequences of forest harvesting patterns in a landscape of compleownership in New England. Ecological Applications. Kline, R.B. 1998. Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. Guilford Press. NY. Knapp, A.K., J.M. Briggs, D.C. Hartnett, and S.L. Collins, eds. 1998. Grassland Dynamics: LongTerm Ecological Research in Tallgrass Prairie. Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford. Levin, S.A. 1999. Fragile Dominion: Complexity and the Commons. Perseus Books, Reading, MA. Lieberman, G., and L. Hoody. 1998. Closing the Achievement Gap: Using the Environment as an Integrating Context for Learning. Report to the Pew Charitable Trust, State Education and Environment Roundtable, San Diego, CA. Liu, J. 2001. Integrating ecology with human demography, behavior, and socioeconomics: Needs and approaches. Ecological Modelling 140:1-8. Matson, P.A., R. Naylor, and I. Ortiz-Monasterio. 1998. Integration of environmental, agronomic, and economic aspects of fertilizer management. Science 280:112-115. Matson, P.A., W.J. Parton, A.G. Power, and M.J. Swift. 1997. Agricultural intensification and ecosystem properties. Science 277:504-509. McCartney, P., C. Redman, and C. Gries. Networking our Research Legacy. 1999. National Science Foundation-BDI 9983132. program.http://caplter.asu.edu/bdi/Proposal/proposal.htm. McConnell, W.J., and E.F. Moran. 2001. Meeting in the Middle: The Challenge of Meso-Level Integration. An international workshop, October 17-20, 2000, Ispra, Italy. LUCC Report Series No. 5. Published by LUCC Focus 1 Office, Anthropological Center for Training and Research on Global Environmental Change, Indiana University and LUCC International Project Office, Belgium. -References 3 - Merideth, R. 2001. A primer on Climatic Variability and Change in the Southwest. Udall Center for Studies in Public Policy and the Institute for the Study of Planet Earth, University of Arizona, Tucson. Michener, W.K., T.J. Baerwald, P. Firth, M.A. Palmer, J.L. Rosenberger, E.A. Sandlin, and H. Zimmerman. 2001. Defining and unraveling biocomplexity. BioScience 51(12):1018-1023. Motzkin, G., D.R. Foster, A. Allen, and J. Harrod. 1996. Controlling site to evaluate history: Vegetation patterns of a New England sand plain. Ecological Monographs 66:345-365. National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. National Research Council. 1998. People and Pixels: Linking Remote Sensing and Social Science. D. Liverman et al., eds. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. National Research Council. 1999. Our Common Journey: A Transition Toward Sustainability. Board on Sustainable Development, Policy Division. National Academy Press, Washington D.C. Naylor, R.L., W.P. Falcon, and A. Puente-González. 2001. Policy Reforms and Mexican Agriculture: Views from the Yaqui Valley. CIMMYT Economics Program Paper No. 01-01. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F. Neubert, M., and H. Caswell. 1997. Alternatives to resilience for measuring the responses of ecological systems to perturbations. Ecology 78:653-665. Ostrom, E., J. Burger, C.B. Field, R.B. Norgaard, and D. Policansky. 1999. Revisiting the commons: Local lessons, global challenges. Science 284:278-82. Peluso, N. 1992. Rich Forests, Poor People: Resource Control and Resistance in Java. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. Peyre, M, I. Mendelssohn, M. Reams, P. Templet, and J. Grace. 2001. Identifying determinants of nations wetland management programs using structural equation modeling. Environmental Management 27:859-868. Pyne, S.J. 1997. Fire in America: A Cultural History of Wildland and Rural Fire. University of Washington Press. Redford, K. et al.. in press. Mapping the conservation landscape. BioScience. Redman, C.L. 1999. Human Impacts on Ancient Environments. University of Arizona Press, Tucson. Reisner, M.P. 1986. Cadillac Desert: The American West and its Disappearing Water. Viking New York, NY. Scheffer, M., S. Carpenter, J.A. Foley, C. Folke, and B. Walker. 2001. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature 413:591-596. Shoemaker, P. 1995. Scenario planning–a tool for strategic thinking. Sloan Management Review 36:25-40. Sims, C.S. 1972. Money, income and causality. American Economic Review 62:540-552. Stefanov, W.L., M.S. Ramsey, and P.R. Christensen. 2001. Monitoring urban land cover change: An expert system approach to land cover classification of semiarid to arid urban centers. Remote Sensing of Environment 77:173-185. Swetnam, T.W., C.D. Allen, and J.L. Betancourt. 1999. Applied historical ecology: Using the past to manage for the future. Ecological Applications 9(4):1189-1206. Tainter, J. 1990. The Collapse of Complex Societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. Tilman, D., and P. Kareiva, eds. 1997. Spatial Ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. Turner, B.T., W.C. Clark, R.W. Kates, J.F. Richards, J.T. Matthews, and W.B. Meyer. 1990. The Earth as Transformed by Human Action. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. -References 4 - Turner, B.L., D.R. Foster, and J. Geoghegan, eds. 2002. Land Change Science and Tropical Deforestation. The Final Frontier in Southern Yucatan. Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford. US Census Bureau, Census 2000 PHC-T-5. Ranking tables for incorporated cities, www.census.gov/population.cen2000/phc-t5/tab04.xls USDA Policy Advisory Committee on Farm and Forest Land Protection and Land Use. 2001. Maintaining Farm and Forest Lands in Rapidly Growing Areas. Report to the Secretary of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Veldkamp, A., and E.F. Lambin. 2001. Editorial: Predicting land-use change. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 85:1-6. Vitousek, P.M., P.R. Ehrlich, A.H. Ehrlich., and P.A. Matson. 1986. Human appropriation of the products of photosynthesis. Bioscience 36(6):368-373. Vitousek, P.M., H.A. Mooney, J. Lubchenco, and J. Melillo. 1997. Human domination of Earth's ecosystem. Science 277:494-499. Williams, R. 1980. Ideas of Nature. Problems in Materialism and Culture: Selected Essays. London, Verso:67-85. Wollenberg, E., D. Edmunds, and L. Buch. 2000. Using scenarios to make decisions about the future: anticipatory learning for the adaptive co-management of community forests. Landscape and Urban Planning 47:65-77. Worster, D. 1984. History as natural-history: An essay on theory and method. Pacific Historical Review 53(1):1-19. Worster, D. 1985. Rivers of Empire: Water, Aridity, and the Growth of the American West. Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford. Worster, D. 1979. Dust Bowl: The Southern Plains in the 1930s. New York, Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford. Wu, J., and J.L. David. 2002. A spatially explicit hierarchical approach to modeling complex ecological systems: Theory and applications. Ecological Modelling (in press). Yarnell, S.L. 1998. The Southern Appalachians: A History of the Landscape. Ashville, NC. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. SRS-18. -References 5 - FACILITIES, EQUIPMENT, AND OTHER RESOURCES ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY The Center for Environmental Studies (CES) is an interdisciplinary research center with a long history of involving academics, government, industry, and the community in mutually beneficial projects. The Center is home to the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research (CAP LTER) project (http://caplter.asu.edu), one of only two LTER sites charged with monitoring and assessing long-term ecological change in an urban area. Over 30 senior scientists, 12 technicians, 50 graduate students, 30 undergraduates students, and 30 community partners are working together to assess the effect of urban development on the ecosystem of the Sonoran Desert and the effect of ecological conditions on urban development. COMPUTING FACILITIES The Center offers the administrative staff to plan and coordinate activities related to this proposed cross-site project. Staff include a full-time systems administrator, 2 senior scientists, 2 software developers, and a GIS technician. Laboratory and data management resources supported by CAP LTER and affiliated projects will be available for use by this project. These include a Windows NT network containing 4 dualprocessor servers and 8 Pentium II or higher workstations. Additional servers include an NT hosted Web server and a Sun Sparc10 to be used for hosting z39.50 software. The 6 servers provide an online metadata catalog and data access application, database, and GIS archives for over 200 datasets, integrated query into biological collections, bibliographies, and a taxonomic name directory for Arizona. Local connectivity runs at 100Mbs. Over 200 gigabytes of storage space are available for research and data archives. Short-term data protection is provided through the use of redundant array (RAID level 5) storage devices and a tape backup cycle with off-site storage. Long-term protection is addressed primarily through commitment to a strategy of regular technology-transfer to maintain current standards for hardware and software to minimize the risk of data loss through media or format obsolescence. Data server software used in the lab includes Microsoft SQL Server relational database software, Environmental Systems Research Institute Inc. (ESRI) Spatial Database Engine, and ESRI Map Objects Internet Map Server. Development tools include MS Visual Studio, Embarcadero ER Studio, and MS Access. GIS resources include Erdas Imagine, ESRI ArcInfo and ArcView. LABORATORY FACILITIES The Goldwater Environmental Laboratory is CAP’s central lab and is equipped with a autoanalyzer (for wet-chemistry analyses), a Schimadzu carbon analyzer, a flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, an elemental analyzer, a spectrophotometer (for nutrient analyses), a GC mass spectrometer, two temperature-controlled rooms, a pH meter, and filtration equipment. The Geographic Information Systems Laboratory, housed in the campus Computing Commons, features hardware, software, and staff to help create GIS for spatial analysis, query, and display. The lab houses 12 workstations running on both UNIX and PC Platforms and features the following mapping software: Arc/Info, ArcView 3.0, Business Map, Map Info, IDRISI, and PCI. ASU maintains a site license for the ESRI products (the standard software used for GIS applications). The lab also features the following hardware: SUN Ultra 2 Server, HP 700 Server, HDS X-Terms, Pentium PCs, CalComp Digitizer, HPLaser Printer, and Tektronix largest format color plotter. The GIS lab shares space and resources with the Visualization Lab, providing a wide range of resources for the innovative presentation of environmental data, including Silicon Graphic workstations and an application library of visualization and public-domain products. The Mars Explorer Lab was developed to acquire, process, and analyze remote-sensing data from NASA's terrestrial and planetary missions. The facility, housed in 5000 sq. ft. of space in the Moeur Building, contains 14 UNIX workstations with over 75 Gbytes of online magnetic disk storage and associated CD-ROM readers, writers, tape drives, scanners, printers, color-image writers, and 10 MacIntosh and PC computers. The lab has a dedicated 250 Kbaud NASCOM data link between the Mars Explorer Lab and JPL, along with two dedicated T1 (1.5 Mbit/sec) NASA Science Internet (NSI) lines. These links support active NASA flight instruments directed from this facility, with 24 hours per day, 7 days per week dedicated power and air conditioning for instrument command and instrument health verification. The lab also houses an infrared interferometric spectrometer for collection of infrared spectra of soil, rock, manmade, and vegetation samples to aid in the compositional analysis of remote-sensing data, as well as a 1990 set of Landsat satellite imagery for Arizona. Landscape Ecology and Modeling Laboratory, at the Department of Life Sciences, ASU West, is equipped with advanced computing facilities and software systems for ecological studies involving spatial analysis, simulation modeling, and GIS. The Stable Isotope Laboratory, in the Biology Department, features a Europa Scientific Hydra mass spectrometer connected to various preparation systems. It is capable of measuring stable isotopes of C, N, O, S, and H in water, gases, biological materials, and soils. Department-Specific Research Laboratories offer fully equipped facilities to carry out research described elsewhere in this proposal. THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN COMPUTING FACILITIES ICPSR operates a distributed client-server computing environment built around UNIX servers operating under the Solaris operating system and desktop computers (PC, Macintosh, and UNIX workstations). Oracle is the database management system, and most major statistical packages are maintained on the compute servers. ICPSR maintains more than 1.3 terabytes of disk storage available 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The local fast Ethernet (100 megabit) network is connected to the University of Michigan’s backbone network over a leased T3 connection. See attached diagram for the architecture of the system. OFFICE FACILITIES ICPSR moved in October 1998 into a 24,000 sq. ft. facility located two blocks from the main ISR building. The new facility has adequate office space to house this project, including individual offices and workstations with full 100Mb computer connectivity for each of the personnel listed in the grant. The general office areas have copy and FAX machines as well as adequate work space for secretarial and administrative personnel. ICPSR also has access to ISR duplicating and other central services, including high-speed network connectivity to a high capacity Docutech printer located at ISR. ARCHIVAL RESOURCES AND EXPERIENCE The ICPSR data holdings span the full range of the social and behavioral sciences and extend to such diverse areas of inquiry as public health, law and criminal justice, aging, and education. They constitute the largest archive of computer-readable research data in the world. At present the holdings include well over 50,000 data files. The files include data from relatively small cross-sectional sample surveys of national populations or sub- populations to extended longitudinal surveys, as well as data from censuses of the United States from 1790-1990. The ICPSR staff has, therefore, the experience and skills required to work with and provide access to the 2000 Census data. DATA DISTRIBUTION AND ACCESS Procedures for distributing and providing access to computer-readable data for research and instructional applications are well developed. Researchers now download data files directly to their desktop computers by accessing the ICPSR data archive online. Other modes of access to data are provided as well, including standard as well as customized CD-ROMs. Several organizational strengths facilitate and encourage use of ICPSR data and related services. Official Representatives, often faculty members, at each member institution serve as liaisons between their faculty, staff and students and the ICPSR staff in Ann Arbor. These individuals publicize and provide information about ICPSR data and services to local researchers, faculty and students. They also help to identify local needs and interests and to communicate those needs to the ICPSR staff. The utility and ease of use of these data dissemination procedures and the experience of ICPSR are demonstrated by the high volume of data supplied. In 1999-2000, ICPSR supplied nearly 4 million megabytes of social science research data (some quarter-million data files) to researchers and students located at more than 3,300 colleges, universities and other organizations worldwide. STAFF RESOURCES The preceding paragraphs suggest something of the characteristics, experience, and expertise of the ICPSR staff. Senior members of the staff are trained social and behavioral scientists; most of the senior staff have a decade or more of experience in the various aspects of archival work. As a consequence of experience and formal training, these individuals understand the research value of data, are capable of assessing data in both technical and substantive terms, and are conversant with the requirements of data analysis. The staff includes individuals with advanced methodological and data processing expertise, as well as computer programmers familiar with the full range of computational equipment. For a complete description of ICPSR and its capabilities, activities, and resources, consult our Web site (http://www.icpsr.umich.edu). OTHER The proposed project will draw upon the facilities and personnel of the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research ICPSR) The ICPSR was founded in 1962 and is a consortium of 518 colleges, universities, and research institutions in the US and other countries. Headquarters and central staff are located in the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The membership includes most if not all of the major research universities in the United States as well as a large number of predominantly undergraduate institutions. The ICPSR functions as a repository and dissemination service for electronic research data, a mechanism to provide training in quantitative methods of behavioral and social research, and a source of assistance in data preparation and the application of computer technology to the purposes of research and instruction. The ICPSR provides the experience, staff, and facilities required for the data processing, data dissemination, and training tasks required for the 2000 US Census Data Project. Sustaining support for ICPSR operations is provided by the annual fees paid by member institutions. Because of its membership base, ICPSR also provides an established communication and dissemination network that reaches throughout the academic research community and broadly into the governmental and private sectors. Continuing effort is directed to extending the reach of this network. Its existence and continued expansion ensure that 2000 Census data can be made readily available to an extended research community. MANAGEMENT PLAN Administration and Research Development This project draws together the research expertise and data-collecting abilities of staffs based in six different LTERs and at TNC’s Western Regional Office. This diversity is a major strength of the proposed research but demands an efficient management structure to ensure research quality and efficiency. The Center for Environmental Studies (CES) at ASU will assume most administrative activities for the project, although each participating group will have its own subcontract and research team. CES oversees the CAP LTER and the associated IGERT program and has developed an effective infrastructure for organizing research, workshops, community outreach, educational programming, information management, and publications. The PI/PD Redman will make most dayto-day administrative decisions, but ultimate administrative authority will be vested in an Executive Committee comprised of the five Co-PI’s and representatives from Kellogg, Coweeta, and Konza. The committee members will serve as project contacts for each of the site-based research teams and keep in close contact electronically concerning progress at each site and general research activities. Annually, in conjunction with the Research Overview Workshop, the committee will meet for a half a day. The larger group of “internal Co-PI’s” will be copied on committee communications and invited to discuss issues and research directions. The real value-added elements from this project will derive from integrative and cross-site comparisons. Cross-site teams composed of appropriate senior personnel will spearhead these activities. These teams will be led by Project Co-PI’s who represent a wide range of expertise and experience, spanning natural and social sciences (see Budget Justification for details on all senior personnel). Membership on these teams will be redefined as research progresses and new scholars become involved. These teams will meet as subgroups at the appropriate workshops: • • • • • • • • Data collection and information management: Gutmann (Chair), Kareiva, McCartney, Stefanov, Deane Education: Saltz (Chair), Elser, O’Keefe Statistical modeling: Kareiva and Kinzig (Co-Chairs), Gutmann, Kinzig, Wu Landscape transition patterns: Redman (Chair), Foster, Gragson, Grove, Harris, Turner, Bloomquist Ecological patterns: Foster (Chair), Briggs, Grimm, Parton, Blair, Bolstad Social responses: Gragson (Chair), Chilton, Kinzig, Kittredge, Middendorf, Rudy, Sylvester Conservation science: Kareiva (Chair), Foster, Motzkin, Redman, Shaw International comparative research: Kinzig (Chair), Matson, Redman, Turner, van der Leeuw A research program that attempts to deal with the close coupling of social and ecological processes will share interests with and significantly benefit from active cooperation with local agencies and stakeholders. Each site will have its own set of community partners. Communication An effective means of communication is essential to the success of this project. The principals of the project have already participated together in one or more Biocomplexity incubation grant workshops that led to this proposal and have established mutual respect and constructive working relationships. Lauren Kuby, who organized the incubation-grant workshops, will coordinate communications for this project. Conference calls and e-mails will continue to be essential elements of communication for the Executive Committee and research teams. We will establish a project Web page with opportunities for threaded discussions, bulletin boards, and live messaging. Before the grant begins, CES will be installing state-of-the art video conferencing equipment into their offices to assist in communication with project researchers. We will also explore working with using software, developed by the HERO project, to help facilitate interaction among LTER scientists and sites. The key to effective communication, and what we believe will be a very exciting part of our program, is the series of workshops that will be held throughout the project. Each year there will be a “Research Overview” workshop on a central theme that allows representatives from each site (and additional scholars) to assemble for three days of research design and analysis. There will also be one or more specialized workshops each year focused on the activities of one of the cross-site teams. We will sponsor sessions at national meetings where our researchers will gather to discuss issues and communicate our findings to colleagues in various disciplines. We will also sponsor a symposium on our project at the “LTER Day” preceeding the Ecological Society of America meetings during Year 4. The tentative workshop schedule is as follows: Year 1: • Research overview at CAP (defining variables for the structural-equation modeling) • Education team in conjunction with Research overview meeting at CAP • Data collection at Ann Arbor (use of Agricultural and US Census and remote sensing) • Database management in conjunction with Data collection at Ann Arbor Year 2: • Research overview at HF (ecological patterns) • Ecological science and scenario building at TNC Year 3: • Research overview at KBS (Social responses) • Education team at Coweeta • Database management in conjunction with Education team at Coweeta Year 4: • Research Overview at CAP (International cooperation and LTER implementation) • Project results and framework for implementation at other LTERs at the LTER section of ESA meetings Assessment As with all National Science Foundation funded projects, we have very high expectations for the outcomes of this project. Among them will be publications in peer-reviewed media, innovative student training at a number of levels, public education in both the formal and informal sectors, and substantial leveraged funding. We will be our own best critics by means of our annual Research Overview workshops that will explicitly address the overall progress of the research and the effectiveness of the research design, modeling, and analyses. We will also invite one external scholar each year to these overview workshops to provide a keynote speech and evaluate our progress. There will also be external measure of the effectiveness of our research. First, to what extent are additional LTERs and other US research programs joining in our approach? Second, to what extents are international partners joining in this approach and sharing data and ideas? Third, to what extent is TNC able to incorporate new ideas from this research project to refine their conservation science and management decisions? Fourth, and finally, to what extent are the new ideas from this project influencing policy makers, land managers, and constituency groups concerned with landscape transformations and environmental sustainability? BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH JOHN M. BLAIR Professor, Division of Biology Kansas State University 232 Ackert Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506 Phone: (785) 532-7065; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, B.S., Biology, 1980 Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, M.S., Biology, 1983 University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, Ph.D., Entomology, 1987 APPOINTMENTS 2001-, Professor, Division of Biology, Kansas State University; 1997-2001, Associate Professor, Division of Biology, Kansas State University; 1992-1997, Assistant Professor, Division of Biology, Kansas State University; 1991-1992, Research Scientist, Department of Entomology (Soil Ecology Program), Ohio State University; 1988-1991, Senior Researcher, Department of Entomology (Soil Ecology Program), Ohio State University; 1987-1988, Postdoctoral Associate, Department of Entomology, University of Georgia. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Knapp, A. K., J. M. Blair, J. M. Briggs, S. L. Collins, D. C. Hartnett, L. C. Johnson and E. G. Towne. 1999. The keystone role of bison in North American tallgrass prairie. BioScience 49:39-50. Blair, J. M., T. R. Seastedt, C. W. Rice and R. A. Ramundo. 1998. Terrestrial nutrient cycling in tallgrass prairie. Pp. 222-243 in A. K. Knapp, J. M. Briggs, D. C. Hartnett and S. C. Collins, eds., Grassland dynamics: Long-term ecological research in tallgrass prairie, Oxford University Press, New York. Collins, S. L., A. K. Knapp, J. M. Briggs, J. M. Blair and E. Steinauer.1998. Modulation of diversity by grazing and mowing in native tallgrass prairie. Science 280:745-747. Blair, J. M. 1997. Fire, N availability, and plant response in grasslands: A test of the transient maxima hypothesis. Ecology 78:2359-2368 Turner, C. L., J. M. Blair, R. J. Schartz and J. C. Neel. 1997. Soil N availability and plant response in tallgrass prairie: Effects of fire, topography and supplemental N. Ecology 78:1832-1843. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Fay, P. A., J. D. Carlisle, A. K. Knapp, J. M. Blair, and S. L. Collins. 2000. Altering rainfall timing and quantity in a mesic grassland ecosystem: Design and performance of rainfall manipulation shelters. Ecosystems 3:308-319. Knapp, A. K., S. L. Conard, and J. M. Blair. 1998. Determinants of soil CO2 flux from a sub-humid grassland: effect of fire and fire history. Ecological Applications 8:760-770. Blair, J. M., D. A. Crossley, Jr., and L. C. Callaham. 1992. Incorporation of exogenous 15N in decomposing litter and movement through the forest floor profile: Effects of litter quality and microarthropods. Biology and Fertility of Soils 12:241-252. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH – JOHN M. BLAIR PAGE 2 Blair, J. M., R. W. Parmelee, and M. H. Beare. 1990. Decay rates, nitrogen fluxes and decomposer communities of single and mixed species foliar litter. Ecology 71:1976-1985. Norris, M. D., J. M. Blair, L. C. Johnson and R. B. McKane. Developing allometric equations to assess shifts in biomass, productivity, and nutrient stores following Juniperus virginiana forest establishment in tallgrass prairie. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31:1940-1946. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES Editorial Boards: Ecology (1997- 2000), Biology and Fertility of Soils (1994-1997), Applied Soil Ecology (1995-1997); Panelist, NSF IRCEB Program (1999, 2000), TECO Program (1998), NSF Dissertation Research Program (1995), USDA/NRI Ecosystems Program (1993); Member, NSF site review teams, LTER program (1997), RTG program (1994); Student mentor for the Konza Prairie REU Program; Undergraduate courses in Ecology, graduate course in Biogeochemistry; William L. Stamey Award for undergraduate teaching (1998); Fellowship, OECD Cooperative Research Project on Biological Resource Management (1990). COLLABORATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: S.G. Baer, P.J. Bohlen; J.M. Briggs, Arizona State University; M.A. Callaham, D.C. Coleman, S.L. Collins; W.K. Dodds; C.A. Edwards; E.T. Elliott, P.M. Groffman; M.E. Harmon; D.C. Hartnett, P.F. Hendrix; L.C. Johnson, A.K Knapp, R.B. McKane, G.A. Milliken, K.J. Naddelhoffer, M.D. Norris, K. Price, R.W. Parmelee; C.W. Rice; G.P. Robertson, T.R. Seastedt; C.L. Turner, M. Whiles. Graduate Advisors: D. A. Crossley, Jr.; C. A. Edwards. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: None. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH BILLIE LEE TURNER II Milton P. & Alice C. Higgins Professor of Environment and Society Graduate School of Geography & George Perkins Marsh Institute Clark University, Worcester, MA 01610-1477 Phone: (508) 793-7325; Fax: (508) 793-8881; [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION University of Texas at Austin, BA, Geography, 1968 University of Texas at Austin, MA, Geography, 1969 University of Wisconsin, Madison, Ph.D., Geography, 1974 APPOINTMENTS 1991-97, Director, George Perkins Marsh Institute, Clark University; 1983-88, 1997-98, Director, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University; 1980-present, Assistant, Associate, and Professor, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University; 1975-79, Research Associate & Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, University of Oklahoma; 1974-76, Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, University of Maryland, Baltimore County. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Turner II, B. L., S. C. Villar, D. Foster, J. Geoghegan, E. Keys, P. Klepeis, D. Lawrence, P. M. Mendoza, S. Manson, Y. Ogneva-Himmelberger, A. B. Plotkin, D. P. Salicrup, R. R. Chowdhury, B. Savitsky, L. Schneider, B. Schmook, and C. Vance. In press. Deforestation in the Southern Yucatán Peninsular region: An integrative approach. Forest Ecology and Management. Schneider, S., B. L. Turner II, and H. M. Garriga. 1998. Imaginable surprise in global change science. Journal of Risk Research 1:165-185. Kasperson, J. X., R. E. Kasperson, and B. L. Turner II, eds.1995. Regions at risk: Comparisons of threatened environments. United Nations University, Tokyo. Meyer, W. B., and B. L. Turner II. 1992. Human population growth and global land-use/cover change, with William B. Meyer. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23:39-61. Turner II, B. L. 1997. The Sustainability principle in global agendas: Implications for understanding land-use/cover change. Geographical Journal 163(2):133-140. Turner II, B. L., W. C. Clark, R. W. Kates, J. F. Richards, J. T. Mathews, and W. B. Meyer, eds. 1990. The earth as transformed by human action: Global and regional changes in the biosphere over the past 300 years. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Geoghegan, J., L. Pritchard, Jr., Y. Ogneva-Himmelberger, R. R. Chowdhury, S. Sanderson and B. L. Turner II. 1998. "Socializing the Pixel" and "Pixelizing the Social" in Land Use/Cover Change. Pp. 51-69 in People and Pixels. Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change, National Research Council. Washington, D.C. Meyer, W. B., K. W. Butzer, T. E. Downing, B. L. Turner II, G. W. Wenzel, and J. L. Wescoat. 1998. Reasoning by analogy. Pp. 218-289 in S. Raynor and E. L. Malone, eds., Human choice and climate change, Vol. 3, Tools for policy analysis. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH. B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – B ILLIE L EE T URNER II P AGE 2 Meyer, W. B., and B. L. Turner II, eds. 1994. Changes in land use and land cover: A global perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Schneider, S., B. L. Turner II, and H. Morehouse Garriga. 1998. Imaginable surprise in global change science. Journal of Risk Research 1(2):165-185. Turner II, B. L., and P. B. Benjamin. 1993. Fragile lands and their management. In V. Ruttan, ed., Agriculture, environment and health: Towards sustainable development into the 21st Century. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES Co-chaired and developed the IGBP-IHDP Land-Use/Cover Change program; Multiple NRC committee on human-environment themes, including Human Dimensions of Global Environmental Change and Grand Challenges in the Environmental Sciences. COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: R. E. Kasperson, J. X. Kasperson, J. Geoghegan, B. Savistsky, D. Foster, G. Morgan, H. Dalatawadi, W. Clark, R. Kates, B. Yarnell, P. Matson, D. Lawrence, P. Klepies, C. Vance, G. Pontius, R.Corell, J. McCarthy, J. Jager Graduate Advisors: W. M. Denevan, Wisconsin; E. Sabbagh, Texas. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Former Advisees: W. M. Doolittle, University of Texas; A. M. S. Ali, University of Texas at Tyler; A. Gray, Stanton College; T. Whitmore, University of North Carolina; A. J. Bebbington, University of Colorado; D. Mazambani, Enda Zimbabwe; B. Jokisch, University of Ohio; Yelena Ogneva-Himmelberger, GPMI, Clark University; R. Laney, Sonoma State; P. Klepeis, Colgate University; E. Archer, Pennsylvania State University; D. Varlyguin, University ofMaryland; Current Advisees: P. A. Benjamin,SSRC-NSF; N. Haan, NASA; P. Laris, NASA; E. Keys, NSF; R. Roy Chowdhury, NSF-NASA; S. Manson, NSF-NASA; P. Pacheco; J. Vadjunec; Postdoctoral Advisees: A. Schiller; Ke Chen; W. Hsieh. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH KENNETH M. SYLVESTER Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research P.O. Box 1248, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248 Phone: (734) 998-9874; Fax: (734) 998-9889; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION University of Waterloo, BA, 1987 University of Waterloo, MA, 1988 York University, Ph.D., 1997 APPOINTMENTS August 2001 - present, Research Fellow, Population and Environment, University of Michigan; July 2000 - July 2001, Postdoctoral Fellow, Ethnic History, University of Alberta; September 1998 - June 2000, Postdoctoral Fellow, Family History, University of Victoria PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Sylvester, K.M. 2001. The limits of rural capitalism: Family, culture, and markets in Montcalm, Manitoba, 1870-1940. University of Toronto Press, Toronto. Sylvester, K.M. 2001. Household composition and Canada's rural capitalism: The extent of rural labor markets in 1901. Journal of Family History 26(92):289-309. Sylvester, K.M. 2000. Rural land in the 1901 census: Inequality, gender and property. Historical Methods 33(4):243-6. Sylvester, K.M. 2000. All things being equal: Land ownership and ethnicity in rural Canada, 1901. Social History/Histoire Sociale (accepted June 2001). Sylvester, K.M. 1998. 'En part égale': Family, inheritance, and market change in a Francophone community on the prairies, 1890-1930. Journal of the Canadian Historical Association 8:39-62. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Sylvester, K. M. 2001. Review of Dirk Hoerder's Creating Societies: Immigrant Lives in Canada (Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press 1999). Journal of International Migration and Integration (in press). Sylvester, K. M. 2003 (submitted 09/2001) 'Rural to Urban Migration: Finding Household Complexity in a New World Environment,' in Peter Baskerville and Eric W. Sager, eds., Studies in Canadian Family History (working title). Sylvester, K. M. 2001. Review of Gérard Bouchard's Quelques Arpents d'Amérique: Population, économie, famille au Saguenay, 1838-1971 (Montréal: Boréal 1996). Canadian Historical Review 82(2):350-3. Sylvester, K. M. 2001. Review of Robert Coutts' The Road to the Rapids: Nineteenth-Century Church and Society at St. Andrew's Parish, Red River (Calgary: University of Calgary Press 2000). Canadian Historical Review 82(3):585-6. B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH –K ENNETH M. S YLVESTER P AGE 2 SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES Social Science History Association, Member, 1998-present; Canadian Foundation for Innovation, Canadian Century Research Infrastructure grant application, advisory group, 2001. COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: Peter Gossage, Université de Sherbrooke Graduate Advisors: Christopher Armstrong, York University; Gordon Darroch, York University; Gerald Friesen, University of Manitoba; Kathryn McPherson, York University; Fernand Ouellet, York University. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Peter Baskerville, University of Victoria; Gerhard Ens, University of Alberta; Frances Swyripa, University of Alberta; Myron P. Gutmann, University of Michigan; Royden K. Loewen, University of Winnipeg, Director; Eric W. Sager, University of Victoria, Director. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH WILLIAM L. STEFANOV Faculty Research Associate, Department of Geological Sciences Arizona State University, PO Box 871404, Tempe AZ 85287-1404 Phone (480) 965-5507; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION University of Massachusetts-Lowell, B.S., Environmental, Earth, & Atmospheric Sciences, 1988 Arizona State University, Tempe, M.S., Geological Sciences, 1992 Arizona State University, Tempe, Ph.D., Geological Sciences, 2000 APPOINTMENTS 2001-present, Faculty Research Associate, Department of Geological Sciences and Center for Environmental Studies, Arizona State University; 2000-2001, Postdoctoral Research Associate, Department of Geological Sciences and Center for Environmental Studies, Arizona State University; 1995-1998, Staff Geologist, Foree & Vann, Inc., Phoenix, AZ; 1988-1989, Senior Optical Mineralogist, HYGEIA, Inc., Waltham, MA. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Stefanov, W. L., P. R.. Christensen, and M. S. Ramsey. 2001. Remote sensing of urban ecology at regional and global scales: Results from the Central Arizona-Phoenix LTER site and ASTER Urban Environmental Monitoring program, Regensburger Geographische Schriften 35:313-321 (on supplemental CD-ROM). Stefanov, W. L., M. S. Ramsey, and P. R. Christensen. 2001. Monitoring urban land cover change: An expert system approach to land cover classification of semiarid to arid urban centers. Remote Sensing of Environment 77(2):173-185. Wentz, E., S. Anderson, W. Stefanov, and J. Briggs. 2001. Desert fire history and effects on the Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area. Proceedings of the IEEE/ISPRS Joint Workshop on Remote Sensing and Data Fusion Over Urban Areas, Rome, Italy pp. 154-158. Christensen, P. R., J. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, D. Howard, M. Lane, J. Piatek, S. W. Ruff, and W. L. Stefanov. 2000. A thermal emission spectral library of rock-forming minerals. Journal of Geophysical Research 105:9,735-9,739. Ramsey, M. S., W. L. Stefanov, and P. R. Christensen. 1999. Monitoring world-wide urban land cover changes using ASTER: Preliminary results from the Phoenix, AZ LTER site, Proceedings of the 13th International Conference, Applied Geological Remote Sensing, ERIM International, Ann Arbor, Michigan 2:237-244. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Stefanov, W.L., and P. R. Christensen. 1998. An empirical atmosphere correction technique for Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data using MODTRAN and known surface emissivity. Summaries of the Seventh JPL Airborne Science Workshop, TIMS Workshop, vol. 3, Jet Prop. Lab. Pub. 97-21, pp. 49-56. Stefanov, W.L., P. R. Christensen, and M. S. Ramsey. 1998. Mineralogic analysis of soils using linear deconvolution of mid-infrared spectra. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs 30(7):138. B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – W ILLIAM L. S TEFANOV P AGE 2 Stefanov, W. L. 1993. Geologic map of volcanic rocks along the east side of central Chino Valley, Yavapai County, Arizona, Arizona Geological Survey Contributed Map CM-93-E, 1:12000 scale, 9 pp. text. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES Established remote sensing working group within Central Arizona-Phoenix Long Term Ecological Research (CAP LTER) project to foster interdisciplinary research and present workshops on relevant topics. This has lead to several cross-disciplinary collaborations with other CAP LTER scientists. Provided academic support in the form of teaching materials and guest lectures for courses taught in the Departments of Geological Sciences and Plant Biology. Also provided materials to the Arizona Geographic Alliance for lesson plan construction. Presented talks on various research topics including land cover, soil development, hillslope geomorphology, fugitive dust, dust storms, and geologic hazard research to the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, Arizona Geographic Alliance, Beatitudes Campus of Care, Mars Educational Outreach Program Remote Sensing Workshops, and the United States Geological Survey. COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFLIATIONS Collaborators: S. Anderson, Arizona State University (ASU); J R. Arrowsmith, ASU; L. Baker, University of Minnesota; J. Bandfield, Goddard Space Flight Center; P. L. Brezonik, University of Minnesota; J. Briggs, ASU; P. R. Christensen, ASU; M. Elser, ASU; D. Foster, Harvard University; M. Fouch, ASU; J. Fry, ASU; N. B. Grimm, ASU; S. Grossman-Clarke, ASU; M. Gutmann. University of Michigan; V. E. Hamilton, ASU; D. Hope, ASU; D. Howard, Geo Spectral & Spatial Sciences; P. Hyde, Arizona Department of Environmental Quality; P. Kareiva, Nature Conservancy; G. R. Keller, University of Texas-El Paso; A. Kinzig, ASU; M. Lane, ASU; P. McCartney, ASU; D.J. Mulla, University of Minnesota); J. Piatek, University of Pittsburgh; M. S. Ramsey, University of Pittsburgh; C. Redman, ASU; S. J. Reynolds, ASU; S. W. Ruff, ASU; C. Saltz, ASU; H. G. Stefan, University of Minnesota; R. W. Sterner, University of Minnesota; E. Wentz, ASU. Graduate Advisors: Senior Thesis Advisor - G. Nelson Eby; University of Massachusetts-Lowell; Master's Thesis Advisor - John R. Holloway; Arizona State University; Doctoral Dissertation Advisor - Philip R. Christensen; Arizona State University; Postdoctoral Sponsors - Philip R. Christensen, Nancy B. Grimm, Charles Redman, Arizona State University. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: None. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH M. REBECCA SHAW Visiting Scientist, The Nature Conservancy 201 Mission St. 4th Floor, San Francisco, CA 94105 PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION University of California, Santa Barbara, A.B., Biology, 1989 University of California, Berkeley, M.A., Energy and Resources, 1993 University of California at Berkeley, Ph.D. Ecology, 1998 APPOINTMENTS 2002-present, Visiting Scientist, Carnegie Institution of Washington; 2001-2002, Carnegie Institution Postdoctoral Fellowship, Stanford University, Stanford; 1998-2001, DOE Alexander Hollaender Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowship, Stanford University, Stanford, CA PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Shaw, M. R., and J Harte. 2001. Soil microclimate and plant species' control of decomposition under simulated warming in a subalpine meadow. Ecological Applications 11:1206-1223. Shaw, M. R., and J. Harte. 2001. Response of nitrogen cycling to simulated climate change: differential responses along a subalpine ecotone. Global Change Biology 7:193-210. Shaw, M. R., M. E. Loik, and J. Harte. 2000. Gas exchange and water relations for two Rocky Mountain shrub species exposed to a climate change manipulation. Plant Ecology 146:197-206. Harte, J. and M. R. Shaw. 1995. Shifting dominance within a montane vegetation community: Results of a climate-warming experiment. Science 267:876-880. Harte, J., M. S. Torn, F-R. Chang, B. Feifarek, A. P. Kinzig, R. Shaw, and K. Shen. 1995. Global warming and soil microclimate: Results from a meadow-warming experiment. Ecological Applications 5:132-150. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Rillig, M., S. Wright, M. R. Shaw, and C.B. Field. In press. Artificial climate-warming positively affects arbuscular mycorrhizae but decreases soil aggregate water stability in an annual grassland. Oikos. Saleska, S. R., M. R. Shaw, M. L. Fischer, J. Dunne, C. Still, M. Holman, and J. Harte. In press. Plant community composition mediates both large decline and predicted long-term recovery of soil carbon under climate warming. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. Shaw, M. R., E. Zavaleta, and C. B. Field. Submitted. Limits to NPP response to increased CO2 under multiple global changes. Science. Zavaleta, E. S., M. R. Shaw, B.D. Thomas, E.E. Cleland, N. R. Chiariello, and C.B. Field. Submitted. Responses of a California grassland community to experimental climate change, elevated CO2 and N deposition. Ecological Applications. Shaw, M. R. In prep. The impact of experimental warming on nitrogen partitioning in a montane meadow/sagebrush ecotone. Ecological Applications. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES 1992-present, Membership in Professional Societies: Ecological Society of America, American Geophysical Union, American Association of University Women; 1997-present, Reviewer: Biogeochemistry, Plant Ecology, Global Change Biology, New Phytologist, Ecological Applications B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – M. R EBECCA S HAW P AGE 2 COLLABORATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: John Harte, University of California, Berkeley; Chris Field, Carnegie Institution, Stanford; Christine Goodale, Carnegie Institution, Stanford; Harold Mooney, Stanford University, Stanford; Matthias Rillig, University of Montana, Missoula; Ann Kinzig, Arizona State University; Scott Saleska, Harvard University, Cambridge; Margaret Torn, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, Berkeley. Graduate Advisors: John Harte, University of California, Berkeley; Chris Field, Stanford University; Harold Mooney, Stanford University. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: None. B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH C HARLENE S ALTZ Environmental Education Coordinator, Center for Environmental Studies Arizona State University, PO Box 873211, Tempe AZ 85287-3211 Phone: (480) 965-1961; Fax: (480) 965-8087; email:[email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION Emory University, Atlanta, GA, B.A., Elementary Education, 1992 Antioch New England Graduate School, Keene, NH, M.S., Environmental Studies-Environmental Education, 1998 PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION July 2000-present, Environmental Education Coordinator, Center for Environmental Studies, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ; September 1999 - June 2000, Middle School Math and Science Teacher, WT Machan Elementary School, Phoenix, AZ; August 1998 - July 1999, Education Coordinator, Phoenix Clean And Beautiful, Phoenix, AZ; March 1997 - August 1998, Project Organizer and Manager, Institute for Community Environmental Management, Keene, NH; September 1994 - June 1996, Elementary School Teacher, Solomon Schecter Day School, Cleveland, OH; August 1993 - August 1994, Service Fellow, Project Otzma - National Jewish Federation, Israel; September 1992 - May 1993, Outdoor Instructor, Bradford Woods, Martinsville, IN. PUBLICATIONS Saltz, C. 1998. “The Road to Integration: Voices from the Field Share Their Community Service Learning Experiences With an Environmental Focus.” Unpublished Master’s Research - Antioch New England Institute ACTIVITIES Board Member of Arizona Association for Environmental Education. Organized/developed teaching pedagogy seminars for GK-12 Fellows. Organized/developed teacher workshops/ internships associated with CAP LTER. Developed/implemented/analyzed teacher survey for Rachel Marshall Outdoor Learning Lab. Developed/Implemented problem solving approach curriculum for City of Keene traveling Resource Awareness Center. Poster and workshop presentations at various professional meetings including: National Science Teacher Association, Arizona Association for Environmental Education. SYNERGISTIC COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFLIATIONS Collaborators: Fred Staley, Arizona State University (ASU); Sam Scheiner, National Science Foundation; Brenda Shears, ASU; Monica Elser, ASU; Debra Banks, ASU; Peter McCartney, ASU; Charles Redman, ASU; Deborah Habib, ASU; Robert Hoppin, Antioch New England Graduate School; Jimmy Karlan, Antioch New England Graduate School; James Gruber, Antioch New England Graduate School. Graduate Advisors: M.S.:Deborah Habib and Robert Hoppin, Antioch New England Graduate School BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ALAN P. RUDY Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1111. Phone: (517) 353-0745; Fax: (517) 432-2856; e-mail: [email protected]; [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA, B.A., Biology, 1984 University of California, Santa Cruz, M.A., Sociology, 1990 University of California, Santa Cruz, Ph.D., Sociology, 1995 APPOINTMENTS August 1998 to Present, Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Michigan State University; August 1997 to June 1998, Visiting Assistant Professor of Sociology, Guilford College, Greensboro, NC; September 1996 to June 1997, Research Associate in Sociology, University of California, Santa Cruz; January 1996 to May 1996, Adjunct Professor of Sociology, Keene State College, Keene, NH; April 1993 to June 1993, Graduate Teaching Fellow, Sociology and Environmental Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Rudy, A. 2002 (in press, Fall 2002). The social economy of development: the state of the Imperial Valley. Chapter 10 in Jane Adams, ed., Power and politics in the transformation of rural America. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia. Rudy, A. 2001. Marx's ecology and rift analysis. Capitalism Nature Socialism 12(2):56-73. Rudy, A. 2000. Nature, labor and gender: Marx, Lipietz and political ecology. Capitalism Nature Socialism 11(2):83-90. Rudy, A. 1998. Ecology and anthropology in the work of Murray Bookchin: Problems of theory and evidence. Capitalism Nature Socialism 9(2):20-34. Friedland, W. H., L. Busch, F. H. Buttel, and A. Rudy, eds. 1991. Toward a new political economy of agriculture. Westview Press, Boulder, CO. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Rudy, A. 2000. Another counter to the 'Devil' of a point-counterpoint. Environment, Technology and Society: Newsletter of the Section on Environment and Technology of the American Sociological Association. No.98. Summer. Rudy, A., and A. Light. 1995. Social ecology and social labor: A consideration and critique of Murray Bookchin. Capitalism Nature Socialism 6(2):75-106. Rudy, A. 1991. On the dialectics of capitalism and nature. Capitalism Nature Socialism 5(2):95-106. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES "Innovation in teaching:" Graduate seminars, and advanced undergraduate courses, utilize web resources to facilitate a three-fold textual exchange prior to class meeting. A few days before class one student posts a 3-6 page critical commentary on the week's readings, followed a day later by responses from other students. The day before the class meeting, I review, summarize B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – A LAN P. R UDY P AGE 2 and critique student postings. Class time then entail elaborating on an already-going conversation and the application of course concepts to material beyond the content of the particular readings; "Broadening the participation of groups underrepresented in science, mathematics, engineering and technology:" For the last two years I have mentored undergraduate students from groups underrepresented in graduate programs in the research-intensive McNair-SROP program here at MSU. COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: Lawrence Busch, Michigan State University (MSU); Richard Allison, MSU; Anne Austin, MSU; David Douches, MSU; James Fairweather, MSU; Rebecca Grumet, MSU; Ray Hammerschmidt, MSU; Jim Hancock, MSU; Craig Harris, MSU; Brad Shaw, MSU; Toby Ten Eyck, MSU; Suzanne Thiem, MSU; Mike Thomashow, MSU. Graduate Advisors: James O'Connor, Emeritus Professor, University of California, Santa Cruz; William H. Friedland, Emeritus Professor, University of California, Santa Cruz; Andrew Szasz, University of California, Santa Cruz; Devon Pena, University of Washington, Seattle. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Graduate Chair for seven students and committee member for nine others, Dr. Rudy has yet to chair a thesis committee or sponsor a post-graduate scholar. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH CHARLES L. REDMAN Co-Project Director, Central Arizona – Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research Project Director, Center for Environmental Studies Virginia M. Ullman Professor of Natural History and the Environment Arizona State University, Box 873211, Tempe AZ 85287-3211 Phone: (480) 965-2975; Fax: (480) 965-8087; e-mail: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, B.A., Physical Sciences, 1967 The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, M.A., Anthropology, 1969 The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, Ph.D., Anthropology, 1971 APPOINTMENTS 1997-present, Director, Center for Environmental Studies, Arizona State University, Tempe; 1995-present, Director, Archaeological Research Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe; 1986-1995, Chair, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe; 1983-present, Professor, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe. 1993-1996, Governor’s Advisory Council on Environmental Education (Chair 1994-1996); 2000-2001, Governor’s Commission on Ground Water Management Act (Executive Board); 1996-1999, Advisory Council Wenner Gren Foundation (Chair 1998-1999); 1991-1998, Board of Trustees, Museum of Northern Arizona; 1997-present, The Nature Conservancy, State Board of Trustees, and Vice Chair for Stewardship (1998-present); 1996-present, Board on Natural Resources, National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges; 1992-present, Board of Directors, Southwest Center for Education and the Natural Environment; 1997-2000, Biosphere 2 Earth Learning Center Advisory Committee. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Grimm, N. B., J. M. Grove, S. T. A. Pickett, C. L. Redman. 2000. Integrated approaches to longterm studies of urban ecological systems. BioScience 50(7):571-584. Redman, C. L. 1999. Human dimensions of ecosystem studies. Ecosystems 2:296-298. Redman, C. L. 1999. Human impacts on the ancient environment. University of Arizona Press, Tucson. Redman, C. L. 1996. Adding content to patterns: Comments on geographic and demographic scales in the ancient Southwest. Pp.115-118 in P. Fish and J. Reid, eds Interpreting Southwestern diversity: Underlying principles and overarching patterning. Anthropological Research Papers No. 48, Arizona State University. Redman, C. L. 1992. The impact of food production: Short-term strategies and long-term consequences. Pp. 35-49 in J. Jacobsen and J. Firor, eds, Human impact on the environment: Ancient roots, current challenges. Westview Press, Boulder, CO. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Redman, C. L. 1998. Sources of power in the past: Platform mounds in central Arizona. Pp. 653662 in G. Arsebuk, M. Mellink, and W. Schirmer, eds., Light on top of the Black Hill: Studies presented to Halet Cambel. EGE Publishing, Istanbul, Turkey. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH - CHARLES L. REDMAN PAGE 2 Redman, C. L. 1994. Mesopotamia and the first cities, Old World civilizations: The rise of cities and states. Pp. 16-37 in G. Burenhalt, ed., Old world civilizations: The rise of cities and states. Harper Collins, San Francisco, CA. Redman, C. L. 1993. People of the Tonto Rim: Archaeological discovery in Arizona. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. 214 pp. Boone, J. L., J. E. Myers, and C. L. Redman. 1990. Archeological and historical approaches to complex societies: The Islamic states of the medieval Morocco. American Anthropologist 92(3):630-646. Redman, C. L. 1978. Mesopotamian urban ecology: the systemic context of the emergence of urbanism. Social archaeology: Beyond subsistence and dating. Academic Press, New York, pp. 329-347. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES Originated the Southwest Symposium (with Paul Minnis), as well as the Complex Society Meetings (with Barbara Stark and George Cowgill), biennial gatherings of archeologists that have run for 15 and 10 years, respectively; Received Biocomplexity Incubation funding to organize a series of 4 workshops to promote the integration of social science into long-term ecological research (2000-2002); Organizes monthly “All Scientists Council” meetings and workshop for CAP LTER (50-60 participants, ongoing since Fall 1997). COLLABORATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: Philip Christiansen, Arizona State University (ASU); Ramon Arrowsmith, ASU; Will Graf, University of South Carolina; Stuart Fisher, ASU; Corinna Gries, ASU; Nancy Grimm, ASU; Morgan Grove, US Forest Service; Ed Hackett, ASU; Mark Hostetler, University of Florida; Steve James, SHPO California; Ann Kinzig, ASU; Kim Knowles-Yanez, California State University-Santa Monica; Kuang-ti Li, Academica Sinica Taipei; Peter McCartney, ASU; Steward Pickett, Institute of Ecological Studies; Sander van der Leeuw, University of Paris; B.L. Ramakrishna, ASU; Glen Rice, ASU; Nancy McIntyre, Texas Tech. Graduate Advisors: Robert McC.Adams, retired; Robert J. Braidwood, retired. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: To over 50 graduate and postdoctoral scholars, including Nancy Benco, George Washington University; James Boone, University of New Mexico; R. Jane Bradley; Amy Douglass, City of Tempe; Said Ennahid, Ifrane University, Morocco; Mark Hostetler, University of Florida; Steve James, SHPO California; Madhusudan Katti, ASU; Kim Knowles-Yanez, California State University-Santa Monica; Kuang-ti Li, Academica Sinica Taipei; Owen Lindauer, Arizona Department of Transportation; Alexandra Mack, unknown; Nancy McIntyre, Texas Tech; Emlen Myers, Louis Berger, Inc.; Amy Nelson, ASU; Patricia Rubertone, Brown University; Eyal Shochat, ASU; Arleyn Simon, ASU. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH WILLIAM J. PARTON, JR. Professor, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523 Phone: (970) 491-1987; Fax: (970) 491-1965; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION Pennsylvania State University, B.S., Meteorology, 1966 University of Oklahoma, M.S., Meteorology, 1968 University of Oklahoma, Ph.D., Meteorology, 1972 APPOINTMENTS 1989-present, Professor and Senior, Range and Ecosystem Science Research Scientist, Department and NREL Colorado State University; 1988-1989, Program Director, Division of Biotic Systems and Resources, Ecosystem Studies Program, National Science Foundation Washington, DC; 1982-1988, Senior Research Scientist, NREL, Colorado State University; 1975-1982, Research Associate NREL, Colorado State University; 1974-1975, Postdoctoral Fellowship, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; 1971-1974, Postdoctoral Fellowship, NREL, Colorado State University; 1968-1971, Special Instructor, University of Oklahoma; 1966-1968, Research Assistant, University of Oklahoma; 1966-1968, Teaching Assistant, University of Oklahoma PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Parton, W. J., E. A. Holland, S. J. Del Grosso, M. D. Hartman, R. E. Martin, A. R. Mosier, D. S. Ojima and D. S. Schimel. 2001. Generalized model for NOx and N2O emissions from soils. Journal of Geophysical Research 106:17403-17419. Del Grosso, S. J., W. J. Parton, A. R. Mosier, D. S. Ojima, A. E. Kulmala, and S. Phongpan. 2000. General model for N2O and N2 gas emissions from soils due to denitrification. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 14:1045-1060. Parton, W. J., M. Hartman, D. S. Ojima and D. S. Schimel. 1998. DAYCENT and its land surface submodel: Description and testing. Global and Planetary Change 19:35-48. Matson, P. A., W. J. Parton, A. G. Power, and M. J. Swift. 1997. Agricultural intensification and ecosystem properties. Science 277:504-509. Parton, W. J., D. S. Ojima, D. W. Valentine, A. R. Mosier, D. S. Schimel and K. Weier. 1996. Generalized model for N2 and N2O production from nitrification and denitrification. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10:401-412. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Eitzinger, J. W. J. Parton, and M. Hartman. 2000. Improvement and validation of a daily soil temperature submodel for freezing/thawing periods. Soil Science 165:525 534. Kelly, R. H., W. J. Parton, M. D. Hartman, L. K. Stretch, D. S. Ojima, and D. S. Schimel. 2000. Intra- and interannual variability of ecosystem processes in shortgrass-steppe: New model, verification, simulations. Journal of Geophysical Research 105(D15):20,093-20,1000. B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – W ILLIAM J. P ARTON, J R. P AGE 2 Raich, J. W., W. J. Parton, A. E. Russell, R. L. Sanford, Jr., and P. M. Vitousek. 2000. Analysis of factors regulating ecosystems development on Mauna Loa using the Century model. Biogeochemistry 51:161-191. Mosier, A.R., W.J. Parton and S. Phongpan. 1998. Long-term large N and immediate small N additions effects on trace gas fluxes in the Colorado shortgrass steppe. Biology and Fertility of Soils 28:44-50. Mosier, A. R., W. J. Parton, D. W. Valentine, D. S. Ojima, D. S. Schimel and J. A. Delgado. 1996. CH4 and N2O fluxes in the Colorado shortgrass steppe: I. Impact of landscape and nitrogen addition. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10:387-399. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES Development and web-based distribution of the CENTURY Ecosystem Model; Linking of the CENTURY Ecosystem Model with the RAMS Atmospheric mesoscale mode; Linking of the CENTURY Agroecosystem Model with the ASM Economic Model; National Research Council Committee on Geophysical and Environmental Data - Member 1994-199; Chair of the SCOPE Tree-Grass Interactions Committee - 1995-2000. COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: S. Archer, Texas A&M; B.M. Bolker, Princeton; B.H. Braswell, NCAR, Boulder, CO; I. Burke, CSU; M.R. Carter, PEI, Canada; B. Curtis, E.T. Elliott, University of Nebraska, Lincoln; J. Eitzinger, University of Agricultural Sciences, Vienna, Austria; S.B. Frey, Ohio State University; S. Frolking, University of New Hampshire; T. Gilmanov, South Dakota State University; F. Giorgi, J.W. Harden, USGS, Menlow Park, CA; M. Harmon, Oregon State University; E. Holland, NCAR, Boulder, CO; E.R. Hunt, Jr., University of Wyoming; R. Jackson, Duke University; R. Kelly, CSU; D.W. Kicklighter, Woods Hole, MA; W.K. Lauenroth, CSU; A. Martin, France; R.E. Martin, University of Colorado, Boulder; P. Matson, Stanford University; A.D. McGuire, University of Alaska, Fairbanks; J. Melillo, Woods Hole, MA; A.K. Metherell, Lincoln University, New Zealand, D. Moorhead, Texas Tech.; J. Morgan, USDA; A.R. Mosier, USDA/ARS, Fort Collins, CO; P.P. Motavalli, University of Missouri; R.P. Neilson, Oregon State University; D.S. Ojima, NREL, CSU; R.J. Olson, Oak Ridge National Lab, TN; C. Owensby, Kansas State University; S.W. Pacala, Princeton; C.A. Palm, Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Programme, Kenya; K. Paustian, NREL, CSU; D.P. Peters, USDA/ARS Las Cruces, NM; S. Prince, University of Maryland; J. Raich, Iowa State; C. Rowland, S. Running, University of Montana; D. Schimel, NCAR, Boulder, CO; D. Swift, NREL, CSU; D.W. Valentine, University of Alaska, Fairbanks; P.M. Vitousek, Stanford University; B. Walker, GCTE Core Project Leader, Australia; C.A. Wessman, University of Colorado; P. Woomer, Jr., UNESCO-ROSTA; X. Xiao, University of New Hampshire; C. Zuozhong. Graduate Advisors: G. Amos Eddy, Paul Risser, George Innis Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Stephen del Grosso, Paul Hook, Greg McMaster, Weihong Fann, V.B. Brown, Robin Martin BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH JOHN F. O’KEEFE Coordinator, Fisher Museum Harvard Forest, Harvard University, Petersham, MA 01366-0068 Phone: (978) 724-3302; Fax: (978) 724-3595; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION Harvard University, B.A., Social Relations (cum laude), 1967 University of Massachusetts, Amherst, M.S., Forest Ecology, 1981 University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Ph.D., Forest Ecology, 1987 APPOINTMENTS 1988-present, Coordinator, Fisher Museum, Harvard Forest, Harvard University; 1987-1988, Lecturer, Forestry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; 1986-1987, Assistant Director, Cartographic Services, University of Massachusetts; 1979-1986, Research Assistant, Forestry, University of Massachusetts; 1969-1976, Fighter Pilot, Massachusetts Air National Guard; 1967-1968, Community Development Volunteer, U.S. Peace Corps, Lesotho. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Orwig, D. A., C. V. Cogbill, D. R. Foster and J. F. O'Keefe. 2001. Variations in old-growth structure and definitions: Forest dynamics on Wachusett Mountain, Massachusetts. Ecological Applications 11:437-452. Foster, D. R., and J. F. O'Keefe. 2000. New England forests through time: Insights from the Harvard Forest dioramas. Harvard Forest and Harvard University Press. O'Keefe, J. F., and D. R. Foster. 1998. An ecological history of Massachusetts forests. Pp.19-66 in Charles H. W. Foster, ed., Stepping back to look forward - a history of the Massachusetts Forest. Harvard Forest and Harvard University Press. O'Keefe, J. F., and D. R. Foster. 1998. An ecological history of Massachusetts forests. Arnoldia 50(2):2-31. Wilson, B. F., and J. F. O'Keefe. 1983. Mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) distribution in Massachusetts. Rhodora 85:115-122. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Wilson, B. F., W. A. Patterson III, and J. F. O'Keefe. 1985. Longevity and persistence of alder West of treeline on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Canadian Journal of Botany 63:1870-1875. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES 1989, The Harvard Forest, Fifteen-minute multi-image slide/tape and video program to provide Museum visitors with background on the history and activities of the Harvard Forest; 1990, Long-Term Ecological Research at Harvard Forest, Eighteen-minute multi-image slide/tape and video program describing the National Science Foundation's Long-Term Ecological Research Program and Harvard Forest's research within it; 1990-present, Woody species phenology at Harvard Forest. Database of spring and fall phenology (leaf and flower) of 33 native woody species at Harvard Forest, posted on our website (http://LTERnet.edu/hfr); 1979-1981, B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – J OHN F. O’K EEFE P AGE 2 University of Massachusetts Graduate Fellowship; 1994 - present Massachusetts Secretaries' (Environment and Education) Advisory Group on Environmental Education, member; 1995-present, Mount Grace Land Conservation Trust, director (1995 - present), president (19992000), vice-president (2000 - present); 1989-1999, Massachusetts Project Learning Tree, steering committee; 1997 - present, North Quabbin Regional Landscape Partnership, executive committee; 1996 - present, Quabbin Science and Technical Advisory Committee, member. COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: Elizabeth Chilton, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Charles Cogbill, Hubbard Brook LTER; Taylor Field, University of California, Berkeley; David Foster, Harvard University; N. Michelle Holbrook, Harvard University; Susan Johnson, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; David Kittredge, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Nicole Lavelle, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; David Lee, Florida International University; Glenn Motzkin, Harvard University; David Orwig, Harvard University; Mark Schwartz, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; B. L. Turner, Clark University. Graduate Advisors: Brayton F. Wilson, University of Massachusetts (retired). Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Amanda Gardner, Orion Foundation. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH LAURA R. MUSACCHIO Assistant Professor, School of Planning and Landscape Architecture Arizona State University, PO Box 872005, Tempe AZ 85287-2005 Phone: (480) 727-7336/7572; Fax: (480) 965-9656; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION Le Moyne College, Syracuse, New York, Biology, Attended 1984-86 State University of New York, Bachelor of Landscape Architecture (Magnum Cum Laude), 1989 State University of New York, Master of Landscape Architecture 1993 Texas A&M University, College Station, Doctor of Philosophy, Urban and Regional Science, 1999 APPOINTMENTS 2000-present, Assistant Professor, School of Planning and Landscape Architecture and Center for Environmental Studies, Arizona State University, Tempe; 1996-1999, Assistant Lecturer, 1995-1996, Graduate Assistant, Department of Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning, Texas A&M University, College Station; 1996-1998, Consultant; 1996 (summer), Graduate intern, Lower Colorado River Authority, Austin, Texas; 1993-1995, Assistant Professor, Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning, Utah State University; 1992-1993, Graduate Teaching Assistant, 1991-1992, Graduate Research Assistant, Faculty of Landscape Architecture, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York, Syracuse; 1989-1994, Planning and design firms in California, New York, and Arizona. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Musacchio, L. R., and W. E. Grant. In press. Agricultural production and wetland habitat quality in a coastal prairie ecosystem: Simulated effects of alternative resource policies on land-use decisions. Ecological Modelling: Musacchio, L.R. Submitted. Considering the role of ecological research in planning education. Journal of Planning Education and Research. Musacchio, L. R., K. Crewe, F. Steiner, and J. Schmidt. Submitted. The future of agricultural landscape preservation in the Phoenix metropolitan region. Landscape Journal. Musacchio, L. R., and R. N. Coulson. 2001. A landscape ecological planning process for wetlands, waterfowl, and farmland conservation. Landscape and Urban Planning 56:125-147. Musacchio, L.R., W. E. Grant, and T. R. Peterson. Forthcoming. Adaptive management of complex socio-environmental systems in the southwestern United States: Examples of urbanizing watersheds in Arizona and Texas. In the Proceedings of the Land Use and Environmental Modeling Symposium, October 2000, Arizona State University. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES Program coordinator (with Dr. Jianguo Wu, program chair), Sixteenth Annual Symposium of the U.S. Regional Chapter of the International Association of Landscape Ecology, Arizona State University, April 25-29, 2001. 370 ecologists, geographers, planners, and landscape architects B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – LAURA R. MUSACCHIO P AGE 2 from North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia attended the symposium; Two grants received for the Sixteenth Annual Symposium of the U.S. Regional Chapter of the International Association of Landscape Ecology, Arizona State University, April 25-29, 2001 from the National Endowment of the Arts ($10,000) and the Arizona Commission on the Arts (Laura Musacchio, PI); Steering committee member, Landscape Change Workshop, January 2001 (funded by the National Science Foundation and Environmental Systems Research Institute). COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: J R. Arrowsmith, Arizona State University (ASU); A. Brazel, ASU; M. Bryant, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; E. Cook, ASU; R. Coulson, Texas A&M University; K. Crewe, ASU; T. Evans, Indiana University; J. Ewan, ASU; P. Gober, ASU; W. Grant, Texas A&M University; K. Hill, University of Washington; L. McSherry, ASU; B. Miller, Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, CA; E. Ozdenerol, Florida International University; S. Pickett, Institute for Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY; T. R. Peterson, Texas A&M University; J. Schmidt, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Phoenix, AZ; J. Sibernagel, University of Wisconsin; W. Stefanov, ASU; F. Steiner, University of Texas, Austin; J. Wu, ASU; R. Yabes, ASU. Graduate Advisors: D. Sweeney, Texas A&M University (Co-chair, Ph.D.); R. Couslon, Texas A&M University (Co-chair, Ph.D.); D. Reuter, State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse (Master's thesis advisor) Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: E. Boettcher, Arizona State University; S. Conrad, Arizona State University; F. Tavassoli, Arizona State University. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH GLENN MOTZKIN Harvard Forest Harvard University, Petersham, MA 01366 Phone: (978) 724-3302; Fax: (978) 724-3595; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION Brown University, B.A., American Civilization,1982 University of Massachusetts, Amherst, M.S., Forest Ecology, 1990 APPOINTMENTS 1995-present, Plant Ecologist, Harvard Forest, Harvard University; 1991-1995, Research Assistant in Historical Ecology, Harvard Forest, Harvard University; 1987-present, Community Ecologist - Private consultant with Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program, MA Dept. of Fisheries, Wildlife, and Environmental Law Enforcement, and The Nature Conservancy; 1986-1990, Research Assistant, Dept. of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; 1985, Research Assistant, Tonto National Forest, Carefree, Arizona. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Burgi, M., E. W. B. Russell, and G. Motzkin. 2000. Effects of postsettlement human activities on forest composition in the northeastern United States - a comparative approach. Journal of Biogeography 27:1123-1138. Donohue, K., D. R. Foster, and G. Motzkin. 2000. Effects of past and present on species distribution: Land-use history and demography of wintergreen. Journal of Ecology 88:303-316. Motzkin, G., W. A. Patterson III, and D. R. Foster.1999. A historical perspective on pitch pine-scrub oak communities in the Connecticut Valley of Massachusetts. Ecosystems 2:255-73. Motzkin, G., P. Wilson, D. R. Foster, and A. Allen.1999. Vegetation patterns in heterogeneous landscapes: the importance of history and environment. Journal of Vegetation Science 903-920. Compton, J. E., R. D. Boone, G. Motzkin, and D. R. Foster.1998. Soil carbon and nitrogen in a pine-oak sand plain in central Massachusetts: role of vegetation and land-use history. Oecologia 116:536-542. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Foster, D. R., and G. Motzkin. 1998. Ecology and conservation in the cultural landscape of New England: Lessons from nature's history. Northeastern Naturalist 5:111 126. Foster, D. R., G. Motzkin, and B. Slater. 1998. Land-use history as long-term broad-scale disturbance: regional forest dynamics in central New England. Ecosystems 1:96-119. Motzkin, G., D. Foster, A. Allen, J. Harrod, and R. Boone. 1996. Controlling site to evaluate history: vegetation patterns of a New England sand plain. Ecological Monographs 66:345-365. B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – G LENN M OTZKIN P AGE 2 Motzkin, G. 1994. Calcareous fens of western New England and adjacent New York State. Rhodora 96:44-68. Motzkin, G., Patterson, W. A. III, and N. E. Drake. 1993. Fire history and vegetation dynamics of a Chamaecyparis thyoides wetland on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Journal of Ecology 81:391-402. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES Donald L. Mader Scholarship Award, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 1990; Member, Committee to Develop a Vision for the Protection of Massachusetts Forests, 1999; Ecology Advisor, The Trustees of Reservations, Massachusetts, 1999-present; Associate Member, Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program Advisory Committee, 2001; Member, Cooper Award Committee, Ecological Society of America, 2001-2003. COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: Arthur Allen, Eco Tech, Inc.; Matthias Burgi, Stephanie Ciccarello, Jana Compton, U. S. EPA; Richard Boone, University of Alaska; Kathleen Donohue, Harvard University; David Foster, Harvard University; Brian Hall, Harvard University; Jon Harrod, unknown affiliation; William Patterson, University of Massachusetts; Emily Russell, Rutgers University; Ben Slater, unknown affiliation; Kris Verheyen, Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium; Paul Wilson, University of California, Northridge. Graduate Advisors: William A. Patterson III, University of Massachusetts.. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Brayton Wilson, University of Massachusetts; David Foster, Harvard University; Graduate Thesis Committee Member: Rebecca Anderson, Sonoma State University, CA; Jesse Bellemare, Harvard University; Stephanie Ciccarello, Amherst, MA Conservation Department; Robert Eberhardt, New Jersey Conservation Foundation; Sally Shaw, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH G ERAD M IDDENDORF Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Work Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-4003 Phone: (785) 532.4960; Fax: (785) 532.6978; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION Southern Illinois University, B.S., Economics and Finance, 1987 Ohio University, M.A., International Affairs, 1992 Michigan State University, Ph.D., Sociology, 2001 APPOINTMENTS August 2001-present, Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Work, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas; August 1999-May 2001, Research Assistant, Institute for Food and Agricultural Standards (IFAS), Michigan State University; August 1993-May 1999, Research Assistant, Department of Sociology, with Dr. Lawrence Busch, Michigan State University; April 1997-February 1998, Research Associate/Co-Principal Investigator, Department of Sociology, Michigan State University and the International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR); August 1993-December 1993, Teaching Assistant, Department of Sociology, Michigan State University; June 1993-September 1993: Project Supervisor, Visions International, Inc., Tortola, British Virgin Islands; June 1992-August 1992, Project Assistant, Brazil and Fulbright Projects, Ohio Program of Intensive English, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio; April-June 1992, Public Information Specialist (Intern), U.S. Soil Conservation Service, Athens, Ohio; April 1988-October 1990, Peace Corps Volunteer, Ministry of Natural Resources, Honduras. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Middendorf, G., E. Ransom, and L. Busch. Forthcoming, 2002. Current issues in agricultural science and technology policy. In UNESCO (ed.), Encyclopedia for life support systems. Middendorf, G., and L. Busch. 1998. Agricultural research policy in a changing context: Institutional change at the Panamanian Agricultural Research Institute. Discussion Paper No 98-11 (November 1998) of the International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR), The Hague. Middendorf, G., M. Skladany, E. Ransom, and L. Busch. 1998. New agricultural biotechnologies: The struggle for democratic choice. Monthly Review 50(3):85-96. Middendorf, G., and L. Busch. 1997. Inquiry for the public good: Democratic participation in agricultural research. Agriculture and Human Values 14(1):45-57. Busch, L., and G. Middendorf. 1997. Democratic technology policy for a rapidly changing world. Pp. 205-217 in William Lockeretz, ed., Visions of American agriculture. Iowa State University Press, Ames. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Goss, J., M. Skladany, and G. Middendorf. 2001. Dialogue: Shrimp aquaculture in Thailand: A response to Vandergeest, Flaherty and Miller. Rural Sociology 66(3):451-460. Ransom, E., L. Busch, and G. Middendorf. 1998. Can cooperatives survive the privatization of B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – G ERAD M IDDENDORF P AGE 2 biotechnology in US agriculture? Pp. 75-94 in Steven A. Wolf (ed.), Privatization of information and agricultural industrialization. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. Ransom, E., G. Middendorf, and L. Busch.1998. Biotechnology and agricultural cooperatives: Choices and Challenges for managers and members. Research Report of the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station. January, No. 552. Michigan State University, East Lansing. Middendorf, G., E. Ransom, and L Busch. 1996. Biotechnology and agricultural cooperatives: Implications of the new food biotechnologies. Rural Cooperatives 63(3):18-22. Ransom, E., G. Middendorf, and L. Busch. 1996. Biotechnology and agricultural cooperatives: Implications of the new plant biotechnologies. Rural Cooperatives 63(2):8-10. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES Fall 1996, Organized a national workshop for leaders of agricultural cooperatives to begin dialogue on the likely impacts of the new agricultural biotechnologies; 1995, Researched and produced a white paper for the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station on the question of enhancing participation of nontraditional constituencies in technology development; 1995, 1994, 1993, Organized a series of workshops on biotechnology and technological change in agriculture for representatives of Michigan agricultural, environmental, and consumer groups and the Cooperative Extension Service; 1994, Developed a proposal for a short course for educators on scientific literacy among secondary school students. COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: Janet Benson, Kansas State University; Leonard Bloomquist, Kansas State University, Lawrence Busch, Michigan State University; Jasper Goss, International Union of Food, Agricultural, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco and Allied Workers' Associations – Sydney, Australia; Elizabeth Ransom, Michigan State University; Mike Skladany, Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy. Graduate Advisors: Marilyn Aronoff, Lawrence Busch, Craig Harris, and Scott Whiteford, all of Michigan State University. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: None. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH PETER H. MCCARTNEY Assistant Research Scientist, Center for Environmental Studies Information Manager, Central Arizona - Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research Arizona State University, PO Box 873211, Tempe, AZ 85287-3211 Phone: (480) 965-6791; Fax: (480) 965-8087; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION University of Arizona, B.A. in Anthropology, 1980 University of Arizona, M.A. in Anthropology, 1983 University of Calgary, Ph.D. in Archaeology, 1990 APPOINTMENTS 2000-present, Assistant Research Scientist, Center for Environmental Studies, Arizona State University; 1997-present, Information Manager, Central Arizona - Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research project; 1992-2000, Assistant Research Professor, Department of Anthropology, ASU; 1997-2001, Information Manager, Archaeological Research Institute, Arizona State University; 1999-2001, Director, AZSITE Cultural Resources Inventory Project; Panelist, NSF Post-doctoral Fellowships in Bioinformatics; Reviewer, Short Grass Steppe LTER Site Review, July 11-14, 1999. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Schurmans, U., A. Razdan, A. Simon, P. McCartney, M. Marzke, D. Van Alfen, G. Jones, J. Rowe, G. Farin, D. Collins, M. Zhu, D. Liu and M. Bae. In Press. Proceedings from Advances in Geometric Modeling and Feature Extraction on Pots, Rocks and Bones for Representation and Query via the Internet. Computer Applications in Archaeology (CAA) 2001 Visby, Sweden, April 25 - 29, 2001. McCartney, P. 2000 Long-term management and accessibility of archaeological research data. In Mary Carroll and Harrison Eiteljorg III, eds., Proceedings of SAA Symposium on Delivering Archaeological Data over the Internet. National Center for Preservation Technology and Training, National Park Service. McCartney, P., I. Robertson, and G. Cowgill. 2000. Using metadata to address problems of data preservation and delivery: Examples from the Teotihuacan Data Archiving Project. Paper presented at the 65th annual SAA. Philadelphia, April 6, 2000. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS McCartney, P. H., and M. F. Glass. 1990. Simulation models and the interpretation of archaeological diversity. American Antiquity 55(2):521-536. Jochim, M., M. Glass, L. Fisher, and P. McCartney. 1998. Mapping the Stone Age: An interim report on the South German Survey Project. Pp 121-131 in N. J. Conrad and C-J Kind, eds., Aktuelle Forshungen zum Mesolithikum. Urgeschichtliche Materialhefte 12. Mo Vince Verlag, Tubingen. Noone, J., L. Fisher, M. Jochim, M. Glass, and P. McCartney 1997 Eine Fruhjahrsprospektion im Federsee. Archaologische Ausgrabungen in Baden-Wurttemberg 1996, pp. 32-34. B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – P ETER H. M CC ARTNEY P AGE 2 McCartney, P. H., and J. W. Helmer. 1990. Marine and Terrestrial mammals in high Arctic Paleoeskimo economy. Archaeozoologica 3(1,2):143-160. McCartney, P. H. 1989. Alternative hunting strategies in Plains Paleo-Indian adaptation. Pp. 111-121in L. Davis and B.O.K. Reeves, eds., Hunters of the recent past. Unwin Hyman, London. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES 1999 - present, Director, Networking our Research Legacy Project. Development of software solutions for integrating biological collections databases, bibliographies, research datasets. Collaboration with the National Center for Analysis and Synthesis, UCSB and The LTER Information Manager Committee to develop a discipline-wide standard for ecological metadata (EML). Development of internet tools for distributed metadata query and online data access and processing; 2000-present, LTER Information Management Committee. Member, Executive Committee. Served as chair of the LTER Metadata task force (2000-present), recently organized a workshop (Jan 7-9, 2002) to implement EML across the LTER network; 1997 - present, Council for the Preservation of Anthropological Records. Collaboration among anthropological archival institutions to develop a metadata content standard for anthropological collections. Developed an internet based search application to query anthropological collections; 1996 2001, AZSITE Cultural Resources Inventory. Consortium to develop and deploy a state-wide inventory of historic cultural properties in Arizona. Develop spatially-enabled database system, distributed entry and tracking software, and internet access. COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: Lynn Fisher, Department of Sociology/Anthropology Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH; Michael Jochim, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara; Tim Craig, University of Minnesota; Mike Bailey, San Diego Supercomputing Center, UCSD; Tony Fountain, San Diego Supercomputing Center, UCSD; William Michener, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Matt Jones, National Center for Analysis and Synthesis, UCSB, CA; Bertram Ludasher, San Diego Supercomputing Center, UCSD; Cheri Pancake, Northwest Alliance for Computational Science and Engineering Arcot Rajaskar, San Diego Supercomputing Center, UCSD. Graduate Advisors: James W. Helmer, (Ph.D. chair) University of Calgary. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: None. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH DAVID B. KITTREDGE, JR. Associate Professor, Department of Natural Resources Conservation University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-4210 Phone: (413) 545-2943; Fax: (413) 545-4358; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION University of Vermont, B.S., Forestry, 1978 Yale University, M.S., Forest Science, 1980 Yale University, Ph.D., Forest Science, 1986 APPOINTMENTS 1999-present, Part-time appointment as Forest Policy Analyst, Harvard Forest; 1992-present, University of Massachusetts, Department of Natural Resources Conservation, Associate Professor/ Extension Forester; 1987-1992, University of Massachusetts, Department of Natural Resources Conservation, Assistant Professor/ Extension Forester; 1986-1987, University of Connecticut, Department of Natural Resources, Management and Engineering. Instructor. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Bliss, J., G. Aplet, C. Hartzell, P. Harwood, P. Jahnige, D. Kittredge, S. Lewandowski, and M. Soscia. 2001. Community-based ecosystem monitoring. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 12(3/4):143-167. Klosowski, R., T. Stevens, D. Kittredge, and D. Dennis. 2001. Economic incentives for coordinated management of forest land: A case study of southern New England. Forest Policy and Economics 2:29-38. Stevens, T. H., R. Belkner, D. Dennis, D. Kittredge, and C. Willis. 2000. Comparison of contingent valuation and conjoint analysis in ecosystem management. Ecological Economics 32:63-74. Kittredge, D. B., M. G. Rickenbach, and S. H. Broderick.1999. Regulation and stumpage prices: A tale of two states. Journal of Forestry 97(10):12-16. Stevens, T., D. Dennis, D. B. Kittredge, and M. G. Rickenbach.1999. Attitudes and preferences toward cooperative agreements for management of private forestlands in the northeastern United States. Journal of Environmental Management 55:81-90. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Kelty, M. J., D. B Kittredge, Jr., T. Kyker-Snowman and A. D. Leighton. Submitted. The conversion of even-aged stands to uneven-aged structure in southern New England. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 2002. Kittredge, D. B., A. O. Finley and D. R. Foster. Submitted. Regional pattern and ecological significance of timber harvesting in a landscape of diverse ownership. Ecological Applications 2002. Rickenbach, M. G., D. B. Kittredge, D. Dennis and T. Stevens. 1998. Ecosystem management: capturing the concept for woodland owners. Journal of Forestry 96(4):18-24. B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – D AVID B. K ITTREDGE, J R. P AGE 2 Leak, W. B., M. Yamasaki, D. B. Kittredge, Jr., N. I. Lamson, and M. L. Smith. 1997. Applied ecosystem management on nonindustrial forestland. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report NE-239. Radnor, PA. 30 pp. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES Society of American Foresters, Chair, New England Society, 1992 (1,200 members in six states); a member or Chair of the program committee of the 3-day annual meeting, attended by 300-400 practicing foresters from throughout the region; member of the national Committee on Forest Policy (1993-1996); Vice President, New England Forestry Foundation (NEFF), and board of directors member since 1993. NEFF's mission is to be an excellent steward of its own forest properties, to promote forest stewardship to other private owners, and to provide forest policy leadership in New England; Massachusetts Extension Forester, regularly organizing continuing education opportunities for ca. 400 practicing foresters throughout Southern New England, on such topics as: advances in forest biology, forest health, high technology applications, and statistics and sampling. Responsible for compiling quarterly statistics on stumpage price trends in the forest industry and lead educational opportunities for forest owners and municipal/ngo leaders; Developing a database of examples of private forest ownership cooperation from temperate nations with developed economies. These are situations whereby owners do not rely on forest products for subsistence, but rather for supplemental income; In the spring 2001 semester, taught a general introductory course in forestry to 131 undergraduate students at UMASS in a distance-learning web-based format. All course content was presented in modular packages, and was reinforced through discussion sections and field trips. COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: Greg Aplet, The Wilderness Society; Warren Archey, Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management (MDEM); Dan Belin, University of Massachusetts (UMASS)Amherst; Robert Belkner, unknown; John Bliss, Oregon State; Stephen Broderick, University of CT; Donald Dennis, US Forest Service; Josh Ellsworth, UMASS, Amherst; Andrew Finley, UMASS, Amherst; Jenifer Fish, MDEM; David Foster, Harvard Forest; Robin Harrington, UMASS, Amherst; Cate Hartzell, Collaborative Learning Circle, OR; Patricia Harwood, BLM, Washington, DC; Paul Jahnige, MDEM; Matthew Kelty, UMASS, Amherst; Anne Marie Kittredge, MA Division of Fisheries and Wildlife; Robert Klosowski, UMASS, Amherst; T. Kyker-Snowman, MA Metropolitan District Commission; Neil Lamson, US Forest Service; William Leak, US Forest Service; Adrian Leighton, UMASS, Amherst; Stephen Lewandowski, Canandaigua Lake Watershed Task Force, NY; Christina Petersen, Northampton, MA; Mark Rickenbach, University of WI; Mary Smith, US Forest Service; Mary Soscia, US EPA; Thomas Stevens, UMASS, Amherst; Sarah White, unknown; Cleve Willis, UMASS, Amherst; Claiborne Woodall, unknown; Mariko Yamasaki, US Forest Service. Graduate Advisors: Professor David M. Smith, Emeritus Professor, Yale School of Forestry and Environmental Studies; Post-doctoral sponsor: Dr. David Schroeder, University of Connecticut. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Dan Belin, UMASS, Amherst; Donald Bertelette, unknown; Chunyun Gao, unknown; Andrew Finley (UMASS, Amherst), Dan Moore, unknown; Mark G. Rickenbach, University of WI; John Swett, unknown. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ANN P. KINZIG Assistant Professor, Department of Biology Arizona State University, PO Box 871501, Tempe AZ 85287-1501 Phone: (480) 965-6838 FAX: (480) 965-2519; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, B.S., Physics, May 1986 University of California, Berkeley, M.A., Physics, December 1988 University of California, Berkeley, Ph.D., Energy and Resources, May 1994 Princeton University, Post-Doctoral Associate, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and The Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, July 1994 to July 1996 APPOINTMENTS August 1998-present, Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, Arizona State University; August 1998-August 1999, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President, AAAS Roger Revelle Fellow (on leave from ASU); July 1996-July 1998, Princeton University, Assistant Director, Princeton Environmental Institute and Lecturer, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Kinzig, A.P. 2001. Bridging disciplinary divides to address environmental challenges. Ecosystems 4(8):709-715. Schneider, L., A.P. Kinzig, E. Larson, and L.A. Solorzano. 2001. GIS-assisted calculation of potential biomass yields and assessment of land availability for biomass energy production. To appear in Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment 84(3):207-226. Kinzig, A.P., and J. Harte. 2000. Distributions of species and implications for species extinction rates. Ecology 81(12):3305-3311. Kinzig, A.P., and J.M. Grove. 2000. Urban-Suburban Ecology. The Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Simon Levin (ed). Academic Press, Inc Walker, B., A.P. Kinzig, and J. Langridge. 1999. Plant attribute diversity, resilience, and ecosystem function: The nature and significance of dominant and minor species. Ecosystems 2(2):95-113. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Kinzig, A. P., S. Pacala, and D. Tilman, eds. Forthcoming, Fall 2001. Functional Consequences of Biodiversity: Empirical Progress and Theoretical Extensions. Princeton University Press. Kinzig, A. P., J. Dushoff, S. A. Levin, and S. Pacala. 1999. Limiting similarity, species packing, and system stability for hierarchical competition-colonization models. The American Naturalist 153(4):371-383. Harte, J., A.P. Kinzig, & J. Booher. 1999. Self-similarity in the distribution and abundance of species. Science 284(5412):334-. Hartvigsen, G., A. P. Kinzig, and G. Peterson. 1998. Conveners and editors of a Special Feature on the use and analysis of complex adaptive systems in ecosystem science, and authors of an overview article (contributing authors to the Special Feature include S.A. Levin, E. Bonabeau, M. Janssen, B. Milne, and K. Sigmund). Ecosystems 1(5):422-430 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH – ANN P. KINZIG PAGE 2 Daily, G., P. Dasgupta, B. Bolin, P. Crosson, J. du Guerney, P. Ehrlich, C. Folke, A. M. Jansson, B.O. Jansson, N. Kautsky, A.P. Kinzig, S.A. Levin, K.G. Mäler, P. Pinstrup-Andersen, D. Siniscalco, and B. Walker. 1998. Food production, population growth, and environmental security. Science 281(5381):1,291-. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES June 2000, Nature and Society: An Imperative for Integrated Environmental Research. A workshop involving 45 researchers from social- and natural-sciences, convened to articulate priorities for interdisciplinary environmental research. A. Kinzig (chair); 2000, Ecological Society of America, Aldo Leopold Leadership Fellow; American Association for the Advancement of Science,1st Roger Revelle Fellowship in Global Stewardship, Sep 98 to Aug 99 served in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, Environment Divisions. COLLABORATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: Juan Armesto, Universidad de Chile; Teri Balser; Eric Berlow, UC-Berkeley; Janine Bloomfield, Environmental Defense Fund; Bert Bolin, U of Stockholm; Jessica Booher, Steve Carpenter, University of WI; F. S. Chapin III, U of Alaska; Peter Chesson, U of CA-Davis; James Collins, AZ State (ASU); Pierre Crosson, Resources for the Future; Gretchen Daily, Stanford; Rudolfo Dirzo, Instituto de Ecología; Michael Dove, Yale; Partha das Gupta, U of Cambridge; J. du Guerney, Food & Agric. Org., Rome; Douglas Deutchman, San Diego State; Jonathan Dushoff, Princeton; Paul Ehrlich, Stanford; William Fagan, ASU; Mary Firestone, U of CA-Berkeley; Marc Fisher, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories; Carl Folke, Stockholm; Nancy Grimm, ASU; J. Morgan Grove, US Forest Service; John Harte, U of CA-Berkeley; Gregg Hartvigsen, State U of NY; Geoff Heale, Columbia; Andy Hector, Imperial College at Silwood Park; Brian Helmuth; Gretchen Hofmann, ASU; Robert Holt, University of FL; Elizabeth Huber-Sanwald, Technische Universitat Munchen; Laura Huenneke, NM State; Robert Jackson; Anne-Marie Jansson; Bengt-Owe Jansson, Stockholm; Peter Kareiva, The Nature Conservancy; Daniel Kammen, University of CA-Berkeley; Niels Kautsky; Jennifer Langridge; Eric Larson, Princeton; Sharon Lawler; John Lawton; Rick Leemans, NIH; Clarence Lehman, University of MN; Simon Levin, Princeton; David Lodge, Notre Dame; Michel Loreau; Jane Lubchenco, OR State; K.G. Mäler, Beijer Intl. Institute of Ecol. Econ., Stockholm; S. McCarthy; Bruce Menge, OR State; Hal Mooney, Stanford; Shahid Naeem, University of WA; M. Oesterheld, U of Buenos Aires; Stephen Pacala, Princeton ; Gary Peterson; P. Pinstrup-Andersen, Intl. Food Policy Institute, DC; N. L Poff, CO State; Charles Redman, ASU; Osvaldo Sala, University of Buenos Aires; Bernhard Schmid; Laura Schneider; Steve Schneider, Stanford; D. Siniscalco, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan; Luis Solorzano; David Starrett, Stanford; M. T. Sykes, Lund U; Kevin Taylor; David Tilman, University of MN; Brian Walker, CSIRO, Canberra; Marilyn Walker, U of Alaska; Diana Wall, CO State; Jianguo Wu, ASU. Graduate Advisors: John Harte, dissertation chair, University of CA-Berkeley; F.S. Chapin III, dissertation committee, University of Alaska, Anchorage; Mary Firestone, dissertation committee, University of CA-Berkeley; John Holdren, dissertation committee, Harvard; Simon Levin, post-doctoral advisor, Princeton; Robert Socolow, post-doctoral advisor, Princeton. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Paige Warren, ASU, postgraduate scholar; Kris Gade, ASU, doctoral student. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH PETER M. KAREIVA The Nature Conservancy 217 Pine Street, Seattle, WA 98101 Phone: (206) 632-0467; Fax: (206) 860-3335; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION Duke University, Durham, NC, B.A., magna cum laude in Zoology, 1973 University of California at Irvine, M.S., Environmental Biology, 1976 Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, Ph.D., Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 1981 APPOINTMENTS 2002-current, The Nature Conservancy, Lead Scientist; 2000-2002, National Marine Fisheries Service, Director of the Division for Conservation Biology; September 1989-1999, Professor of Zoology, University of Washington; 1986-1989, Associate Professor of Zoology, University of Washington; 1984-1986, Assistant Professor of Zoology, University of Washington; Assistant Professor, 1981-1983 of Biology and Applied Mathematics, Brown University. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Kareiva, P. 2002. Applying ecological science to recovery planning? Ecological Applications in press. (expected date of publication is July 2002). Kareiva, P., M. Marvier, and M. McClure. 2000. Recovery and management options for Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Science 290: 977-979. Kareiva, P., I. Parker, and M. Pascual. 1996. How useful are experiments and models in predicting the invasiveness of genetically engineered organisms? Ecology 77:1670-1675. Kareiva, P., and U. Wennergren. 1995. Connecting landscape patterns to ecosystem and population processes. Nature 373:299-302. Kareiva, P. 1991. Population dynamics in spatially complex environments: Theory and data. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 330:175-190. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Kareiva, P., and S. Levin, eds. In press. The importance of species: Setting conservation priorities. Princeton Monograph Series. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ. Tilman, D., and P. Kareiva, eds. 1997. Spatial ecology. Princeton University Monograph series. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J. Kareiva, P., J. Kingsolver and Huey, R., eds. 1993. Biotic interactions and global change. S Sinauer Press, underland, MA. Kareiva, P., and R. Sahakian. 1990. Tritrophic effects of a simple architectural mutation in pea plants. Nature 345:433-434. Kareiva, P. 1987. Habitat fragmentation and the stability of predator-prey interactions. Nature 326:388-390. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES I designed and led a nine-university national study of Habitat Conservation Plans, which created a large public data base describing these plans, and led the USFWS to review and alter its policy B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – P ETER M. K AREIVA P AGE 2 directives. This became a model for a subsequent 18-University national course on Recovery Planning that I co-led with Dee Boersma (both of these national student projects are described at NCEAS website); At NMFS I built a risk assessment group that set the standards for salmon recovery planning, and has become the leading scientific analysis team for west coast salmon management. These scientists are both conducting the critical research and leading the recovery teams - a remarkable combination of activities (see www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/cbd/trt/ and www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/cri/index.html); With Simon Levin, I convened a workshop to explore the role of species from the perspective of the tough question: are they ever expendable? The results are being published as Princeton Monograph that synthesizes a diversity of perspectives on this provocative question. COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: Dee Boersma, University of Washington; William Fagan, University of Maryland; Simon Levin, Princeton University; Michelle Marvier, Santa Clara University; Michelle McClure, National Marine Fisheries Service; Dave Tilman, University of Minnesota Graduate Advisors: Simon Levin, Princeton University; Lynn Carpenter, University of California. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Michael Cain, New Mexico State University (NMSU)-Las Cruces; Mark Andersen, NMSU, Las Cruces; Joy Bergelson, University of Chicago; William Morris, Duke University; Daniel Doak, University of California (UC)-Santa Cruz; Greg Dwyer, University of Chicago; Nathan Schumaker, U.S. EPA; Martha Groom, University of Washington; Elizabeth Holmes, National Marine Fisheries Service; William Fagan, University of Maryland; John Banks, University of Washington, Tacoma; Cheryl Schultz, NCEAS; Ellen Gryj, Microsoft; Postdoctoral Associates: Peter Turchin, University of Connecticut; Tony Ives, University of Wisconsin; William Settle, FAO Research Scientist; Robin Manasse, SEI Ecologist; Richard Veit, CUNY; Lloyd Goldwasser, NMFS; Steve Minta, UCSC (medical leave); Gabby Nevitt, UC-Davis; Mark Lewis, University of Utah; Louis Provencher, The Nature Conservancy; Claudia Jacobi, UNICAMP, Brazil; Uno Wennergen, Linkoping University, Sweden; Miguel Pascual, Argentina National Faculty Fellowship; David Skelly, Professor at Yale University; Mary Ruckleshaus, NMFS; Ann Herzig, Bryn Mawr; Elizabeth Crone, University of Montana; Michelle Marvier, Santa Clara University; Dave Bigger, SEI; John Sabo, Arizona State University; Chris Harvey, NRC Postdoc Fellow; Jon Hoekstra, NMFS Postdoc Fellow. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH CRAIG K. HARRIS Associate Professor, Sociology and Rural Sociology Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1111 Phone: (517) 355-5048; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION Lawrence University, B.A., Interdisciplinary Major In the Social Sciences, 1968 University of Michigan, Ph.D., Sociology, 1978. APPOINTMENTS July 1982 to present, Associate Professor, Sociology and Rural Sociology, Michigan State University, East Lansing; 1991, Visiting Research Socioeconomist, Uganda Freshwater Fisheries Research Organization, Jinja, Uganda; 1990, Visiting Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal; 1987-1988, Visiting Associate Professor, Rural Sociology and Agricultural Extension, National Taiwan University, Taipei; 1979-1982, Acting Coordinator, Population and Resources Center, College of Social Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing; 1977-1982, Assistant Professor, Sociology and Rural Sociology, Michigan State University, East Lansing; 1976-1977, Research Associate, Evaluation Studies Section, Institute of Public Policy Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Harris, C. K., J. J. Molnar, T. Tomazic and R. Wimberley, eds. Forthcoming 2002. Agriculture and the environment: American citizens speak out. Westview Press, Boulder. Harris, C. K., and C. K. Vanderpool, eds. 1992. Social Dimensions of Fisheries. Special Issue of Society and Natural Resources 5(2), April-June. Harris, C. K., J. J. Molnar and M. Traxler. In review. Public perceptions of technological safety, belief in science, and concern about farming methods. Rural Sociology. Harris, C. K., and M. R. Worosz. In review. Risk perceptions: An analysis of ‘alternative’ fruit growers in Michigan. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture. Harris, C. K., and C. Bailey. Forthcoming. Public preferences for a clean, green agricultural machine. in C. Harris et al., eds., Agriculture and the environment: American citizens speak out. Westview Press, Boulder. Harris, C. K., J. Molnar and M. Traxler. Forthcoming. Public perceptions of pesticides and chemicals in food in C. Harris et al., eds., Agriculture and the environment: American citizens speak out. Westview Press, Boulder. Harris, C. K. 1998. Transitions in the management of the Lake Victoria fisheries in T. Pitcher, ed., Reinventing fisheries management. Chapman and Hall, London. Harris, C. K., L. Lutzenheiser and M. E. Olsen. 2001. Energy and society in R. Dunlap and W. Michelsen, Handbook of environmental sociology, Greenwood Press. Harris, C. K., and M. E. Whalon. 1995. Mapping the Middle Road for Michigan Pest Management Policy. Pp. 103-138 in Frani Bickart, ed., Policy choices: Creating Michigan's future. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing. BIOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – C RAIG K. H ARRIS P AGE 2 OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Harris, C. K., J. Molnar and M. Traxler. Forthcoming. Public perceptions of pesticides and chemicals in food in C. Harris et al., eds., Agriculture and the environment: American citizens speak out. Westview Press, Boulder. Harris, C. K. 1998. Transitions in the management of the Lake Victoria fisheries in T. Pitcher, ed., Reinventing fisheries management. Chapman and Hall, London. Harris, C. K., L. Lutzenheiser and M. E. Olsen. 2001. Energy and society in R. Dunlap and W. Michelsen, Handbook of environmental sociology, Greenwood Press. Harris, C. K., and M. E. Whalon. 1995. Mapping the Middle Road for Michigan Pest Management Policy. Pp. 103-138 in Frani Bickart, ed., Policy choices: Creating Michigan's future. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES With colleagues in botany, geology and zoology, I developed an undergraduate course in earth systems science; it is now an interdepartmental course that we teach every year. At the Center for Integrated Plant Systems here at Michigan State University, I have been co-leader of the Socioeconomic and Policy Dimensions Program, and have collaborated with entomologists and botanists on many projects. At the National Center for Food Safety and Toxicology, I am a member of the Social Dimensions Program, and have collaborated with microbiologists and toxicologists on various projects. With colleagues in epidemiology, veterinary medicine, zoology and family studies, I am engaged in interdisciplinary research on bovine tuberculosis in Michigan. I have used REU funding to provide research opportunities to students from minority backgrounds. COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: L. Busch, R. J. Bingen, L. Geason, T. Yamaguchi, L. Bohannan, M. Worosz, V. Gunter, T. Andersen, T. TenEyck, R. Wimberley, J. Molnar, T. Tomazic, T. Reardon, E. Wolff, M. Skladany, D. Wilson, D. Wiley, L. Lutzenheiser, C. Bailey, D. Randels, M. Wilson, T. Gragson, A. Rudy, R. Costanza. Graduate Advisors: P. Siegel, U. S. Bureau of Census. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: H. Rother, University of Cape Town; M. Worosz, Michigan State University; T. Andersen, University of New Orleans; D. Wilson, Danish Fisheries Institute; D. Rusz, Michigan State University; M. Kitula, University of Dar es Salaam. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH MYRON P. GUTMANN Director, Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research University of Michigan, P.O. Box 1248, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248 Phone: (734) 998-9911; Fax: (734) 998-9889; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION Columbia University, B.A., 1971 Princeton University, Ph.D., 1976 APPOINTMENTS August 2001-present, Professor of History, University of Michigan and Director, Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research; July 1998-July 2001, Director, Population Research Center, University of Texas at Austin; September 1976-July 2001, Professor of History, University of Texas at Austin (Asst. Professor, 1976-1982; Assoc. Prof., 1982-1988). PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Gutmann, M. P. 2000. Scaling and demographic issues in global change research. Climatic Change 44:377-391. Lauenroth, W. K., I. C. Burke, and M. P. Gutmann. 2000. The structure and function of ecosystems in the central North American grassland region. Great Plains Research 9:223-259. Gutmann, M. P., and G. Cunfer. 1999. A new look at the causes of the Dust Bowl. Publication 99-1, The International Center for Arid and Semiarid Land Studies, Texas Tech University, Lubbock. Gutmann, M. P., S. Pullum, G. A. Cunfer, and D. Hagen. 1998. Great Plains Population and Environment Database Version 1.0. User's Guide. University of Texas Population Research Center, Austin. Gutmann, M. P., and C. G. Sample. 1995. Land, climate, and settlement on the Texas Frontier. Southwestern Historical Quarterly 99: 137-172. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Gutmann, M. P., and M. Butler. 2002. Land and land use. Chapter in the Millennial edition of Historical statistics of the United States. Forthcoming, 2001. Gutmann, M. P., S. Pullum, S. G. Baker, and I. C. Burke. 2002. Forthcoming. German-origin settlement and agricultural land use in the twentieth century Great Plains. In W. Kamphoefner and W. Helbich, New research on German immigration to the United States. University of Illinois Press, Urbana. Gutmann, M. P., C. S. Wilson, and T. Kittel. 2002. Climate. Chapter in the Millennial edition of Historical statistics of the United States. Forthcoming, 2001. Gutmann, M. P., and S. Pullum. 1999. From a local to a national political culture: Social capital and civic organization in the Great Plains. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 29:725-762. Gutmann, M. P., and C. G. Sample. 1994. Sources for the digital cartography of the United States. Pp. 190-200 in Michael Goerke, ed., Coordinates for Historical Maps. Scripta Mercaturae Verlag, St. Katharinen. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH – MYRON P. GUTMANN PAGE 2 SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES 1999-2002, Chair, SNEM-3 Study Section, National Institutes of Health; 2000-2003, Member, User Working Group, Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University; 1998-1999, Chair, Social Sciences and Population Study Section, National Institutes of Health; 1998-2000, Chair, Ad Hoc Committee on Electronic Communications, Population Association of America; 1999-2000, Board of Directors, Council of Social Science Associations (COSSA), representing the American Historical Association; 1998-, Associate Editor, Journal of Interdisciplinary History; 1997-2001, Treasurer, Social Science History Association; 1997-2000, Member, Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change, National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences; São Paulo, 1997- Member, Editorial Board, População e Família; 1995-1998, Member, Social Sciences and Population Study Section, National Institutes of Health; 1995-1997, Editorial Board, Journal of Interdisciplinary History; 1990-1995, Editor, Historical Methods; 1995, 1999, Program Committee, Population Association of America Annual Meeting; 1991-1994, Executive Committee, Social Science History Association; 1991-1993, Chair, 1993, American Historical Association, Gershoy Award Committee; 1992-1994, Advisory Committee, Minnesota Integrated Public Use Sample Project; April 1992, Session Organizer, Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America; May 1992, Session Organizer, Conference on the Peopling of the Americas, Veracruz; 1986-, Editorial Board, Social Science History; 1980-5, 1996-, Editorial Board, Historical Methods. COLLABORATORS & AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: George Alter, Indiana University; Susan G. Baker, University of Texas at Austin (UT-A); K.S. Blanchard, University of Texas at San Antonio; L. Bohren, Colorado State University (CSU); Benjamin S. Bradshaw, University of Texas Health Science Center-San Antonio; Ingrid C. Burke, CSU; M. Butler, Unaffiliated; R. Carey, UT-A; Geoffrey Cunfer, Southwest State University (SSU), Minnesota; Matthew D. Davis, Rowan University; Peter De Turk, unknown; Glenn D. Deane, SUNY-Albany; W. Easterling, Pennsylvania State University; Douglas Ewbank University of Pennsylvania; Kenneth H. Fliess, University of Nevada-Reno; W. P. Frisbie, UT-A; K.A. Galvin, CSU; P. Granda, University of Michigan; Brian Gratton, Arizona State University (ASU); R. Gutiérrez-Montes, University of Minnesota (UM); Delia Hagen, unaffiliated; Michael R. Haines, Colgate University; H. Heitowit, University of Michigan; R. Kelly,CSU; J. Lackett, CSU; D. Lam, University of Michigan; William K. Lauenroth, CSU; Robert McCaa, UM; D. Ojima, CSU; W. J. Parton, CSU; J. Paruelo, Unknown; Andres Peri, University of Montevideo; Sara Pullum, UT-A; Thomas Pullum, UT-A; S: Ruggles, UM; M. Sobek, UM; J. Steenson, Unaffiliated; David Sysma, UT-A; E. Wildsmith, UT-A. Graduate Advisors: Theodore K. Rabb, Princeton University. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Geoffrey A. Cunfer, SSU; Mitilene Myhr, St. Mary’s University, Austin, Texas; Taedoo Chung, unaffiliated; John Sartin, Unafiliated; Brian Gratton, ASU; Christie Sample Wilson, St. Mary’s University, Austin; Tina Meacham, unffiliated. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH J. MORGAN GROVE USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station 705 Spear St., S. Burlington, VT 05403 Phone: 802-951-6771, ext. 1070; Fax: 802-951-6368; Email:[email protected] Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research Site Room #252B, Technology Research Center Building, 5200 Westland Boulevard University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21227 Phone: 410-455-6564; Fax: 410-455-6500; E-mail: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION Yale University, B.A. with Distinction in Architecture and Studies in the Environment, 1987 Yale University, M.F.S. in Community Forestry, School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, 1990 Yale University, M. Phil. in Social Ecology, School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, 1994 Yale University, Ph.D. in Social Ecology, School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, 1996 APPOINTMENTS 1996-Present, Research Forester (Social Ecology), USDA Forest Service Research Experiment Station, Burlington, VT; 1997-Present Working Group Leader, Demographic & Socioeconomic Working Group, Baltimore Ecosystem Study (LTER), Baltimore, MD; 1998-Present Co-chair, Social Science Committee, Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network; 2000 Visiting Scientist, Paul Smiths College, Paul Smiths, NY; 1998-Present, Visiting Scientist, Institute of Ecosystem Studies (IES), Millbrook, NY; 1994, Visiting Scientist, USDA Forest Service Research Experiment Station, Syracuse, NY; 1994, Project Leader, Resource Information Systems (RIS), Revitalizing Baltimore Project, The Parks & People Foundation, Baltimore, MD; 1992-1996, Research Coordinator, URI and Yale/F&ES; 1991-1992, Project Coordinator/ Baltimore, URI and Yale/F&ES; 1990-1991, Program Director, The Urban Resources Initiative (URI), Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies (Yale / F&ES); 1990, Assoc., Forest Ecologist and Landscape Designer, Balmori Assoc., New Haven, CT; 1989, Research Assistant, Department of Recreation and Parks, Baltimore, MD; 1988-1989, Architectural Design Team Leader, Cesar Pelli and Assoc., New Haven, CT. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Pickett, S. T. A., M. L. Cadenasso, J. M. Grove, C. H. Nilon, R. V. Pouyat, W. C. Zipperer, and R. Costanza. 2001. Urban ecological systems: Linking terrestrial ecology, physical, and socioeconomic components of metropolitan areas. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 32:127-157. Grimm, N., J. M. Grove, S. T. A. Pickett, and C. L. Redman. 2000. Integrated approaches to long-term studies of urban ecological systems. Bioscience 50(7):1-11. Grove, J. M., C. Schweik, T. Evans, and G. Green. 2000. Modeling human-environmental systems. In Clarke, K. C., B.E. Parks, and M. P. Crane, eds., Geographic information systems and environmental modeling. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – J. M ORGAN G ROVE P AGE 2 Grove, J. M. 1999. New tools for exploring theory and methods in human ecosystem and landscape research: computer modeling, remote sensing and geographic information systems. In K. Cordell, ed., Integrating social science and ecosystem management.. Sagamore Press, Champaign, IL. Grove, J. M., and W. R. Burch, Jr. 1997. A social ecology approach to urban ecosystem and landscape analyses. Journal of Urban Ecosystems 1(4):259-275. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES 2001, Office of the President, President's Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, November 17th; USDA Forest Service, Chief's Early Career Scientist Award, June 4th, 2001. (1st social scientist to receive this award in the history of USDA Forest Service); January 19-21, 2000 Workshop on Integrating Social Science into the Long-Term Ecological Research Program; 1997-Present Baltimore Ecosystem Study, Long Term Ecological Research program, National Science Foundation, Working Group Leader; 1989, Ellamae Fehrer Award, National Council of State Garden Clubs of America, Academic Scholarship; 1993, Switzer Fellow, Switzer Foundation Environmental Fellowship Program. COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: Larry Band, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Alan Berkowitz, Institute for Ecosystem Studies; Chris Boone, Ohio University, Athens; Roel Boumans, University of Vermont; Grace Brush, Johns Hopkins University; Geoff Buckley, Ohio University, Athens; Bill Burch, Yale University; Jackie Carrera, Parks & People Foundation; Dan Childers, Florida International University; Bob Costanza, University of Vermont; Shawn Dalton, Johns Hopkins University; Jim Dyer, Ohio University, Marla Emery, USDA Forest Service; Steve Farber, University of Pittsburgh; Ted Gragson, University of Georgia; Nancy Grimm, Arizona State University; Peter Groffman, Institute for Ecosystem Studies; Steve Hamburg, Brown University; Craig Harris, Michigan State University; Karen Hinson, Baltimore County School District, Baltimore; Chuck Hopkinson, MBL, Woods Hole; Ann Kinzig, Arizona State University; Rob Northrop, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Forest Service; Elinor Ostrom, Indiana University; Steward Pickett, Institute for Ecosystem Studies; Rich Pouyat, USDA Forest Service; Chuck Redman, Arizona State University; Charlie Schweik, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Paul Sutton, University of Denver; Paige Warren, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Matthew Wilson, University of Vermont; Wayne Zipperer, USDA Forest Service. Graduate Advisors: : Bill Burch (major), Dana Tomlin, Kristiina Vogt, John Wargo. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: None. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH NANCY B. GRIMM Professor, Department of Biology Arizona State University, PO Box 871501, Tempe AZ 85287-1501 Phone: (480) 965-4735; Fax: (480) 965-2519; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION Hampshire College, Amherst, MA, B.A., Ecology, 1978 Arizona State University, Tempe, M.S., Zoology, 1980 Arizona State University, Tempe, Ph.D., Zoology, 1985 APPOINTMENTS 1999-present, Professor; 1997-1999, Associate Professor; 1994-1997, Associate Research Scientist; 1990-1994 Assistant Research Scientist; 1985-1990, Faculty Research Associate – all at Arizona State University. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Grimm, N. B., L. J. Baker, and D. Hope. In press. An ecosystem approach to understanding cities: Familiar foundations and uncharted frontiers. In A.R. Berkowitz, C.H. Nilon, and K.S. Hollweg, eds., Understanding urban ecosystems: A new frontier for science and education. Springer-Verlag, New York, New York. Vitousek, P. M., K. Cassman, C. Cleveland, T. Crews, C. B. Field, N. B. Grimm, R. W. Howarth, R. Marino, L. Martinelli, E. B. Rastetter, and J. I. Sprent. In press. Towards an ecological understanding of biological nitrogen fixation. Biogeochemistry. Grimm, N. B., J. M. Grove, C. L. Redman, and S. T. A. Pickett. 2000. Integrated approaches to long-term studies of urban ecological systems. BioScience 50:571-584. Grimm, N. B., and K. C. Petrone. 1997. Nitrogen fixation in a desert stream ecosystem. Biogeochemistry 37:33-61. Holmes, R. M., J. B. Jones, Jr., S. G. Fisher, and N. B. Grimm. 1996. Denitrification in a nitrogen-limited stream ecosystem. Biogeochemistry 33:125-146. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Dent, C. L., N. B. Grimm, and S. G. Fisher. In press. Multi-scale effects of surface-subsurface exchange on stream water nutrient concentrations. J. No. Amer. Benthol. Soc. Collins, J., A. Kinzig, N. B. Grimm, W. Fagan, J. Wu, and E. Borer. 2000. A new urban ecology. American Scientist 88:416-425. Dent, C. L., and N. B. Grimm. 1999. Spatial heterogeneity of stream water nutrient concentrations over successional time. Ecology 80:2283-2298. Grimm, N. B., A. Chacón, C. N. Dahm, S. W. Hostetler, O. T. Lind, P. L. Starkweather, and W. W. Wurtsbaugh.1997. Sensitivity of aquatic ecosystems to climatic and anthropogenic changes: The Basin and Range, American Southwest, and México. Hydrological Processes 11:1023-1041. Grimm, N. B. 1987. Nitrogen dynamics during succession in a desert stream. Ecology 68:1157-1170. B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – N ANCY B. G RIMM P AGE 2 SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES Editorial Boards: Ecology Letters (2001-04), Ecosystems (1997-03), Ecology and Ecological Monographs (1994-97), Journal of the North American Benthological Society (1991-94); Review Panels: STC NSF (2000); Ecosystem Studies NSF (1990, 1991-94); LTER NSF (1998); Environmental Biology Exploratory Research, U.S. EPA (1991-93); Service to Scientific Societies: Ecological Society of America Award Selection Subcommittee (Member 1994-96), Research Needs Committee (Member, 1993-04); North American Benthological Society Executive Committee (Chair, 1994-95), President-elect (1998-99), President (1999-00), Past President (2000-01), Elections & Place Committee (Chair, 2000-01); National Center for Ecological Analysis & Synthesis: Science Advisory Board (member, 1997-00; Chair, 1999-00), Urban Ecology Workshop (1998), SCOPE working group on nitrogen fixation (1999), AquaticTerrestrial Biogeochemistry working group (1999-00), visiting researcher (1998-99); Research Experiences for Undergraduates: Organizer, Summer REU Program at ASU (ca. 50 students, 16% underrepresented minorities and 58% women; 1990-00); Director, Undergraduate Mentorship in Environmental Biology (UMEB) Program at ASU (24 students, 58% underrepresented minorities and 83% women; 1994-98); Co-PI, UMEB Program at ASU (1999- ). Research Collaborations: Senior Personnel, LINX Project and LINX-2; Senior Personnel, SAHRA (STC for Southwestern Aridland Hydrology and Riparian Areas); PI/PD, Central Arizona-Phoenix LTER. COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: L. Baker, Univ. of MN; B. Bowden, New Zealand; K. Cassman, Univ. of NE; A. Chacon, UNAM, Mexico; C. Cleveland, Univ. of CO; J. Collins, AZ State Univ. (ASU); M. Conklin, Univ. of AZ; T. Crews, Prescott College; C. Dahm, Univ. of NM; L. Dent, Univ. of WI; W. Dodds, KS State; T. Dudley, Univ. of CA-Berkeley; W. Fagan ASU; C. Field, Carnegie Inst. of Washington; S. Findlay, IES; S. Fisher, ASU; G. Forrester, Univ. of RI; R. Gomez, Univ. of Murcia, Spain; D. Greene, S. Gregory, OR State; M. Grove, U.S. For. Serv.; S. Hamilton, MI State; B. Harper, Univ. of NV-Las Vegas (UNLV); A. Hershey, Univ. of NC; R. Holmes, MBL-Ecosys. Ctr.; D. Hope, ASU; S. Hostetler, U.S. Geol. Surv.; B. Howarth, Cornell; S. Johnson, OR State; J. Jones, UNLV; A. Kinzig, ASU; O. Lind; R. Marino, Cornell; P. Marmomier, Univ. of Rennes, France; E. Marti, Centre d'Estudis Avançats de Blanes, Spain; C. Martin, ASU; L. Martinelli, Univ. of Sao Paulo, Brazil; B. McDowell, Univ. of NH; J. Meyer, Univ. of GA; P. Mulholland, ORNL; B. Peterson, MBL-Ecosys. Ctr.; K. Petrone, Univ. of AK; S. Pickett, IES; E. Rastetter, MBL- Ecosys. Ctr.; C. Redman, ASU; J. Schade, ASU; J. Sprent, Univ. of Dundee, Scotland; E. Stanley, Univ. of WI; P. Starkweather, UNLV; F. Triska, U.S. Geol. Surv.; M. Valett, VA Tech; P. Vervier, CNRS, Toulouse, France; P. Vitousek, Stanford; J. Webster, VA Tech; J. Welter, ASU; J. Wu, ASU; W. Wurtsbaugh, UT State. Graduate Advisors: W. L. Minckley, deceased. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: S. M. Clinton; C. L. Dent; J. W. Edmonds; M. S. Holland; W. J. Roach; M. A. Luck; A.. Goettl; J. Junk. Post-doctoral scholars supervised: T. L. Dudley; C. G. Peterson; H. M. Valett; A. Millan; J. Velasco; R. Gómez; E. Martí; D. Hope; M. Hostetler; K. Knowles-Yanez; M. Naegeli; N. McIntyre; W. Zhu; R. Watkins; A. Nelson; M. Katti; E. Shochat; D. Lewis; J. Schade; S. Grossman-Clarke; S. Gergel; R. Scheibley. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH TED L. GRAGSON Associate Professor, Anthropology Department University of Georgia, 250 Baldwin Hall, Athens GA 30602-1619 Phone: (706) 542-1460; Fax: (706) 542-3998; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION University of Montana, B.A., Anthropology, 1982 Pennsylvania State University, M.A., Anthropology, 1984 Pennsylvania State University, Ph.D., Anthropology, 1989 APPOINTMENTS 1998-Present, Associate Professor of Anthropology University of Georgia, Athens; 1992-Present, Adjunct Faculty of Ecology University of Georgia, Athens; 2000, Visiting Associate Professor, Museo Andres Barbero, Asuncion, Paraguay; 1992-1998, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of Georgia, Athens; 1993, Visiting Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Universidad Catolica de Asuncion, Paraguay; 1990-1992, Visiting Assistant Professor of Anthropology; Tulane University, New Orleans, LA. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Gragson, T. L., and B. G. Blount, eds. 1999. Ethnoecology: Knowledge, resources and rights. The University of Georgia Press, Athens. Gragson, T. L.1998. Potential vs. Actual vegetation: Human behavior in a landscape medium. Pp. 213-231 in William Balée, ed., Advances in historical ecology. Columbia University Press, New York. Gragson, T. L. 1997. The use of underground plant organs and its relation to habitat selection among the Pumé Indians of Venezuela. Economic Botany 51(4):377-384. Gragson, T. L. 1995. Pumé exploitation of Mauritia flexuosa (PALMAE) in the Llanos of Venezuela. Journal of Ethnobiology 15(2):177-188. Gragson, T. L. 1993. Human foraging in lowland South America: Pattern and process of resource procurement. Research in Economic Anthropology 14:107-138. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Gragson, T. L. In press. Heuristic mapping of frontier processes using fuzzy set theory. Field Methods. 28 pp. Gragson, T. L., and B. Jurgelski. In review. Relation between terrain factors and early contact forests of western North Carolina. Journal of Appalachian Studies. 24 pp. Gragson, T. L., and P. Bolstad. In review. Environmental consequences in the Blue Ridge of punctuational changes in the Cherokee Disturbance regime, 1690-1776. Human Ecology. 30 pp. Gragson, T. L. In review. Legal primitivism of citizen-Indians in the Paraguayan Chaco. World Development. 25 pp. Gragson, T. L.1992. Strategic procurement of fish by the Pumé: A South American "fishing culture." Human Ecology 20(1):109-130. B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – T ED L. G RAGSON P AGE 2 SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES I have twice received Fulbright funding to teach and conduct research in Paraguay, which has enabled me to make critical contributions to both developing a culture of research among students as well as directing the execution of research activities by non-governmental organizations. A direct outgrowth of my methodological interests and training in quantitative and spatial techniques was the development of a graduate methodological training program within Anthropology at the University of Georgia funded for 5 years and then renewed for another 5 years by NSF. COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: Kevin Armbrust, University of Mississippi; Fred Benfield, Virginia Tech; Marsha Black, University of Georgia (UofGA); Paul Bolstad, University of Minnesota; Jim Clark, Duke University; Dave Coleman, UofGA; Robert Costanza, University of Vermont; Steve Farber, University of Pittsburgh; David Foster, Harvard University; Gary Grossman, UofGA; Morgan Grove, U.S. Forest Service; Myron Guttman, University of Michigan; Bruce Haines, UofGA; Steve Hamburg, Brown University; Craig Harris, Michigan State University; Gene Helfman, UofGA; Ron Hendrick, UofGA; Mark Hunter, UofGA; Peter Kareiva, The Nature Conservancy; Ann Kinzig, Arizona State University; Brian Kloeppel, UofGA; David Leigh, UofGA; Judy Meyer, UofGA; Dave Newman, UofGA.; Ray Noblet, UofGA; Scott Pearson, Mars Hill; Kathy Pringle, UofGA; Ron Pulliam, UofGA; Chuck Redman, Arizona State University; Alan Rudy, Michigan State University; Monica Turner, University of Wisconsin; Jim Vose, U.S. Forest Service; Bruce Wallace, UofGA; David Wear, U.S. Forest Service; Jack Webster, Virginia Tech; Matt Wilson, University of Vermont. Graduate Advisors: Stephen Beckerman, Pennsylvania State University; William Sanders, Pennsylvania State University. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Laura German, University of Georgia (UofGA); Bill Jurgelski, UofGA; Jim Riach, UofGA; Kim Winter, UofGA; Paul Hirsch, UofGA; Nathan Piekielek, UofGA. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH DAVID R. FOSTER Director, Harvard Forest and Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology Harvard University, Petersham, MA 01366 Phone: (978) 724-3302; Fax: (978) 724-3595; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION Connecticut College, B.A., Botany (Magna cum Laude), 1977 University of Minnesota, M.S., Ecology, 1981 University of Minnesota, Ph.D., Ecology, 1983 APPOINTMENTS 1990-present, Director of the Harvard Forest, Harvard University;1983-1991, Professor of Biology, Harvard University. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Foster, D. R., and J. Aber, eds. In press. Forests in time. Ecosystem Structure and function as a consequence of history. Yale University Press, New Haven. Turner, B. L., D. R. Foster, and J. Geoghegan, eds. In press. Land change science and tropical deforestation. The final frontier in southern Yucatan. Oxford University Press. 2002. Foster, D., and J. O'Keefe.. 2000. New England forests through time. Insights From the Harvard Forest dioramas. Harvard Forest and Harvard University Press. Foster, D. R. 1999. Thoreau's country. Journey through a transformed landscape. Harvard University Press, Cambridge. Foster, D. R.1992. Land use history (1730 1990) and vegetation dynamics in central New England, USA. Journal of Ecology 80:753 772. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Foster, D. R., G. Motzkin, B. Hall, S. Barry Musieliwicz, A. Stevens, S. Clayden, and T. Parshall. In press. Cultural and environmental controls of long-term vegetation patterns and dynamics on the Island of Martha's Vineyard. Journal of Biogeography. Foster, D. R., F. Swanson, J. Aber, D. Tilman, N. Bropakw, I. Burke, and A. Knapp. In review. The importance of land-use and its legacies to ecology and environmental management. BioScience. Foster, D. R., G. Motzkin and B. Slater. 1998. Land-use history as long-term broad-scale disturbance: Regional forest dynamics in central New England. Ecosystems 1:96-119. Foster, D. R., and G. Motzkin. 1998. Ecology and conservation in the cultural landscape of New England: lessons from nature's history. Northeastern Naturalist 5:111-126. Foster, D. R., D. A. Orwig and J. McLachlan. 1996. Ecological and conservation insights from retrospective studies of temperate old-growth forests.Trends Ecology and Evolution 11:419-424. B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – D AVID R. F OSTER P AGE 2 SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES Ecosystems, Editorial Board, 1997-present; Northeastern Naturalist, Editorial Board, 1997-present; Progress in Physical Geography, Editorial Advisor, 1997-present; National Science Foundation LTER Program, Executive Committee, 1995-1999; DOE National Institute for Global Environmental Change, Executive Committee, 1992-present; UNESCO Man and the Biosphere, Temperate Ecosystem Directorate, 1991-present; Harvard Forest LTER Program, Principal Investigator, 1988-present; Bullard Fellowship Committee Harvard University, Executive Secretary, 1990-present; Conservation and Research Foundation, Board of Trustees, 1994-present; Harvard University, Director of the Graduate Program in Forest Biology, 1985-present; Highstead Arboretum, Advisory Board, 1993-present; Journal of Ecology Editorial Board, 1991-1994; Trustees of Reservations, Director, 2001-present. COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: J. Aber, University of New Hampshire; A. Allen, EcoTech, Inc.; F. Bazzaz, Harvard University; R. Boone, University of Alaska; E. Boose, Harvard University; R. Bowden, Allegheny College; G. Carlton, California State Polytechnic University; K. Chamberlin, unknown affiliation; S. Clayden, University of New Brunswick; C. Cogbill, Hubbard Brook LTER; J. Compton, U.S. EPA; S. Cooper-Ellis, unknown affiliation; K. Donohue, Harvard University; N. Drake, UMASS; J. Franklin, University of Washington; C. Foster, Harvard University; D. Francis, Harvard University; J. Fuller, National University of Ireland, Galway; D. Knight, University of Wisconsin; A. Lezberg, Marine Biological Laboratories; J. McLachlan, Duke University; J. Melillo, Marine Biological Laboratory; F. Menalled, Michigan State University; G. Motzkin, Harvard University; J. O'Keefe, Harvard University; D. Orwig, Harvard University; W. Patterson, University of Massachusetts; K. Pregitzer, Michigan Technological University; P. Wilson, University of California, Northridge. Graduate Advisors: Professor H.E. Wright, Jr., University of Minnesota Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Thesis advisor: Rebecca Anderson, Jesse Bellemere, Rob Eberhardt, Matt Kizlinski, all Harvard University; Guy D'Oyly Hughes, unknown affiliation. Post-Doctoral Supervisor: Jana Compton, U.S.EPA, Western Ecology Division; Donna Francis, Harvard University; Kathleen Donohue, Harvard University; Janice Fuller, University of Ireland, Galway; Jonathan Harrod, unknown affiliation; Ruth Kern, California State, Fresno; Deborah Lawrence, University of Virginia; Glenn Matlack, University of Southern Mississippi; Timothy Parshall, Harvard University; Diego Perez Salicrup, DERN-UNAM, Mexico. B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH M ONICA M. E LSER Education Liaison, Center for Environmental Studies Arizona State University, Box 873211, Tempe AZ 85287-3211 Phone: (480) 965-6046; Fax: (480) 965-8087; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, B.S., Biology, 1980 University of Tennessee, Knoxville, M.S., Ecology, 1983 Arizona State University, Tempe, M.Ed., Curriculum and Instruction, 1998 APPOINTMENTS August 1998-present, Education Liaison, Center for Environmental Studies, Arizona State University, Tempe; August 1994-July 1996, General Biology Lab Coordinator, Arizona State University, Tempe; January 1987-July 1990, Student Affairs Officer (Academic Advising), Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis; January 1984-September 1986, Research Technician, Biology Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Elser, M. M. 1998. Ecology Explorer Web site (http://caplter.asu.edu/explorers). Carpenter, S. R., J. F. Kitchell, J. R. Hodgson, P. A. Cochran, J. J. Elser, M. M. Elser, D. M. Lodge, D. Kretchmer, X. He, and C. N. von Ende.1987. Regulation of lake ecosystem primary productivity by food web structure in whole lake experiments. Ecology 68:1863-1876. Elser, M. M., P. Serrano, and S. R. Carpenter.1987. Chaoborus populations: Response to food web manipulation and potential effects on zooplankton communities. Can. J. Zool. 65:2846-2852. Elser, M. M., J. J. Elser, and S. R. Carpenter. 1986. Paul and Peter Lakes: A liming experiment revisited. American Midland Naturalist 116:282-295. Elser, M. M., and W. O. Smith.1985. Phased cell division and growth rate of a planktonic Dinoflagellate, Ceratium hirundinella, in relation to environmental variables. Arch Hydrobiol. 104:477-491. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Soranno, P. A., S. R. Carpenter, and M. M. Elser. 1993. Zooplankton community dynamics. Pp. 116-152 in S.R. Carpenter and J. F. Kitchell, eds., The Trophic cascade in lakes. Cambridge University Press. Carpenter, S. R., P. R. Leavitt, J. J. Elser, and M. M. Elser. 1988. Chlorophyll budgets: Interannual variability and effects of food web manipulations. Biogeochemistry 6:79-90. Elser, J. J., M. M. Elser, N. A. MacKay, and S. R. Carpenter. 1988. Zooplankton-mediated transitions between N and P limited algal growth. Limnol. Oceanogr. 33:1-14. Elser, J. J., N. C. Goff, N. A. MacKay, A. L. St. Amand, M. M. Elser, and S. R. Carpenter. 1987. Species-specific algal responses to zooplankton: Experimental and field observations in three north temperate lakes. J. Plankton Res. 9:699-717. Carpenter, S. R., M. M. Elser, and J. J. Elser. 1986. Chlorophyll production, degradation, and sedimentation: Implications for paleolimnology. Limnol. Oceanogr. 31: 112-124. B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – M ONICA M. E LSER P AGE 2 SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES Poster and workshop presentations at various professional meetings including: Ecological Society of America, National Science Teacher Association, Arizona Association for Environmental Education; organized/developed teaching pedagogy seminars for GK-12 Fellows; organized/ developed teacher workshops/internships associated with CAP LTER; coordinated weekly graduate teaching assistant meetings; organized workshops for faculty on advising; helped develop a program to retain minority students in the biological sciences at UC-Davis. COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFLIATIONS Collaborators: Fred Staley, Arizona State University (ASU); Mark Hostetler, University of Florida; Sam Scheiner, National Science Foundation; Nancy McIntyre, Texas Tech; Tim Craig, University of Minnesota; Brenda Shears, ASU; Susan Williams, Arizona Sonora Desert Museum; Charlene Saltz, ASU, B. I. Ramakrishna, ASU; Samual DiGangi, ASU; Nancy Crocker, ASU; Sheri Klug, ASU; James Birk, ASU; Margaret Nelson, ASU; Angel Jannach-Pennel, ASU; Debra Banks, ASU; Peter McCartney, ASU; Charles Redman, ASU; Ann Kinzig, ASU. Graduate Advisors: MEd : TEAMS Program at ASU (Fred Staley, Jon Knaup, Mike Piburn, Dale Baker, Alfinio Rameriz, Herb Cohen, Jim Middleton); M.S.: Walker Smith. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH GLENN D. DEANE Associate Professor, Department of Sociology Social Science 353, University at Albany State University of New York, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, New York 12222 Phone: (518) 442-4587; Fax: (518) 442-3380; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION The College of William and Mary, A.B., Sociology/Philosophy, 1980 The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, M.A, Sociology, 1988 The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Ph. D., Sociology, 1993 APPOINTMENTS 1999-present, Associate Professor, University at Albany, SUNY; 1993-1999, Assistant Professor, University at Albany, SUNY; 1991-1993, Lecturer, Department of Sociology, University at Albany, SUNY; 2000-present, Director of Computing/Statistical Core, University at Albany, SUNY; 1992-2000, Center Affiliate/Associate, Center for Social and Demographic Analysis, University at Albany, SUNY. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Baller, R. D., L. Anselin, S. F. Messner, G. Deane, and D. F. Hawkins. 2001. Structural covariates of U.S. country homicide rates: Incorporating spatial effects. Criminology (forthcoming). Messner, S. F., G. Deane, and M. Beaulieu. A log-multiplicative association model for allocating homicides with unknown victim-offender relationships. Criminology (forthcoming). Deane, G., E. M. Beck, and S. E. Tolnay. 1998. Incorporating Space into social histories: How spatial processes operate and how we observe them. International Review of Social History Supplement 6 43:57-80. Also reproduced in New Methods for Social History, edited by Larry J. Griffin and Marcel van der Linden (1999). Tolnay, S. E., G. Deane, and E. M. Beck. 1996. Vicarious violence: Spatial effects on southern lynchings, 1890-1919. American Journal of Sociology 102:788-815. Land, K. C., and G. Deane. 1992. On the estimation of regression models with spatial effects terms for large samples: A two-stage least squares approach. Pp. 221-248 in Peter V. Marsden, ed., Sociological Methodology 1992, American Sociological Association, Washington, D.C. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Felson, R. B., S. F. Messner, A. Hoskin, and G. Deane. Reasons for reporting and not reporting domestic violence to the police. Revised and resubmitted to Criminology (2002). Deane, G. 1996. Parents and Progeny: Inheritance and the transition to adulthood in colonial North Carolina, 1680-1759. History of the Family: An International Quarterly 1:353-374. South, S. J., and G. D. Deane. 1993. Race and residential mobility: Individual determinants and structural constraints. Social Forces 72:147-167. Bearman, P. S., and G. Deane. 1992. The Structure of opportunity: Middle-class mobility in England 1548-1689. American Journal of Sociology 98:30-66. Deane, G. D. 1990. Mobility and adjustments: Paths to the resolution of residential stress. Demography 27:65-79. B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – GLENN D. DEANE P AGE 2 SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES In May 2001, Deane was an invited participant in an "Advanced Workshop on Spatial Analysis in Social Research." The objective of this workshop, jointly sponsored by ICPSR and the NSF-Funded CSISS, is to establish a dialogue between leading methodologists in spatial analysis and in the mainstream social sciences, in order to (1) facilitate the dissemination of state of the art spatial analytical techniques to the methodology in political and social research; (2) assess the importance of spatial analysis in general, and spatial data analysis in particular to social science methodological questions; (3) promote the application of state of the art spatial analytical techniques to substantive research questions in political science and sociology and/or to important social science data sets; In a recently completed working paper, Deane describes a novel method for treating multi-racial identifications. The applicability of this method for multiple race responses to the 2000 Census was explored using simulated data file supplied by the Assistant Chief for Special Population Statistics at the U.S. Census Bureau. In return, Deane has supplied Census Bureau staff with programming code and a detailed description of the statistical algorithm. COLLABORATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: Luc Anselin, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Robert D. Baller, University of Iowa; E. M. Beck, University of Georgia; Ingrid C. Burke, Colorado State University; Kyle Crowder, Western Washington University; Nancy A. Denton, SUNY-Albany; Richard B. Felson, Pennsylvania State University; Myron P. Gutmann, University of Michigan; Darnell F. Hawkins. University of Illinois, Chicago; Anthony Hoskin, Albright College; Steven F. Messner, SUNY-Albany; William J. Parton, Colorado State University; Nelson A. Pichardo, Central Washington University; Lawrence E. Raffalovich, SUNY-Albany; Scott J. South, SUNY-Albany; Heather Sullivan-Catlin, Kean University; Stewart E. Tolnay, University of Washington. Graduate Advisors: Glen H. Elder, Jr., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Judith R. Blau, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Rachel Rosenfeld, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Robert E. Gallman, deceased; Peter S. Bearman, Columbia University. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: None. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ELIZABETH S. CHILTON Assistant Professor of Anthropology University of Massachusetts, Amherst MA 01003 Phone: (413) 545-2867; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION State University of New York at Albany, B.A., magna cum laude, with honors in Anthropology, minor in Mathematics, 1985 University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Master of Arts, May 1991 University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Ph.D., Anthropology, May 1996. APPOINTMENTS 9/01 to present, Assistant Professor, Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Research 6/01 to present Associate, Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts; 7/00-6/01, Associate Professor, Harvard University, Anthropology; 7/96-6/00, Assistant Professor, Harvard University, Anthropology; 7/96-6/01, Associate Curator of the Archaeology of Northeastern North America, Peabody Museum, Harvard University; 1/96-6/96, Lecturer, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, New York; 8/95-1/96, Lecturer, State University of New York, Oneonta. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Chilton, E. S. 2002. “Towns they have none”: Diverse subsistence and settlement strategies in native New England. In J. Hart and C. Reith, eds., Northeast subsistence-settlement change: A.D. 700 - A.D. 1300. New York State Museum Bulletin. Volume under review. Chilton, E. S., and D. L. Doucette. 2002. Archaeological investigations at the Lucy Vincent Beach site (19-DK-148): Preliminary results and interpretations. In Jordan Kerber, ed., A lasting impression: Coastal, lithic, and ceramic research in New England archaeology. Bergin &Garvey. Volume under review. Chilton, E. S. 2001. The archaeology and ethnohistory of the Contact Period in the northeastern United States. Reviews in Anthropology 30:55-78. Chilton, E. S., T. B. Largy, and K. Curran. 2000. Evidence for prehistoric maize horticulture at the Pine Hill site, Deerfield, Massachusetts. Northeast Anthropology 59:23-46. Chilton, E. S. 1999. Mobile Farmers of Pre-Contact Southern New England: The Archaeological and Ethnohistoric Evidence. Pp. 157-176 in John P. Hart, ed., Current Northeast Paleoethnobotany. New York State Museum Bulletin 494. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Chilton, E. S. 2002. Beyond "big": Gender, age, and subsistence diversity in Paleo-Indian societies. In C. M. Barton and G. Clark, eds., Pioneers of the Pleistocene. University of Arizona Press. Volume under review. Chilton, E. S. 1999. One size fits all:Typology and alternatives in New England Ceramic research. Pp. 44-60 in E. S. Chilton, ed., Material meanings: Critical approaches to the interpretation of material culture. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City. Chilton, E. S. 1999. Ceramic research in New England: Breaking the typological mold. Pp. B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – E LIZABETH S. C HILTON P AGE 2 97-111 in M. A. Levine, K. E. Sassaman, and M. S. Nassaney, eds., The archaeological Northeast. Bergin and Garvey Press, Westport, CT. Chilton, E. S., ed. 1999. Material meanings: Critical approaches to the interpretation of material culture. Foundations of Archaeological Inquiry Series, University of Utah Press. Chilton, E. S. 1998. The cultural origins of technical choice: Unraveling Algonquian and Iroquoian ceramic traditions in the Northeast. Pp. 132-160 in M. Stark, ed., The archaeology of social boundaries. Smithsonian Institution Press. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES Director, Harvard Archaeological Project on Martha's Vineyard, 1997 to 2001; Co-director, with Arthur S. Keene, and Field Director, University of Massachusetts Archaeological Field School, Summer 1993 and 1995; Co-director, with Arthur S. Keene and Eric S. Johnson, University of Massachusetts Archaeological Field School, Summer 1991; Editorial Advisory Board, Northeast Anthropology, a peer-reviewed journal (1999 to present; Peer-reviews of articles for American Anthropologist (2000 to present), American Antiquity (2000 to present), Geoarchaeology (1996) Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory (2000 to present), and Northeast Anthropology (1994 to present); Reviews of grant applications to the National Science Foundation, Archaeology Program (1996 to present), and Wenner Gren (2000 to present); Steering Committee (elected position), Conference on New England Archaeology (1994 to 1996); Board of Trustees (elected position), Massachusetts Archaeological Society (1998 to 2000); Board of Directors (1993-1994), and Secretary (1994-1997), New York Archaeological Council (elected positions); Archaeology Editor, Northeastern Anthropological Association Newsletter (1996 to 2001); Society for American Archaeology: Committee on the Status of Women in Archaeology (1994 to 1998); Program Committee for the 1999 Annual Meeting, Chicago, Task Force on Undergraduate and Graduate Curriculum, (1998 to present); Vice President of the Harvard Chapter of Sigma Xi (1997 to 2001). COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: Kathryn Curran, Anthropology, UMass-Amherst; Tonya Largy, Peabody Museum, Harvard University; Kimberly A. Oakberg, Brandeis University; Nikolass van der Merwe, University of Capetown. Graduate Advisors: Dena F. Dincauze, Professor Emerita Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Dianna Doucette, Harvard University; Deena Duranleau, Harvard University; Siobhan Hart, University of Massachusetts-Amherst; Ninian Stein, Harvard University, Yale University BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH JOHN M. BRIGGS Associate Professor, Department of Plant Biology Arizona State University, PO Box 871601, Tempe AZ 85287-1601 Phone: (480) 787-7360; Fax: (480) 965-6899; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION Pittsburg State University, B.S., 1974-1978 Pittsburg State University, M.S., 1979-1980 University of Arkansas, Ph.D., 1980-1985 APPOINTMENTS 1999-present, Associate Professor, Department of Plant Biology, Arizona State University, Tempe; 1998-1999, Program Director, National Science Foundation; 1991-1998, Research Associate Professor, Division of Biology, Kansas State University; 1987-1991, Senior Scientist, Division of Biology, Kansas State University; 1984-1986, Research Associate, Division of Biology, Kansas State University. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Briggs, J. M., A. K. Knapp and B. L. Brock. In press. Expansion of woody plants in tallgrass prairie: A 15 year study of fire and fire-grazing interactions. The American Midland Naturalist. Briggs, J. M., and A. K. Knapp. 2001. Determinants of C3 forb growth and production in a C4 dominated grassland. Plant Ecology 152:93-100. Briggs, J. M., M. D. Nellis, C. L. Turner, G. M Henebry, and H. Su. 1998. A Landscape Perspective of Patterns and Processes in Tallgrass Prairie. Pp. 265-279 in A.K. Knapp, J. M. Briggs, D. C. Hartnett and S. L. Collins, eds., Grassland Dynamics: Long-term Ecological Research in Tallgrass Prairie. Oxford University Press, New York. Briggs, J. M., and A. K. Knapp. 1995. Interannual variability in primary production in tallgrass prairie: climate, soil moisture, topographic position and fire as determinants of aboveground biomass. American Journal of Botany 82:1024-1030. Briggs, J. M., and D. J. Gibson. 1992. Effect of burning on tree spatial patterns in a tallgrass prairie landscape. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 119:300-307. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Hoch, G. A., J. M. Briggs, and L.C. Johnson. In revision. Assessing the rate, mechanisms and consequences of conversion of tallgrass prairie to Juniperus virginiana forest. Ecosystems. Knapp, A. K., J. M. Briggs and J. K. Koelliker. 2001. Frequency and extent of water limitation to primary production in a mesic temperate grassland. Ecosystems 4:19-28. Hoch, G. A., and J. M. Briggs. 1999. Expansion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) in the northern Flint Hills, Kansas. Proceedings of the 16th North American Prairie. Pp. 9-15 in J. T. Springer, ed. Proceedings of the 16th North American Prairie Conference, University of Nebraska, Kearney. Collins, S. L., A. K. Knapp, J. M. Briggs, J. M. Blair, and E. M. Steinauer. 1998. Modulation of diversity by grazing and mowing in native tallgrass prairie. Science 280(5364):745-747. B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – J OHN M. B RIGGS P AGE 2 Knight, C., J. M. Briggs, and M. D. Nellis. 1994. Expansion of gallery forest on Konza Prairie Research Natural Area, Kansas. Landscape Ecology 9:117-125. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES 1999, National Science Foundation, Plum Island Ecosystem Site Review Team committee; March 2000, National Science Foundation, Committee of Visitors Review of the Division of Biological Infrastructure; National Science Foundation, The National Center for Ecology and Synthesis Site Review Team committee (Chair); MacArthur Agro-Ecology Research Center. Lake Placid, FL; 01 September, 1999 to 31 August 2002, Scientific Advisory Board member; 01 October, 1999 to 30 September 2001, Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center, Science Advisory Board member; 1997-1998, LTER Network Elected Executive Committee Member. COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: J. M. Blair, Kansas State University (KSU); S. L. Collins, KSU; W. B. Cohen; D. Goodin, KSU; K. S. Fassnacht, University of Wisconsin, Madison; D. J. Gibson, University of Southern Illinois; D. C. Hartnett, KSU; G. M. Henebry, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; D. Kaufman, KSU; A. K. Knapp, KSU; C. Knight, University of Kansas; L. Johnson, KSU; R. E. Kennedy, Oregon State University; M. D. Nellis, University of West Virginia; D. Olsen, Oak Ridge; J. Porter, University of Virginia; R. A. Ramundo, KSU; S. Stafford, Colorado State University; T. R. Seastedt, University of Colorado; E. M. Steinauer, Audubon Society; C. L. Turner, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources; D. P Turner, Oregon State University. Graduate Advisors: John A. Sealander, retired. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Donna A. Rieck, Greg Hoch, Kansas State University; Jana Heisler, Arizona State University (ASU); Hoski Schaafsma, ASU; Art Stiles, ASU; Clarence Turner, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ANTHONY J. BRAZEL Director, Southwest Center for Environmental Research and Policy Center for Environmental Studies, PO Box 873211, Tempe AZ 85287-3211 Professor, Department of Geography Arizona State University, PO Box 870104, Tempe AZ 85287-0104 Phone: (480) 965-2976; Fax: (480) 965-8087; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION Rutgers University, Rutgers, N.J., B.A., Mathematics, May 1963 Rutgers University, Rutgers, N.J., M.A., Geography, May 1965 The University of Michigan, Ph.D., Geography, May 1972 APPOINTMENTS 2001 - Director, Southwest Center for Environmental Research & Policy (EPA), Center for Environmental Studies, Arizona State University; 1997-1998, Associate Dean for Student Services, Graduate College, Arizona State University; 1991-1997, Chair, Department of Geography, Arizona State University; 1979-1999, State Climatologist for Arizona (governor-appointed);1979-1988, Director, Laboratory of Climatology, Arizona State University; 1974 - present, professor, Department of Geography, Arizona State University; 1969-1974, Instructor, Assistant Professor, Geography, University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada; 1967-68, Research Climatologist, High Mountain Environment Project, Arctic Institute of North; America, Yukon/Alaska; 1968-89, Research Physical Scientist, U.S. Corps of Engineers, U. S. Lake Survey (Ice and Snow Project), Detroit, MI. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Brazel, A. J., N. Selover, R. Vose, and G. Heisler. 2000. The tale of two cities: Phoenix and Baltimore Urban LTERs. Climate Research 15(2):123-135. Berman, N. S., D. L. Boyer, A. J. Brazel, S. W. Brazel, R. Chen, H. J. S. Fernando, and M. J. Fitch. 1995. Synoptic classification and physical model experiments to guide field studies in complex terrain. Journal of Applied Meteorology 34:719-730. Brazel, A. J., R. S. Cerveny, and B. L. Trapido. 1993. Localized climatic responses during the 11 July 1991 eclipse: Phoenix, AZ. Climatic Change 23:155-168. Brazel, A. J., H. J. Verville, and R. Lougeay. 1993. Spatial-temporal controls on cooling degree hours: an energy demand parameter. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 47: 81-92. Stoll, M. J., and A..J. Brazel. 1992. Surface/air temperature relationships in the urban environment. Physical Geography 13(20):160-179. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Brazel, A. J. 1996. Microclimate. Pp 504-507 in Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather, Oxford Press, Brazel, A. J., G. J. McCabe, and H. J. Verville. 1993. Incident solar radiation simulated by general circulation models for the Southwestern United States. Climatic Research 2:177-181 B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – A NTHONY J. B RAZEL P AGE 2 Brazel, A. J. 1985. Statewide temperature and moisture trends, 1895-1983. Pp. 79-84 in W. D. Sellers, R. H. Hill, and M. Sanderson Rae, eds., Arizona Climate, The First Hundred Years, University of Arizona, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Tucson, Arizona. Brazel, A. J., J. Cook, and Collaborators.1977. Microclimate, architecture and landscaping relationships in an arid region: Phoenix, Arizona. Prepared for the National Science Foundation, Student Originated Studies Program, Grant SM176 07879, and Center for Environmental Studies Research Paper No. 4, ASU, 99 pp. Brazel, A. J., and D. M. Johnson. 1980. Land use effects on temperature and humidity in the Salt River Valley, Arizona. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 15(2):54 61. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES Microclimate and evaporation of Tempe Town Lake, synergy grant of Arizona State University, City of Tempe, McKemy Middle School, June 1999-2001; Governor-appointed state climatologist for Arizona, 1979-99; served state government, private and public sector in climate applications and analysis and the Association of State Climatologists (National Climate Data Center); Climate representative to national climate committee of LTER (NSF) for CAP LTER, 2000present; Editor, Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 2000-present; University Corporation for Atmospheric Research - national membership committee; ASU ARCUS representative; Board Biometeorology, AMS; AAAS Geology/Geography Board; American Geographical Society representative to AAAS. COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: Larry Baker, Baker Environmental Consulting, Moundview, MN; Neil Berman, Arizona State University (ASU); Donald Boyer, ASU; Daniel Blumberg , Ben Gurion University, Israel; Randall Cerveny, ASU; R. Chen, ASU; Philip Christensen, ASU; Ronald Dorn, ASU; Andrew Ellis, ASU; Joe Fernando, ASU; Jonathan Fink, ASU; Mark Fitch, Arizona Department of Environmental Quality; Will Graf, University of South Carolina; Patricia Gober, ASU; Richard Grant, Purdue University; David Greenland, University of North Carolina-Raleigh; Nancy Grimm, ASU; Susan Grimmond, Indiana University; Gordon Heisler, U.S. Forest Service, Syracuse NY; Kenneth Hinkel, University of Cincinnati; Diane Hope, ASU; Lawrence Kalkstein, University of Delaware; John Keane, Salt River Project, Phoenix AZ; Ann Kinzig, ASU; Jeffrey Klopatek, ASU; Raymond Lougeay, State University of New York at Geneseo; Chris Martin, ASU; Gregory McCabe, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver CO; Samuel Outcalt, retired; Charles Redman, ASU; Diane Stanitski-Martin, Shippensburg State University; Frederick Steiner, University of Texas-Austin; Russell Vose, National Climatic Data Center, Ashville NC; Joseph Zehnder, ASU. Graduate Advisors: Robert Muller, Melvin Marcus, Arthur Getis (M.A., Rutgers University); Samuel Outcalt, Melvin Marcus, Thomas Detwyler, Donald Portmann (Ph.D., The University of Michigan). Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Sharolyn Anderson (Ph.D. graduate student); Nancy Selover (PhD graduate student); Brooke Stabler (PhD graduate student); Roger Tomalty (Ph.D. graduate student). All Arizona State University. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH PAUL BOLSTAD Associate Professor, Department of Forest Resources University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108 Phone: (612) 624-9711; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION University of California-Berkeley; B.A., Forestry, 1980 North Carolina State University-Raleigh, M.A., Forestry, 1985 University of Wisconsin-Madison, Ph.D., Environmental Monitoring, 1990 APPOINTMENTS 1996-present, Associate Professor, University of Minnesota; 1995-1996, Assistant Professor, University of Minnesota; 1990-1995, Assistant Professor, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Jones III, E. B. D., G. S. Helfman, J. O. Harper, and P. V. Bolstad. 1999. Effects of riparian forest removal on fish assemblages in southern Appalachian streams. Conservation Biology 13:1454-1465. Bolstad, P. V., W. T. Swank and J. Vose. 1998. Predicting southern Appalachian overstory vegetation with digital terrain data. Landscape Ecology 13:271-283. Harding, J. S., E. F. Benfield, P. V. Bolstad, G. S. Helfman, and E. B. D. Jones III. 1998. Stream biodiversity: the ghost of land use past. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 95:14,843-14,847. Wear, D. N. and P. Bolstad. 1998. Land-use changes in southern Appalachian landscapes: Spatial analysis and forecast evaluation. Ecosystems 1:575-594. Bolstad, P. V., and W. T. Swank. 1997. Cumulative impacts of landuse on water quality in a southern Appalachian watershed. Water Resources Research 33:519-533. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Bolstad, P. V., J. M. Vose, and S. McNulty. 2001. Forest productivity, leaf area, and terrain in southern Appalachian deciduous forests. Forest Science 47:419-427. Bolstad, P. V., K. Mitchell, and J. M. Vose. 1999. Foliar temperature-respiration response functions for broad-leaved tree species in the southern Appalachians. Tree Physiology 19:871-878. Mitchell, K., P.V. Bolstad, and J.M. Vose. 1999. Interspecific and environmentally induced variation in foliar dark respiration among eighteen southeastern deciduous species. Tree Physiology 19:861-870. Bolstad, P.V., and T. Stowe. 1994. An evaluation of DEM accuracy: elevation, slope, and aspect. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 60:1327-1332. Bolstad, P.V. 1992. Geometric errors in natural resources GIS data: Tilt and terrain effects on aerial photographs. Forest Science 38:367-380. B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – P AUL B OLSTAD P AGE 2 COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: Mary Bauer; Tom Burke; Eileen Carey; Peter Curtiss; Eric Davidson; Ken Davis; Tom Gower; Tom Lillesand; Peter Reich; Jim Vose; Dave Coleman. Graduate Advisors: Lee Allen, North Carolina State University-Raleigh; Tom Lilies, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Phil Radtke, Viriginia Tech; Tail Lee, University of Minnesota; Alan Yeakley, Portland State University; Katherine Mitchell, USDAARS. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH LEONARD E. BLOOMQUIST Associate Professor and Interim Department Head Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Work Kansas State University, 204 Waters Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506-4003 Phone: (785) 532-6865; Fax: (785) 532-6978; email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION Creighton, B.S., Sociology and Political Science, 1976 University of Wisconsin-Madison, M.S., Sociology, 1980 University of Wisconsin-Madison, Ph.D., Sociology, 1986 APPOINTMENTS Current, Associate Professor and Interim Department Head, Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Work, Kansas State University; Current, Rural Activities Coordinator Director, Population Research Laboratory; Director, Survey Research Laboratory, Kansas State University; 1996-2001, Sociology Graduate Coordinator, Kansas State University; 1989-1995, Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Work, Kansas State University; 1989-1992, Research Director, Kansas Center for Rural Initiatives, Kansas State University; 1985-1988, Sociologist, Agriculture and Rural Economy Division, Economic Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Norman, D. W., L. E. Bloomquist, R. Janke, S. Freyenberger, J. Jost, B. W. Schurle, and H. Kok. 2000. The meaning of sustainable agriculture: reflections of some Kansas practitioners. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 15:126-133. Adamchak, D. J., L. E. Bloomquist, K. Bausman, and R. Qureshi. 1999. Consequences of population change for retail/wholesale sector employment in the nonmetropolitan Great Plains. Rural Sociology 64:92-112. Bloomquist, L. E., and B. E. Murphy. 1997. Work in Rural America. Pp. 782-785 in Gary Goreham, ed., Encyclopedia of Rural America. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO Williams, D. D., and L. E. Bloomquist. 1997. Gaining a perspective of community: A community case study viewed from multiple theoretical approaches. Journal of the Community Development Society 28:277-302. Bloomquist, L. E., C. Gringeri, D. Tomaskovic-Devey and C. Truelove. 1993. Work Structures and Rural Poverty. Pp. 68-105 in Rural Sociological Society Task Force on Rural Poverty: Persistent Poverty in Rural America. Westview Press, Boulder, CO. Hooks, G., and L. E. Bloomquist. 1992. The legacy of World War II for regional growth and decline: The cumulative effects of wartime investments in U.S. manufacturing, 1947-1972. Social Forces 71:303-337. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Norman, D.W., L. E. Bloomquist, S. G. Freyenberger, D. L. Regehr, B.W. Schurle, and R. R. Janke. 1998. Farmers’ attitudes concerning on-farm research: Kansas survey results. Journal of Natural Resources Life Science Education 27:35-41. B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – L EONARD E. B LOOMQUIST P AGE 2 Bloomquist. L. E. 1990. Local labor market characteristics and the occupational concentration of different sociodemographic groups. Rural Sociology 55:199-213. Bloomquist, L. E. 1988. Performance of the rural manufacturing sector. Pp. 49-75 in David L. Brown et al., eds., Rural economic development in the1980's. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington. Bloomquist, L. E., S. B. Fawcett,, and A. Kaluzny. 2000. What Kansans recommend to improve health and well-being. Pp. 323-337 in Alvin R. Tarlov and Robert St. Peter, eds., The society and population health reader: A state and community perspective. The New Press, New York. Bloomquist, L. E., and G. F. Summers. 1982. Organization of production and community income distributions. American Sociological Review 47: 325-338. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES Professional Communications Chair (1997-1998); Development Committee Chair, 1995-1997; Chair (1995-1996); Development Committee Member (1994-1997); Nominations Committee Member (1992-1993); Topic Manager, Small Business Innovation Research Review Panel, USDA (1994); Member, Rural Development Review Panel, National Research Initiative, USDA (1992 & 1996). COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: A. Allison, Kansas Health Institute; K. Bausman, Maryville University; B. Bratsberg, Kansas State University (KSU); S. Freyenberger, KSU; J. Gibbons, KSU; B. K. Goodwin, Clemson University; G. Green, University of Wisconsin-Madison; W. R. Goe, KSU; R. Janke, KSU; J. Jost, Kansas Rural Center; H. Kok, Monsanto Corporation; B. Murphy, University of Missouri; R. Rathge, North Dakota State University; D. Regehr, KSU; B. Schurle, KSU; J. Shanteau, KSU; R. St. Peter, Kansas Health Institute; D. Williams, University of Missouri. Graduate Advisors: Gene F. Summers, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: A. Al Roumi, Imam University-Riyadh; M. Al Saawi, Imam University-Qassim; S. Alvarez, Indiana State University; S. Fisher, Kansas State University; R. Hage, North Carolina State University; A. Harris, University of Michigan; K. McEwen, Duke University; B. Reid, Kansas State University. Thesis advisor for a total of 15 students since 1993. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH JIANGUO (JINGLE) WU Associate Professor, Department of Plant Biology Arizona State University, PO Box 871601, Tempe AZ 85287-1601 Phone: (480) 965-3414; Fax: (680) 965-6899; Email: [email protected] PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION University of Inner Mongolia, Huhhot, China, B. S, Biology (Ecology), 1982 Miami University, Oxford, OH, M. S., Botany (Ecology), August 1987 Miami University, Oxford, OH, Ph.D., Botany (Ecology), August 1991 Postdoc – Landscape Ecology, Spatial Modeling, and Theoretical Ecology NSF Postdoc Research Associate, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, August 1991-August 1993 Visiting Research Associate, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, August 1992-August 1993 APPOINTMENTS August 2001-present, Associate Professor, Department of Plant Biology, Arizona State University (ASU); April 1999-present, Associate Professor, Department of Life Sciences, ASU-West, Phoenix; August 1995-1999, Assistant Professor, Department of Life Sciences, ASU-West, Phoenix; October 1993-August 1995, Assistant Research Professor, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV; August 1992-August 1993, Visiting Research Fellow, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ; September 1991-August 1993, NSF Research Associate, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY; 1987-1991, Teaching Fellow, Department of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, OH; 1985-1986, Visiting Scientist, University of California, Davis, CA. PUBLICATIONS (FIVE MOST RELEVANT) Wu, J., and J. L. David. In press. A spatially explicit hierarchical approach to modeling complex ecological systems: Theory and applications. Ecological Modelling. Jenerette, G. D., and J. Wu. 2001. Analysis and simulation of land use change in the central Arizona - Phoenix region. Landscape Ecology 16:611-626. Wu, J., D. E. Jelinski, M. Luck and P. T. Tueller. 2000. Multiscale analysis of landscape heterogeneity: Scale variance and pattern metrics. Geo. Info. Sci. 6(1):6-19. Wu, J. 1999. Hierarchy and scaling: Extrapolating information along a scaling ladder. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing 25(4):367-380. Wu, J., and S. A. Levin. 1994. A spatial patch dynamic modeling approach to pattern and process in an annual grassland. Ecological Monographs 64:447-464. OTHER SIGNIFICANT PUBLICATIONS Wu, J., Y. Liu and D. E. Jelinski. 2000. Effects of leaf area profiles and canopy stratification on simulated energy fluxes: The problem of vertical spatial scale. Ecol. Modell. 134:283-297. Zipperer, W. C., J. Wu, R. V. Pouyat, and S. T. A. Pickett. 2000. The application of ecological principles to urban and urbanizing landscapes. Ecol. Applications 10(3):685-688. Reynolds, J., and J. Wu. 1999. Do landscape structural and functional units exist? Pp. 273-296 in Tenhunen, J. D. and P. Kabat, eds., Integrating Hydrology, Ecosystem Dynamics, and Biogeochemistry in Complex Landscapes. Wiley. B IOGRAPHICAL S KETCH – J IANGUO (J INGLE) W U P AGE 2 Wu, J., and S. A. Levin. 1997. A patch-based spatial modeling approach: Conceptual framework and simulation scheme. Ecological Modelling 101:325-346. Wu, J., and O. L. Loucks. 1995. From balance-of-nature to hierarchical patch dynamics: A paradigm shift in ecology. Quarterly Review of Biology 70:439-466. SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITIES Co-PI and Team Leader for Modeling/Theoretical/GIS for the NSF-supported Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research (CAP LTER, 1997-2003), and Senior Personnel of IGERT (Integrative Graduate Education and Research Training in Urban Ecology), Arizona State University, 2000-2005; Program Chair, 2001 Annual Symposium of US-International Association for Landscape Ecology; Chair, Asian Ecology Section, Ecological Society of America (ESA), 1998-2000; Councilor-at-Large, International Association for Landscape Ecology-US Section, 2001-; Member of Foreign Scholar Travel Award Committee, International Association of Landscape Ecology, US Chapter (March 2000, August 1999); Task Leader, (Task 2.1.4 - Semiarid and Arid Ecosystems), GCTE, IGBP,1997 - present; Co-organizer for Symposium on Resilience of Cities at 2002 Annual Meeting of ESA, Tucson, AZ; Co-organizer for International Conference on Modeling Complex Systems, Montreal, July 31-Aug. 4, 2000; Organizer for Symposium on Urban Landscape Ecology at the 2000 US-IALE Symposium, Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Co-organizer for Symposium on Urban Ecology at the 2000 Annual Meeting of Ecological Society of America, Snowbird, UT; Co-organizer for International Symposium on Grassland Management, Huhhot, August 15-19, 1997; Editorial Board Member for Landscape Ecology, Geographic Information Sciences, Acta Ecologica Sinica, Acta Phytoecologica Sinica; Reviewer for journals including Ecology, Ecological Applications, Ecosystems, Ecological Modelling, Conservation Biology, Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing; Panel Member and Reviewer for funding agencies including NSF, USDA, and EPA COLLABO RATORS & OTHER AFFILIATIONS Collaborators: John D. Aber, University of NH; B. Acock, U.S. Department of Agriculture; H. K. M. Bugmann, Swiss Fed. Inst. of Technology; Indy C. Burke, Colorado State; Mary L. Cadenasso, IES; Qiong Gao, China; Kevin J. Gaston, University of Sheffield; Fanglian He, Canadian Forest Service; Richard Hobbs, Murdoch; D. E. Jelinski, Queen’s, Canada; Habin Li, U.S. Forest Service; Orie L. Loucks, Miami; Danielle Marceau, University of Montreal; E. Meir, University of WA; I. R. Noble, Australian National; D. T. Price, Canadian Forest Service; Steward Pickett, IES; R. V. Pouyat, University of MD; Ye Qi, University of CA-Berkeley; Jim Reynolds, Duke; W. L. Steffen, GCTE-IGBP; Paul Tueller, University of NV-Reno; James Wickham, U.S. EPA; W. C. Zipperer, U.S. Forest Service. Graduate Advisors: John L. Vankat, Miami, MS, Ph.D; Simon A. Levin, Princeton, Postdoctoral. Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Russell Watkins, 3001, Inc.; Hai Ren, China; Yuanbo Liu, China; Matt A. Luck, University of California-Davis; Wanli Wu, Arizona State University.
© Copyright 2020