PROGRAM ANNOUNCEMENT/SOLICITATION NO./CLOSING DATE/if not in response to a program announcement/solicitation enter NSF 02-2
NSF 02-010
(Indicate the most specific unit known, i.e. program, division, etc.)
(Data Universal Numbering System)
Arizona State University
Box 3503
Tempe, AZ. 85287
Arizona State University
(See GPG II.C For Definitions)
Agrarian Landscapes in Transition: A Cross-Scale Approach
Exemption Subsection
or IRB App. Date
(GPG II.C.9)
Department of Anthropology
Tempe, AZ 852873211
United States
High Degree
Yr of Degree
Telephone Number
Electronic Mail Address
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
[email protected]
Charles L Redman
David R Foster
Myron P Gutmann
Peter M Kareiva
Ann P Kinzig
Page 1 of 2
Electronic Signature
Central Arizona–Phoenix (CAP) LTER
*Charles Redman (PI/PD)
Will Stefanov
*Ann Kinzig (Co-PI)
John Briggs
Peter McCartney
Laura Musacchio
Nancy Grimm
Tony Brazel
Monica Elser
Jianguo Wu
Charlene Saltz
* = Executive Committee
Harvard Forest (HFR) LTER
*David Foster (Co-PI)
Billie Turner
David Kittredge
Elizabeth Chilton
John O’Keefe
Glenn Motzkin
University of Michigan/Shortgrass Steppe (SGS) LTER
*Myron Gutmann (Co-PI)
Ken Sylvester
William Parton
Glenn Deane
The Nature Conservancy
Peter Kareiva (Co-PI)
Rebecca Shaw
Coweeta LTER
*Ted Gragson (Executive Committee)
Paul Bolstad
Kellogg Biological Station (KBS) LTER
*Alan Rudy (Executive Committee)
Craig Harris
Konza Prairie (KNZ) LTER
*Gerad Middendorf (Executive Committee)
Leonard Bloomquist
John Blair
Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) LTER
Morgan Grove
International Collaborators
Sander van der Leeuw (Archaeomedes Project, France)
Pamela Matson, Stanford (Yaqui Valley, Mexico Regional Sustainability Study)
This interdisciplinary project will trace the effects of the introduction, spread, and
abandonment of agriculture at six U.S. long-term ecological research (LTER) sites, with
cross comparisons in Mexico and France. Agrarian transformations represent the most
pervasive alteration of the Earth’s terrestrial environment during the past 10,000 years. Many
current conceptualizations of these transformations, however, assume a simple linear
model—change is driven by present-day economic, demographic, and technological
conditions. This project incorporates a more integrated and long-term cycle: of land-use
change affecting landscapes, of altered landscapes affecting ecological processes, and of both
influencing the ways in which humans monitor and respond to their surroundings,
engendering further cycles of change. The central objective of this research is to identify and
quantify the ways in which these integrated cycles differ across cultures, across
biogeographic regions, and across time. A suite of quantitative and narrative analyses will be
used to identify the prime determinants of long-term dynamics, present-day patterns, and
reservoirs of ecological and social resilience in these systems. Analytical approaches will
include structural-equation modeling, analysis of spatial and causal effects, and cross-site
comparisons of case studies. As a practical test of the project’s results, approaches and
insights will be examined in the context of conservation planning at The Nature
Conservancy (TNC) that includes an emphasis on eco-regional planning and scenario
This investigation will contribute to both science and society in six ways. First, it will
demonstrate the importance of social-science information and approaches in ecosystem
investigations, expanding the results of the LTER network and breaching the divide between
social and natural science. The data protocols developed will also benefit other communities
of social and natural scientists through the involvement of ICPSR, the main national
repository of social science data. Second, this project will help to develop general theories on
how socio-ecological legacies, as well as lags in the recognition of and response to change,
vary across space and time. Third, through detailed case histories and quantitative analyses,
the project expects to provide convincing evidence that humans act not only to disturb
ecosystems, but also monitor ecosystem values and respond to maintain stability and
minimize crises. Fourth, project results will provide information of direct use to policy
makers, TNC, and land managers by using an approach that explicitly relates socio-ecological
processes to varying levels of political organization. Fifth, the cross-scale data collection and
analyses are expected to demonstrate that some patterns of human-ecological interactions
are surprisingly long term, vary across space and time, and are non-linear. The greatest
contribution will be through education at a variety of levels; this project will train new
interdisciplinary scientists at all levels of the educational spectrum, inform public officials,
and contribute to more effective land management practices.
The patterns humans impose on the Earth through purposeful and inadvertent land-use change
are fundamental determinants of local, regional, and global ecological processes that ultimately influence the sustainability of both biological and cultural landscapes, and thus human quality of life.
These landscapes result from integrated socioeconomic and ecological dynamics playing out across
potentially vast scales of space, time, and organizational complexity (Turner et al. 1990; Vitousek et
al. 1997; Levin 1999). Ecological systems have intrinsic temporal rhythms, driven by such things as
generation time, age of reproduction, and disturbance frequencies. They also exhibit patterns on
characteristic spatial scales, driven by such things as dispersal distance, topography, and interaction
lengths. But these ecological systems also bear the signature of human institutions that act—either
directly or indirectly—to alter the dominant spatial and temporal modes (e.g., suppressing fire frequencies or homogenizing landscapes) or to introduce new ones (e.g., 5-year planning cycles, rectangular state boundaries) (Pyne 1997; Carpenter & Gunderson 2001; Scheffer et al. 2001; Turner et al.
2002). At the same time, human institutions are shaped and influenced by the environmental rhythms
and ecological arrangements of the biogeographic region in which they emerged (Cronon 1983; Diamond 1997; Dove & Kammen 1997; Ostrom et al. 1997; Berkes & Folke 1998). This reciprocal “imprinting” of scales means that scientists and managers cannot effectively parse landscapes into “natural” and “human” components, but instead must study them as an integrated whole (NRC 1999; Kinzig et al. 2000; Michener et al. 2001). Our central objective is to understand what happens when
humans impose their spatial and temporal signatures on ecological regimes and must then
respond to the systems they have helped create, further altering the dynamics of the coupled
system and the potential for ecological and social resilience.
We propose to study this question within the context of agrarian transformations, both current
and historical, because of their ubiquity and because of the tight coupling of human and environmental dynamics that are an inherent feature of agrarian landscapes (Geertz 1963). The introduction,
spread, and abandonment of agriculture represents the most pervasive alteration of the Earth’s environment during the past 10,000 years, affecting 2/3 of the Earth’s terrestrial surface (Vitousek et al.
1986; Matson et al. 1997; Farina 2000). The transitions of agrarian landscapes and life ways continue
to take many forms, ranging from abandonment to urban development to more intensified agriculture. In the US alone, 105 acres of agricultural land go out of production every hour; about half of
that is used for urban or suburban growth, and half is used less intensely or actively conserved for its
habitat values (USDA 2001).
Many current conceptualizations of agrarian transformations, however, are based on simple linear assumptions—that is, people behave monolithically, and land-use decisions are governed by land
rent, demographic pressures, and technological capabilities (Kinzig et al. 2000; Agarwal et al. 2001;
Lui 2001). The details of this linear dynamic are assumed to translate cleanly across space and time,
applying equally well to regions with different ecological features, different development histories,
or different natural-resource institutions. In contrast, we conceptualize a more intricate and integrated
cycle: of land-use change affecting landscapes, of altered landscapes affecting ecological processes,
of both influencing the ways in which humans monitor and respond to their surroundings, and of
human responses engendering further cycles of change (see Figure 1). In this view, human institutions are ultimately products of their landscapes, and landscapes are products of the human institutions governing them (Williams 1980; Worster 1984; Peluso 1992; Duane 1999). The present state is
intimately influenced by the iterative history of this cycle. We thus do not expect the details of agrarian transformations to hold constant across biogeographic regions or over time, though we do assert
variations can be understood, and their patterns described.
To understand the richness, diversity, and complexity of agrarian landscapes and their transformations, then, we must monitor them at varying spatial and temporal scales and place them in a context of former cycles of change, human perceptions of the lands and life ways, and the emergence of
institutions associated with natural resources. We thus propose research on three stages of that cycle:
(1) How do human activities influence the spatial and temporal structures of agrarian landscapes? How does this vary over time and across biogeographic regions?
(2) What are the ecological and environmental consequences of the resulting structural changes?
(3) What are the human responses to both these structural and ecological changes, and how do
these responses drive further changes in agrarian landscapes?
We are particularly interested in understanding the non-linearities or “surprises” that emerge in
this cycle. We want to know where they come from,
how they affect feedbacks in the system, and how to
avoid having them precipitate crises. We suspect, and
the literature reinforces, that it is the lack of relating
fast- and slow-moving processes, ignoring forces that
seem too distant in time or unconnected from the sysEcological
tem, and the mismatch of scales of monitoring the enConsequences
vironment relative to making decisions about it that
reduce resilience and precipitate crises (Holling 1973;
Tainter 1990; Gunderson et al. 1995; Levin 1999;
Swetnam et al. 1999; Redman 2000; Carpenter et al.
2001; Holling 2001; Foster & Aber 2002). We proHuman Monitoring
pose to identify and describe the influence of several
& Response
critical structures and dynamics on stability regimes
within these coupled human-natural agrarian systems
by promoting four significant innovations through our
Figure 1: Our general conceptualization of the
cycle of agrarian transformations, as described
in the text.
Our approach is multi-scalar—spanning temporal, spatial, and organizational scales—and
emphasizes identification of potential “critical scales” or critical “cross-scale” interactions,
elucidating the ways in which processes at one level of the hierarchy can constrain or influence processes at another;
We will pay particular attention to long time spans, especially the influence of lags and legacies on present-day dynamics (e.g., in the ecological processes themselves, in the monitoring
of change, or in human response to change);
We will describe the strength and length of causal and closed loops in the humanenvironment interaction, correlating these feedback loops to shifts in stability regimes and
changes in system resilience or vulnerability;
Our framework is comparative in order to elicit the more general processes and relationships
that drive the patterns observed in particular cases. These comparisons will be cross-site,
cross-cultural, and cross-biogeographical.
As a practical test of our findings, we have initiated a collaboration with The Nature Conservancy (TNC) so that our approach and insights can be examined in the context of conservation planning, including an emphasis on ecoregional planning (Groves et al. 2002) and scenario building
(Wollenberg et al. 2000). Throughout this proposal, we define conservation broadly to include not
only the preservation of “natural patches” and environmental quality across a changing landscape,
but conservation of the desirable cultural qualities of landscapes, including those described as working landscapes.
To implement this ambitious approach to a new understanding of the intricately coupled human
and natural systems embodied in agrarian landscapes, we propose to take advantage of the enormous
background research and continuing inquiries of the NSF’s Long Term Ecological Research network
(LTER). The value of using LTER sites stems from their spatial distribution and the duration and
richness of data collection. We have chosen six LTER sites that represent different major biogeographic regions of the US, varying cultures and institutions, and contrasting agrarian landscape
transformations. In addition, we will partner with other research groups in data sharing, and with international collaborators whose study systems exhibit similar biogeographies, yet significantly different cultural and political contexts. LTER research encompasses both localized and landscape-level
phenomena, and both rapid and longer-term processes. We will complement those scales by collecting data on a regional scale and over a longer duration, from such sources as the US Census and agricultural census, archival records, and remote sensing. We will use TNC’s ecoregional plans to place
patterns within LTER sites into a larger regional context of conservation priority setting (Redford et
al. in press). Our intention is to develop and implement a theoretical approach and practical framework that would be adopted by the entire LTER network, other relevant regional studies both here
and abroad, and natural-resource managers.
Although we will center this research at LTER sites, the work proposed represents a significant
extension of LTER research. First, the site-specific LTER monitoring and analyses will be supplemented with extensive regional data, allowing a broader understanding of ecological patterns and
dynamics. Second, we will extend LTER datasets temporally, to the beginning of the 20th century
whenever possible. Third, there has not generally been a focus on agricultural research within the
LTER network, though many of the 24 sites have substantial areas that are, or once were, agrarian
landscapes (Grimm et al. 2000; Foster et al. 2002). Finally, and most importantly, this research will
allow us to define a fundamentally new role for integrative and interdisciplinary science within the
LTER network and beyond, by forging new collaborations among natural and social scientists.
Overview of Approach
No single statistical or analytical tool is ideal for addressing the range of questions we seek to
address. Hence, we will employ a suite of techniques in both an exploratory manner and to test or
develop specific hypotheses (see Table 1). All techniques will be applied to every site, although we
do not expect the different approaches to have equal success in all systems. Our approaches fall into
two categories: (1) a quantitative and statistical cross-site comparison using comprehensive and longterm datasets at three spatial scales or levels of organization; and (2) a set of case-study narratives
drawing on the specifics of each site, on the complementarities across sites, and using both qualitative and quantitative analyses. To answer our core questions, we will gather extensive long-term and
spatially explicit data in three categories (II.C), including: (1) land use and land cover; (2) ecological
characteristics and processes; and (3) social characteristics and processes.
We will search for causal relationships and spatial autocorrelations in these datasets using a variety of statistical approaches. A key feature of our statistical analyses is that we need not assume any
particular variable is either a driver or a response. Instead, we will use: (1) iterative structuralequation modeling (II.E.i) to reveal key interactions in the system, the strength and length of feedback loops, and the return time following perturbation (as a measure of stability); (2) a spatial-effects
model (II.E.ii.) to test for the critical spatial scales or levels of organization governing system dynamics; and (3) a two-stage regression test (II.E.ii) to reveal potential causal relationships, including
time lags and legacies inherent in those relationships. These activities will be initiated at annual re-3-
search workshops under the direction of Gutmann (ICPSR/SGS), Kareiva (TNC), and Kinzig (CAP)
in Years 1 and 2 so that sites can agree on common conceptual models, identify needed datasets, and
ensure uniform application of statistical techniques.
Using these analyses together, we can examine the patterns of spatial organization, component
interactions, temporal lags, and stability regimes found in the cycle of land-use change, ecological
change, and human response (Fig. 1). Case-study narratives will further elucidate the roles these spatial and temporal modes play in the cycle, and how they might explain the onset of nonlinear events
and delayed social response to ecological change, or to reveal the critical scales or interactions governing key dynamics within the cycle (II.E.iv). Foster (HFR) and Redman (CAP) will coordinate the
case-study narratives, with research workshops in Years 2 and 3 devoted in part to these activities.
A final step in our research plan entails cross-system comparisons—searching for the patterns
that allow us to predict how the cycle of land-use change, ecological change, and human response
plays out over space and time (Veldkamp & Lambin 2001). In Years 3 and 4, therefore, we will assemble site-specific results and search for empirical generalizations (III.E.i). Similarly, we will ask
each site to perform a scenario analysis (III.B). Other key synthetic activities include Education and
Outreach (III.C), facilitation of international comparisons (III.D), and a testing of developed understanding and theories in the context of TNC conservation planning (III.E).
Table 1: A summary of research activities. Shading under Years 1-4 indicates the intensity of activity. See also
“Management Plan” in Supplementary Documentation
Research Activity
Data Acquisition
Remote Sensing
Spatial-Effects Analysis
Structural-Equation Modeling
Narratives: CAP
Cross-Site Synthesis
International Collaboration
Conservation & Scenarios
1 2 3 4 Main Products
Map layers of land use, social and ecological variables over time
Regional and local land cover over time, NPP
Identification of key spatial auto-correlations, causal relationships
Identification of key interactions, lags and legacies, stability regimes
Critical scales of monitoring and system response
Role of lags and legacies in ecological dynamics
Human perceptions of and response to change
Cross-system comparisons of key dynamics
Generalizable patterns, across time and biogeographic region
Cross-cultural perspective, exchange of ideas and approaches
Engagement with practitioners, improved conservation planning
Deployable curriculum, research opportunities, educated citizenry
II.B LTER Site Descriptions
II.B.i Central Arizona-Phoenix (CAP) Region
Arizona is a state of diverse local climates and closely juxtaposed life zones. With less than 7
inches of annual rainfall, the Phoenix metropolitan area is situated in an arid landscape with concomitant reliance on surface or groundwater, a high evaporation rate, and a continual threat of desertification. At the same time, this area contains 730,000 acres of highly productive farmland. Similar
circumstances are faced by those living on 1/3 of the world's land surface. In addition, 6 of the 10
fastest-growing US cities are in the arid west (US Census 2000), making the relationships examined
in this LTER both globally and regionally relevant. The Phoenix area's spectacular growth in population—doubling twice in the past 35 years—and its rapid and continuing expansion into former agricultural and desert settings provides a unique opportunity to monitor human-induced ecological
transformations resulting from rapid agrarian change. CAP LTER encompasses 6,400 km2, though
this proposed study will include the more rural farmlands and small communities immediately to the
south, effectively doubling the study area.
II.B.ii Harvard Forest (HFR) Region
Research in the HFR region has documented how the New England landscape has been transformed by interactions among land use, climate change, and natural disturbance over the last four
centuries (Foster & O’Keefe 2000). This region was extensively deforested, farmed intensively
through the mid 19th century, and subsequently allowed to reforest as agriculture shifted to the Midwest and as Eastern populations concentrated in urban and suburban areas (Foster 2000a). Today, the
region is 60 to 95% forested; in many ways it is more “natural” than at any time since the American
Revolution. HFR investigations of ecological pattern and process focus on three spatial scales: sitebased studies of ecosystem composition, structure, and function that draw upon over 100 years of
study and data; landscape-scale analyses using extensive historical, paleoecological, archaeological,
and ecological archives in subregions that vary in past and present cultural activity and biogeography; and regional-scale studies that address variation and change across all of New England.
II.B.iii Shortgrass Steppe (SGS) Region
The Shortgrass Steppe (SGS) LTER is located on the Central Plains Experimental Range and the
Pawnee National Grassland—tracts of shortgrass rangeland in the piedmont of north central Colorado (Burke et al. 1991). Working closely with the SGS is the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) at University of Michigan, which collects and analyzes historical
demographic information for the SGS region and beyond. The climate of the SGS is typical of midcontinental semiarid regions in the temperate zone. Annual precipitation has averaged 322 mm over
the past 50 years. Shortgrasses (64%), forbs (7%), succulents (21%), and half-shrubs (8%) dominate
the vegetation. SGS research has documented the impacts of expansion of agriculture on local and
regional hydrology.
II.B.iv Kellogg Biological Station (KBS) Region
The KBS site is located at the eastern end of the Midwest cornbelt. The original KBS site was
focused on the Kellogg Biological Station, with more recent hydrological work situated in the Augusta Creek Watershed. Work on the social dimensions of agricultural ecology has focused on the
four townships surrounding KBS. A large percent of the area of the four townships is woodland.
Farming—including cropland, pasture, and reserve—occupies much of the rest of the land cover.
The site and surrounding townships were occupied in the mid-1800s by Euro-American settlers who
cleared the forest cover and practiced mixed farming (Gray 1994); practices gradually shifted toward
cash grains, fruits, and vegetables for regional markets (Cronon 1991). Present-day farming is a mixture of small-scale pluri-activity and medium-scale industrialized farming, with significant reliance
on rented land. Farming historically relied on rainfall, but center-pivot irrigation is now increasing.
II.B.v Coweeta (CWT) Region
The Coweeta LTER has evolved from a site-based to a region-based research project. Coweeta
initially emphasized the impact of forestry management practices on the hydrological cycle in small,
experimental watersheds at the 2,185 ha Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory; now the program emphasizes interdisciplinary analysis with ecological and socioeconomic components across 54,000 km2 of
Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. In this region, 1800 marks the beginning of significant Euro-American settlement; 1820 the take-off of modernization and market segmentation;
1900 the apogee of forest clearing; 1930 the peak in agricultural activity; and 1970 the beginning of
the recreation and real estate boom (Yarnell 1998).
II.B.vi Konza (KNZ) Region
The Flint Hills of eastern Kansas contain the largest remaining area of unplowed tallgrass prairie
in North America. This region encompasses over 50,000 km2, covering a considerable portion of the
eastern third of the state, from near the Kansas-Nebraska border on the northern edge to northeastern
Oklahoma on the southern edge. The terrain is relatively steep sloped and overlain by shallow limestone soils unsuitable for cultivation. The land cover is predominately native tallgrass prairie, which
can reach a height of over 2.5 m in the most productive years. The land is now primarily used for
grazing cattle and hay production; urban centers such as Manhattan and Emporia, however, continue
to expand into prairie lands (Knapp et al. 1998).
Data Inputs and Processing
We will rely on common and comprehensive datasets, over time and across spatial scales or levels or organization, in the categories of: (1) land-use and land-cover change; (2) ecological or environmental characteristics and processes (in the broad categories of biodiversity, air and water quality,
climate, hydrologic regime, and carbon flows and storage); and (3) social characteristics and processes (in the broad categories of demography, political institutions, socioeconomic status, agricultural practices, and conservation practices). The sources for these data will be varied, ranging from
aerial photographs to the Breeding Bird Survey to US Census data. Space precludes an exhaustive
listing of all datasets, but many are available through the LTER network (e.g., carbon storage),
ICPSR/SGS (e.g., US agricultural census), TNC (e.g., spatially explicit maps of “at risk” species or
communities), the Web (e.g., US Census Data) or federal and state agencies (e.g., climatological
data). Whenever possible, data will be gathered for all sites; common datasets will be supplemented
by site-specific data made available through the unique socio-ecological conditions and intellectual
strengths characterizing the different partner organizations. Data will be gathered by research technicians assigned to three sites: CAP (primarily responsible for land-cover change, remote sensing, and
a subset of social data); ICPSR/SGS (agricultural land use, including agricultural census data, and a
subset of social data); and TNC (ecological data, supplemented by existing LTER datasets).
We recognize that we will devote a significant portion of our effort to ensuring the comparability of datasets purporting to capture similar features (e.g., bird diversity) and the compatibility of
datasets capturing different features (e.g., human population density versus net primary production)
across sites and over time. The compilation of cross-scale, cross-site, and cross-time datasets capturing key land-use, ecological, and social features would itself be a significant accomplishment. We
will draw on the considerable staff expertise at our core data sites to ensure this coordination; for instance, CAP (under the direction of McCartney), recently hosted a workshop on data compatibility
with almost every LTER site in attendance. McCartney also directs a Bioinformatic project (NSF) to
define approaches to database comparability (McCartney et al. 2000). We will also take advantage of
the communication software platforms being developed by the HERO project (HERO 2000). Workshops and teleconferences will be held to ensure cross-site coordination of data management (see
“Management Plan” under Supplementary Documentation).
At the larger scales (county to region) data will be gathered for every decade, coinciding with
the US Census and extending back to at least 1900, with earlier data gathered whenever possible. At
smaller scales (census block group or vegetation patch, for instance), data will be gathered, whenever
reasonable, at an annual resolution by drawing on such sources as aerial photographs, remote sensing, tax and administrative records, and ongoing monitoring within the LTER network. For each
dataset, at each level of organization (or spatial scale) and for each time period, we will analyze,
among other things, patch size and fragmentation, and turnover of patch types. We will examine the
patterns in these features within sites, across sites, and over time. The maps and graphs that emerge
from this analysis will be used as inputs in our Synthesis Activities (Section III).
Remotely Sensed Land Cover and Net Primary Production
We propose to incorporate remotely sensed and ancillary data into the multi-scalar and multitemporal models to assess changes associated with agrarian landscape conversion (NRC 1998;
McConnell & Moran 2001). The first step consists of determining the spatial/temporal distribution
and areal extent of land-cover types using Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data for the LTER site areas (data available from 1975 to present). We
will use the expert-system classification procedure of Stefanov et al. (2001) as a framework for obtaining land-cover classifications in each area at spatial scales of 15 to 30 m/pixel. Both remotely
sensed (spectral, vegetation indices, spatial texture) and other geospatially explicit ancillary data (topography, soil type, etc.) may be used in this expert system to derive final land-cover classifications.
The second step involves direct estimation of ecological variables in our study areas. Remotely
sensed data obtained from satellite sensors with high temporal and spectral resolution, such as the
Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, and Moderate
Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, will be used to estimate Net Primary Productivity (NPP) at
the regional (1 km) scale for each site using the production efficiency model of Goetz et al. (1999).
We will also investigate using this model with higher spatial resolution data.
II.E Analytical Approaches
II.E.i Structural-equation modeling
Because controlled experiments are impractical for large-scale landscape transformations, we
will use structural-equation modeling (Kline 1998) to model interdependencies among response variables, as well as relationships between response variables and input variables. This type of modeling
is a form of multiple regression analysis that uses simultaneous equations to estimate interdependencies and feedbacks, with the goal of both describing a system and gaining some estimate of the relative importance of particular variables or linkages. Structural-equation models have been widely applied in the social sciences and economics (Kline 1998, Guinot et al. 2001, Peyre et al. 2001, Grace
& Pugesek 1997), where the hope is to infer causal structure. The data input for this analysis will be
a large number of geo-referenced positions at which a suite of biological and social variables is recorded, along with changes in land use (II.C and II.D). One first specifies a suite of potential conceptual variables whose interdependencies and interactions are the focus of analysis. These conceptual
variables might include, for instance, landscape sustainability, environmental degradation, biodiversity, economic growth, population pressure, and regulatory controls. These conceptual variables are
not directly measurable—instead one measures things like proportion of land in green belts or conservation set-asides, % of streams failing to meet EPA water quality standards, breeding bird occurrences, changing land prices, and so on. Structural-equation modeling takes a specified list of measured variables, each of which is associated with a conceptual variable, and then infers the strength of
interactions among conceptual variables, from the patterns of variation and covariation among all
measured attributes. Obviously, there is the danger of such an exercise becoming a fishing expedition, and in fact if one simply throws in all possible measured and conceptual variables, the procedure typically tells one that “all results are non-significant”. One way in which we will simplify the
initial hypothesized model is to collect suites of variables together into single index scores based on
their covariation. Before performing the structural equation analysis, one can use principle component analysis to reduce certain data clusters with multiple layers—those relating to human population, or biodiversity, or socioeconomic factors, for instance—to a few key indices.
Applying this approach requires a large number of data points, and enough understanding of the
system that plausible hypotheses can be formulated. We will pursue structural equation modeling in
two ways: (1) each site will evaluate an initial common model that includes the same conceptual
variables; and (2) each site will propose their own idiosyncratic conceptual model that they believe
best capture the interdependency of land-use change and indices reflecting environmental degradation or key alterations in biological processes. In doing this we will draw heavily on the Case-Study
Narratives (II.E.iv.).
Development of initial models will take place in a workshop to be held in Year 1; model results
and evaluations will be presented at a workshop in Year 2. Both activities will fall under the direction of Kareiva and Kinzig; results of these activities will guide subsequent data acquisition.
II.E.ii Spatial-Effects Analysis: Characterizing time lags in critical interdependencies
The US has rich and unique data on the history of agricultural land use. Since 1850, the US Agricultural Census has regularly asked farmers about the ways they use the land and then published
detailed information at the scale of the county. To go beyond the descriptive, we need to turn to an
analysis that accounts for a variety of independent variables, illuminates the differences between
biogeographic regions and different time periods, and examines the potential causal relationships
among natural and social phenomena. For this part of the project, we employ analyses that take spatial and temporal autocorrelation into account, even when examining the lag structure of the causal
processes. The method followed here is a spatial-effects model (Anselin 1988). This two-stage
method uses the same set of independent variables in the first- and second-stage regressions (with an
addition of a spatial-effects term in the second-stage regression). The dependent variable is also the
same in each of the regressions in this method, described more fully in Gutmann et al. (1998).
Although causality must ultimately be left to the realm of theory and philosophy, whether one
can statistically detect the direction of causality has been given considerable attention in econometrics for time series data. We will test this expectation of reciprocal causation using the WienerGranger causality test (Granger 1969; Sims 1972). In doing so, we introduce new information into
the debate about the environmental impact of population change and bring together two state-of-theart methods into a single application for the first time. The basis of this method is that the future cannot predict the past, so if a variable X (e.g., climate variability) causes variable Y (e.g., land use),
then changes in X should precede changes in Y. The empirical realization of this can be put into operation through a two-step regression procedure. This approach simultaneously provides information
about the duration and structure of lags and legacies in the system. Application of this approach
across datasets and across sites will be coordinated by Gutmann, with an introduction to the methods
given in a workshop to be held in Year 1.
II.E.iii Limitations of Statistical Analyses
There are two major vulnerabilities of our research. First, because we start with statistical models that allow a considerable amount of complexity, it is hard to know in advance if the signals representing interdependencies will be detectable amidst local noise. The second concern is the possible
error of our initial premise—that biocomplexity can be depicted ultimately via relatively simple conceptual and quantitative models. This does not mean that the analyses, research needed, or phenomena themselves are simple, just that in the end, it will be possible to capture the key ingredients of
land-use transformations via relatively concise mathematical descriptions. Biocomplexity research
has its origins in theories, such as chaos theory or complex-adaptive systems theory, that champion
the idea that simple rules generate enormous complexity. If our premise is correct, it will represent a
tremendous advance for biocomplexity theory by providing evidence for this intriguing idea.
II.E.iv Case-Study Narratives
The case-study narratives are intended to further highlight the critical modes of temporal legacies, cross-scale interactions, shifting feedback loops, and changing stability regimes that govern the
cycle of land-use change, ecological change, and human response (Fig. 1). At several sites we will
draw upon narratives that are already developed (e.g., SGS, HFR) and whose results to date can inform the choices of variables to include in our statistical analyses, but where additional narrative development will also be conducted in response to the critical relationships and patterns unearthed in
these statistical analyses. In other cases (e.g., CAP), relatively new narratives will be developed that
are connected to ongoing research and strengths at the site, but heavily influenced by the statistical
analyses. The CAP case study will focus on significant events in the management of water operating
at different scales of political organization, thus allowing an examination of the influence of scale in
determining critical feedback loops or responses. The HFR case study will focus on the role of ecological legacies in structuring current system characteristics and dynamics (Foster & Aber 2002).
The SGS case study will focus on two different instances of particular ecological change that resulted
in significantly different human responses within a system (limited versus significant human dislocation in response to drought), allowing us to see what temporal or spatial modes in the system might
allow crises to precipitate. Other sites will contribute similar narratives, but space precludes us from
presenting them all here. Foster and Redman will oversee development and coordination of these
Case Studies, with a workshop partially devoted to these activities in Years 2 and 3.
Phoenix: Irrigation, Ground Water, and the Growth of the Arid West
Among the most compelling coupled natural-human system in the arid West is that of water and
its human use. Availability of water for irrigated agriculture and municipal growth is subject to the
vagaries of climate. Humans attempt to manage this variability, as well as that produced from flooding, by controlling impoundments and water releases and otherwise heavily modifying the hydrosystem (Worster 1985; Reisner 1986). The absolute necessity of supplemental water for farming and
human settlement has made its allocation a priority for governments at all levels, a powerful driver of
the economy, and pivotal for the continuing growth in the regional population (Gammage 1999).
What makes this case study fascinating is that each level of government monitors and allocates water
according to different spatial units, and there are differing temporal lags in monitoring the availability of water (Carter et al. 2000; Merideth 2001). These differences are compounded by the differential willingness of each sector to pay for available water, with residential users willing to pay far
more than farmers. Despite this market imbalance, agriculture still uses 80% of the water in Arizona.
As one example of how critical scales may vary for this set of interactions, the state has established five “active management areas” (AMA) for water that roughly parallel sets of subsurface
drainage basins. The Phoenix AMA is largely coterminous with the CAP LTER and is the most
populous area of the state (about 3 million people), the largest producer of agricultural products
($760 million/year), and the greatest user of water (2.3 million acre feet—MAF—per year). Just
south is the Pinal AMA, also in our study area, which is the third largest agricultural producer ($357
million) and consumer of water (1.1 MAF), but has only about 100,000 inhabitants (AZ Agricultural
Statistics 2001; ADWR 2000). Although surface and groundwater mingle between these two
AMA’s, political forces led to their very different treatment in the Groundwater Management Act of
1980, designed to stem the alarming drop in groundwater levels across the state. The stated goal of
the Phoenix AMA is to obtain “safe yield” (i.e., roughly as much water going into the ground as
comes out) by 2025 while in the Pinal AMA the goal is to “preserve existing agricultural economies
for as long as feasible”. At a regional scale, land-use change and newly engineered water sources
have allowed our study area to more than double in population while reversing groundwater depletion. At the more “human” scale of the landscape, outcomes are far more varied with some local water tables dropping and riparian areas going dry (Grimm et al. 1997). The driving forces and cascading influences associated with patterns of water availability and use operate at varying scales of geography, with lags in response determined by nature and the legal system, and are embedded at the
center of an economic system that not only operates on a rapid frequency, but often prices water well
into the future.
This narrative highlights the critical interactions among climate change, jurisdictional scales,
human monitoring and response, and consequences for agrarian transformations. For instance,
we will analyze flood and drought recurrence intervals using USGS gauge data, compare those to the
scales at which managers perceive the system (as evidenced by, for example, time steps taken in
models, spatial units of water distribution), and examine how both have changed over time. We will
also examine institutional responses at different levels (political as well as social) by examining the
correlation between significant events (e.g., destructive floods, subsidence) and subsequent adjustments in laws, water-planning strategies, and land-use decisions.
Harvard Forest: Legacies and Conservation Management
The dramatic reduction in agriculture in New England over the past 150 years generated a wave
of land-cover change as forest cover increased from less than 30% to 70-95% in many regions (Foster & O’Keefe 1999). The reestablishment of forest ecosystem characteristics progressed unevenly,
with compositional, structural, and functional attributes exhibiting different lags in development. In
all cases, however, the modern distribution of vascular plant species, levels of forest biomass, and
soil structure, chemistry, and fertility are strongly conditioned by legacies of varied land-use history
(Compton et al. 1998; Motzkin et al. 1996; Foster et al. 1998a, 1998b). The scale and grain of this
landscape conditioning is controlled by the physical environmental template, geographical location
relative to population centers, and the specific cultural traditions of the regional population, which
vary in subtle fashion. In general, however, the broad pattern has been for a homogenization of ecological characteristics at the site scale (due to uniformity in land use) and at the regional scale (due to
the broad-scale similarity of changes in land use and cover), and for a more patchy and heterogeneous structure with abrupt ecological discontinuities at a landscape scale (due to the small grained and
patchy landownership pattern (Foster & Aber 2002).
This changing landscape condition and pattern has generated distinctly different approaches to
conservation and management, largely driven by individual value systems and the extent to which
the legacies and lags are interpreted correctly (Foster 2000b; Kittredge et al. 2002). Each emerging
tradition in conservation has different ecological consequences (Foster et al. 1997, 1999; Boose et al.
2001). This narrative explores when and under what circumstances different conservation strategies emerge, and what that might do to the stability regimes of the landscape.
Shortgrass Steppe: A history of drought and human response
One SGS case study will be the history of drought, agriculture, landscape transformation, and
human perception in the US Great Plains, where more than a century of land-use change has coincided with climate variability at time scales that vary from the seasonal to decadal. This process is
generally well known to the ecological and environmental history communities, but the specific
mechanisms of change and feedback are still contested (Antle et al. 2001).
The history of 20th-century droughts and their broad cycles of response and counter-response are
often told: land-use change in the 1920s and 1930s led to drought and dust storms in the 1930s (Worster 1979). Land abandonment and improved agricultural practices made the drought of the 1950s
less severe for the land, but more migration occurred in the 1950s because of a dynamic national
economy (Hurt 1981; Gutmann & Cunfer 1999). In addition, the long-term environmental consequences left by land-use change in the 1950s are likely to be more meaningful than were those of the
1930s because the technology of the 1950s (irrigation, new seed varieties) has already altered
weather patterns in the semi-arid grasslands (Epstein et al. 1999). Human perception of these
changes, from local farmers to national policy makers, have varied and evolved in response to environmental knowledge, the speed of change, and political and social considerations. This narrative
will examine the critical causal relationships and feedback loops governing these responses and
their influence on stability regimes.
- 10 -
III.A Cross-Site Comparisons
The success of a multi-site, multi-investigator study depends on preserving site-based idiosyncrasies while enforcing a sufficient number of common metrics to allow for models of basic patterns
of interaction, important empirical generalizations, and cross-site testing of key hypotheses. Some of
the comparability will be obtained by using the statistical approaches described above. It is expected
that the rich description in the case-study narratives will yield insights of their own that can be compared across sites, as well as suggest relevant variables to be examined quantitatively through the
structural-equation analysis. The structural-equation analysis will reveal—both across time within
sites and across sites—the key interactions in the system, and the resulting differential equations describing system dynamics will allow an examination of stability regimes. We will develop indices to
quantify the strength and length of feedback loops, and the width of basins of attraction, for each spatial (organizational) scale at each site at each time. This “matrix” of indices will allow us to search
for general patterns in these features. Moreover, we expect the case studies to illuminate when systems were particularly vulnerable or resistant to non-linear shifts. We thus expect the patterns of values in these matrices—particularly during the critical times highlighted by the case studies—to reveal the overall resilience of the system at that point in time and its vulnerability to potential crises.
Another set of cross-site analyses will be aimed at characterizing time lags and critical interdependencies at regional and landscape scales. Using the spatial-effects model (II.E.ii), we will examine the influence of various independent variables such as region, time period, climate, political activities, and market forces on changing land-use patterns and test whether there are time lags in the
impact of these variables. Because of the consistency of the data collected at these larger scales
cross-site comparisons will be facilitated, allowing general interaction patterns and their temporal
implications to emerge. Many useful descriptive patterns will be traced, such as the varying trajectories of land-use changes for each region, that will aid in the understanding of the differences between
biogeographical regions and their evolving socioecological systems. These trajectories will be examined against key social, demographic, and ecological variables through autoregressive analyses to
suggest pattern of temporal priority and potential causality. We expect that this comparative “pattern
of patterns” investigation will point to general relations that may help restructure future analyses for
members of the LTER network as well as conservation planners at organizations like TNC.
III.B Scenarios
With the help of a The Nature Conservancy team, each site will perform a scenario analysis for
possible landscape trajectories over the next 50 years, under different (but commonly employed)
suites of assumptions (business as usual, major conservation efforts, planned development with some
land-protection measures, and massive population growth and economic development). TNC is now
experimenting with scenario planning to be ready for a variety of contingencies, while recognizing
the tremendous uncertainty of future developments (Bunn & Salo 1993; Shoemaker 1995). The new
twist we are adding to scenario planning is to preface it with formal structural-equation modeling and
spatial-effects modeling, as a means of establishing relationships and interactions that need to be factored into the interpretation of any scenario. Ultimately, one goal for our research is to be able to
boldly face future challenges rather than simply retrospectively explain past events and surprises.
III.C Education and Outreach
III.C.i K-12 Education
Developing interdisciplinary modules focusing on the changing agricultural-urban interface presents the opportunity to meet national education standards while connecting students with local and
global real-world phenomena. The National Science Standards call for science education to include
personal and social perspective standards to help students develop the skills used in making decisions
- 11 -
as citizens (NRC 1996). In particular, Lieberman & Hoody (1998) found that curriculum based on
using the environment for interdisciplinary learning allows students to exercise thinking processes
through which they begin to understand interrelationships among natural and socio-cultural systems.
Our approach to developing education programs and materials challenges middle- and highschool students to first understand their local region and then broaden their thinking to national and
global levels, promoting cross-LTER and international interactions among the students and teachers.
Our Education Team will work with project researchers, other LTER education personnel, and teachers to develop modules that reflect the core questions of this proposal. These modules will be aimed
at core concepts and inquiry skills already being taught in the schools and will meet local and National Education Standards (including science, math, and social studies standards). These activities
will most likely include investigating spatial and temporal patterns of landscapes via aerial photographs, using the current Ecology Explorers protocols (CAP) for investigating bird, insect and plant
diversity, and encouraging teachers and children to develop surveys/census projects of local land use.
We will coordinate the final selection of activities at the Year 1 Research/Education workshop.
The success of any educational program depends on how positively attuned the teacher is to its
implementation (Ebenezer & Zoller 1993). Thus, we will emphasize teacher education (both inservice and pre-service) programs through summer internships and school-year workshops. We anticipate developing summer internships similar to the successful Ecology Explorers summer internships at CAP. During these internships, teachers will become familiar with this project, meet local
researchers, and learn more about incorporating research into their classrooms. During the school
year, they and their students will develop and test hypotheses about the complexity of the local landscape and its transformations. We will also encourage cross-site activities among students and teachers from each of the participating LTER sites.
III.C.ii Graduate and Undergraduate Education
The research proposed here is based at universities where teaching is emphasized and the involvement of students in research is a high priority. Undergraduates will be involved in this research
in a number of ways: conducting their own research, as hired research assistants, and as participants
in our Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) programs. Graduate students, as research assistants and while conducting their own research, will be essential to this project, as they already are
to the participating LTERs. A unique resource is the Integrative Graduate Education, Research, and
Training (IGERT) program at ASU, which is already bringing together students from life, earth, and
social sciences to address issues similar to those in this proposal, although focused in the city.
III.C.iii Ongoing Education and Outreach
Participating LTER’s have already developed effective means of reaching the public with scientific activities and research results. Outreach activities in cooperation with science museums, botanical gardens, zoos, and the like typify the efforts that will expand to include issues and ideas generated from this new research. This project, however, has an even greater potential for public involvement than any one constituent project because of the partnership with The Nature Conservancy and
the orientation toward improving conservation science and its relation to public policy. Articles will
appear in each of the six state TNC Newsletters, reaching close to 200,000 readers.
III.D International Collaboration
As important as the ideas and results of this project will be for developing an integrated science
and more effective management of lands in the US, the potential outside the US is even greater.
Transformations of agrarian landscapes and their importance for meeting food needs, urban growth,
and conservation goals take many forms and are central to the future of many countries. Through our
workshops, we will invite scientists from a number of international projects to work with us to adopt
- 12 -
similar protocols and approaches. This collaboration will significantly enhance our own research because it will expand the number of case studies and, most importantly, allow us to examine the impact of these processes in different cultural and political contexts. We have already begun the exchange of ideas with two partners, but expect the number of partners to be six by Year 4.
Initially, we will partner with the Archaeomedes project, under the direction of van der Leeuw,
in their work in Southern France (Aschan-Leygonie et al. 2000) and the Yaqui Valley group who
have been conducting research in northwest Mexico (Naylor et. al. 2001; Matson et. al. 1998). We
have selected these two projects because agrarian transformation in France, where the farms are being abandoned allowing regrowth of forests, parallels our Harvard and Coweeta cases, and the irrigated croplands being encroached upon by urban growth in Mexico parallels the process occurring in
Arizona. We also hope to include additional key domestic partners in this collaboration, such as the
Center for Study of Institutions, Population, and Environmental Change at Indiana University, and
Human-Environmental Regional Observatory (HERO) Network at Penn State. The senior researchers
on these two international programs, and on the additional domestic programs, have a serious interest
in the theoretical issues raised by our proposal and ongoing relationships with many of the Co-PI’s
already involved in this project.
III.E Testing Applicability with Nature Conservancy Case Studies
Our goal is to develop a general understanding of the interdependency of socioeconomic variables, human demography, ecological health, and land-use transformation. The Nature Conservancy
has two needs for this type of information. First, TNC is committed to developing ecoregional plans
for the entire world. These plans provide a blueprint of actions (conservation easements, land acquisition, etc.) that will protect a well-defined representation of biological diversity. To date, though,
ecoregional plans insufficiently represent human and socioeconomic variables. Secondly, ecoregional plans will be regularly revised, but TNC has little information on how often each plan should
be revisited. We propose to convene a workshop of leading ecoregional planners for TNC and the
researchers of this proposal to explore its implications for the ecoregional planning process (e.g.,
What other data should they be considering? How often should plans be revised?). To supplement
and further inform these activities, Kareiva will build upon existing patch-transition models (e.g., Wu
& David 2002) for one or two appropriate sites. The value of this exercise lies in exploring consequences of perturbations that are not present in the original dataset (e.g., the impact of sequestering
30% of the land in a region in a nature preserve). The formal technique for asking this question of
patch-transition models has been demonstrated by Neubert & Caswell (1997), whereby in addition to
simple resilience metrics, one also can examine changes in reactivity (amplification of perturbation).
A major limitation of current patch-occupancy models is that the rates of transition from one landuse category to another are intrinsic constants (Tilman & Kareiva 1997). One premise of our research
is that these transitions are not constant, but vary depending on a suite of social and biological drivers. Hence we will use the results of our statistical results to embellish classical patch-dynamic models in a way that accounts for these other drivers of land use, and thereby makes these models more
relevant to practical conservation efforts.
We expect this research to contribute to both science and society in six fundamental ways,
through analyses that effectively couple human and natural systems in order to understand major
changes in the human environment. First, as promised in the Biocomplexity incubation grant, this
project will demonstrate that social-science information and approaches can effectively expand the
research results of the LTER network. Second, by expanding the pioneering work of the Harvard
Forest and Coweeta LTERs on ecological legacies, this project will contribute to the development of
general theories on how socioecological legacies, as well as lags in the recognition of and response to
- 13 -
change, vary across space and time. Third, through detailed case histories and associated quantitative
analyses, we expect to provide convincing evidence that humans act not only to disturb ecosystems,
but monitor ecosystem values and respond to maintain stability and minimize crises. Fourth, we expect to provide information of direct use to policy makers, TNC, and land managers by using an approach that effectively couples aspects of the human and natural systems and explicitly relates these
processes to varying levels of political organization. Fifth, on the basis of cross-scale data collection
and analysis, our results should demonstrate our proposition that some patterns of human-ecological
interactions are surprisingly long term, vary across space and time, and operate in a non-linear fashion. Sixth, and finally, we believe the greatest contribution of this project will be through education
at a variety of levels. Our project benefits from the leadership of research scientists with strong records in interdisciplinary research and educational and community outreach who share a belief that
communicating science to a broader audience is both a privilege and a responsibility of their profession. Through participation in the research and a variety of outreach programs, we expect to train
new multidisciplinary scientists, inform public officials, give guidance to land managers, and excite a
new generation of young students about the possibility of improving and sustaining the Earth’s environmental systems through a systematic integration of studies of human and natural systems.
Toward a Unified Understanding of Human Ecosystems: Integrating Social Science into LongTerm Ecological Research. (C.L. Redman and J.M. Grove, Co-PIs), NSF-BCS 0083744;
$99,251; 9/15/00-2/28/03. With this Biocomplexity Incubation grant, CAP proposed a series of
workshops to spark interdisciplinary research among social, biological, and earth scientists, with the
ultimate goal of promoting the integration of social sciences into long-term ecological research. The
three workshops held to date are: (1) Land-Use Change: Models, and Methods; (2) Census, GIS, and
Historical Methods; and (3) Ecosystem Services and Valuation. A fourth workshop on Ecosystem
Function in Coupled Systems will be held in 2002. Taken together, these efforts will disseminate best
approaches and tools for integrating social science into ecological research; develop methods for analyzing multiple scales of time and space; and delineate areas of mutual interest for ecologists and social scientists. The first two workshops generated recommendations for further research on land-use
change modeling and agrarian landscape transformations that are embodied in the current proposal.
Central Arizona–Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research Project: Land-Use Change and Ecological Processes in an Urban Ecosystem of the Sonoran Desert (N.B. Grimm, C.L. Redman,
Stuart Fisher, Jianguo Wu, and Alfredo de los Santos, Hr, Co-PIs), NSF DEB-9714833;
$4,769,178, including 11 supplements; 11/1/97-10/31/03. CAP LTER focuses on an arid-land ecosystem profoundly influenced, even defined, by the presence and activities of humans and is one of
only two sites that specifically studies the ecology of urban systems. Biological, physical, and social
scientists from ASU, and a wide range of local partners, are working together to study the structure
and function of the urban ecosystem, and assess the effects of urban development on surrounding
agricultural and desert lands.
Our investigations into the relationship between land-use decisions and ecological consequences
in the rapidly growing urban environment of Phoenix are of broad relevance for studies of agricultural transformations. CAP also has an explicit commitment to engage the broader community in our
research effort, both in K-16 education and in the public understanding of science. A hierarchical
patch dynamics modeling framework has been developed; research includes studies of arthropods,
birds, soil respiration, primary production, nutrient transport, environmental risk, geography of the
“urban fringe,” the social and ecological significance of open space, a compilation of historic landuse data, and classifications of land cover from satellite imagery. Over 30 senior scientists, 12 tech-
- 14 -
nicians, more than 50 graduate students, nearly 25 undergraduates (including REU students), and 20
community partners are currently involved in CAP research.
Integrative Graduate Education and Research Training in Urban Ecology. (S. Fisher, C. L.
Redman, W. Graf, N.B. Grimm, E. Hackett, Co-PIs), NSF-DGE 9987612; $2,758,194, including
one supplement; 05/01/00-7/31/05. The main objective of ASU’s IGERT program is to educate a
new kind of life, earth, or social scientist who is broader, more flexible, more collaborative, and more
adept at linking science and social issues. CAP LTER provides an established research infrastructure
for frontier, multidisciplinary research and graduate training in urban ecology. Training is built on a
model emphasizing collaboration and teamwork; fellows earn degrees in six core departments in the
life, earth, and social sciences and participate in team research, courses, and seminars that emphasize
integration among disciplines. Collectively, these activities afford skills that should be broadly applicable to careers in public and private sectors and in academia.
Developing a Research Agenda for Linking Biogeophysical and Socioeconomic Systems. (A. Kinzig, PI), NSF DEB-0073653; $121,706; 01/01/00-06/30/01. A workshop was convened in June 2000
under the leadership of Ann Kinzig to produce recommendations concerning interdisciplinary environmental research (Kinzig et al. 2000). The workshop involved over 45 scientists from a wide variety of social- and natural-science disciplines. NSF personnel have been briefed on the results of the
workshop; the strong consensus among workshop participants on needed research directions led to
the inclusion of many of these recommendations in the Dynamics of Coupled Natural and Human
Systems portion of the Biocomplexity Initiative. The research proposed here draws directly from
those recommendations, including the need to include human activities and responses as an integral
and integrated part of assessments of ecological dynamics, and the need for a better understanding of
the biogeophysical and social drivers of land-use transformation.
Harvard Forest Long Term Ecological Research: Forest Ecosystem Dynamics in New England.
(D.R. Foster (PI), J. Aber, F. Bazzaz, J. Melillo, K. Nadelhoffer, S. Wofsy, and 12 CoInvestigators), NSF DEB- 9411975; $560,000 annually; 6 Years. The HFR LTER is a collaboration of 60 scientists from seven institutions investigating ecological pattern and process in New England and applying this information to conservation and public policy. Initially the project applied innovative approaches in historical and community ecology, ecophysiology, atmospheric chemistry,
and ecosystem studies to the interpretation of long-term, large-scale experiments and mechanistic
studies comparing the response of forest ecosystems to natural disturbance versus human stressors
and land-use activities. A second phase of research is assessing the interactions and lags in ecosystem response to environmental change and land-use with particular attention to the ecological legacies in ecosystem function, structure, and composition resulting from historical transformation of the
landscape from agricultural dominance to forest and semi-natural vegetation. This research has produced: >300 publications; a synthesis volume linking 1000 years of forest dynamics to modern ecosystem structure, function, and composition (Foster & Aber 2002); an annual research program for
25 undergraduates and graduate students; and new approaches to regional and cross-site studies.
- 15 -
Agarwal, C., C.M. Green, J.M. Grove, T.P. Evans, and C.M. Schweik. 2001. A Review and
Assessment of Land-Use Change Models: Dynamics of Space, Time, and Human Choice. CIPEC
Collaborative Report Series No. 1. Center for the Study of Institutions Population, and
Environmental Change, Indiana University, Bloomington.
Anselin, L. 1988. Spatial Econometrics: Methods and Models. Dordrecht, the Netherlands, Kluwer
Academic Publishers.
Antle, J.M., S.M. Capalbo, E.T. Elliot, H.W. Hunt, S. Mooney, and K.H. Paustian. 2001. Research
needs for understanding and predicting the behavior of managed ecosystems: Lessons from the
study of agroecosystems. Ecosystems. 4(8):723-735
Arizona Agricultural Statistics Service. 2001. 2000 Arizona Agricultural Statistics. 3003 N. Central
Ave., Phoenx, AZ.
Arizona Department of Water Resources. 2000. ADWR Third Management Plan 2000-2010.
.Aschan-Leygonie, C., S. Baudet-Michel, S. Dubuc, F. Durand-Dastès, D. Gautler, E. Holm, A.
Langlet, S. Lardon, and U. Lindren. 2000. A multiscalar investigation into the dynamic of land
abandonment in southern France. In S.E. van der Leeuw and L. Garenne-Marot, eds.,
ARCHAEOMEDES II, Volume 5. MAE, 21, Allée de l’Université, 92023 Nanterre Cedex,
Berkes, F., and C. Folke, eds. 1998. Linking Social and Ecological systems. Cambridge University
Press, London.
Boose, E.R., K.E. Chamberlin, and D.R. Foster. 2001. Landscape and regional impacts of hurricanes
in New England. Ecological Monographs 71:27-48.
Bunn, D., and A. Salo. 1993. Forecasting with scenarios. European Journal of Operational Research
Burke, I.C., T.G.F. Kittel, W.K. Lauenroth, P. Snook, C.M. Yonker, and W.J. Parton. 1991. Regional
analysis of the central Great Plains: Sensitivity to climate variability. BioScience 41(10):685692.
Carpenter, S.R., and L.H. Gunderson. 2001. Coping with collapse: Ecological and social dynamics in
ecosystem management. BioScience 51(6):451-457.
Carter, R.H., P. Tschakert, and B.J. Morehouse. 2000. Assessing the Sensitivity of the Southwest’s
Urban Water sector to Climatic Variability. The Climate Assessment Project for the Southwest
(CLIMAS) Report Series CL1-00, Institute for the Study of Planet Earth, University of Arizona,
Compton, J.E., R.D. Boone, G. Motzkin, and D.R. Foster. 1998. Soil carbon and nitrogen in a pineoak sand plain in central Massachusetts: Role of vegetation and land-use history. Oecologia
Cronon, W. 1983. Changes in the Land: Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England. Hill
and Wang, New York.
Cronon, W. 1991. Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West. New York, W.W. Norton.
Diamond, J. 1997. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, W.W. Norton, New York.
Dove, M., and D. Kammen. 1997. The epistemology of sustainable resource use: managing forest
products, swidden, and high-yielding variety crops. Human Organization(1):91-101.
-References 1 -
Duane, T. 1999. Shaping the Sierra: Nature, Culture, and Conflict in the Changing West. University
of California Press, Berkeley, CA.
Ebenezer, J., and U. Zoller. 1993. Grade 10 students’ perceptions of and attitudes toward science
teaching and school science. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 30(2):175-186.
Epstein, H.E., I.C. Burke, and W.K. Lauenroth. 1999. Response of the shortgrasss steppe to changes
in rainfall seasonality. Ecosystems 2(2):139-150.
Farina, A. 2000. The cultural landscape as a model for the integration of ecology and economics.
BioScience 50(4):313-320.
Foster, D.R. 2000a. Using history to interpret current environmental conditions and future trends: an
example from the US Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program. PAGES Newsletter
Foster, D.R. 2000b. Conservation lessons and challenges from ecological history. Forest History
Today Fall 2000:2-11.
Foster, D.R., and J. Aber, eds. 2002. Forests in Time. Ecosystem Structure and Function as a
Consequence of History. Yale University Press, New Haven.
Foster, D.R., J. Aber, R. Bowden, J. Melillo, and F. Bazzaz. 1997. Forest response to disturbance and
anthropogenic stress. BioScience 47:437-445.
Foster, D.R., M. Fluet, and E.R. Boose. 1999. Human or natural disturbance: Landscape dynamics of
the tropical forests of Puerto Rico. Ecological Applications 9:555-572.
Foster, D.R., D. Knight, and J. Franklin. 1998a. Landscape patterns and legacies resulting from large
infrequent forest disturbance. Ecosystems 1:497-510.
Foster, D.R., G. Motzkin, and B. Slater. 1998b. Land-use history as long-term broad-scale
disturbance: Regional forest dynamics in central New England. Ecosystems 1:96-119.
Foster, D.R., F. Swanson, J. Aber, D. Tilman, N. Bropakw, I. Burke, and A. Knapp. The importance
of land-use and its legacies to ecology and environmental management. BioScience, In review,
Foster, D.R, and J. O'Keefe. 2000. New England Forests Through Time. Insights from the Harvard
Forest Dioramas. Harvard Forest and Harvard University Press.
Gammage, G. 1999. Phoenix in Perspective. Reflections on Developing the Desert. The Herberger
Center for Design Excellence. College of Architecture and Environmental Design, Arizona State
University, Tempe, AZ
Geertz, C. 1963. Agricultural Involution: The Process of Ecological Change in Indonesia. University
of California Press, Berkeley.
Goetz, S.J., S.D. Prince, S.N. Goward, M.M. Thawley, and J. Small. 1999. Satellite remote sensing
of primary production: An improved production efficiency modeling approach. Ecological
Modelling 122:239-255.
Grace, J., and B. Pugesek 1997. A structural equation model of plant species richness and its
application to a coastal wetland. American Naturalist 149:436-460.
Granger, C.W.J. 1969. Investigating causal relations by econometric models and cross-spectral
methods. Econometrica 37:424-438.
Gray, S.E. 1994. Limits and possibilities: White-Indian relations in western Michigan in the era of
removal. Michigan Historical Review 20:71-92.
Grimm, N.B., A. Chacón, C.N. Dahm, S.W. Hostetler, O.T. Lind, P.L. Starkweather, and W.W.
Wurtsbaugh.1997. Sensitivity of aquatic ecosystems to climatic and anthropogenic changes: The
Basin and Range, American Southwest, and México. Hydrological Processes 11:1023-1041.
-References 2 -
Grimm, N.B., J.M. Grove, S.T.A. Pickett, and C.L. Redman. 2000. Integrated approaches to longterm studies of urban ecological systems. BioScience 70:571-584.
Groves, C.R., D.B. Jensen, L.L. Valutis, K.H. Redford, M.L. Shaffer, J.M. Scott, J.V. Baumgartner,
J.V. Higgins, M.W. Beck, and M.G. Anderson. 2002. Planning for biodiversity conservation:
Putting conservation science into practice. BioScience: in press.
Guinot, C., J. Latreille, and M. Tenenhaus. 2001. PLS Path modeling and multiple table analysis.
Application to cosmetic habits of women in Ile-de-France. Chemometrics amd Intelligent Lab
Systems 58:247-259
Gunderson, L., C.S. Holling, and S.S. Light. 1995. Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of
Ecosystems and Institutions. Columbia University Press, New York.
Gutmann, M.P., and G. Cunfer. 1999. A New Look at the Causes of the Dust Bowl. Publication no.
99-1, International Center for Arid and Semiarid Land Studies. Lubbock, Texas.
Gutmann, M.P., A. Peri, and G.D. Deane. Submitted. Migration, environment, and economic change
in the U.S. Great Plains, 1930-1990. Demography, December, 1998.
Holling, C.S. 1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and
Systematics 41:1-23.
HERO. 2002. Human-Environment Regional Observatory, http://hero.geog.psu.edu.
Holling, C.S. 2001. Understanding the complexity of economic, ecological, and social systems.
Ecosystems 4:390-405.
Hurt, D. 1981. The Dust Bowl: An Agricultural and Social History. Chicago, Nelson-Hall.
Kinzig, A.P., + 45 others. 2000. Nature and Society: An Imperative for Integrated Environmental
Research. Available at http://lsweb.la.asu.edu/akinzig/report.htm.
Kittredge, D.B., A. Finley, and D.R. Foster. In review, 2002. Ecological consequences of forest
harvesting patterns in a landscape of compleownership in New England. Ecological
Kline, R.B. 1998. Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling. Guilford Press. NY.
Knapp, A.K., J.M. Briggs, D.C. Hartnett, and S.L. Collins, eds. 1998. Grassland Dynamics: LongTerm Ecological Research in Tallgrass Prairie. Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford.
Levin, S.A. 1999. Fragile Dominion: Complexity and the Commons. Perseus Books, Reading, MA.
Lieberman, G., and L. Hoody. 1998. Closing the Achievement Gap: Using the Environment as an
Integrating Context for Learning. Report to the Pew Charitable Trust, State Education and
Environment Roundtable, San Diego, CA.
Liu, J. 2001. Integrating ecology with human demography, behavior, and socioeconomics: Needs and
approaches. Ecological Modelling 140:1-8.
Matson, P.A., R. Naylor, and I. Ortiz-Monasterio. 1998. Integration of environmental, agronomic,
and economic aspects of fertilizer management. Science 280:112-115.
Matson, P.A., W.J. Parton, A.G. Power, and M.J. Swift. 1997. Agricultural intensification and
ecosystem properties. Science 277:504-509.
McCartney, P., C. Redman, and C. Gries. Networking our Research Legacy. 1999. National Science
Foundation-BDI 9983132. program.http://caplter.asu.edu/bdi/Proposal/proposal.htm.
McConnell, W.J., and E.F. Moran. 2001. Meeting in the Middle: The Challenge of Meso-Level
Integration. An international workshop, October 17-20, 2000, Ispra, Italy. LUCC Report Series
No. 5. Published by LUCC Focus 1 Office, Anthropological Center for Training and Research on
Global Environmental Change, Indiana University and LUCC International Project Office,
-References 3 -
Merideth, R. 2001. A primer on Climatic Variability and Change in the Southwest. Udall Center for
Studies in Public Policy and the Institute for the Study of Planet Earth, University of Arizona,
Michener, W.K., T.J. Baerwald, P. Firth, M.A. Palmer, J.L. Rosenberger, E.A. Sandlin, and H.
Zimmerman. 2001. Defining and unraveling biocomplexity. BioScience 51(12):1018-1023.
Motzkin, G., D.R. Foster, A. Allen, and J. Harrod. 1996. Controlling site to evaluate history:
Vegetation patterns of a New England sand plain. Ecological Monographs 66:345-365.
National Research Council. 1996. National Science Education Standards. National Academy Press,
Washington, DC.
National Research Council. 1998. People and Pixels: Linking Remote Sensing and Social Science.
D. Liverman et al., eds. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
National Research Council. 1999. Our Common Journey: A Transition Toward Sustainability. Board
on Sustainable Development, Policy Division. National Academy Press, Washington D.C.
Naylor, R.L., W.P. Falcon, and A. Puente-González. 2001. Policy Reforms and Mexican Agriculture:
Views from the Yaqui Valley. CIMMYT Economics Program Paper No. 01-01. CIMMYT,
Mexico, D.F.
Neubert, M., and H. Caswell. 1997. Alternatives to resilience for measuring the responses of
ecological systems to perturbations. Ecology 78:653-665.
Ostrom, E., J. Burger, C.B. Field, R.B. Norgaard, and D. Policansky. 1999. Revisiting the commons:
Local lessons, global challenges. Science 284:278-82.
Peluso, N. 1992. Rich Forests, Poor People: Resource Control and Resistance in Java. University of
California Press, Berkeley, CA.
Peyre, M, I. Mendelssohn, M. Reams, P. Templet, and J. Grace. 2001. Identifying determinants of
nations wetland management programs using structural equation modeling. Environmental
Management 27:859-868.
Pyne, S.J. 1997. Fire in America: A Cultural History of Wildland and Rural Fire. University of
Washington Press.
Redford, K. et al.. in press. Mapping the conservation landscape. BioScience.
Redman, C.L. 1999. Human Impacts on Ancient Environments. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.
Reisner, M.P. 1986. Cadillac Desert: The American West and its Disappearing Water. Viking New
York, NY.
Scheffer, M., S. Carpenter, J.A. Foley, C. Folke, and B. Walker. 2001. Catastrophic shifts in
ecosystems. Nature 413:591-596.
Shoemaker, P. 1995. Scenario planning–a tool for strategic thinking. Sloan Management Review
Sims, C.S. 1972. Money, income and causality. American Economic Review 62:540-552.
Stefanov, W.L., M.S. Ramsey, and P.R. Christensen. 2001. Monitoring urban land cover change: An
expert system approach to land cover classification of semiarid to arid urban centers. Remote
Sensing of Environment 77:173-185.
Swetnam, T.W., C.D. Allen, and J.L. Betancourt. 1999. Applied historical ecology: Using the past to
manage for the future. Ecological Applications 9(4):1189-1206.
Tainter, J. 1990. The Collapse of Complex Societies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.
Tilman, D., and P. Kareiva, eds. 1997. Spatial Ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
Turner, B.T., W.C. Clark, R.W. Kates, J.F. Richards, J.T. Matthews, and W.B. Meyer. 1990. The
Earth as Transformed by Human Action. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.
-References 4 -
Turner, B.L., D.R. Foster, and J. Geoghegan, eds. 2002. Land Change Science and Tropical
Deforestation. The Final Frontier in Southern Yucatan. Oxford University Press, New York and
US Census Bureau, Census 2000 PHC-T-5. Ranking tables for incorporated cities,
USDA Policy Advisory Committee on Farm and Forest Land Protection and Land Use. 2001.
Maintaining Farm and Forest Lands in Rapidly Growing Areas. Report to the Secretary of
Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.
Veldkamp, A., and E.F. Lambin. 2001. Editorial: Predicting land-use change. Agriculture,
Ecosystems and Environment 85:1-6.
Vitousek, P.M., P.R. Ehrlich, A.H. Ehrlich., and P.A. Matson. 1986. Human appropriation of the
products of photosynthesis. Bioscience 36(6):368-373.
Vitousek, P.M., H.A. Mooney, J. Lubchenco, and J. Melillo. 1997. Human domination of Earth's
ecosystem. Science 277:494-499.
Williams, R. 1980. Ideas of Nature. Problems in Materialism and Culture: Selected Essays. London,
Wollenberg, E., D. Edmunds, and L. Buch. 2000. Using scenarios to make decisions about the
future: anticipatory learning for the adaptive co-management of community forests. Landscape
and Urban Planning 47:65-77.
Worster, D. 1984. History as natural-history: An essay on theory and method. Pacific Historical
Review 53(1):1-19.
Worster, D. 1985. Rivers of Empire: Water, Aridity, and the Growth of the American West. Oxford
University Press, New York and Oxford.
Worster, D. 1979. Dust Bowl: The Southern Plains in the 1930s. New York, Oxford University
Press, New York and Oxford.
Wu, J., and J.L. David. 2002. A spatially explicit hierarchical approach to modeling complex
ecological systems: Theory and applications. Ecological Modelling (in press).
Yarnell, S.L. 1998. The Southern Appalachians: A History of the Landscape. Ashville, NC.
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station. SRS-18.
-References 5 -
The Center for Environmental Studies (CES) is an interdisciplinary research center with a long history of
involving academics, government, industry, and the community in mutually beneficial projects. The Center is
home to the Central Arizona-Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research (CAP LTER) project
(http://caplter.asu.edu), one of only two LTER sites charged with monitoring and assessing long-term ecological
change in an urban area. Over 30 senior scientists, 12 technicians, 50 graduate students, 30 undergraduates
students, and 30 community partners are working together to assess the effect of urban development on the
ecosystem of the Sonoran Desert and the effect of ecological conditions on urban development.
The Center offers the administrative staff to plan and coordinate activities related to this proposed
cross-site project. Staff include a full-time systems administrator, 2 senior scientists, 2 software developers,
and a GIS technician. Laboratory and data management resources supported by CAP LTER and affiliated
projects will be available for use by this project. These include a Windows NT network containing 4 dualprocessor servers and 8 Pentium II or higher workstations. Additional servers include an NT hosted Web
server and a Sun Sparc10 to be used for hosting z39.50 software. The 6 servers provide an online metadata
catalog and data access application, database, and GIS archives for over 200 datasets, integrated query into
biological collections, bibliographies, and a taxonomic name directory for Arizona. Local connectivity runs
at 100Mbs. Over 200 gigabytes of storage space are available for research and data archives. Short-term data
protection is provided through the use of redundant array (RAID level 5) storage devices and a tape backup
cycle with off-site storage. Long-term protection is addressed primarily through commitment to a strategy
of regular technology-transfer to maintain current standards for hardware and software to minimize the risk
of data loss through media or format obsolescence. Data server software used in the lab includes Microsoft
SQL Server relational database software, Environmental Systems Research Institute Inc. (ESRI) Spatial
Database Engine, and ESRI Map Objects Internet Map Server. Development tools include MS Visual Studio,
Embarcadero ER Studio, and MS Access. GIS resources include Erdas Imagine, ESRI ArcInfo and ArcView.
The Goldwater Environmental Laboratory is CAP’s central lab and is equipped with a
autoanalyzer (for wet-chemistry analyses), a Schimadzu carbon analyzer, a flame and graphite furnace
atomic absorption spectrophotometer, an elemental analyzer, a spectrophotometer (for nutrient analyses),
a GC mass spectrometer, two temperature-controlled rooms, a pH meter, and filtration equipment.
The Geographic Information Systems Laboratory, housed in the campus Computing Commons,
features hardware, software, and staff to help create GIS for spatial analysis, query, and display. The lab
houses 12 workstations running on both UNIX and PC Platforms and features the following mapping
software: Arc/Info, ArcView 3.0, Business Map, Map Info, IDRISI, and PCI. ASU maintains a site license
for the ESRI products (the standard software used for GIS applications). The lab also features the following
hardware: SUN Ultra 2 Server, HP 700 Server, HDS X-Terms, Pentium PCs, CalComp Digitizer, HPLaser
Printer, and Tektronix largest format color plotter. The GIS lab shares space and resources with the
Visualization Lab, providing a wide range of resources for the innovative presentation of environmental
data, including Silicon Graphic workstations and an application library of visualization and public-domain
The Mars Explorer Lab was developed to acquire, process, and analyze remote-sensing data from
NASA's terrestrial and planetary missions. The facility, housed in 5000 sq. ft. of space in the Moeur
Building, contains 14 UNIX workstations with over 75 Gbytes of online magnetic disk storage and
associated CD-ROM readers, writers, tape drives, scanners, printers, color-image writers, and 10 MacIntosh
and PC computers. The lab has a dedicated 250 Kbaud NASCOM data link between the Mars Explorer Lab
and JPL, along with two dedicated T1 (1.5 Mbit/sec) NASA Science Internet (NSI) lines. These links
support active NASA flight instruments directed from this facility, with 24 hours per day, 7 days per week
dedicated power and air conditioning for instrument command and instrument health verification. The lab
also houses an infrared interferometric spectrometer for collection of infrared spectra of soil, rock,
manmade, and vegetation samples to aid in the compositional analysis of remote-sensing data, as well as
a 1990 set of Landsat satellite imagery for Arizona.
Landscape Ecology and Modeling Laboratory, at the Department of Life Sciences, ASU West,
is equipped with advanced computing facilities and software systems for ecological studies involving spatial
analysis, simulation modeling, and GIS. The Stable Isotope Laboratory, in the Biology Department,
features a Europa Scientific Hydra mass spectrometer connected to various preparation systems. It is capable
of measuring stable isotopes of C, N, O, S, and H in water, gases, biological materials, and soils.
Department-Specific Research Laboratories offer fully equipped facilities to carry out research described
elsewhere in this proposal.
ICPSR operates a distributed client-server computing environment built around UNIX servers
operating under the Solaris operating system and desktop computers (PC, Macintosh, and UNIX
workstations). Oracle is the database management system, and most major statistical packages are
maintained on the compute servers. ICPSR maintains more than 1.3 terabytes of disk storage available 24
hours a day, seven days a week. The local fast Ethernet (100 megabit) network is connected to the University
of Michigan’s backbone network over a leased T3 connection. See attached diagram for the architecture of
the system.
ICPSR moved in October 1998 into a 24,000 sq. ft. facility located two blocks from the main ISR
building. The new facility has adequate office space to house this project, including individual offices and
workstations with full 100Mb computer connectivity for each of the personnel listed in the grant. The general
office areas have copy and FAX machines as well as adequate work space for secretarial and administrative
personnel. ICPSR also has access to ISR duplicating and other central services, including high-speed network
connectivity to a high capacity Docutech printer located at ISR.
The ICPSR data holdings span the full range of the social and behavioral sciences and extend
to such diverse areas of inquiry as public health, law and criminal justice, aging, and education. They
constitute the largest archive of computer-readable research data in the world. At present the holdings
include well over 50,000 data files. The files include data from relatively small cross-sectional sample
surveys of national populations or sub- populations to extended longitudinal surveys, as well as data
from censuses of the United States from 1790-1990. The ICPSR staff has, therefore, the experience and
skills required to work with and provide access to the 2000 Census data.
Procedures for distributing and providing access to computer-readable data for research and
instructional applications are well developed. Researchers now download data files directly to their desktop
computers by accessing the ICPSR data archive online. Other modes of access to data are provided as well,
including standard as well as customized CD-ROMs. Several organizational strengths facilitate and
encourage use of ICPSR data and related services. Official Representatives, often faculty members, at each
member institution serve as liaisons between their faculty, staff and students and the ICPSR staff in Ann
Arbor. These individuals publicize and provide information about ICPSR data and services to local
researchers, faculty and students. They also help to identify local needs and interests and to communicate
those needs to the ICPSR staff. The utility and ease of use of these data dissemination procedures and the
experience of ICPSR are demonstrated by the high volume of data supplied. In 1999-2000, ICPSR supplied
nearly 4 million megabytes of social science research data (some quarter-million data files) to researchers
and students located at more than 3,300 colleges, universities and other organizations worldwide.
The preceding paragraphs suggest something of the characteristics, experience, and expertise of the
ICPSR staff. Senior members of the staff are trained social and behavioral scientists; most of the senior staff
have a decade or more of experience in the various aspects of archival work. As a consequence of experience
and formal training, these individuals understand the research value of data, are capable of assessing data in
both technical and substantive terms, and are conversant with the requirements of data analysis. The staff
includes individuals with advanced methodological and data processing expertise, as well as computer
programmers familiar with the full range of computational equipment. For a complete description of ICPSR
and its capabilities, activities, and resources, consult our Web site (http://www.icpsr.umich.edu).
The proposed project will draw upon the facilities and personnel of the Inter-university Consortium
for Political and Social Research ICPSR) The ICPSR was founded in 1962 and is a consortium of 518
colleges, universities, and research institutions in the US and other countries. Headquarters and central staff
are located in the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. The membership includes most
if not all of the major research universities in the United States as well as a large number of predominantly
undergraduate institutions. The ICPSR functions as a repository and dissemination service for electronic
research data, a mechanism to provide training in quantitative methods of behavioral and social research, and
a source of assistance in data preparation and the application of computer technology to the purposes of
research and instruction. The ICPSR provides the experience, staff, and facilities required for the data
processing, data dissemination, and training tasks required for the 2000 US Census Data Project. Sustaining
support for ICPSR operations is provided by the annual fees paid by member institutions. Because of its
membership base, ICPSR also provides an established communication and dissemination network that
reaches throughout the academic research community and broadly into the governmental and private sectors.
Continuing effort is directed to extending the reach of this network. Its existence and continued expansion
ensure that 2000 Census data can be made readily available to an extended research community.
Administration and Research Development
This project draws together the research expertise and data-collecting abilities of staffs based in
six different LTERs and at TNC’s Western Regional Office. This diversity is a major strength of the
proposed research but demands an efficient management structure to ensure research quality and
efficiency. The Center for Environmental Studies (CES) at ASU will assume most administrative
activities for the project, although each participating group will have its own subcontract and
research team. CES oversees the CAP LTER and the associated IGERT program and has developed
an effective infrastructure for organizing research, workshops, community outreach, educational
programming, information management, and publications. The PI/PD Redman will make most dayto-day administrative decisions, but ultimate administrative authority will be vested in an Executive
Committee comprised of the five Co-PI’s and representatives from Kellogg, Coweeta, and Konza.
The committee members will serve as project contacts for each of the site-based research teams and
keep in close contact electronically concerning progress at each site and general research activities.
Annually, in conjunction with the Research Overview Workshop, the committee will meet for a half
a day. The larger group of “internal Co-PI’s” will be copied on committee communications and
invited to discuss issues and research directions.
The real value-added elements from this project will derive from integrative and cross-site
comparisons. Cross-site teams composed of appropriate senior personnel will spearhead these
activities. These teams will be led by Project Co-PI’s who represent a wide range of expertise and
experience, spanning natural and social sciences (see Budget Justification for details on all senior
personnel). Membership on these teams will be redefined as research progresses and new scholars
become involved. These teams will meet as subgroups at the appropriate workshops:
Data collection and information management: Gutmann (Chair), Kareiva, McCartney,
Stefanov, Deane
Education: Saltz (Chair), Elser, O’Keefe
Statistical modeling: Kareiva and Kinzig (Co-Chairs), Gutmann, Kinzig, Wu
Landscape transition patterns: Redman (Chair), Foster, Gragson, Grove, Harris,
Turner, Bloomquist
Ecological patterns: Foster (Chair), Briggs, Grimm, Parton, Blair, Bolstad
Social responses: Gragson (Chair), Chilton, Kinzig, Kittredge, Middendorf, Rudy, Sylvester
Conservation science: Kareiva (Chair), Foster, Motzkin, Redman, Shaw
International comparative research: Kinzig (Chair), Matson, Redman, Turner, van der Leeuw
A research program that attempts to deal with the close coupling of social and ecological
processes will share interests with and significantly benefit from active cooperation with local
agencies and stakeholders. Each site will have its own set of community partners.
An effective means of communication is essential to the success of this project. The principals
of the project have already participated together in one or more Biocomplexity incubation grant
workshops that led to this proposal and have established mutual respect and constructive working
relationships. Lauren Kuby, who organized the incubation-grant workshops, will coordinate
communications for this project. Conference calls and e-mails will continue to be essential elements
of communication for the Executive Committee and research teams. We will establish a project Web
page with opportunities for threaded discussions, bulletin boards, and live messaging. Before the
grant begins, CES will be installing state-of-the art video conferencing equipment into their offices to
assist in communication with project researchers. We will also explore working with using software,
developed by the HERO project, to help facilitate interaction among LTER scientists and sites.
The key to effective communication, and what we believe will be a very exciting part of our
program, is the series of workshops that will be held throughout the project. Each year there will be a
“Research Overview” workshop on a central theme that allows representatives from each site (and
additional scholars) to assemble for three days of research design and analysis. There will also be one
or more specialized workshops each year focused on the activities of one of the cross-site teams. We
will sponsor sessions at national meetings where our researchers will gather to discuss issues and
communicate our findings to colleagues in various disciplines. We will also sponsor a symposium on
our project at the “LTER Day” preceeding the Ecological Society of America meetings during Year
4. The tentative workshop schedule is as follows:
Year 1:
Research overview at CAP (defining variables for the structural-equation modeling)
Education team in conjunction with Research overview meeting at CAP
Data collection at Ann Arbor (use of Agricultural and US Census and remote sensing)
Database management in conjunction with Data collection at Ann Arbor
Year 2:
Research overview at HF (ecological patterns)
Ecological science and scenario building at TNC
Year 3:
Research overview at KBS (Social responses)
Education team at Coweeta
Database management in conjunction with Education team at Coweeta
Year 4:
Research Overview at CAP (International cooperation and LTER implementation)
Project results and framework for implementation at other LTERs at the LTER section of
ESA meetings
As with all National Science Foundation funded projects, we have very high expectations for the
outcomes of this project. Among them will be publications in peer-reviewed media, innovative
student training at a number of levels, public education in both the formal and informal sectors, and
substantial leveraged funding. We will be our own best critics by means of our annual Research
Overview workshops that will explicitly address the overall progress of the research and the
effectiveness of the research design, modeling, and analyses. We will also invite one external scholar
each year to these overview workshops to provide a keynote speech and evaluate our progress.
There will also be external measure of the effectiveness of our research. First, to what extent are
additional LTERs and other US research programs joining in our approach? Second, to what extents
are international partners joining in this approach and sharing data and ideas? Third, to what extent is
TNC able to incorporate new ideas from this research project to refine their conservation science and
management decisions? Fourth, and finally, to what extent are the new ideas from this project
influencing policy makers, land managers, and constituency groups concerned with landscape
transformations and environmental sustainability?
Professor, Division of Biology
Kansas State University
232 Ackert Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506
Phone: (785) 532-7065; email: [email protected]
Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, B.S., Biology, 1980
Kent State University, Kent, Ohio, M.S., Biology, 1983
University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, Ph.D., Entomology, 1987
2001-, Professor, Division of Biology, Kansas State University; 1997-2001, Associate Professor,
Division of Biology, Kansas State University; 1992-1997, Assistant Professor, Division of
Biology, Kansas State University; 1991-1992, Research Scientist, Department of Entomology
(Soil Ecology Program), Ohio State University; 1988-1991, Senior Researcher, Department of
Entomology (Soil Ecology Program), Ohio State University; 1987-1988, Postdoctoral Associate,
Department of Entomology, University of Georgia.
Knapp, A. K., J. M. Blair, J. M. Briggs, S. L. Collins, D. C. Hartnett, L. C. Johnson and E. G.
Towne. 1999. The keystone role of bison in North American tallgrass prairie. BioScience
Blair, J. M., T. R. Seastedt, C. W. Rice and R. A. Ramundo. 1998. Terrestrial nutrient cycling in
tallgrass prairie. Pp. 222-243 in A. K. Knapp, J. M. Briggs, D. C. Hartnett and S. C. Collins,
eds., Grassland dynamics: Long-term ecological research in tallgrass prairie, Oxford
University Press, New York.
Collins, S. L., A. K. Knapp, J. M. Briggs, J. M. Blair and E. Steinauer.1998. Modulation of
diversity by grazing and mowing in native tallgrass prairie. Science 280:745-747.
Blair, J. M. 1997. Fire, N availability, and plant response in grasslands: A test of the transient
maxima hypothesis. Ecology 78:2359-2368
Turner, C. L., J. M. Blair, R. J. Schartz and J. C. Neel. 1997. Soil N availability and plant
response in tallgrass prairie: Effects of fire, topography and supplemental N. Ecology
Fay, P. A., J. D. Carlisle, A. K. Knapp, J. M. Blair, and S. L. Collins. 2000. Altering rainfall
timing and quantity in a mesic grassland ecosystem: Design and performance of rainfall
manipulation shelters. Ecosystems 3:308-319.
Knapp, A. K., S. L. Conard, and J. M. Blair. 1998. Determinants of soil CO2 flux from a
sub-humid grassland: effect of fire and fire history. Ecological Applications 8:760-770.
Blair, J. M., D. A. Crossley, Jr., and L. C. Callaham. 1992. Incorporation of exogenous 15N in
decomposing litter and movement through the forest floor profile: Effects of litter quality and
microarthropods. Biology and Fertility of Soils 12:241-252.
Blair, J. M., R. W. Parmelee, and M. H. Beare. 1990. Decay rates, nitrogen fluxes and
decomposer communities of single and mixed species foliar litter. Ecology 71:1976-1985.
Norris, M. D., J. M. Blair, L. C. Johnson and R. B. McKane. Developing allometric equations to
assess shifts in biomass, productivity, and nutrient stores following Juniperus virginiana
forest establishment in tallgrass prairie. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 31:1940-1946.
Editorial Boards: Ecology (1997- 2000), Biology and Fertility of Soils (1994-1997), Applied Soil
Ecology (1995-1997); Panelist, NSF IRCEB Program (1999, 2000), TECO Program (1998), NSF
Dissertation Research Program (1995), USDA/NRI Ecosystems Program (1993); Member, NSF
site review teams, LTER program (1997), RTG program (1994); Student mentor for the Konza
Prairie REU Program; Undergraduate courses in Ecology, graduate course in Biogeochemistry;
William L. Stamey Award for undergraduate teaching (1998); Fellowship, OECD Cooperative
Research Project on Biological Resource Management (1990).
Collaborators: S.G. Baer, P.J. Bohlen; J.M. Briggs, Arizona State University; M.A. Callaham,
D.C. Coleman, S.L. Collins; W.K. Dodds; C.A. Edwards; E.T. Elliott, P.M. Groffman; M.E.
Harmon; D.C. Hartnett, P.F. Hendrix; L.C. Johnson, A.K Knapp, R.B. McKane, G.A. Milliken,
K.J. Naddelhoffer, M.D. Norris, K. Price, R.W. Parmelee; C.W. Rice; G.P. Robertson, T.R.
Seastedt; C.L. Turner, M. Whiles.
Graduate Advisors: D. A. Crossley, Jr.; C. A. Edwards.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: None.
Milton P. & Alice C. Higgins Professor of Environment and Society
Graduate School of Geography & George Perkins Marsh Institute
Clark University, Worcester, MA 01610-1477
Phone: (508) 793-7325; Fax: (508) 793-8881; [email protected]
University of Texas at Austin, BA, Geography, 1968
University of Texas at Austin, MA, Geography, 1969
University of Wisconsin, Madison, Ph.D., Geography, 1974
1991-97, Director, George Perkins Marsh Institute, Clark University; 1983-88, 1997-98,
Director, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University; 1980-present, Assistant, Associate,
and Professor, Graduate School of Geography, Clark University; 1975-79, Research Associate &
Assistant Professor, Department of Geography, University of Oklahoma; 1974-76, Assistant
Professor, Department of Geography, University of Maryland, Baltimore County.
Turner II, B. L., S. C. Villar, D. Foster, J. Geoghegan, E. Keys, P. Klepeis, D. Lawrence, P. M.
Mendoza, S. Manson, Y. Ogneva-Himmelberger, A. B. Plotkin, D. P. Salicrup, R. R.
Chowdhury, B. Savitsky, L. Schneider, B. Schmook, and C. Vance. In press. Deforestation in
the Southern Yucatán Peninsular region: An integrative approach. Forest Ecology and
Schneider, S., B. L. Turner II, and H. M. Garriga. 1998. Imaginable surprise in global change
science. Journal of Risk Research 1:165-185.
Kasperson, J. X., R. E. Kasperson, and B. L. Turner II, eds.1995. Regions at risk: Comparisons
of threatened environments. United Nations University, Tokyo.
Meyer, W. B., and B. L. Turner II. 1992. Human population growth and global land-use/cover
change, with William B. Meyer. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23:39-61.
Turner II, B. L. 1997. The Sustainability principle in global agendas: Implications for
understanding land-use/cover change. Geographical Journal 163(2):133-140.
Turner II, B. L., W. C. Clark, R. W. Kates, J. F. Richards, J. T. Mathews, and W. B. Meyer, eds.
1990. The earth as transformed by human action: Global and regional changes in the
biosphere over the past 300 years. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Geoghegan, J., L. Pritchard, Jr., Y. Ogneva-Himmelberger, R. R. Chowdhury, S. Sanderson and
B. L. Turner II. 1998. "Socializing the Pixel" and "Pixelizing the Social" in Land Use/Cover
Change. Pp. 51-69 in People and Pixels. Committee on the Human Dimensions of Global
Environmental Change, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.
Meyer, W. B., K. W. Butzer, T. E. Downing, B. L. Turner II, G. W. Wenzel, and J. L. Wescoat.
1998. Reasoning by analogy. Pp. 218-289 in S. Raynor and E. L. Malone, eds., Human
choice and climate change, Vol. 3, Tools for policy analysis. Battelle Press, Columbus, OH.
Meyer, W. B., and B. L. Turner II, eds. 1994. Changes in land use and land cover: A global
perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Schneider, S., B. L. Turner II, and H. Morehouse Garriga. 1998. Imaginable surprise in global
change science. Journal of Risk Research 1(2):165-185.
Turner II, B. L., and P. B. Benjamin. 1993. Fragile lands and their management. In V. Ruttan,
ed., Agriculture, environment and health: Towards sustainable development into the 21st
Century. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.
Co-chaired and developed the IGBP-IHDP Land-Use/Cover Change program; Multiple NRC
committee on human-environment themes, including Human Dimensions of Global
Environmental Change and Grand Challenges in the Environmental Sciences.
Collaborators: R. E. Kasperson, J. X. Kasperson, J. Geoghegan, B. Savistsky, D. Foster, G.
Morgan, H. Dalatawadi, W. Clark, R. Kates, B. Yarnell, P. Matson, D. Lawrence, P. Klepies, C.
Vance, G. Pontius, R.Corell, J. McCarthy, J. Jager
Graduate Advisors: W. M. Denevan, Wisconsin; E. Sabbagh, Texas.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Former Advisees: W. M. Doolittle,
University of Texas; A. M. S. Ali, University of Texas at Tyler; A. Gray, Stanton College; T.
Whitmore, University of North Carolina; A. J. Bebbington, University of Colorado; D.
Mazambani, Enda Zimbabwe; B. Jokisch, University of Ohio; Yelena Ogneva-Himmelberger,
GPMI, Clark University; R. Laney, Sonoma State; P. Klepeis, Colgate University; E. Archer,
Pennsylvania State University; D. Varlyguin, University ofMaryland; Current Advisees: P. A.
Benjamin,SSRC-NSF; N. Haan, NASA; P. Laris, NASA; E. Keys, NSF; R. Roy Chowdhury,
NSF-NASA; S. Manson, NSF-NASA; P. Pacheco; J. Vadjunec; Postdoctoral Advisees: A.
Schiller; Ke Chen; W. Hsieh.
Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research
P.O. Box 1248, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248
Phone: (734) 998-9874; Fax: (734) 998-9889; email: [email protected]
University of Waterloo, BA, 1987
University of Waterloo, MA, 1988
York University, Ph.D., 1997
August 2001 - present, Research Fellow, Population and Environment, University of Michigan;
July 2000 - July 2001, Postdoctoral Fellow, Ethnic History, University of Alberta; September
1998 - June 2000, Postdoctoral Fellow, Family History, University of Victoria
Sylvester, K.M. 2001. The limits of rural capitalism: Family, culture, and markets in Montcalm,
Manitoba, 1870-1940. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
Sylvester, K.M. 2001. Household composition and Canada's rural capitalism: The extent of rural
labor markets in 1901. Journal of Family History 26(92):289-309.
Sylvester, K.M. 2000. Rural land in the 1901 census: Inequality, gender and property. Historical
Methods 33(4):243-6.
Sylvester, K.M. 2000. All things being equal: Land ownership and ethnicity in rural Canada,
1901. Social History/Histoire Sociale (accepted June 2001).
Sylvester, K.M. 1998. 'En part égale': Family, inheritance, and market change in a Francophone
community on the prairies, 1890-1930. Journal of the Canadian Historical Association
Sylvester, K. M. 2001. Review of Dirk Hoerder's Creating Societies: Immigrant Lives in Canada
(Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press 1999). Journal of International
Migration and Integration (in press).
Sylvester, K. M. 2003 (submitted 09/2001) 'Rural to Urban Migration: Finding Household
Complexity in a New World Environment,' in Peter Baskerville and Eric W. Sager, eds.,
Studies in Canadian Family History (working title).
Sylvester, K. M. 2001. Review of Gérard Bouchard's Quelques Arpents d'Amérique: Population,
économie, famille au Saguenay, 1838-1971 (Montréal: Boréal 1996). Canadian Historical
Review 82(2):350-3.
Sylvester, K. M. 2001. Review of Robert Coutts' The Road to the Rapids: Nineteenth-Century
Church and Society at St. Andrew's Parish, Red River (Calgary: University of Calgary Press
2000). Canadian Historical Review 82(3):585-6.
Social Science History Association, Member, 1998-present; Canadian Foundation for Innovation,
Canadian Century Research Infrastructure grant application, advisory group, 2001.
Collaborators: Peter Gossage, Université de Sherbrooke
Graduate Advisors: Christopher Armstrong, York University; Gordon Darroch, York University;
Gerald Friesen, University of Manitoba; Kathryn McPherson, York University;
Fernand Ouellet, York University.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Peter Baskerville, University of Victoria;
Gerhard Ens, University of Alberta; Frances Swyripa, University of Alberta; Myron P. Gutmann,
University of Michigan; Royden K. Loewen, University of Winnipeg, Director; Eric W. Sager,
University of Victoria, Director.
Faculty Research Associate, Department of Geological Sciences
Arizona State University, PO Box 871404, Tempe AZ 85287-1404
Phone (480) 965-5507; email: [email protected]
University of Massachusetts-Lowell, B.S., Environmental, Earth, & Atmospheric Sciences, 1988
Arizona State University, Tempe, M.S., Geological Sciences, 1992
Arizona State University, Tempe, Ph.D., Geological Sciences, 2000
2001-present, Faculty Research Associate, Department of Geological Sciences and Center for
Environmental Studies, Arizona State University; 2000-2001, Postdoctoral Research Associate,
Department of Geological Sciences and Center for Environmental Studies, Arizona State
University; 1995-1998, Staff Geologist, Foree & Vann, Inc., Phoenix, AZ; 1988-1989, Senior
Optical Mineralogist, HYGEIA, Inc., Waltham, MA.
Stefanov, W. L., P. R.. Christensen, and M. S. Ramsey. 2001. Remote sensing of urban ecology
at regional and global scales: Results from the Central Arizona-Phoenix LTER site and
ASTER Urban Environmental Monitoring program, Regensburger Geographische Schriften
35:313-321 (on supplemental CD-ROM).
Stefanov, W. L., M. S. Ramsey, and P. R. Christensen. 2001. Monitoring urban land cover
change: An expert system approach to land cover classification of semiarid to arid urban
centers. Remote Sensing of Environment 77(2):173-185.
Wentz, E., S. Anderson, W. Stefanov, and J. Briggs. 2001. Desert fire history and effects on the
Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan area. Proceedings of the IEEE/ISPRS Joint Workshop on
Remote Sensing and Data Fusion Over Urban Areas, Rome, Italy pp. 154-158.
Christensen, P. R., J. Bandfield, V. E. Hamilton, D. Howard, M. Lane, J. Piatek, S. W. Ruff, and
W. L. Stefanov. 2000. A thermal emission spectral library of rock-forming minerals. Journal
of Geophysical Research 105:9,735-9,739.
Ramsey, M. S., W. L. Stefanov, and P. R. Christensen. 1999. Monitoring world-wide urban land
cover changes using ASTER: Preliminary results from the Phoenix, AZ LTER site,
Proceedings of the 13th International Conference, Applied Geological Remote Sensing,
ERIM International, Ann Arbor, Michigan 2:237-244.
Stefanov, W.L., and P. R. Christensen. 1998. An empirical atmosphere correction technique for
Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data using MODTRAN and known surface
emissivity. Summaries of the Seventh JPL Airborne Science Workshop, TIMS Workshop, vol.
3, Jet Prop. Lab. Pub. 97-21, pp. 49-56.
Stefanov, W.L., P. R. Christensen, and M. S. Ramsey. 1998. Mineralogic analysis of soils using
linear deconvolution of mid-infrared spectra. Geological Society of America Abstracts with
Programs 30(7):138.
Stefanov, W. L. 1993. Geologic map of volcanic rocks along the east side of central Chino
Valley, Yavapai County, Arizona, Arizona Geological Survey Contributed Map CM-93-E,
1:12000 scale, 9 pp. text.
Established remote sensing working group within Central Arizona-Phoenix Long Term
Ecological Research (CAP LTER) project to foster interdisciplinary research and present
workshops on relevant topics. This has lead to several cross-disciplinary collaborations with
other CAP LTER scientists. Provided academic support in the form of teaching materials and
guest lectures for courses taught in the Departments of Geological Sciences and Plant Biology.
Also provided materials to the Arizona Geographic Alliance for lesson plan construction.
Presented talks on various research topics including land cover, soil development, hillslope
geomorphology, fugitive dust, dust storms, and geologic hazard research to the Arizona
Department of Environmental Quality, Arizona Geographic Alliance, Beatitudes Campus of
Care, Mars Educational Outreach Program Remote Sensing Workshops, and the United States
Geological Survey.
Collaborators: S. Anderson, Arizona State University (ASU); J R. Arrowsmith, ASU; L. Baker,
University of Minnesota; J. Bandfield, Goddard Space Flight Center; P. L. Brezonik, University
of Minnesota; J. Briggs, ASU; P. R. Christensen, ASU; M. Elser, ASU; D. Foster, Harvard
University; M. Fouch, ASU; J. Fry, ASU; N. B. Grimm, ASU; S. Grossman-Clarke, ASU; M.
Gutmann. University of Michigan; V. E. Hamilton, ASU; D. Hope, ASU; D. Howard, Geo
Spectral & Spatial Sciences; P. Hyde, Arizona Department of Environmental Quality; P. Kareiva,
Nature Conservancy; G. R. Keller, University of Texas-El Paso; A. Kinzig, ASU; M. Lane, ASU;
P. McCartney, ASU; D.J. Mulla, University of Minnesota); J. Piatek, University of Pittsburgh;
M. S. Ramsey, University of Pittsburgh; C. Redman, ASU; S. J. Reynolds, ASU; S. W. Ruff,
ASU; C. Saltz, ASU; H. G. Stefan, University of Minnesota; R. W. Sterner, University of
Minnesota; E. Wentz, ASU.
Graduate Advisors: Senior Thesis Advisor - G. Nelson Eby; University of
Massachusetts-Lowell; Master's Thesis Advisor - John R. Holloway; Arizona State University;
Doctoral Dissertation Advisor - Philip R. Christensen; Arizona State University; Postdoctoral
Sponsors - Philip R. Christensen, Nancy B. Grimm, Charles Redman, Arizona State University.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: None.
Visiting Scientist, The Nature Conservancy
201 Mission St. 4th Floor, San Francisco, CA 94105
University of California, Santa Barbara, A.B., Biology, 1989
University of California, Berkeley, M.A., Energy and Resources, 1993
University of California at Berkeley, Ph.D. Ecology, 1998
2002-present, Visiting Scientist, Carnegie Institution of Washington; 2001-2002, Carnegie Institution
Postdoctoral Fellowship, Stanford University, Stanford; 1998-2001, DOE Alexander Hollaender
Distinguished Postdoctoral Fellowship, Stanford University, Stanford, CA
Shaw, M. R., and J Harte. 2001. Soil microclimate and plant species' control of decomposition under
simulated warming in a subalpine meadow. Ecological Applications 11:1206-1223.
Shaw, M. R., and J. Harte. 2001. Response of nitrogen cycling to simulated climate change:
differential responses along a subalpine ecotone. Global Change Biology 7:193-210.
Shaw, M. R., M. E. Loik, and J. Harte. 2000. Gas exchange and water relations for two Rocky
Mountain shrub species exposed to a climate change manipulation. Plant Ecology 146:197-206.
Harte, J. and M. R. Shaw. 1995. Shifting dominance within a montane vegetation community:
Results of a climate-warming experiment. Science 267:876-880.
Harte, J., M. S. Torn, F-R. Chang, B. Feifarek, A. P. Kinzig, R. Shaw, and K. Shen. 1995. Global
warming and soil microclimate: Results from a meadow-warming experiment. Ecological
Applications 5:132-150.
Rillig, M., S. Wright, M. R. Shaw, and C.B. Field. In press. Artificial climate-warming positively
affects arbuscular mycorrhizae but decreases soil aggregate water stability in an annual grassland.
Saleska, S. R., M. R. Shaw, M. L. Fischer, J. Dunne, C. Still, M. Holman, and J. Harte. In press. Plant
community composition mediates both large decline and predicted long-term recovery of soil
carbon under climate warming. Global Biogeochemical Cycles.
Shaw, M. R., E. Zavaleta, and C. B. Field. Submitted. Limits to NPP response to increased CO2
under multiple global changes. Science.
Zavaleta, E. S., M. R. Shaw, B.D. Thomas, E.E. Cleland, N. R. Chiariello, and C.B. Field. Submitted.
Responses of a California grassland community to experimental climate change, elevated CO2
and N deposition. Ecological Applications.
Shaw, M. R. In prep. The impact of experimental warming on nitrogen partitioning in a montane
meadow/sagebrush ecotone. Ecological Applications.
1992-present, Membership in Professional Societies: Ecological Society of America, American
Geophysical Union, American Association of University Women; 1997-present, Reviewer:
Biogeochemistry, Plant Ecology, Global Change Biology, New Phytologist, Ecological Applications
Collaborators: John Harte, University of California, Berkeley; Chris Field, Carnegie Institution,
Stanford; Christine Goodale, Carnegie Institution, Stanford; Harold Mooney, Stanford University,
Stanford; Matthias Rillig, University of Montana, Missoula; Ann Kinzig, Arizona State University;
Scott Saleska, Harvard University, Cambridge; Margaret Torn, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories,
Graduate Advisors: John Harte, University of California, Berkeley; Chris Field, Stanford University;
Harold Mooney, Stanford University.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: None.
Environmental Education Coordinator, Center for Environmental Studies
Arizona State University, PO Box 873211, Tempe AZ 85287-3211
Phone: (480) 965-1961; Fax: (480) 965-8087; email:[email protected]
Emory University, Atlanta, GA, B.A., Elementary Education, 1992
Antioch New England Graduate School, Keene, NH, M.S., Environmental Studies-Environmental
Education, 1998
July 2000-present, Environmental Education Coordinator, Center for Environmental Studies,
Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ; September 1999 - June 2000, Middle School Math and
Science Teacher, WT Machan Elementary School, Phoenix, AZ; August 1998 - July 1999, Education
Coordinator, Phoenix Clean And Beautiful, Phoenix, AZ; March 1997 - August 1998, Project
Organizer and Manager, Institute for Community Environmental Management, Keene, NH;
September 1994 - June 1996, Elementary School Teacher, Solomon Schecter Day School, Cleveland,
OH; August 1993 - August 1994, Service Fellow, Project Otzma - National Jewish Federation,
Israel; September 1992 - May 1993, Outdoor Instructor, Bradford Woods, Martinsville, IN.
Saltz, C. 1998. “The Road to Integration: Voices from the Field Share Their Community Service
Learning Experiences With an Environmental Focus.” Unpublished Master’s Research - Antioch
New England Institute
Board Member of Arizona Association for Environmental Education. Organized/developed
teaching pedagogy seminars for GK-12 Fellows. Organized/developed teacher workshops/
internships associated with CAP LTER. Developed/implemented/analyzed teacher survey for
Rachel Marshall Outdoor Learning Lab. Developed/Implemented problem solving approach
curriculum for City of Keene traveling Resource Awareness Center. Poster and workshop
presentations at various professional meetings including: National Science Teacher Association,
Arizona Association for Environmental Education.
Collaborators: Fred Staley, Arizona State University (ASU); Sam Scheiner, National Science
Foundation; Brenda Shears, ASU; Monica Elser, ASU; Debra Banks, ASU; Peter McCartney,
ASU; Charles Redman, ASU; Deborah Habib, ASU; Robert Hoppin, Antioch New England
Graduate School; Jimmy Karlan, Antioch New England Graduate School; James Gruber, Antioch
New England Graduate School.
Graduate Advisors: M.S.:Deborah Habib and Robert Hoppin, Antioch New England Graduate
Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology
Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1111.
Phone: (517) 353-0745; Fax: (517) 432-2856; e-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]
Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA, B.A., Biology, 1984
University of California, Santa Cruz, M.A., Sociology, 1990
University of California, Santa Cruz, Ph.D., Sociology, 1995
August 1998 to Present, Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Michigan State
University; August 1997 to June 1998, Visiting Assistant Professor of Sociology, Guilford
College, Greensboro, NC; September 1996 to June 1997, Research Associate in Sociology,
University of California, Santa Cruz; January 1996 to May 1996, Adjunct Professor of
Sociology, Keene State College, Keene, NH; April 1993 to June 1993, Graduate Teaching
Fellow, Sociology and Environmental Studies, University of California, Santa Cruz.
Rudy, A. 2002 (in press, Fall 2002). The social economy of development: the state of the
Imperial Valley. Chapter 10 in Jane Adams, ed., Power and politics in the transformation of
rural America. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.
Rudy, A. 2001. Marx's ecology and rift analysis. Capitalism Nature Socialism 12(2):56-73.
Rudy, A. 2000. Nature, labor and gender: Marx, Lipietz and political ecology. Capitalism Nature
Socialism 11(2):83-90.
Rudy, A. 1998. Ecology and anthropology in the work of Murray Bookchin: Problems of theory
and evidence. Capitalism Nature Socialism 9(2):20-34.
Friedland, W. H., L. Busch, F. H. Buttel, and A. Rudy, eds. 1991. Toward a new political
economy of agriculture. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.
Rudy, A. 2000. Another counter to the 'Devil' of a point-counterpoint. Environment, Technology
and Society: Newsletter of the Section on Environment and Technology of the American
Sociological Association. No.98. Summer.
Rudy, A., and A. Light. 1995. Social ecology and social labor: A consideration and critique of
Murray Bookchin. Capitalism Nature Socialism 6(2):75-106.
Rudy, A. 1991. On the dialectics of capitalism and nature. Capitalism Nature Socialism
"Innovation in teaching:" Graduate seminars, and advanced undergraduate courses, utilize web
resources to facilitate a three-fold textual exchange prior to class meeting. A few days before
class one student posts a 3-6 page critical commentary on the week's readings, followed a day
later by responses from other students. The day before the class meeting, I review, summarize
and critique student postings. Class time then entail elaborating on an already-going conversation
and the application of course concepts to material beyond the content of the particular readings;
"Broadening the participation of groups underrepresented in science, mathematics, engineering
and technology:" For the last two years I have mentored undergraduate students from groups
underrepresented in graduate programs in the research-intensive McNair-SROP program here at
Collaborators: Lawrence Busch, Michigan State University (MSU); Richard Allison, MSU;
Anne Austin, MSU; David Douches, MSU; James Fairweather, MSU; Rebecca Grumet, MSU;
Ray Hammerschmidt, MSU; Jim Hancock, MSU; Craig Harris, MSU; Brad Shaw, MSU; Toby
Ten Eyck, MSU; Suzanne Thiem, MSU; Mike Thomashow, MSU.
Graduate Advisors: James O'Connor, Emeritus Professor, University of California, Santa Cruz;
William H. Friedland, Emeritus Professor, University of California, Santa Cruz; Andrew Szasz,
University of California, Santa Cruz; Devon Pena, University of Washington, Seattle.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Graduate Chair for seven students and
committee member for nine others, Dr. Rudy has yet to chair a thesis committee or sponsor a
post-graduate scholar.
Co-Project Director, Central Arizona – Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research Project
Director, Center for Environmental Studies
Virginia M. Ullman Professor of Natural History and the Environment
Arizona State University, Box 873211, Tempe AZ 85287-3211
Phone: (480) 965-2975; Fax: (480) 965-8087; e-mail: [email protected]
Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, B.A., Physical Sciences, 1967
The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, M.A., Anthropology, 1969
The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, Ph.D., Anthropology, 1971
1997-present, Director, Center for Environmental Studies, Arizona State University, Tempe;
1995-present, Director, Archaeological Research Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe;
1986-1995, Chair, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe; 1983-present,
Professor, Department of Anthropology, Arizona State University, Tempe. 1993-1996,
Governor’s Advisory Council on Environmental Education (Chair 1994-1996); 2000-2001,
Governor’s Commission on Ground Water Management Act (Executive Board); 1996-1999,
Advisory Council Wenner Gren Foundation (Chair 1998-1999); 1991-1998, Board of Trustees,
Museum of Northern Arizona; 1997-present, The Nature Conservancy, State Board of Trustees,
and Vice Chair for Stewardship (1998-present); 1996-present, Board on Natural Resources,
National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges; 1992-present, Board of
Directors, Southwest Center for Education and the Natural Environment; 1997-2000, Biosphere
2 Earth Learning Center Advisory Committee.
Grimm, N. B., J. M. Grove, S. T. A. Pickett, C. L. Redman. 2000. Integrated approaches to longterm studies of urban ecological systems. BioScience 50(7):571-584.
Redman, C. L. 1999. Human dimensions of ecosystem studies. Ecosystems 2:296-298.
Redman, C. L. 1999. Human impacts on the ancient environment. University of Arizona Press,
Redman, C. L. 1996. Adding content to patterns: Comments on geographic and demographic
scales in the ancient Southwest. Pp.115-118 in P. Fish and J. Reid, eds Interpreting
Southwestern diversity: Underlying principles and overarching patterning. Anthropological
Research Papers No. 48, Arizona State University.
Redman, C. L. 1992. The impact of food production: Short-term strategies and long-term
consequences. Pp. 35-49 in J. Jacobsen and J. Firor, eds, Human impact on the environment:
Ancient roots, current challenges. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.
Redman, C. L. 1998. Sources of power in the past: Platform mounds in central Arizona. Pp. 653662 in G. Arsebuk, M. Mellink, and W. Schirmer, eds., Light on top of the Black Hill:
Studies presented to Halet Cambel. EGE Publishing, Istanbul, Turkey.
Redman, C. L. 1994. Mesopotamia and the first cities, Old World civilizations: The rise of cities
and states. Pp. 16-37 in G. Burenhalt, ed., Old world civilizations: The rise of cities and
states. Harper Collins, San Francisco, CA.
Redman, C. L. 1993. People of the Tonto Rim: Archaeological discovery in Arizona.
Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. 214 pp.
Boone, J. L., J. E. Myers, and C. L. Redman. 1990. Archeological and historical approaches to
complex societies: The Islamic states of the medieval Morocco. American Anthropologist
Redman, C. L. 1978. Mesopotamian urban ecology: the systemic context of the emergence of
urbanism. Social archaeology: Beyond subsistence and dating. Academic Press, New York,
pp. 329-347.
Originated the Southwest Symposium (with Paul Minnis), as well as the Complex Society
Meetings (with Barbara Stark and George Cowgill), biennial gatherings of archeologists that
have run for 15 and 10 years, respectively; Received Biocomplexity Incubation funding to
organize a series of 4 workshops to promote the integration of social science into long-term
ecological research (2000-2002); Organizes monthly “All Scientists Council” meetings and
workshop for CAP LTER (50-60 participants, ongoing since Fall 1997).
Collaborators: Philip Christiansen, Arizona State University (ASU); Ramon Arrowsmith, ASU;
Will Graf, University of South Carolina; Stuart Fisher, ASU; Corinna Gries, ASU; Nancy
Grimm, ASU; Morgan Grove, US Forest Service; Ed Hackett, ASU; Mark Hostetler, University
of Florida; Steve James, SHPO California; Ann Kinzig, ASU; Kim Knowles-Yanez, California
State University-Santa Monica; Kuang-ti Li, Academica Sinica Taipei; Peter McCartney, ASU;
Steward Pickett, Institute of Ecological Studies; Sander van der Leeuw, University of Paris; B.L.
Ramakrishna, ASU; Glen Rice, ASU; Nancy McIntyre, Texas Tech.
Graduate Advisors: Robert McC.Adams, retired; Robert J. Braidwood, retired.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: To over 50 graduate and postdoctoral
scholars, including Nancy Benco, George Washington University; James Boone, University of
New Mexico; R. Jane Bradley; Amy Douglass, City of Tempe; Said Ennahid, Ifrane University,
Morocco; Mark Hostetler, University of Florida; Steve James, SHPO California; Madhusudan
Katti, ASU; Kim Knowles-Yanez, California State University-Santa Monica; Kuang-ti Li,
Academica Sinica Taipei; Owen Lindauer, Arizona Department of Transportation; Alexandra
Mack, unknown; Nancy McIntyre, Texas Tech; Emlen Myers, Louis Berger, Inc.; Amy Nelson,
ASU; Patricia Rubertone, Brown University; Eyal Shochat, ASU; Arleyn Simon, ASU.
Professor, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory
Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523
Phone: (970) 491-1987; Fax: (970) 491-1965; email: [email protected]
Pennsylvania State University, B.S., Meteorology, 1966
University of Oklahoma, M.S., Meteorology, 1968
University of Oklahoma, Ph.D., Meteorology, 1972
1989-present, Professor and Senior, Range and Ecosystem Science Research Scientist,
Department and NREL Colorado State University; 1988-1989, Program Director, Division of
Biotic Systems and Resources, Ecosystem Studies Program, National Science Foundation
Washington, DC; 1982-1988, Senior Research Scientist, NREL, Colorado State University;
1975-1982, Research Associate NREL, Colorado State University; 1974-1975, Postdoctoral
Fellowship, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; 1971-1974,
Postdoctoral Fellowship, NREL, Colorado State University; 1968-1971, Special Instructor,
University of Oklahoma; 1966-1968, Research Assistant, University of Oklahoma; 1966-1968,
Teaching Assistant, University of Oklahoma
Parton, W. J., E. A. Holland, S. J. Del Grosso, M. D. Hartman, R. E. Martin, A. R. Mosier, D. S.
Ojima and D. S. Schimel. 2001. Generalized model for NOx and N2O emissions from soils.
Journal of Geophysical Research 106:17403-17419.
Del Grosso, S. J., W. J. Parton, A. R. Mosier, D. S. Ojima, A. E. Kulmala, and S. Phongpan.
2000. General model for N2O and N2 gas emissions from soils due to denitrification. Global
Biogeochemical Cycles 14:1045-1060.
Parton, W. J., M. Hartman, D. S. Ojima and D. S. Schimel. 1998. DAYCENT and its land
surface submodel: Description and testing. Global and Planetary Change 19:35-48.
Matson, P. A., W. J. Parton, A. G. Power, and M. J. Swift. 1997. Agricultural intensification and
ecosystem properties. Science 277:504-509.
Parton, W. J., D. S. Ojima, D. W. Valentine, A. R. Mosier, D. S. Schimel and K. Weier. 1996.
Generalized model for N2 and N2O production from nitrification and denitrification. Global
Biogeochemical Cycles 10:401-412.
Eitzinger, J. W. J. Parton, and M. Hartman. 2000. Improvement and validation of a daily soil
temperature submodel for freezing/thawing periods. Soil Science 165:525 534.
Kelly, R. H., W. J. Parton, M. D. Hartman, L. K. Stretch, D. S. Ojima, and D. S. Schimel. 2000.
Intra- and interannual variability of ecosystem processes in shortgrass-steppe: New model,
verification, simulations. Journal of Geophysical Research 105(D15):20,093-20,1000.
Raich, J. W., W. J. Parton, A. E. Russell, R. L. Sanford, Jr., and P. M. Vitousek. 2000. Analysis
of factors regulating ecosystems development on Mauna Loa using the Century model.
Biogeochemistry 51:161-191.
Mosier, A.R., W.J. Parton and S. Phongpan. 1998. Long-term large N and immediate small N
additions effects on trace gas fluxes in the Colorado shortgrass steppe. Biology and Fertility
of Soils 28:44-50.
Mosier, A. R., W. J. Parton, D. W. Valentine, D. S. Ojima, D. S. Schimel and J. A. Delgado.
1996. CH4 and N2O fluxes in the Colorado shortgrass steppe: I. Impact of landscape and
nitrogen addition. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10:387-399.
Development and web-based distribution of the CENTURY Ecosystem Model; Linking of the
CENTURY Ecosystem Model with the RAMS Atmospheric mesoscale mode; Linking of the
CENTURY Agroecosystem Model with the ASM Economic Model; National Research Council
Committee on Geophysical and Environmental Data - Member 1994-199; Chair of the SCOPE
Tree-Grass Interactions Committee - 1995-2000.
Collaborators: S. Archer, Texas A&M; B.M. Bolker, Princeton; B.H. Braswell, NCAR, Boulder,
CO; I. Burke, CSU; M.R. Carter, PEI, Canada; B. Curtis, E.T. Elliott, University of Nebraska,
Lincoln; J. Eitzinger, University of Agricultural Sciences, Vienna, Austria; S.B. Frey, Ohio State
University; S. Frolking, University of New Hampshire; T. Gilmanov, South Dakota State
University; F. Giorgi, J.W. Harden, USGS, Menlow Park, CA; M. Harmon, Oregon State
University; E. Holland, NCAR, Boulder, CO; E.R. Hunt, Jr., University of Wyoming; R.
Jackson, Duke University; R. Kelly, CSU; D.W. Kicklighter, Woods Hole, MA; W.K.
Lauenroth, CSU; A. Martin, France; R.E. Martin, University of Colorado, Boulder; P. Matson,
Stanford University; A.D. McGuire, University of Alaska, Fairbanks; J. Melillo, Woods Hole,
MA; A.K. Metherell, Lincoln University, New Zealand, D. Moorhead, Texas Tech.; J. Morgan,
USDA; A.R. Mosier, USDA/ARS, Fort Collins, CO; P.P. Motavalli, University of Missouri; R.P.
Neilson, Oregon State University; D.S. Ojima, NREL, CSU; R.J. Olson, Oak Ridge National
Lab, TN; C. Owensby, Kansas State University; S.W. Pacala, Princeton; C.A. Palm, Tropical
Soil Biology and Fertility Programme, Kenya; K. Paustian, NREL, CSU; D.P. Peters,
USDA/ARS Las Cruces, NM; S. Prince, University of Maryland; J. Raich, Iowa State; C.
Rowland, S. Running, University of Montana; D. Schimel, NCAR, Boulder, CO; D. Swift,
NREL, CSU; D.W. Valentine, University of Alaska, Fairbanks; P.M. Vitousek, Stanford
University; B. Walker, GCTE Core Project Leader, Australia; C.A. Wessman, University of
Colorado; P. Woomer, Jr., UNESCO-ROSTA; X. Xiao, University of New Hampshire; C.
Graduate Advisors: G. Amos Eddy, Paul Risser, George Innis
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Stephen del Grosso, Paul Hook, Greg
McMaster, Weihong Fann, V.B. Brown, Robin Martin
Coordinator, Fisher Museum
Harvard Forest, Harvard University, Petersham, MA 01366-0068
Phone: (978) 724-3302; Fax: (978) 724-3595; email: [email protected]
Harvard University, B.A., Social Relations (cum laude), 1967
University of Massachusetts, Amherst, M.S., Forest Ecology, 1981
University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Ph.D., Forest Ecology, 1987
1988-present, Coordinator, Fisher Museum, Harvard Forest, Harvard University; 1987-1988,
Lecturer, Forestry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; 1986-1987, Assistant Director,
Cartographic Services, University of Massachusetts; 1979-1986, Research Assistant, Forestry,
University of Massachusetts; 1969-1976, Fighter Pilot, Massachusetts Air National Guard;
1967-1968, Community Development Volunteer, U.S. Peace Corps, Lesotho.
Orwig, D. A., C. V. Cogbill, D. R. Foster and J. F. O'Keefe. 2001. Variations in old-growth
structure and definitions: Forest dynamics on Wachusett Mountain, Massachusetts.
Ecological Applications 11:437-452.
Foster, D. R., and J. F. O'Keefe. 2000. New England forests through time: Insights from the
Harvard Forest dioramas. Harvard Forest and Harvard University Press.
O'Keefe, J. F., and D. R. Foster. 1998. An ecological history of Massachusetts forests. Pp.19-66
in Charles H. W. Foster, ed., Stepping back to look forward - a history of the Massachusetts
Forest. Harvard Forest and Harvard University Press.
O'Keefe, J. F., and D. R. Foster. 1998. An ecological history of Massachusetts forests. Arnoldia
Wilson, B. F., and J. F. O'Keefe. 1983. Mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia L.) distribution in
Massachusetts. Rhodora 85:115-122.
Wilson, B. F., W. A. Patterson III, and J. F. O'Keefe. 1985. Longevity and persistence of alder
West of treeline on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. Canadian Journal of Botany
1989, The Harvard Forest, Fifteen-minute multi-image slide/tape and video program to provide
Museum visitors with background on the history and activities of the Harvard Forest; 1990,
Long-Term Ecological Research at Harvard Forest, Eighteen-minute multi-image slide/tape and
video program describing the National Science Foundation's Long-Term Ecological Research
Program and Harvard Forest's research within it; 1990-present, Woody species phenology at
Harvard Forest. Database of spring and fall phenology (leaf and flower) of 33 native woody
species at Harvard Forest, posted on our website (http://LTERnet.edu/hfr); 1979-1981,
University of Massachusetts Graduate Fellowship; 1994 - present Massachusetts Secretaries'
(Environment and Education) Advisory Group on Environmental Education, member;
1995-present, Mount Grace Land Conservation Trust, director (1995 - present), president (19992000), vice-president (2000 - present); 1989-1999, Massachusetts Project Learning Tree, steering
committee; 1997 - present, North Quabbin Regional Landscape Partnership, executive
committee; 1996 - present, Quabbin Science and Technical Advisory Committee, member.
Collaborators: Elizabeth Chilton, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Charles Cogbill,
Hubbard Brook LTER; Taylor Field, University of California, Berkeley; David Foster, Harvard
University; N. Michelle Holbrook, Harvard University; Susan Johnson, University of
Massachusetts, Amherst; David Kittredge, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Nicole
Lavelle, University of Massachusetts, Amherst; David Lee, Florida International University;
Glenn Motzkin, Harvard University; David Orwig, Harvard University; Mark Schwartz,
University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; B. L. Turner, Clark University.
Graduate Advisors: Brayton F. Wilson, University of Massachusetts (retired).
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Amanda Gardner, Orion Foundation.
Assistant Professor, School of Planning and Landscape Architecture
Arizona State University, PO Box 872005, Tempe AZ 85287-2005
Phone: (480) 727-7336/7572; Fax: (480) 965-9656; email: [email protected]
Le Moyne College, Syracuse, New York, Biology, Attended 1984-86
State University of New York, Bachelor of Landscape Architecture (Magnum Cum Laude), 1989
State University of New York, Master of Landscape Architecture 1993
Texas A&M University, College Station, Doctor of Philosophy, Urban and Regional Science,
2000-present, Assistant Professor, School of Planning and Landscape Architecture and Center for
Environmental Studies, Arizona State University, Tempe; 1996-1999, Assistant Lecturer,
1995-1996, Graduate Assistant, Department of Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning,
Texas A&M University, College Station; 1996-1998, Consultant; 1996 (summer), Graduate
intern, Lower Colorado River Authority, Austin, Texas; 1993-1995, Assistant Professor,
Department of Landscape Architecture and Environmental Planning, Utah State University;
1992-1993, Graduate Teaching Assistant, 1991-1992, Graduate Research Assistant, Faculty of
Landscape Architecture, College of Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of
New York, Syracuse; 1989-1994, Planning and design firms in California, New York, and
Musacchio, L. R., and W. E. Grant. In press. Agricultural production and wetland habitat quality
in a coastal prairie ecosystem: Simulated effects of alternative resource policies on land-use
decisions. Ecological Modelling:
Musacchio, L.R. Submitted. Considering the role of ecological research in planning education.
Journal of Planning Education and Research.
Musacchio, L. R., K. Crewe, F. Steiner, and J. Schmidt. Submitted. The future of agricultural
landscape preservation in the Phoenix metropolitan region. Landscape Journal.
Musacchio, L. R., and R. N. Coulson. 2001. A landscape ecological planning process for
wetlands, waterfowl, and farmland conservation. Landscape and Urban Planning
Musacchio, L.R., W. E. Grant, and T. R. Peterson. Forthcoming. Adaptive management of
complex socio-environmental systems in the southwestern United States: Examples of
urbanizing watersheds in Arizona and Texas. In the Proceedings of the Land Use and
Environmental Modeling Symposium, October 2000, Arizona State University.
Program coordinator (with Dr. Jianguo Wu, program chair), Sixteenth Annual Symposium of the
U.S. Regional Chapter of the International Association of Landscape Ecology, Arizona State
University, April 25-29, 2001. 370 ecologists, geographers, planners, and landscape architects
from North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia attended the
symposium; Two grants received for the Sixteenth Annual Symposium of the U.S. Regional
Chapter of the International Association of Landscape Ecology, Arizona State University, April
25-29, 2001 from the National Endowment of the Arts ($10,000) and the Arizona Commission
on the Arts (Laura Musacchio, PI); Steering committee member, Landscape Change Workshop,
January 2001 (funded by the National Science Foundation and Environmental Systems Research
Collaborators: J R. Arrowsmith, Arizona State University (ASU); A. Brazel, ASU; M. Bryant,
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; E. Cook, ASU; R. Coulson, Texas A&M
University; K. Crewe, ASU; T. Evans, Indiana University; J. Ewan, ASU; P. Gober, ASU; W.
Grant, Texas A&M University; K. Hill, University of Washington; L. McSherry, ASU; B. Miller,
Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, CA; E. Ozdenerol, Florida International
University; S. Pickett, Institute for Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, NY; T. R. Peterson, Texas
A&M University; J. Schmidt, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Phoenix, AZ; J.
Sibernagel, University of Wisconsin; W. Stefanov, ASU; F. Steiner, University of Texas, Austin;
J. Wu, ASU; R. Yabes, ASU.
Graduate Advisors: D. Sweeney, Texas A&M University (Co-chair, Ph.D.); R. Couslon, Texas
A&M University (Co-chair, Ph.D.); D. Reuter, State University of New York College of
Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse (Master's thesis advisor)
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: E. Boettcher, Arizona State University; S.
Conrad, Arizona State University; F. Tavassoli, Arizona State University.
Harvard Forest
Harvard University, Petersham, MA 01366
Phone: (978) 724-3302; Fax: (978) 724-3595; email: [email protected]
Brown University, B.A., American Civilization,1982
University of Massachusetts, Amherst, M.S., Forest Ecology, 1990
1995-present, Plant Ecologist, Harvard Forest, Harvard University; 1991-1995, Research
Assistant in Historical Ecology, Harvard Forest, Harvard University; 1987-present, Community
Ecologist - Private consultant with Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species
Program, MA Dept. of Fisheries, Wildlife, and Environmental Law Enforcement, and The
Nature Conservancy;
1986-1990, Research Assistant, Dept. of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of
Massachusetts, Amherst; 1985, Research Assistant, Tonto National Forest, Carefree, Arizona.
Burgi, M., E. W. B. Russell, and G. Motzkin. 2000. Effects of postsettlement human activities on
forest composition in the northeastern United States - a comparative approach. Journal of
Biogeography 27:1123-1138.
Donohue, K., D. R. Foster, and G. Motzkin. 2000. Effects of past and present on species
distribution: Land-use history and demography of wintergreen. Journal of Ecology
Motzkin, G., W. A. Patterson III, and D. R. Foster.1999. A historical perspective on pitch
pine-scrub oak communities in the Connecticut Valley of Massachusetts. Ecosystems
Motzkin, G., P. Wilson, D. R. Foster, and A. Allen.1999. Vegetation patterns in heterogeneous
landscapes: the importance of history and environment. Journal of Vegetation Science
Compton, J. E., R. D. Boone, G. Motzkin, and D. R. Foster.1998. Soil carbon and nitrogen in a
pine-oak sand plain in central Massachusetts: role of vegetation and land-use history.
Oecologia 116:536-542.
Foster, D. R., and G. Motzkin. 1998. Ecology and conservation in the cultural landscape of New
England: Lessons from nature's history. Northeastern Naturalist 5:111 126.
Foster, D. R., G. Motzkin, and B. Slater. 1998. Land-use history as long-term broad-scale
disturbance: regional forest dynamics in central New England. Ecosystems 1:96-119.
Motzkin, G., D. Foster, A. Allen, J. Harrod, and R. Boone. 1996. Controlling site to evaluate
history: vegetation patterns of a New England sand plain. Ecological Monographs
Motzkin, G. 1994. Calcareous fens of western New England and adjacent New York State.
Rhodora 96:44-68.
Motzkin, G., Patterson, W. A. III, and N. E. Drake. 1993. Fire history and vegetation dynamics of
a Chamaecyparis thyoides wetland on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Journal of Ecology
Donald L. Mader Scholarship Award, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, 1990; Member,
Committee to Develop a Vision for the Protection of Massachusetts Forests, 1999; Ecology
Advisor, The Trustees of Reservations, Massachusetts, 1999-present; Associate Member,
Massachusetts Natural Heritage and Endangered Species Program Advisory Committee, 2001;
Member, Cooper Award Committee, Ecological Society of America, 2001-2003.
Collaborators: Arthur Allen, Eco Tech, Inc.; Matthias Burgi, Stephanie Ciccarello, Jana
Compton, U. S. EPA; Richard Boone, University of Alaska; Kathleen Donohue, Harvard
University; David Foster, Harvard University; Brian Hall, Harvard University; Jon Harrod,
unknown affiliation; William Patterson, University of Massachusetts; Emily Russell, Rutgers
University; Ben Slater, unknown affiliation; Kris Verheyen, Catholic University of Leuven,
Belgium; Paul Wilson, University of California, Northridge.
Graduate Advisors: William A. Patterson III, University of Massachusetts..
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Brayton Wilson, University of
Massachusetts; David Foster, Harvard University; Graduate Thesis Committee Member: Rebecca
Anderson, Sonoma State University, CA; Jesse Bellemare, Harvard University; Stephanie
Ciccarello, Amherst, MA Conservation Department; Robert Eberhardt, New Jersey Conservation
Foundation; Sally Shaw, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.
Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Work
Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-4003
Phone: (785) 532.4960; Fax: (785) 532.6978; email: [email protected]
Southern Illinois University, B.S., Economics and Finance, 1987
Ohio University, M.A., International Affairs, 1992
Michigan State University, Ph.D., Sociology, 2001
August 2001-present, Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social
Work, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas; August 1999-May 2001, Research Assistant,
Institute for Food and Agricultural Standards (IFAS), Michigan State University; August
1993-May 1999, Research Assistant, Department of Sociology, with Dr. Lawrence Busch,
Michigan State University; April 1997-February 1998, Research Associate/Co-Principal
Investigator, Department of Sociology, Michigan State University and the International Service
for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR); August 1993-December 1993, Teaching Assistant,
Department of Sociology, Michigan State University; June 1993-September 1993: Project
Supervisor, Visions International, Inc., Tortola, British Virgin Islands; June 1992-August 1992,
Project Assistant, Brazil and Fulbright Projects, Ohio Program of Intensive English, Ohio
University, Athens, Ohio; April-June 1992, Public Information Specialist (Intern), U.S. Soil
Conservation Service, Athens, Ohio; April 1988-October 1990, Peace Corps Volunteer, Ministry
of Natural Resources, Honduras.
Middendorf, G., E. Ransom, and L. Busch. Forthcoming, 2002. Current issues in agricultural
science and technology policy. In UNESCO (ed.), Encyclopedia for life support systems.
Middendorf, G., and L. Busch. 1998. Agricultural research policy in a changing context:
Institutional change at the Panamanian Agricultural Research Institute. Discussion Paper No
98-11 (November 1998) of the International Service for National Agricultural Research
(ISNAR), The Hague.
Middendorf, G., M. Skladany, E. Ransom, and L. Busch. 1998. New agricultural
biotechnologies: The struggle for democratic choice. Monthly Review 50(3):85-96.
Middendorf, G., and L. Busch. 1997. Inquiry for the public good: Democratic participation in
agricultural research. Agriculture and Human Values 14(1):45-57.
Busch, L., and G. Middendorf. 1997. Democratic technology policy for a rapidly changing world.
Pp. 205-217 in William Lockeretz, ed., Visions of American agriculture. Iowa State
University Press, Ames.
Goss, J., M. Skladany, and G. Middendorf. 2001. Dialogue: Shrimp aquaculture in Thailand: A
response to Vandergeest, Flaherty and Miller. Rural Sociology 66(3):451-460.
Ransom, E., L. Busch, and G. Middendorf. 1998. Can cooperatives survive the privatization of
biotechnology in US agriculture? Pp. 75-94 in Steven A. Wolf (ed.), Privatization of
information and agricultural industrialization. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
Ransom, E., G. Middendorf, and L. Busch.1998. Biotechnology and agricultural cooperatives:
Choices and Challenges for managers and members. Research Report of the Michigan
Agricultural Experiment Station. January, No. 552. Michigan State University, East Lansing.
Middendorf, G., E. Ransom, and L Busch. 1996. Biotechnology and agricultural cooperatives:
Implications of the new food biotechnologies. Rural Cooperatives 63(3):18-22.
Ransom, E., G. Middendorf, and L. Busch. 1996. Biotechnology and agricultural cooperatives:
Implications of the new plant biotechnologies. Rural Cooperatives 63(2):8-10.
Fall 1996, Organized a national workshop for leaders of agricultural cooperatives to begin
dialogue on the likely impacts of the new agricultural biotechnologies; 1995, Researched and
produced a white paper for the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station on the question of
enhancing participation of nontraditional constituencies in technology development; 1995, 1994,
1993, Organized a series of workshops on biotechnology and technological change in agriculture
for representatives of Michigan agricultural, environmental, and consumer groups and the
Cooperative Extension Service; 1994, Developed a proposal for a short course for educators on
scientific literacy among secondary school students.
Collaborators: Janet Benson, Kansas State University; Leonard Bloomquist, Kansas State
University, Lawrence Busch, Michigan State University; Jasper Goss, International Union of
Food, Agricultural, Hotel, Restaurant, Catering, Tobacco and Allied Workers' Associations –
Sydney, Australia; Elizabeth Ransom, Michigan State University; Mike Skladany, Institute for
Agriculture and Trade Policy.
Graduate Advisors: Marilyn Aronoff, Lawrence Busch, Craig Harris, and Scott Whiteford, all of
Michigan State University.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: None.
Assistant Research Scientist, Center for Environmental Studies
Information Manager, Central Arizona - Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research
Arizona State University, PO Box 873211, Tempe, AZ 85287-3211
Phone: (480) 965-6791; Fax: (480) 965-8087; email: [email protected]
University of Arizona, B.A. in Anthropology, 1980
University of Arizona, M.A. in Anthropology, 1983
University of Calgary, Ph.D. in Archaeology, 1990
2000-present, Assistant Research Scientist, Center for Environmental Studies, Arizona State
University; 1997-present, Information Manager, Central Arizona - Phoenix Long-Term
Ecological Research project; 1992-2000, Assistant Research Professor, Department of
Anthropology, ASU; 1997-2001, Information Manager, Archaeological Research Institute,
Arizona State University; 1999-2001, Director, AZSITE Cultural Resources Inventory Project;
Panelist, NSF Post-doctoral Fellowships in Bioinformatics; Reviewer, Short Grass Steppe LTER
Site Review, July 11-14, 1999.
Schurmans, U., A. Razdan, A. Simon, P. McCartney, M. Marzke, D. Van Alfen, G. Jones, J.
Rowe, G. Farin, D. Collins, M. Zhu, D. Liu and M. Bae. In Press. Proceedings from
Advances in Geometric Modeling and Feature Extraction on Pots, Rocks and Bones for
Representation and Query via the Internet. Computer Applications in Archaeology (CAA)
2001 Visby, Sweden, April 25 - 29, 2001.
McCartney, P. 2000 Long-term management and accessibility of archaeological research data. In
Mary Carroll and Harrison Eiteljorg III, eds., Proceedings of SAA Symposium on Delivering
Archaeological Data over the Internet. National Center for Preservation Technology and
Training, National Park Service.
McCartney, P., I. Robertson, and G. Cowgill. 2000. Using metadata to address problems of data
preservation and delivery: Examples from the Teotihuacan Data Archiving Project. Paper
presented at the 65th annual SAA. Philadelphia, April 6, 2000.
McCartney, P. H., and M. F. Glass. 1990. Simulation models and the interpretation of
archaeological diversity. American Antiquity 55(2):521-536.
Jochim, M., M. Glass, L. Fisher, and P. McCartney. 1998. Mapping the Stone Age: An interim
report on the South German Survey Project. Pp 121-131 in N. J. Conrad and C-J Kind, eds.,
Aktuelle Forshungen zum Mesolithikum. Urgeschichtliche Materialhefte 12. Mo Vince
Verlag, Tubingen.
Noone, J., L. Fisher, M. Jochim, M. Glass, and P. McCartney 1997 Eine Fruhjahrsprospektion
im Federsee. Archaologische Ausgrabungen in Baden-Wurttemberg 1996, pp. 32-34.
McCartney, P. H., and J. W. Helmer. 1990. Marine and Terrestrial mammals in high Arctic
Paleoeskimo economy. Archaeozoologica 3(1,2):143-160.
McCartney, P. H. 1989. Alternative hunting strategies in Plains Paleo-Indian adaptation. Pp.
111-121in L. Davis and B.O.K. Reeves, eds., Hunters of the recent past. Unwin Hyman,
1999 - present, Director, Networking our Research Legacy Project. Development of software
solutions for integrating biological collections databases, bibliographies, research datasets.
Collaboration with the National Center for Analysis and Synthesis, UCSB and The LTER
Information Manager Committee to develop a discipline-wide standard for ecological metadata
(EML). Development of internet tools for distributed metadata query and online data access and
processing; 2000-present, LTER Information Management Committee. Member, Executive
Committee. Served as chair of the LTER Metadata task force (2000-present), recently organized
a workshop (Jan 7-9, 2002) to implement EML across the LTER network; 1997 - present,
Council for the Preservation of Anthropological Records. Collaboration among anthropological
archival institutions to develop a metadata content standard for anthropological collections.
Developed an internet based search application to query anthropological collections; 1996 2001, AZSITE Cultural Resources Inventory. Consortium to develop and deploy a state-wide
inventory of historic cultural properties in Arizona. Develop spatially-enabled database system,
distributed entry and tracking software, and internet access.
Collaborators: Lynn Fisher, Department of Sociology/Anthropology Oberlin College, Oberlin,
OH; Michael Jochim, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara; Tim
Craig, University of Minnesota; Mike Bailey, San Diego Supercomputing Center, UCSD; Tony
Fountain, San Diego Supercomputing Center, UCSD; William Michener, University of New
Mexico, Albuquerque, NM; Matt Jones, National Center for Analysis and Synthesis, UCSB, CA;
Bertram Ludasher, San Diego Supercomputing Center, UCSD; Cheri Pancake, Northwest
Alliance for Computational Science and Engineering
Arcot Rajaskar, San Diego Supercomputing Center, UCSD.
Graduate Advisors: James W. Helmer, (Ph.D. chair) University of Calgary.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: None.
Associate Professor, Department of Natural Resources Conservation
University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-4210
Phone: (413) 545-2943; Fax: (413) 545-4358; email: [email protected]
University of Vermont, B.S., Forestry, 1978
Yale University, M.S., Forest Science, 1980
Yale University, Ph.D., Forest Science, 1986
1999-present, Part-time appointment as Forest Policy Analyst, Harvard Forest; 1992-present,
University of Massachusetts, Department of Natural Resources Conservation, Associate
Professor/ Extension Forester; 1987-1992, University of Massachusetts, Department of Natural
Resources Conservation, Assistant Professor/ Extension Forester; 1986-1987, University of
Connecticut, Department of Natural Resources, Management and Engineering. Instructor.
Bliss, J., G. Aplet, C. Hartzell, P. Harwood, P. Jahnige, D. Kittredge, S. Lewandowski, and M.
Soscia. 2001. Community-based ecosystem monitoring. Journal of Sustainable Forestry
Klosowski, R., T. Stevens, D. Kittredge, and D. Dennis. 2001. Economic incentives for
coordinated management of forest land: A case study of southern New England. Forest
Policy and Economics 2:29-38.
Stevens, T. H., R. Belkner, D. Dennis, D. Kittredge, and C. Willis. 2000. Comparison of
contingent valuation and conjoint analysis in ecosystem management. Ecological Economics
Kittredge, D. B., M. G. Rickenbach, and S. H. Broderick.1999. Regulation and stumpage prices:
A tale of two states. Journal of Forestry 97(10):12-16.
Stevens, T., D. Dennis, D. B. Kittredge, and M. G. Rickenbach.1999. Attitudes and preferences
toward cooperative agreements for management of private forestlands in the northeastern
United States. Journal of Environmental Management 55:81-90.
Kelty, M. J., D. B Kittredge, Jr., T. Kyker-Snowman and A. D. Leighton. Submitted. The
conversion of even-aged stands to uneven-aged structure in southern New England. Northern
Journal of Applied Forestry 2002.
Kittredge, D. B., A. O. Finley and D. R. Foster. Submitted. Regional pattern and ecological
significance of timber harvesting in a landscape of diverse ownership. Ecological
Applications 2002.
Rickenbach, M. G., D. B. Kittredge, D. Dennis and T. Stevens. 1998. Ecosystem management:
capturing the concept for woodland owners. Journal of Forestry 96(4):18-24.
Leak, W. B., M. Yamasaki, D. B. Kittredge, Jr., N. I. Lamson, and M. L. Smith. 1997. Applied
ecosystem management on nonindustrial forestland. USDA Forest Service General Technical
Report NE-239. Radnor, PA. 30 pp.
Society of American Foresters, Chair, New England Society, 1992 (1,200 members in six states);
a member or Chair of the program committee of the 3-day annual meeting, attended by 300-400
practicing foresters from throughout the region; member of the national Committee on Forest
Policy (1993-1996); Vice President, New England Forestry Foundation (NEFF), and board of
directors member since 1993. NEFF's mission is to be an excellent steward of its own forest
properties, to promote forest stewardship to other private owners, and to provide forest policy
leadership in New England; Massachusetts Extension Forester, regularly organizing continuing
education opportunities for ca. 400 practicing foresters throughout Southern New England, on
such topics as: advances in forest biology, forest health, high technology applications, and
statistics and sampling. Responsible for compiling quarterly statistics on stumpage price trends
in the forest industry and lead educational opportunities for forest owners and municipal/ngo
leaders; Developing a database of examples of private forest ownership cooperation from
temperate nations with developed economies. These are situations whereby owners do not rely on
forest products for subsistence, but rather for supplemental income; In the spring 2001 semester,
taught a general introductory course in forestry to 131 undergraduate students at UMASS in a
distance-learning web-based format. All course content was presented in modular packages, and
was reinforced through discussion sections and field trips.
Collaborators: Greg Aplet, The Wilderness Society; Warren Archey, Massachusetts Department
of Environmental Management (MDEM); Dan Belin, University of Massachusetts (UMASS)Amherst; Robert Belkner, unknown; John Bliss, Oregon State; Stephen Broderick, University of
CT; Donald Dennis, US Forest Service; Josh Ellsworth, UMASS, Amherst; Andrew Finley,
UMASS, Amherst; Jenifer Fish, MDEM; David Foster, Harvard Forest; Robin Harrington,
UMASS, Amherst; Cate Hartzell, Collaborative Learning Circle, OR; Patricia Harwood, BLM,
Washington, DC; Paul Jahnige, MDEM; Matthew Kelty, UMASS, Amherst; Anne Marie
Kittredge, MA Division of Fisheries and Wildlife; Robert Klosowski, UMASS, Amherst; T.
Kyker-Snowman, MA Metropolitan District Commission; Neil Lamson, US Forest Service;
William Leak, US Forest Service; Adrian Leighton, UMASS, Amherst; Stephen Lewandowski,
Canandaigua Lake Watershed Task Force, NY; Christina Petersen, Northampton, MA; Mark
Rickenbach, University of WI; Mary Smith, US Forest Service; Mary Soscia, US EPA; Thomas
Stevens, UMASS, Amherst; Sarah White, unknown; Cleve Willis, UMASS, Amherst; Claiborne
Woodall, unknown; Mariko Yamasaki, US Forest Service.
Graduate Advisors: Professor David M. Smith, Emeritus Professor, Yale School of Forestry and
Environmental Studies; Post-doctoral sponsor: Dr. David Schroeder, University of Connecticut.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Dan Belin, UMASS, Amherst; Donald
Bertelette, unknown; Chunyun Gao, unknown; Andrew Finley (UMASS, Amherst), Dan Moore,
unknown; Mark G. Rickenbach, University of WI; John Swett, unknown.
Assistant Professor, Department of Biology
Arizona State University, PO Box 871501, Tempe AZ 85287-1501
Phone: (480) 965-6838 FAX: (480) 965-2519; email: [email protected]
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, B.S., Physics, May 1986
University of California, Berkeley, M.A., Physics, December 1988
University of California, Berkeley, Ph.D., Energy and Resources, May 1994
Princeton University, Post-Doctoral Associate, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
and The Center for Energy and Environmental Studies, July 1994 to July 1996
August 1998-present, Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, Arizona State University; August
1998-August 1999, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President,
AAAS Roger Revelle Fellow (on leave from ASU); July 1996-July 1998, Princeton University,
Assistant Director, Princeton Environmental Institute and Lecturer, Department of Ecology and
Evolutionary Biology.
Kinzig, A.P. 2001. Bridging disciplinary divides to address environmental challenges. Ecosystems
Schneider, L., A.P. Kinzig, E. Larson, and L.A. Solorzano. 2001. GIS-assisted calculation of
potential biomass yields and assessment of land availability for biomass energy production. To
appear in Agriculture, Ecosystems, and Environment 84(3):207-226.
Kinzig, A.P., and J. Harte. 2000. Distributions of species and implications for species extinction
rates. Ecology 81(12):3305-3311.
Kinzig, A.P., and J.M. Grove. 2000. Urban-Suburban Ecology. The Encyclopedia of Biodiversity,
Simon Levin (ed). Academic Press, Inc
Walker, B., A.P. Kinzig, and J. Langridge. 1999. Plant attribute diversity, resilience, and ecosystem
function: The nature and significance of dominant and minor species. Ecosystems 2(2):95-113.
Kinzig, A. P., S. Pacala, and D. Tilman, eds. Forthcoming, Fall 2001. Functional Consequences of
Biodiversity: Empirical Progress and Theoretical Extensions. Princeton University Press.
Kinzig, A. P., J. Dushoff, S. A. Levin, and S. Pacala. 1999. Limiting similarity, species packing,
and system stability for hierarchical competition-colonization models. The American Naturalist
Harte, J., A.P. Kinzig, & J. Booher. 1999. Self-similarity in the distribution and abundance of
species. Science 284(5412):334-.
Hartvigsen, G., A. P. Kinzig, and G. Peterson. 1998. Conveners and editors of a Special Feature on
the use and analysis of complex adaptive systems in ecosystem science, and authors of an
overview article (contributing authors to the Special Feature include S.A. Levin, E. Bonabeau,
M. Janssen, B. Milne, and K. Sigmund). Ecosystems 1(5):422-430
Daily, G., P. Dasgupta, B. Bolin, P. Crosson, J. du Guerney, P. Ehrlich, C. Folke, A. M. Jansson,
B.O. Jansson, N. Kautsky, A.P. Kinzig, S.A. Levin, K.G. Mäler, P. Pinstrup-Andersen, D.
Siniscalco, and B. Walker. 1998. Food production, population growth, and environmental
security. Science 281(5381):1,291-.
June 2000, Nature and Society: An Imperative for Integrated Environmental Research. A workshop
involving 45 researchers from social- and natural-sciences, convened to articulate priorities for
interdisciplinary environmental research. A. Kinzig (chair); 2000, Ecological Society of America,
Aldo Leopold Leadership Fellow; American Association for the Advancement of Science,1st Roger
Revelle Fellowship in Global Stewardship, Sep 98 to Aug 99 served in the White House Office of
Science and Technology Policy, Environment Divisions.
Collaborators: Juan Armesto, Universidad de Chile; Teri Balser; Eric Berlow, UC-Berkeley; Janine
Bloomfield, Environmental Defense Fund; Bert Bolin, U of Stockholm; Jessica Booher, Steve
Carpenter, University of WI; F. S. Chapin III, U of Alaska; Peter Chesson, U of CA-Davis; James
Collins, AZ State (ASU); Pierre Crosson, Resources for the Future; Gretchen Daily, Stanford;
Rudolfo Dirzo, Instituto de Ecología; Michael Dove, Yale; Partha das Gupta, U of Cambridge; J. du
Guerney, Food & Agric. Org., Rome; Douglas Deutchman, San Diego State; Jonathan Dushoff,
Princeton; Paul Ehrlich, Stanford; William Fagan, ASU; Mary Firestone, U of CA-Berkeley; Marc
Fisher, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories; Carl Folke, Stockholm; Nancy Grimm, ASU; J. Morgan
Grove, US Forest Service; John Harte, U of CA-Berkeley; Gregg Hartvigsen, State U of NY; Geoff
Heale, Columbia; Andy Hector, Imperial College at Silwood Park; Brian Helmuth; Gretchen
Hofmann, ASU; Robert Holt, University of FL; Elizabeth Huber-Sanwald, Technische Universitat
Munchen; Laura Huenneke, NM State; Robert Jackson; Anne-Marie Jansson; Bengt-Owe Jansson,
Stockholm; Peter Kareiva, The Nature Conservancy; Daniel Kammen, University of CA-Berkeley;
Niels Kautsky; Jennifer Langridge; Eric Larson, Princeton; Sharon Lawler; John Lawton; Rick
Leemans, NIH; Clarence Lehman, University of MN; Simon Levin, Princeton; David Lodge, Notre
Dame; Michel Loreau; Jane Lubchenco, OR State; K.G. Mäler, Beijer Intl. Institute of Ecol. Econ.,
Stockholm; S. McCarthy; Bruce Menge, OR State; Hal Mooney, Stanford; Shahid Naeem,
University of WA; M. Oesterheld, U of Buenos Aires; Stephen Pacala, Princeton ; Gary Peterson; P.
Pinstrup-Andersen, Intl. Food Policy Institute, DC; N. L Poff, CO State; Charles Redman, ASU;
Osvaldo Sala, University of Buenos Aires; Bernhard Schmid; Laura Schneider; Steve Schneider,
Stanford; D. Siniscalco, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan; Luis Solorzano; David Starrett,
Stanford; M. T. Sykes, Lund U; Kevin Taylor; David Tilman, University of MN; Brian Walker,
CSIRO, Canberra; Marilyn Walker, U of Alaska; Diana Wall, CO State; Jianguo Wu, ASU.
Graduate Advisors: John Harte, dissertation chair, University of CA-Berkeley; F.S. Chapin III,
dissertation committee, University of Alaska, Anchorage; Mary Firestone, dissertation committee,
University of CA-Berkeley; John Holdren, dissertation committee, Harvard; Simon Levin,
post-doctoral advisor, Princeton; Robert Socolow, post-doctoral advisor, Princeton.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Paige Warren, ASU, postgraduate scholar; Kris
Gade, ASU, doctoral student.
The Nature Conservancy
217 Pine Street, Seattle, WA 98101
Phone: (206) 632-0467; Fax: (206) 860-3335; email: [email protected]
Duke University, Durham, NC, B.A., magna cum laude in Zoology, 1973
University of California at Irvine, M.S., Environmental Biology, 1976
Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, Ph.D., Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 1981
2002-current, The Nature Conservancy, Lead Scientist; 2000-2002, National Marine Fisheries
Service, Director of the Division for Conservation Biology; September 1989-1999, Professor of
Zoology, University of Washington; 1986-1989, Associate Professor of Zoology, University of
Washington; 1984-1986, Assistant Professor of Zoology, University of Washington; Assistant
Professor, 1981-1983 of Biology and Applied Mathematics, Brown University.
Kareiva, P. 2002. Applying ecological science to recovery planning? Ecological Applications in
press. (expected date of publication is July 2002).
Kareiva, P., M. Marvier, and M. McClure. 2000. Recovery and management options for Snake
River spring/summer chinook salmon in the Columbia River Basin. Science 290: 977-979.
Kareiva, P., I. Parker, and M. Pascual. 1996. How useful are experiments and models in
predicting the invasiveness of genetically engineered organisms? Ecology 77:1670-1675.
Kareiva, P., and U. Wennergren. 1995. Connecting landscape patterns to ecosystem and
population processes. Nature 373:299-302.
Kareiva, P. 1991. Population dynamics in spatially complex environments: Theory and data.
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 330:175-190.
Kareiva, P., and S. Levin, eds. In press. The importance of species: Setting conservation
priorities. Princeton Monograph Series. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
Tilman, D., and P. Kareiva, eds. 1997. Spatial ecology. Princeton University Monograph series.
Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J.
Kareiva, P., J. Kingsolver and Huey, R., eds. 1993. Biotic interactions and global change. S
Sinauer Press, underland, MA.
Kareiva, P., and R. Sahakian. 1990. Tritrophic effects of a simple architectural mutation in pea
plants. Nature 345:433-434.
Kareiva, P. 1987. Habitat fragmentation and the stability of predator-prey interactions. Nature
I designed and led a nine-university national study of Habitat Conservation Plans, which created
a large public data base describing these plans, and led the USFWS to review and alter its policy
directives. This became a model for a subsequent 18-University national course on Recovery
Planning that I co-led with Dee Boersma (both of these national student projects are described at
NCEAS website); At NMFS I built a risk assessment group that set the standards for salmon
recovery planning, and has become the leading scientific analysis team for west coast salmon
management. These scientists are both conducting the critical research and leading the recovery
teams - a remarkable combination of activities (see www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/cbd/trt/ and
www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/cri/index.html); With Simon Levin, I convened a workshop to explore the
role of species from the perspective of the tough question: are they ever expendable? The results
are being published as Princeton Monograph that synthesizes a diversity of perspectives on this
provocative question.
Collaborators: Dee Boersma, University of Washington; William Fagan, University of
Maryland; Simon Levin, Princeton University; Michelle Marvier, Santa Clara University;
Michelle McClure, National Marine Fisheries Service; Dave Tilman, University of Minnesota
Graduate Advisors: Simon Levin, Princeton University; Lynn Carpenter, University of
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Michael Cain, New Mexico State University
(NMSU)-Las Cruces; Mark Andersen, NMSU, Las Cruces; Joy Bergelson, University of
Chicago; William Morris, Duke University; Daniel Doak, University of California (UC)-Santa
Cruz; Greg Dwyer, University of Chicago; Nathan Schumaker, U.S. EPA; Martha Groom,
University of Washington; Elizabeth Holmes, National Marine Fisheries Service; William
Fagan, University of Maryland; John Banks, University of Washington, Tacoma; Cheryl Schultz,
NCEAS; Ellen Gryj, Microsoft; Postdoctoral Associates: Peter Turchin, University of
Connecticut; Tony Ives, University of Wisconsin; William Settle, FAO Research Scientist; Robin
Manasse, SEI Ecologist; Richard Veit, CUNY; Lloyd Goldwasser, NMFS; Steve Minta, UCSC
(medical leave); Gabby Nevitt, UC-Davis; Mark Lewis, University of Utah; Louis Provencher,
The Nature Conservancy; Claudia Jacobi, UNICAMP, Brazil; Uno Wennergen, Linkoping
University, Sweden; Miguel Pascual, Argentina National Faculty Fellowship; David Skelly,
Professor at Yale University; Mary Ruckleshaus, NMFS; Ann Herzig, Bryn Mawr; Elizabeth
Crone, University of Montana; Michelle Marvier, Santa Clara University; Dave Bigger, SEI;
John Sabo, Arizona State University; Chris Harvey, NRC Postdoc Fellow; Jon Hoekstra, NMFS
Postdoc Fellow.
Associate Professor, Sociology and Rural Sociology
Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1111
Phone: (517) 355-5048; email: [email protected]
Lawrence University, B.A., Interdisciplinary Major In the Social Sciences, 1968
University of Michigan, Ph.D., Sociology, 1978.
July 1982 to present, Associate Professor, Sociology and Rural Sociology, Michigan State
University, East Lansing; 1991, Visiting Research Socioeconomist, Uganda Freshwater Fisheries
Research Organization, Jinja, Uganda; 1990, Visiting Associate Professor, Department of
Philosophy, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal; 1987-1988, Visiting Associate
Professor, Rural Sociology and Agricultural Extension, National Taiwan University, Taipei;
1979-1982, Acting Coordinator, Population and Resources Center, College of Social Science,
Michigan State University, East Lansing; 1977-1982, Assistant Professor, Sociology and Rural
Sociology, Michigan State University, East Lansing; 1976-1977, Research Associate, Evaluation
Studies Section, Institute of Public Policy Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Harris, C. K., J. J. Molnar, T. Tomazic and R. Wimberley, eds. Forthcoming 2002. Agriculture
and the environment: American citizens speak out. Westview Press, Boulder.
Harris, C. K., and C. K. Vanderpool, eds. 1992. Social Dimensions of Fisheries. Special Issue of
Society and Natural Resources 5(2), April-June.
Harris, C. K., J. J. Molnar and M. Traxler. In review. Public perceptions of technological safety,
belief in science, and concern about farming methods. Rural Sociology.
Harris, C. K., and M. R. Worosz. In review. Risk perceptions: An analysis of ‘alternative’ fruit
growers in Michigan. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture.
Harris, C. K., and C. Bailey. Forthcoming. Public preferences for a clean, green agricultural
machine. in C. Harris et al., eds., Agriculture and the environment: American citizens speak
out. Westview Press, Boulder.
Harris, C. K., J. Molnar and M. Traxler. Forthcoming. Public perceptions of pesticides and
chemicals in food in C. Harris et al., eds., Agriculture and the environment: American
citizens speak out. Westview Press, Boulder.
Harris, C. K. 1998. Transitions in the management of the Lake Victoria fisheries in T. Pitcher,
ed., Reinventing fisheries management. Chapman and Hall, London.
Harris, C. K., L. Lutzenheiser and M. E. Olsen. 2001. Energy and society in R. Dunlap and W.
Michelsen, Handbook of environmental sociology, Greenwood Press.
Harris, C. K., and M. E. Whalon. 1995. Mapping the Middle Road for Michigan Pest
Management Policy. Pp. 103-138 in Frani Bickart, ed., Policy choices: Creating Michigan's
future. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing.
Harris, C. K., J. Molnar and M. Traxler. Forthcoming. Public perceptions of pesticides and
chemicals in food in C. Harris et al., eds., Agriculture and the environment: American
citizens speak out. Westview Press, Boulder.
Harris, C. K. 1998. Transitions in the management of the Lake Victoria fisheries in T. Pitcher,
ed., Reinventing fisheries management. Chapman and Hall, London.
Harris, C. K., L. Lutzenheiser and M. E. Olsen. 2001. Energy and society in R. Dunlap and W.
Michelsen, Handbook of environmental sociology, Greenwood Press.
Harris, C. K., and M. E. Whalon. 1995. Mapping the Middle Road for Michigan Pest
Management Policy. Pp. 103-138 in Frani Bickart, ed., Policy choices: Creating Michigan's
future. Michigan State University Press, East Lansing.
With colleagues in botany, geology and zoology, I developed an undergraduate course in earth
systems science; it is now an interdepartmental course that we teach every year. At the Center for
Integrated Plant Systems here at Michigan State University, I have been co-leader of the
Socioeconomic and Policy Dimensions Program, and have collaborated with entomologists and
botanists on many projects. At the National Center for Food Safety and Toxicology, I am a
member of the Social Dimensions Program, and have collaborated with microbiologists and
toxicologists on various projects. With colleagues in epidemiology, veterinary medicine, zoology
and family studies, I am engaged in interdisciplinary research on bovine tuberculosis in
Michigan. I have used REU funding to provide research opportunities to students from minority
Collaborators: L. Busch, R. J. Bingen, L. Geason, T. Yamaguchi, L. Bohannan, M. Worosz, V.
Gunter, T. Andersen, T. TenEyck, R. Wimberley, J. Molnar, T. Tomazic, T. Reardon, E. Wolff,
M. Skladany, D. Wilson, D. Wiley, L. Lutzenheiser, C. Bailey, D. Randels, M. Wilson, T.
Gragson, A. Rudy, R. Costanza.
Graduate Advisors: P. Siegel, U. S. Bureau of Census.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: H. Rother, University of Cape Town; M.
Worosz, Michigan State University; T. Andersen, University of New Orleans; D. Wilson, Danish
Fisheries Institute; D. Rusz, Michigan State University; M. Kitula, University of Dar es Salaam.
Director, Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research
University of Michigan, P.O. Box 1248, Ann Arbor, MI 48106-1248
Phone: (734) 998-9911; Fax: (734) 998-9889; email: [email protected]
Columbia University, B.A., 1971
Princeton University, Ph.D., 1976
August 2001-present, Professor of History, University of Michigan and Director, Inter-University
Consortium for Political and Social Research; July 1998-July 2001, Director, Population Research
Center, University of Texas at Austin; September 1976-July 2001, Professor of History, University
of Texas at Austin (Asst. Professor, 1976-1982; Assoc. Prof., 1982-1988).
Gutmann, M. P. 2000. Scaling and demographic issues in global change research. Climatic Change
Lauenroth, W. K., I. C. Burke, and M. P. Gutmann. 2000. The structure and function of ecosystems
in the central North American grassland region. Great Plains Research 9:223-259.
Gutmann, M. P., and G. Cunfer. 1999. A new look at the causes of the Dust Bowl. Publication
99-1, The International Center for Arid and Semiarid Land Studies, Texas Tech University,
Gutmann, M. P., S. Pullum, G. A. Cunfer, and D. Hagen. 1998. Great Plains Population and
Environment Database Version 1.0. User's Guide. University of Texas Population Research
Center, Austin.
Gutmann, M. P., and C. G. Sample. 1995. Land, climate, and settlement on the Texas Frontier.
Southwestern Historical Quarterly 99: 137-172.
Gutmann, M. P., and M. Butler. 2002. Land and land use. Chapter in the Millennial edition of
Historical statistics of the United States. Forthcoming, 2001.
Gutmann, M. P., S. Pullum, S. G. Baker, and I. C. Burke. 2002. Forthcoming. German-origin
settlement and agricultural land use in the twentieth century Great Plains. In W. Kamphoefner
and W. Helbich, New research on German immigration to the United States. University of
Illinois Press, Urbana.
Gutmann, M. P., C. S. Wilson, and T. Kittel. 2002. Climate. Chapter in the Millennial edition of
Historical statistics of the United States. Forthcoming, 2001.
Gutmann, M. P., and S. Pullum. 1999. From a local to a national political culture: Social capital
and civic organization in the Great Plains. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 29:725-762.
Gutmann, M. P., and C. G. Sample. 1994. Sources for the digital cartography of the United States.
Pp. 190-200 in Michael Goerke, ed., Coordinates for Historical Maps. Scripta Mercaturae
Verlag, St. Katharinen.
1999-2002, Chair, SNEM-3 Study Section, National Institutes of Health; 2000-2003, Member,
User Working Group, Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), Center for
International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University; 1998-1999,
Chair, Social Sciences and Population Study Section, National Institutes of Health; 1998-2000,
Chair, Ad Hoc Committee on Electronic Communications, Population Association of America;
1999-2000, Board of Directors, Council of Social Science Associations (COSSA), representing the
American Historical Association; 1998-, Associate Editor, Journal of Interdisciplinary History;
1997-2001, Treasurer, Social Science History Association; 1997-2000, Member, Committee on the
Human Dimensions of Global Change, National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences;
São Paulo, 1997- Member, Editorial Board, População e Família; 1995-1998, Member, Social
Sciences and Population Study Section, National Institutes of Health; 1995-1997, Editorial Board,
Journal of Interdisciplinary History; 1990-1995, Editor, Historical Methods; 1995, 1999, Program
Committee, Population Association of America Annual Meeting; 1991-1994, Executive
Committee, Social Science History Association; 1991-1993, Chair, 1993, American Historical
Association, Gershoy Award Committee; 1992-1994, Advisory Committee, Minnesota Integrated
Public Use Sample Project; April 1992, Session Organizer, Annual Meeting of the Population
Association of America; May 1992, Session Organizer, Conference on the Peopling of the
Americas, Veracruz; 1986-, Editorial Board, Social Science History; 1980-5, 1996-, Editorial
Board, Historical Methods.
Collaborators: George Alter, Indiana University; Susan G. Baker, University of Texas at Austin
(UT-A); K.S. Blanchard, University of Texas at San Antonio; L. Bohren, Colorado State
University (CSU); Benjamin S. Bradshaw, University of Texas Health Science Center-San
Antonio; Ingrid C. Burke, CSU; M. Butler, Unaffiliated; R. Carey, UT-A; Geoffrey Cunfer,
Southwest State University (SSU), Minnesota; Matthew D. Davis, Rowan University; Peter De
Turk, unknown; Glenn D. Deane, SUNY-Albany; W. Easterling, Pennsylvania State University;
Douglas Ewbank University of Pennsylvania; Kenneth H. Fliess, University of Nevada-Reno; W.
P. Frisbie, UT-A; K.A. Galvin, CSU; P. Granda, University of Michigan; Brian Gratton, Arizona
State University (ASU); R. Gutiérrez-Montes, University of Minnesota (UM); Delia Hagen,
unaffiliated; Michael R. Haines, Colgate University; H. Heitowit, University of Michigan; R.
Kelly,CSU; J. Lackett, CSU; D. Lam, University of Michigan; William K. Lauenroth, CSU; Robert
McCaa, UM; D. Ojima, CSU; W. J. Parton, CSU; J. Paruelo, Unknown; Andres Peri, University of
Montevideo; Sara Pullum, UT-A; Thomas Pullum, UT-A; S: Ruggles, UM; M. Sobek, UM; J.
Steenson, Unaffiliated; David Sysma, UT-A; E. Wildsmith, UT-A.
Graduate Advisors: Theodore K. Rabb, Princeton University.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Geoffrey A. Cunfer, SSU; Mitilene Myhr, St.
Mary’s University, Austin, Texas; Taedoo Chung, unaffiliated; John Sartin, Unafiliated; Brian
Gratton, ASU; Christie Sample Wilson, St. Mary’s University, Austin; Tina Meacham, unffiliated.
USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station
705 Spear St., S. Burlington, VT 05403
Phone: 802-951-6771, ext. 1070; Fax: 802-951-6368; Email:[email protected]
Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research Site
Room #252B, Technology Research Center Building, 5200 Westland Boulevard
University of Maryland, Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21227
Phone: 410-455-6564; Fax: 410-455-6500; E-mail: [email protected]
Yale University, B.A. with Distinction in Architecture and Studies in the Environment, 1987
Yale University, M.F.S. in Community Forestry, School of Forestry & Environmental Studies,
Yale University, M. Phil. in Social Ecology, School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, 1994
Yale University, Ph.D. in Social Ecology, School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, 1996
1996-Present, Research Forester (Social Ecology), USDA Forest Service Research Experiment
Station, Burlington, VT; 1997-Present Working Group Leader, Demographic & Socioeconomic
Working Group, Baltimore Ecosystem Study (LTER), Baltimore, MD; 1998-Present Co-chair,
Social Science Committee, Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Network; 2000 Visiting
Scientist, Paul Smiths College, Paul Smiths, NY; 1998-Present, Visiting Scientist, Institute of
Ecosystem Studies (IES), Millbrook, NY; 1994, Visiting Scientist, USDA Forest Service
Research Experiment Station, Syracuse, NY; 1994, Project Leader, Resource Information
Systems (RIS), Revitalizing Baltimore Project, The Parks & People Foundation, Baltimore, MD;
1992-1996, Research Coordinator, URI and Yale/F&ES; 1991-1992, Project Coordinator/
Baltimore, URI and Yale/F&ES; 1990-1991, Program Director, The Urban Resources Initiative
(URI), Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies (Yale / F&ES); 1990, Assoc., Forest
Ecologist and Landscape Designer, Balmori Assoc., New Haven, CT; 1989, Research Assistant,
Department of Recreation and Parks, Baltimore, MD; 1988-1989, Architectural Design Team
Leader, Cesar Pelli and Assoc., New Haven, CT.
Pickett, S. T. A., M. L. Cadenasso, J. M. Grove, C. H. Nilon, R. V. Pouyat, W. C. Zipperer, and
R. Costanza. 2001. Urban ecological systems: Linking terrestrial ecology, physical, and
socioeconomic components of metropolitan areas. Annual Review of Ecology and
Systematics 32:127-157.
Grimm, N., J. M. Grove, S. T. A. Pickett, and C. L. Redman. 2000. Integrated approaches to
long-term studies of urban ecological systems. Bioscience 50(7):1-11.
Grove, J. M., C. Schweik, T. Evans, and G. Green. 2000. Modeling human-environmental
systems. In Clarke, K. C., B.E. Parks, and M. P. Crane, eds., Geographic information systems
and environmental modeling. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.
Grove, J. M. 1999. New tools for exploring theory and methods in human ecosystem and
landscape research: computer modeling, remote sensing and geographic information systems.
In K. Cordell, ed., Integrating social science and ecosystem management.. Sagamore Press,
Champaign, IL.
Grove, J. M., and W. R. Burch, Jr. 1997. A social ecology approach to urban ecosystem and
landscape analyses. Journal of Urban Ecosystems 1(4):259-275.
2001, Office of the President, President's Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers,
November 17th; USDA Forest Service, Chief's Early Career Scientist Award, June 4th, 2001. (1st
social scientist to receive this award in the history of USDA Forest Service); January 19-21, 2000
Workshop on Integrating Social Science into the Long-Term Ecological Research Program;
1997-Present Baltimore Ecosystem Study, Long Term Ecological Research program, National
Science Foundation, Working Group Leader; 1989, Ellamae Fehrer Award, National Council of
State Garden Clubs of America, Academic Scholarship; 1993, Switzer Fellow, Switzer
Foundation Environmental Fellowship Program.
Collaborators: Larry Band, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Alan Berkowitz, Institute
for Ecosystem Studies; Chris Boone, Ohio University, Athens; Roel Boumans, University of
Vermont; Grace Brush, Johns Hopkins University; Geoff Buckley, Ohio University, Athens; Bill
Burch, Yale University; Jackie Carrera, Parks & People Foundation; Dan Childers, Florida
International University; Bob Costanza, University of Vermont; Shawn Dalton, Johns Hopkins
University; Jim Dyer, Ohio University, Marla Emery, USDA Forest Service; Steve Farber,
University of Pittsburgh; Ted Gragson, University of Georgia; Nancy Grimm, Arizona State
University; Peter Groffman, Institute for Ecosystem Studies; Steve Hamburg, Brown University;
Craig Harris, Michigan State University; Karen Hinson, Baltimore County School District,
Baltimore; Chuck Hopkinson, MBL, Woods Hole; Ann Kinzig, Arizona State University; Rob
Northrop, Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Forest Service; Elinor Ostrom, Indiana
University; Steward Pickett, Institute for Ecosystem Studies; Rich Pouyat, USDA Forest Service;
Chuck Redman, Arizona State University; Charlie Schweik, University of Massachusetts,
Amherst; Paul Sutton, University of Denver; Paige Warren, Virginia Polytechnic Institute,
Matthew Wilson, University of Vermont; Wayne Zipperer, USDA Forest Service.
Graduate Advisors: : Bill Burch (major), Dana Tomlin, Kristiina Vogt, John Wargo.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: None.
Professor, Department of Biology
Arizona State University, PO Box 871501, Tempe AZ 85287-1501
Phone: (480) 965-4735; Fax: (480) 965-2519; email: [email protected]
Hampshire College, Amherst, MA, B.A., Ecology, 1978
Arizona State University, Tempe, M.S., Zoology, 1980
Arizona State University, Tempe, Ph.D., Zoology, 1985
1999-present, Professor; 1997-1999, Associate Professor; 1994-1997, Associate Research
Scientist; 1990-1994 Assistant Research Scientist; 1985-1990, Faculty Research Associate – all
at Arizona State University.
Grimm, N. B., L. J. Baker, and D. Hope. In press. An ecosystem approach to understanding
cities: Familiar foundations and uncharted frontiers. In A.R. Berkowitz, C.H. Nilon, and K.S.
Hollweg, eds., Understanding urban ecosystems: A new frontier for science and education.
Springer-Verlag, New York, New York.
Vitousek, P. M., K. Cassman, C. Cleveland, T. Crews, C. B. Field, N. B. Grimm, R. W.
Howarth, R. Marino, L. Martinelli, E. B. Rastetter, and J. I. Sprent. In press. Towards an
ecological understanding of biological nitrogen fixation. Biogeochemistry.
Grimm, N. B., J. M. Grove, C. L. Redman, and S. T. A. Pickett. 2000. Integrated approaches to
long-term studies of urban ecological systems. BioScience 50:571-584.
Grimm, N. B., and K. C. Petrone. 1997. Nitrogen fixation in a desert stream ecosystem.
Biogeochemistry 37:33-61.
Holmes, R. M., J. B. Jones, Jr., S. G. Fisher, and N. B. Grimm. 1996. Denitrification in a
nitrogen-limited stream ecosystem. Biogeochemistry 33:125-146.
Dent, C. L., N. B. Grimm, and S. G. Fisher. In press. Multi-scale effects of surface-subsurface
exchange on stream water nutrient concentrations. J. No. Amer. Benthol. Soc.
Collins, J., A. Kinzig, N. B. Grimm, W. Fagan, J. Wu, and E. Borer. 2000. A new urban ecology.
American Scientist 88:416-425.
Dent, C. L., and N. B. Grimm. 1999. Spatial heterogeneity of stream water nutrient
concentrations over successional time. Ecology 80:2283-2298.
Grimm, N. B., A. Chacón, C. N. Dahm, S. W. Hostetler, O. T. Lind, P. L. Starkweather, and W.
W. Wurtsbaugh.1997. Sensitivity of aquatic ecosystems to climatic and anthropogenic
changes: The Basin and Range, American Southwest, and México. Hydrological Processes
Grimm, N. B. 1987. Nitrogen dynamics during succession in a desert stream. Ecology
Editorial Boards: Ecology Letters (2001-04), Ecosystems (1997-03), Ecology and Ecological
Monographs (1994-97), Journal of the North American Benthological Society (1991-94); Review
Panels: STC NSF (2000); Ecosystem Studies NSF (1990, 1991-94); LTER NSF (1998);
Environmental Biology Exploratory Research, U.S. EPA (1991-93); Service to Scientific
Societies: Ecological Society of America Award Selection Subcommittee (Member 1994-96),
Research Needs Committee (Member, 1993-04); North American Benthological Society
Executive Committee (Chair, 1994-95), President-elect (1998-99), President (1999-00), Past
President (2000-01), Elections & Place Committee (Chair, 2000-01); National Center for
Ecological Analysis & Synthesis: Science Advisory Board (member, 1997-00; Chair, 1999-00),
Urban Ecology Workshop (1998), SCOPE working group on nitrogen fixation (1999), AquaticTerrestrial Biogeochemistry working group (1999-00), visiting researcher (1998-99); Research
Experiences for Undergraduates: Organizer, Summer REU Program at ASU (ca. 50 students,
16% underrepresented minorities and 58% women; 1990-00); Director, Undergraduate
Mentorship in Environmental Biology (UMEB) Program at ASU (24 students, 58% underrepresented minorities and 83% women; 1994-98); Co-PI, UMEB Program at ASU (1999- ).
Research Collaborations: Senior Personnel, LINX Project and LINX-2; Senior Personnel,
SAHRA (STC for Southwestern Aridland Hydrology and Riparian Areas); PI/PD, Central
Arizona-Phoenix LTER.
Collaborators: L. Baker, Univ. of MN; B. Bowden, New Zealand; K. Cassman, Univ. of NE; A.
Chacon, UNAM, Mexico; C. Cleveland, Univ. of CO; J. Collins, AZ State Univ. (ASU); M.
Conklin, Univ. of AZ; T. Crews, Prescott College; C. Dahm, Univ. of NM; L. Dent, Univ. of WI;
W. Dodds, KS State; T. Dudley, Univ. of CA-Berkeley; W. Fagan ASU; C. Field, Carnegie Inst.
of Washington; S. Findlay, IES; S. Fisher, ASU; G. Forrester, Univ. of RI; R. Gomez, Univ. of
Murcia, Spain; D. Greene, S. Gregory, OR State; M. Grove, U.S. For. Serv.; S. Hamilton, MI
State; B. Harper, Univ. of NV-Las Vegas (UNLV); A. Hershey, Univ. of NC; R. Holmes,
MBL-Ecosys. Ctr.; D. Hope, ASU; S. Hostetler, U.S. Geol. Surv.; B. Howarth, Cornell; S.
Johnson, OR State; J. Jones, UNLV; A. Kinzig, ASU; O. Lind; R. Marino, Cornell; P.
Marmomier, Univ. of Rennes, France; E. Marti, Centre d'Estudis Avançats de Blanes, Spain; C.
Martin, ASU; L. Martinelli, Univ. of Sao Paulo, Brazil; B. McDowell, Univ. of NH; J. Meyer,
Univ. of GA; P. Mulholland, ORNL; B. Peterson, MBL-Ecosys. Ctr.; K. Petrone, Univ. of AK;
S. Pickett, IES; E. Rastetter, MBL- Ecosys. Ctr.; C. Redman, ASU; J. Schade, ASU; J. Sprent,
Univ. of Dundee, Scotland; E. Stanley, Univ. of WI; P. Starkweather, UNLV; F. Triska, U.S.
Geol. Surv.; M. Valett, VA Tech; P. Vervier, CNRS, Toulouse, France; P. Vitousek, Stanford; J.
Webster, VA Tech; J. Welter, ASU; J. Wu, ASU; W. Wurtsbaugh, UT State.
Graduate Advisors: W. L. Minckley, deceased.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: S. M. Clinton; C. L. Dent; J. W. Edmonds;
M. S. Holland; W. J. Roach; M. A. Luck; A.. Goettl; J. Junk. Post-doctoral scholars supervised:
T. L. Dudley; C. G. Peterson; H. M. Valett; A. Millan; J. Velasco; R. Gómez; E. Martí; D. Hope;
M. Hostetler; K. Knowles-Yanez; M. Naegeli; N. McIntyre; W. Zhu; R. Watkins; A. Nelson; M.
Katti; E. Shochat; D. Lewis; J. Schade; S. Grossman-Clarke; S. Gergel; R. Scheibley.
Associate Professor, Anthropology Department
University of Georgia, 250 Baldwin Hall, Athens GA 30602-1619
Phone: (706) 542-1460; Fax: (706) 542-3998; email: [email protected]
University of Montana, B.A., Anthropology, 1982
Pennsylvania State University, M.A., Anthropology, 1984
Pennsylvania State University, Ph.D., Anthropology, 1989
1998-Present, Associate Professor of Anthropology University of Georgia, Athens; 1992-Present,
Adjunct Faculty of Ecology University of Georgia, Athens; 2000, Visiting Associate Professor,
Museo Andres Barbero, Asuncion, Paraguay; 1992-1998, Assistant Professor of Anthropology,
University of Georgia, Athens; 1993, Visiting Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Universidad
Catolica de Asuncion, Paraguay; 1990-1992, Visiting Assistant Professor of Anthropology;
Tulane University, New Orleans, LA.
Gragson, T. L., and B. G. Blount, eds. 1999. Ethnoecology: Knowledge, resources and rights.
The University of Georgia Press, Athens.
Gragson, T. L.1998. Potential vs. Actual vegetation: Human behavior in a landscape medium.
Pp. 213-231 in William Balée, ed., Advances in historical ecology. Columbia University
Press, New York.
Gragson, T. L. 1997. The use of underground plant organs and its relation to habitat selection
among the Pumé Indians of Venezuela. Economic Botany 51(4):377-384.
Gragson, T. L. 1995. Pumé exploitation of Mauritia flexuosa (PALMAE) in the Llanos of
Venezuela. Journal of Ethnobiology 15(2):177-188.
Gragson, T. L. 1993. Human foraging in lowland South America: Pattern and process of resource
procurement. Research in Economic Anthropology 14:107-138.
Gragson, T. L. In press. Heuristic mapping of frontier processes using fuzzy set theory. Field
Methods. 28 pp.
Gragson, T. L., and B. Jurgelski. In review. Relation between terrain factors and early contact
forests of western North Carolina. Journal of Appalachian Studies. 24 pp.
Gragson, T. L., and P. Bolstad. In review. Environmental consequences in the Blue Ridge of
punctuational changes in the Cherokee Disturbance regime, 1690-1776. Human Ecology. 30
Gragson, T. L. In review. Legal primitivism of citizen-Indians in the Paraguayan Chaco. World
Development. 25 pp.
Gragson, T. L.1992. Strategic procurement of fish by the Pumé: A South American "fishing
culture." Human Ecology 20(1):109-130.
I have twice received Fulbright funding to teach and conduct research in Paraguay, which has
enabled me to make critical contributions to both developing a culture of research among
students as well as directing the execution of research activities by non-governmental
organizations. A direct outgrowth of my methodological interests and training in quantitative
and spatial techniques was the development of a graduate methodological training program
within Anthropology at the University of Georgia funded for 5 years and then renewed for
another 5 years by NSF.
Collaborators: Kevin Armbrust, University of Mississippi; Fred Benfield, Virginia Tech; Marsha
Black, University of Georgia (UofGA); Paul Bolstad, University of Minnesota; Jim Clark, Duke
University; Dave Coleman, UofGA; Robert Costanza, University of Vermont; Steve Farber,
University of Pittsburgh; David Foster, Harvard University; Gary Grossman, UofGA; Morgan
Grove, U.S. Forest Service; Myron Guttman, University of Michigan; Bruce Haines, UofGA;
Steve Hamburg, Brown University; Craig Harris, Michigan State University; Gene Helfman,
UofGA; Ron Hendrick, UofGA; Mark Hunter, UofGA; Peter Kareiva, The Nature Conservancy;
Ann Kinzig, Arizona State University; Brian Kloeppel, UofGA; David Leigh, UofGA; Judy
Meyer, UofGA; Dave Newman, UofGA.; Ray Noblet, UofGA; Scott Pearson, Mars Hill; Kathy
Pringle, UofGA; Ron Pulliam, UofGA; Chuck Redman, Arizona State University; Alan Rudy,
Michigan State University; Monica Turner, University of Wisconsin; Jim Vose, U.S. Forest
Service; Bruce Wallace, UofGA; David Wear, U.S. Forest Service; Jack Webster, Virginia Tech;
Matt Wilson, University of Vermont.
Graduate Advisors: Stephen Beckerman, Pennsylvania State University; William Sanders,
Pennsylvania State University.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Laura German, University of Georgia
(UofGA); Bill Jurgelski, UofGA; Jim Riach, UofGA; Kim Winter, UofGA; Paul Hirsch, UofGA;
Nathan Piekielek, UofGA.
Director, Harvard Forest
Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology
Harvard University, Petersham, MA 01366
Phone: (978) 724-3302; Fax: (978) 724-3595; email: [email protected]
Connecticut College, B.A., Botany (Magna cum Laude), 1977
University of Minnesota, M.S., Ecology, 1981
University of Minnesota, Ph.D., Ecology, 1983
1990-present, Director of the Harvard Forest, Harvard University;1983-1991, Professor of
Biology, Harvard University.
Foster, D. R., and J. Aber, eds. In press. Forests in time. Ecosystem Structure and function as a
consequence of history. Yale University Press, New Haven.
Turner, B. L., D. R. Foster, and J. Geoghegan, eds. In press. Land change science and tropical
deforestation. The final frontier in southern Yucatan. Oxford University Press. 2002.
Foster, D., and J. O'Keefe.. 2000. New England forests through time. Insights From the Harvard
Forest dioramas. Harvard Forest and Harvard University Press.
Foster, D. R. 1999. Thoreau's country. Journey through a transformed landscape. Harvard
University Press, Cambridge.
Foster, D. R.1992. Land use history (1730 1990) and vegetation dynamics in central New
England, USA. Journal of Ecology 80:753 772.
Foster, D. R., G. Motzkin, B. Hall, S. Barry Musieliwicz, A. Stevens, S. Clayden, and T.
Parshall. In press. Cultural and environmental controls of long-term vegetation patterns and
dynamics on the Island of Martha's Vineyard. Journal of Biogeography.
Foster, D. R., F. Swanson, J. Aber, D. Tilman, N. Bropakw, I. Burke, and A. Knapp. In review.
The importance of land-use and its legacies to ecology and environmental management.
Foster, D. R., G. Motzkin and B. Slater. 1998. Land-use history as long-term broad-scale
disturbance: Regional forest dynamics in central New England. Ecosystems 1:96-119.
Foster, D. R., and G. Motzkin. 1998. Ecology and conservation in the cultural landscape of New
England: lessons from nature's history. Northeastern Naturalist 5:111-126.
Foster, D. R., D. A. Orwig and J. McLachlan. 1996. Ecological and conservation insights from
retrospective studies of temperate old-growth forests.Trends Ecology and Evolution 11:419-424.
Ecosystems, Editorial Board, 1997-present; Northeastern Naturalist, Editorial Board,
1997-present; Progress in Physical Geography, Editorial Advisor, 1997-present; National
Science Foundation LTER Program, Executive Committee, 1995-1999; DOE National Institute
for Global Environmental Change, Executive Committee, 1992-present; UNESCO Man and the
Biosphere, Temperate Ecosystem Directorate, 1991-present; Harvard Forest LTER Program,
Principal Investigator, 1988-present; Bullard Fellowship Committee Harvard University,
Executive Secretary, 1990-present; Conservation and Research Foundation, Board of Trustees,
1994-present; Harvard University, Director of the Graduate Program in Forest Biology,
1985-present; Highstead Arboretum, Advisory Board, 1993-present; Journal of Ecology Editorial Board, 1991-1994; Trustees of Reservations, Director, 2001-present.
Collaborators: J. Aber, University of New Hampshire; A. Allen, EcoTech, Inc.; F. Bazzaz,
Harvard University; R. Boone, University of Alaska; E. Boose, Harvard University; R. Bowden,
Allegheny College; G. Carlton, California State Polytechnic University; K. Chamberlin,
unknown affiliation; S. Clayden, University of New Brunswick; C. Cogbill, Hubbard Brook
LTER; J. Compton, U.S. EPA; S. Cooper-Ellis, unknown affiliation; K. Donohue, Harvard
University; N. Drake, UMASS; J. Franklin, University of Washington; C. Foster, Harvard
University; D. Francis, Harvard University; J. Fuller, National University of Ireland, Galway; D.
Knight, University of Wisconsin; A. Lezberg, Marine Biological Laboratories; J. McLachlan,
Duke University; J. Melillo, Marine Biological Laboratory; F. Menalled, Michigan State
University; G. Motzkin, Harvard University; J. O'Keefe, Harvard University; D. Orwig, Harvard
University; W. Patterson, University of Massachusetts; K. Pregitzer, Michigan Technological
University; P. Wilson, University of California, Northridge.
Graduate Advisors: Professor H.E. Wright, Jr., University of Minnesota
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Thesis advisor: Rebecca Anderson, Jesse
Bellemere, Rob Eberhardt, Matt Kizlinski, all Harvard University; Guy D'Oyly Hughes,
unknown affiliation. Post-Doctoral Supervisor: Jana Compton, U.S.EPA, Western Ecology
Division; Donna Francis, Harvard University; Kathleen Donohue, Harvard University; Janice
Fuller, University of Ireland, Galway; Jonathan Harrod, unknown affiliation; Ruth Kern,
California State, Fresno; Deborah Lawrence, University of Virginia; Glenn Matlack, University
of Southern Mississippi; Timothy Parshall, Harvard University; Diego Perez Salicrup,
DERN-UNAM, Mexico.
Education Liaison, Center for Environmental Studies
Arizona State University, Box 873211, Tempe AZ 85287-3211
Phone: (480) 965-6046; Fax: (480) 965-8087; email: [email protected]
University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, B.S., Biology, 1980
University of Tennessee, Knoxville, M.S., Ecology, 1983
Arizona State University, Tempe, M.Ed., Curriculum and Instruction, 1998
August 1998-present, Education Liaison, Center for Environmental Studies, Arizona State
University, Tempe; August 1994-July 1996, General Biology Lab Coordinator, Arizona State
University, Tempe; January 1987-July 1990, Student Affairs Officer (Academic Advising), Division
of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis; January 1984-September 1986, Research
Technician, Biology Department, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN.
Elser, M. M. 1998. Ecology Explorer Web site (http://caplter.asu.edu/explorers).
Carpenter, S. R., J. F. Kitchell, J. R. Hodgson, P. A. Cochran, J. J. Elser, M. M. Elser, D. M. Lodge,
D. Kretchmer, X. He, and C. N. von Ende.1987. Regulation of lake ecosystem primary
productivity by food web structure in whole lake experiments. Ecology 68:1863-1876.
Elser, M. M., P. Serrano, and S. R. Carpenter.1987. Chaoborus populations: Response to food web
manipulation and potential effects on zooplankton communities. Can. J. Zool. 65:2846-2852.
Elser, M. M., J. J. Elser, and S. R. Carpenter. 1986. Paul and Peter Lakes: A liming experiment
revisited. American Midland Naturalist 116:282-295.
Elser, M. M., and W. O. Smith.1985. Phased cell division and growth rate of a planktonic
Dinoflagellate, Ceratium hirundinella, in relation to environmental variables. Arch Hydrobiol.
Soranno, P. A., S. R. Carpenter, and M. M. Elser. 1993. Zooplankton community dynamics. Pp.
116-152 in S.R. Carpenter and J. F. Kitchell, eds., The Trophic cascade in lakes. Cambridge
University Press.
Carpenter, S. R., P. R. Leavitt, J. J. Elser, and M. M. Elser. 1988. Chlorophyll budgets: Interannual
variability and effects of food web manipulations. Biogeochemistry 6:79-90.
Elser, J. J., M. M. Elser, N. A. MacKay, and S. R. Carpenter. 1988. Zooplankton-mediated
transitions between N and P limited algal growth. Limnol. Oceanogr. 33:1-14.
Elser, J. J., N. C. Goff, N. A. MacKay, A. L. St. Amand, M. M. Elser, and S. R. Carpenter. 1987.
Species-specific algal responses to zooplankton: Experimental and field observations in three
north temperate lakes. J. Plankton Res. 9:699-717.
Carpenter, S. R., M. M. Elser, and J. J. Elser. 1986. Chlorophyll production, degradation, and
sedimentation: Implications for paleolimnology. Limnol. Oceanogr. 31: 112-124.
Poster and workshop presentations at various professional meetings including: Ecological Society
of America, National Science Teacher Association, Arizona Association for Environmental
Education; organized/developed teaching pedagogy seminars for GK-12 Fellows; organized/
developed teacher workshops/internships associated with CAP LTER; coordinated weekly graduate
teaching assistant meetings; organized workshops for faculty on advising; helped develop a program
to retain minority students in the biological sciences at UC-Davis.
Collaborators: Fred Staley, Arizona State University (ASU); Mark Hostetler, University of Florida;
Sam Scheiner, National Science Foundation; Nancy McIntyre, Texas Tech; Tim Craig, University
of Minnesota; Brenda Shears, ASU; Susan Williams, Arizona Sonora Desert Museum; Charlene
Saltz, ASU, B. I. Ramakrishna, ASU; Samual DiGangi, ASU; Nancy Crocker, ASU; Sheri Klug,
ASU; James Birk, ASU; Margaret Nelson, ASU; Angel Jannach-Pennel, ASU; Debra Banks, ASU;
Peter McCartney, ASU; Charles Redman, ASU; Ann Kinzig, ASU.
Graduate Advisors: MEd : TEAMS Program at ASU (Fred Staley, Jon Knaup, Mike Piburn, Dale
Baker, Alfinio Rameriz, Herb Cohen, Jim Middleton); M.S.: Walker Smith.
Associate Professor, Department of Sociology
Social Science 353, University at Albany
State University of New York, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany, New York 12222
Phone: (518) 442-4587; Fax: (518) 442-3380; email: [email protected]
The College of William and Mary, A.B., Sociology/Philosophy, 1980
The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, M.A, Sociology, 1988
The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Ph. D., Sociology, 1993
1999-present, Associate Professor, University at Albany, SUNY; 1993-1999, Assistant Professor,
University at Albany, SUNY; 1991-1993, Lecturer, Department of Sociology, University at Albany,
SUNY; 2000-present, Director of Computing/Statistical Core, University at Albany, SUNY;
1992-2000, Center Affiliate/Associate, Center for Social and Demographic Analysis, University at
Albany, SUNY.
Baller, R. D., L. Anselin, S. F. Messner, G. Deane, and D. F. Hawkins. 2001. Structural covariates of
U.S. country homicide rates: Incorporating spatial effects. Criminology (forthcoming).
Messner, S. F., G. Deane, and M. Beaulieu. A log-multiplicative association model for allocating
homicides with unknown victim-offender relationships. Criminology (forthcoming).
Deane, G., E. M. Beck, and S. E. Tolnay. 1998. Incorporating Space into social histories: How
spatial processes operate and how we observe them. International Review of Social History Supplement
6 43:57-80. Also reproduced in New Methods for Social History, edited by Larry J. Griffin and
Marcel van der Linden (1999).
Tolnay, S. E., G. Deane, and E. M. Beck. 1996. Vicarious violence: Spatial effects on southern
lynchings, 1890-1919. American Journal of Sociology 102:788-815.
Land, K. C., and G. Deane. 1992. On the estimation of regression models with spatial effects terms
for large samples: A two-stage least squares approach. Pp. 221-248 in Peter V. Marsden, ed.,
Sociological Methodology 1992, American Sociological Association, Washington, D.C.
Felson, R. B., S. F. Messner, A. Hoskin, and G. Deane. Reasons for reporting and not reporting
domestic violence to the police. Revised and resubmitted to Criminology (2002).
Deane, G. 1996. Parents and Progeny: Inheritance and the transition to adulthood in colonial North
Carolina, 1680-1759. History of the Family: An International Quarterly 1:353-374.
South, S. J., and G. D. Deane. 1993. Race and residential mobility: Individual determinants and
structural constraints. Social Forces 72:147-167.
Bearman, P. S., and G. Deane. 1992. The Structure of opportunity: Middle-class mobility in England
1548-1689. American Journal of Sociology 98:30-66.
Deane, G. D. 1990. Mobility and adjustments: Paths to the resolution of residential stress.
Demography 27:65-79.
In May 2001, Deane was an invited participant in an "Advanced Workshop on Spatial Analysis in
Social Research." The objective of this workshop, jointly sponsored by ICPSR and the NSF-Funded
CSISS, is to establish a dialogue between leading methodologists in spatial analysis and in the
mainstream social sciences, in order to (1) facilitate the dissemination of state of the art spatial
analytical techniques to the methodology in political and social research; (2) assess the importance of
spatial analysis in general, and spatial data analysis in particular to social science methodological
questions; (3) promote the application of state of the art spatial analytical techniques to substantive
research questions in political science and sociology and/or to important social science data sets; In
a recently completed working paper, Deane describes a novel method for treating multi-racial
identifications. The applicability of this method for multiple race responses to the 2000 Census was
explored using simulated data file supplied by the Assistant Chief for Special Population Statistics at
the U.S. Census Bureau. In return, Deane has supplied Census Bureau staff with programming code
and a detailed description of the statistical algorithm.
Collaborators: Luc Anselin, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Robert D. Baller, University of
Iowa; E. M. Beck, University of Georgia; Ingrid C. Burke, Colorado State University; Kyle Crowder,
Western Washington University; Nancy A. Denton, SUNY-Albany; Richard B. Felson, Pennsylvania
State University; Myron P. Gutmann, University of Michigan; Darnell F. Hawkins. University of
Illinois, Chicago; Anthony Hoskin, Albright College; Steven F. Messner, SUNY-Albany; William J.
Parton, Colorado State University; Nelson A. Pichardo, Central Washington University; Lawrence
E. Raffalovich, SUNY-Albany; Scott J. South, SUNY-Albany; Heather Sullivan-Catlin, Kean
University; Stewart E. Tolnay, University of Washington.
Graduate Advisors: Glen H. Elder, Jr., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Judith R. Blau,
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Rachel Rosenfeld, University of North Carolina, Chapel
Hill; Robert E. Gallman, deceased; Peter S. Bearman, Columbia University.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: None.
Assistant Professor of Anthropology
University of Massachusetts, Amherst MA 01003
Phone: (413) 545-2867; email: [email protected]
State University of New York at Albany, B.A., magna cum laude, with honors in Anthropology,
minor in Mathematics, 1985
University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Master of Arts, May 1991
University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Ph.D., Anthropology, May 1996.
9/01 to present, Assistant Professor, Anthropology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst;
Research 6/01 to present Associate, Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge,
Massachusetts; 7/00-6/01, Associate Professor, Harvard University, Anthropology; 7/96-6/00,
Assistant Professor, Harvard University, Anthropology; 7/96-6/01, Associate Curator of the
Archaeology of Northeastern North America, Peabody Museum, Harvard University; 1/96-6/96,
Lecturer, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, New York; 8/95-1/96, Lecturer, State University
of New York, Oneonta.
Chilton, E. S. 2002. “Towns they have none”: Diverse subsistence and settlement strategies in
native New England. In J. Hart and C. Reith, eds., Northeast subsistence-settlement change:
A.D. 700 - A.D. 1300. New York State Museum Bulletin. Volume under review.
Chilton, E. S., and D. L. Doucette. 2002. Archaeological investigations at the Lucy Vincent
Beach site (19-DK-148): Preliminary results and interpretations. In Jordan Kerber, ed., A
lasting impression: Coastal, lithic, and ceramic research in New England archaeology.
Bergin &Garvey. Volume under review.
Chilton, E. S. 2001. The archaeology and ethnohistory of the Contact Period in the northeastern
United States. Reviews in Anthropology 30:55-78.
Chilton, E. S., T. B. Largy, and K. Curran. 2000. Evidence for prehistoric maize horticulture at
the Pine Hill site, Deerfield, Massachusetts. Northeast Anthropology 59:23-46.
Chilton, E. S. 1999. Mobile Farmers of Pre-Contact Southern New England: The Archaeological
and Ethnohistoric Evidence. Pp. 157-176 in John P. Hart, ed., Current Northeast
Paleoethnobotany. New York State Museum Bulletin 494.
Chilton, E. S. 2002. Beyond "big": Gender, age, and subsistence diversity in Paleo-Indian
societies. In C. M. Barton and G. Clark, eds., Pioneers of the Pleistocene. University of
Arizona Press. Volume under review.
Chilton, E. S. 1999. One size fits all:Typology and alternatives in New England Ceramic
research. Pp. 44-60 in E. S. Chilton, ed., Material meanings: Critical approaches to the
interpretation of material culture. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.
Chilton, E. S. 1999. Ceramic research in New England: Breaking the typological mold. Pp.
97-111 in M. A. Levine, K. E. Sassaman, and M. S. Nassaney, eds., The archaeological
Northeast. Bergin and Garvey Press, Westport, CT.
Chilton, E. S., ed. 1999. Material meanings: Critical approaches to the interpretation of
material culture. Foundations of Archaeological Inquiry Series, University of Utah Press.
Chilton, E. S. 1998. The cultural origins of technical choice: Unraveling Algonquian and
Iroquoian ceramic traditions in the Northeast. Pp. 132-160 in M. Stark, ed., The archaeology
of social boundaries. Smithsonian Institution Press.
Director, Harvard Archaeological Project on Martha's Vineyard, 1997 to 2001; Co-director, with
Arthur S. Keene, and Field Director, University of Massachusetts Archaeological Field School,
Summer 1993 and 1995; Co-director, with Arthur S. Keene and Eric S. Johnson, University of
Massachusetts Archaeological Field School, Summer 1991; Editorial Advisory Board, Northeast
Anthropology, a peer-reviewed journal (1999 to present; Peer-reviews of articles for American
Anthropologist (2000 to present), American Antiquity (2000 to present), Geoarchaeology (1996)
Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory (2000 to present), and Northeast Anthropology
(1994 to present); Reviews of grant applications to the National Science Foundation,
Archaeology Program (1996 to present), and Wenner Gren (2000 to present); Steering
Committee (elected position), Conference on New England Archaeology (1994 to 1996); Board
of Trustees (elected position), Massachusetts Archaeological Society (1998 to 2000); Board of
Directors (1993-1994), and Secretary (1994-1997), New York Archaeological Council (elected
positions); Archaeology Editor, Northeastern Anthropological Association Newsletter (1996 to
2001); Society for American Archaeology: Committee on the Status of Women in Archaeology
(1994 to 1998); Program Committee for the 1999 Annual Meeting, Chicago, Task Force on
Undergraduate and Graduate Curriculum, (1998 to present); Vice President of the Harvard
Chapter of Sigma Xi (1997 to 2001).
Collaborators: Kathryn Curran, Anthropology, UMass-Amherst; Tonya Largy, Peabody
Museum, Harvard University; Kimberly A. Oakberg, Brandeis University; Nikolass van der
Merwe, University of Capetown.
Graduate Advisors: Dena F. Dincauze, Professor Emerita
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Dianna Doucette, Harvard University; Deena
Duranleau, Harvard University; Siobhan Hart, University of Massachusetts-Amherst; Ninian
Stein, Harvard University, Yale University
Associate Professor, Department of Plant Biology
Arizona State University, PO Box 871601, Tempe AZ 85287-1601
Phone: (480) 787-7360; Fax: (480) 965-6899; email: [email protected]
Pittsburg State University, B.S., 1974-1978
Pittsburg State University, M.S., 1979-1980
University of Arkansas, Ph.D., 1980-1985
1999-present, Associate Professor, Department of Plant Biology, Arizona State University,
Tempe; 1998-1999, Program Director, National Science Foundation; 1991-1998, Research
Associate Professor, Division of Biology, Kansas State University; 1987-1991, Senior Scientist,
Division of Biology, Kansas State University; 1984-1986, Research Associate, Division of
Biology, Kansas State University.
Briggs, J. M., A. K. Knapp and B. L. Brock. In press. Expansion of woody plants in tallgrass
prairie: A 15 year study of fire and fire-grazing interactions. The American Midland
Briggs, J. M., and A. K. Knapp. 2001. Determinants of C3 forb growth and production in a C4
dominated grassland. Plant Ecology 152:93-100.
Briggs, J. M., M. D. Nellis, C. L. Turner, G. M Henebry, and H. Su. 1998. A Landscape
Perspective of Patterns and Processes in Tallgrass Prairie. Pp. 265-279 in A.K. Knapp, J. M.
Briggs, D. C. Hartnett and S. L. Collins, eds., Grassland Dynamics: Long-term Ecological
Research in Tallgrass Prairie. Oxford University Press, New York.
Briggs, J. M., and A. K. Knapp. 1995. Interannual variability in primary production in tallgrass
prairie: climate, soil moisture, topographic position and fire as determinants of aboveground
biomass. American Journal of Botany 82:1024-1030.
Briggs, J. M., and D. J. Gibson. 1992. Effect of burning on tree spatial patterns in a tallgrass
prairie landscape. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 119:300-307.
Hoch, G. A., J. M. Briggs, and L.C. Johnson. In revision. Assessing the rate, mechanisms and
consequences of conversion of tallgrass prairie to Juniperus virginiana forest. Ecosystems.
Knapp, A. K., J. M. Briggs and J. K. Koelliker. 2001. Frequency and extent of water limitation to
primary production in a mesic temperate grassland. Ecosystems 4:19-28.
Hoch, G. A., and J. M. Briggs. 1999. Expansion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) in
the northern Flint Hills, Kansas. Proceedings of the 16th North American Prairie. Pp. 9-15 in
J. T. Springer, ed. Proceedings of the 16th North American Prairie Conference, University of
Nebraska, Kearney.
Collins, S. L., A. K. Knapp, J. M. Briggs, J. M. Blair, and E. M. Steinauer. 1998. Modulation of
diversity by grazing and mowing in native tallgrass prairie. Science 280(5364):745-747.
Knight, C., J. M. Briggs, and M. D. Nellis. 1994. Expansion of gallery forest on Konza Prairie
Research Natural Area, Kansas. Landscape Ecology 9:117-125.
1999, National Science Foundation, Plum Island Ecosystem Site Review Team committee;
March 2000, National Science Foundation, Committee of Visitors Review of the Division of
Biological Infrastructure; National Science Foundation, The National Center for Ecology and
Synthesis Site Review Team committee (Chair); MacArthur Agro-Ecology Research Center.
Lake Placid, FL; 01 September, 1999 to 31 August 2002, Scientific Advisory Board member; 01
October, 1999 to 30 September 2001, Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring and Research Center,
Science Advisory Board member; 1997-1998, LTER Network Elected Executive Committee
Collaborators: J. M. Blair, Kansas State University (KSU); S. L. Collins, KSU; W. B. Cohen; D.
Goodin, KSU; K. S. Fassnacht, University of Wisconsin, Madison; D. J. Gibson, University of
Southern Illinois; D. C. Hartnett, KSU; G. M. Henebry, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; D.
Kaufman, KSU; A. K. Knapp, KSU; C. Knight, University of Kansas; L. Johnson, KSU; R. E.
Kennedy, Oregon State University; M. D. Nellis, University of West Virginia; D. Olsen, Oak
Ridge; J. Porter, University of Virginia; R. A. Ramundo, KSU; S. Stafford, Colorado State
University; T. R. Seastedt, University of Colorado; E. M. Steinauer, Audubon Society; C. L.
Turner, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources; D. P Turner, Oregon State University.
Graduate Advisors: John A. Sealander, retired.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Donna A. Rieck, Greg Hoch, Kansas State
University; Jana Heisler, Arizona State University (ASU); Hoski Schaafsma, ASU; Art Stiles,
ASU; Clarence Turner, Minnesota Department of Natural Resources.
Director, Southwest Center for Environmental Research and Policy
Center for Environmental Studies, PO Box 873211, Tempe AZ 85287-3211
Professor, Department of Geography
Arizona State University, PO Box 870104, Tempe AZ 85287-0104
Phone: (480) 965-2976; Fax: (480) 965-8087; email: [email protected]
Rutgers University, Rutgers, N.J., B.A., Mathematics, May 1963
Rutgers University, Rutgers, N.J., M.A., Geography, May 1965
The University of Michigan, Ph.D., Geography, May 1972
2001 - Director, Southwest Center for Environmental Research & Policy (EPA), Center for
Environmental Studies, Arizona State University; 1997-1998, Associate Dean for Student
Services, Graduate College, Arizona State University; 1991-1997, Chair, Department of
Geography, Arizona State University; 1979-1999, State Climatologist for Arizona
(governor-appointed);1979-1988, Director, Laboratory of Climatology, Arizona State University;
1974 - present, professor, Department of Geography, Arizona State University; 1969-1974,
Instructor, Assistant Professor, Geography, University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada; 1967-68,
Research Climatologist, High Mountain Environment Project, Arctic Institute of North; America,
Yukon/Alaska; 1968-89, Research Physical Scientist, U.S. Corps of Engineers, U. S. Lake
Survey (Ice and Snow Project), Detroit, MI.
Brazel, A. J., N. Selover, R. Vose, and G. Heisler. 2000. The tale of two cities: Phoenix and
Baltimore Urban LTERs. Climate Research 15(2):123-135.
Berman, N. S., D. L. Boyer, A. J. Brazel, S. W. Brazel, R. Chen, H. J. S. Fernando, and M. J.
Fitch. 1995. Synoptic classification and physical model experiments to guide field studies in
complex terrain. Journal of Applied Meteorology 34:719-730.
Brazel, A. J., R. S. Cerveny, and B. L. Trapido. 1993. Localized climatic responses during the 11
July 1991 eclipse: Phoenix, AZ. Climatic Change 23:155-168.
Brazel, A. J., H. J. Verville, and R. Lougeay. 1993. Spatial-temporal controls on cooling degree
hours: an energy demand parameter. Theoretical and Applied Climatology 47: 81-92.
Stoll, M. J., and A..J. Brazel. 1992. Surface/air temperature relationships in the urban
environment. Physical Geography 13(20):160-179.
Brazel, A. J. 1996. Microclimate. Pp 504-507 in Encyclopedia of Climate and Weather, Oxford
Brazel, A. J., G. J. McCabe, and H. J. Verville. 1993. Incident solar radiation simulated by
general circulation models for the Southwestern United States. Climatic Research 2:177-181
Brazel, A. J. 1985. Statewide temperature and moisture trends, 1895-1983. Pp. 79-84 in W. D.
Sellers, R. H. Hill, and M. Sanderson Rae, eds., Arizona Climate, The First Hundred Years,
University of Arizona, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Tucson, Arizona.
Brazel, A. J., J. Cook, and Collaborators.1977. Microclimate, architecture and landscaping
relationships in an arid region: Phoenix, Arizona. Prepared for the National Science
Foundation, Student Originated Studies Program, Grant SM176 07879, and Center for
Environmental Studies Research Paper No. 4, ASU, 99 pp.
Brazel, A. J., and D. M. Johnson. 1980. Land use effects on temperature and humidity in the Salt
River Valley, Arizona. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science 15(2):54 61.
Microclimate and evaporation of Tempe Town Lake, synergy grant of Arizona State University,
City of Tempe, McKemy Middle School, June 1999-2001; Governor-appointed state
climatologist for Arizona, 1979-99; served state government, private and public sector in climate
applications and analysis and the Association of State Climatologists (National Climate Data
Center); Climate representative to national climate committee of LTER (NSF) for CAP LTER, 2000present; Editor, Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 2000-present; University
Corporation for Atmospheric Research - national membership committee; ASU ARCUS
representative; Board Biometeorology, AMS; AAAS Geology/Geography Board; American
Geographical Society representative to AAAS.
Collaborators: Larry Baker, Baker Environmental Consulting, Moundview, MN; Neil Berman,
Arizona State University (ASU); Donald Boyer, ASU; Daniel Blumberg , Ben Gurion University,
Israel; Randall Cerveny, ASU; R. Chen, ASU; Philip Christensen, ASU; Ronald Dorn, ASU;
Andrew Ellis, ASU; Joe Fernando, ASU; Jonathan Fink, ASU; Mark Fitch, Arizona Department
of Environmental Quality; Will Graf, University of South Carolina; Patricia Gober, ASU;
Richard Grant, Purdue University; David Greenland, University of North Carolina-Raleigh;
Nancy Grimm, ASU; Susan Grimmond, Indiana University; Gordon Heisler, U.S. Forest Service,
Syracuse NY; Kenneth Hinkel, University of Cincinnati; Diane Hope, ASU; Lawrence Kalkstein,
University of Delaware; John Keane, Salt River Project, Phoenix AZ; Ann Kinzig, ASU; Jeffrey
Klopatek, ASU; Raymond Lougeay, State University of New York at Geneseo; Chris Martin,
ASU; Gregory McCabe, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver CO; Samuel Outcalt, retired; Charles
Redman, ASU; Diane Stanitski-Martin, Shippensburg State University; Frederick Steiner,
University of Texas-Austin; Russell Vose, National Climatic Data Center, Ashville NC; Joseph
Zehnder, ASU.
Graduate Advisors: Robert Muller, Melvin Marcus, Arthur Getis (M.A., Rutgers University);
Samuel Outcalt, Melvin Marcus, Thomas Detwyler, Donald Portmann (Ph.D., The University of
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Sharolyn Anderson (Ph.D. graduate student);
Nancy Selover (PhD graduate student); Brooke Stabler (PhD graduate student); Roger Tomalty
(Ph.D. graduate student). All Arizona State University.
Associate Professor, Department of Forest Resources
University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108
Phone: (612) 624-9711; email: [email protected]
University of California-Berkeley; B.A., Forestry, 1980
North Carolina State University-Raleigh, M.A., Forestry, 1985
University of Wisconsin-Madison, Ph.D., Environmental Monitoring, 1990
1996-present, Associate Professor, University of Minnesota; 1995-1996, Assistant Professor,
University of Minnesota; 1990-1995, Assistant Professor, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State
Jones III, E. B. D., G. S. Helfman, J. O. Harper, and P. V. Bolstad. 1999. Effects of riparian
forest removal on fish assemblages in southern Appalachian streams. Conservation Biology
Bolstad, P. V., W. T. Swank and J. Vose. 1998. Predicting southern Appalachian overstory
vegetation with digital terrain data. Landscape Ecology 13:271-283.
Harding, J. S., E. F. Benfield, P. V. Bolstad, G. S. Helfman, and E. B. D. Jones III. 1998. Stream
biodiversity: the ghost of land use past. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 95:14,843-14,847.
Wear, D. N. and P. Bolstad. 1998. Land-use changes in southern Appalachian landscapes: Spatial
analysis and forecast evaluation. Ecosystems 1:575-594.
Bolstad, P. V., and W. T. Swank. 1997. Cumulative impacts of landuse on water quality in a
southern Appalachian watershed. Water Resources Research 33:519-533.
Bolstad, P. V., J. M. Vose, and S. McNulty. 2001. Forest productivity, leaf area, and terrain in
southern Appalachian deciduous forests. Forest Science 47:419-427.
Bolstad, P. V., K. Mitchell, and J. M. Vose. 1999. Foliar temperature-respiration response
functions for broad-leaved tree species in the southern Appalachians. Tree Physiology
Mitchell, K., P.V. Bolstad, and J.M. Vose. 1999. Interspecific and environmentally induced
variation in foliar dark respiration among eighteen southeastern deciduous species. Tree
Physiology 19:861-870.
Bolstad, P.V., and T. Stowe. 1994. An evaluation of DEM accuracy: elevation, slope, and aspect.
Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 60:1327-1332.
Bolstad, P.V. 1992. Geometric errors in natural resources GIS data: Tilt and terrain effects on
aerial photographs. Forest Science 38:367-380.
Collaborators: Mary Bauer; Tom Burke; Eileen Carey; Peter Curtiss; Eric Davidson; Ken Davis;
Tom Gower; Tom Lillesand; Peter Reich; Jim Vose; Dave Coleman.
Graduate Advisors: Lee Allen, North Carolina State University-Raleigh; Tom Lilies, University
of Wisconsin-Madison.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Phil Radtke, Viriginia Tech; Tail Lee,
University of Minnesota; Alan Yeakley, Portland State University; Katherine Mitchell, USDAARS.
Associate Professor and Interim Department Head
Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Work
Kansas State University, 204 Waters Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506-4003
Phone: (785) 532-6865; Fax: (785) 532-6978; email: [email protected]
Creighton, B.S., Sociology and Political Science, 1976
University of Wisconsin-Madison, M.S., Sociology, 1980
University of Wisconsin-Madison, Ph.D., Sociology, 1986
Current, Associate Professor and Interim Department Head, Department of Sociology,
Anthropology and Social Work, Kansas State University; Current, Rural Activities Coordinator
Director, Population Research Laboratory; Director, Survey Research Laboratory, Kansas State
University; 1996-2001, Sociology Graduate Coordinator, Kansas State University; 1989-1995,
Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Anthropology and Social Work, Kansas State
University; 1989-1992, Research Director, Kansas Center for Rural Initiatives, Kansas State
University; 1985-1988, Sociologist, Agriculture and Rural Economy Division, Economic
Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture
Norman, D. W., L. E. Bloomquist, R. Janke, S. Freyenberger, J. Jost, B. W. Schurle, and H. Kok.
2000. The meaning of sustainable agriculture: reflections of some Kansas practitioners.
American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 15:126-133.
Adamchak, D. J., L. E. Bloomquist, K. Bausman, and R. Qureshi. 1999. Consequences of
population change for retail/wholesale sector employment in the nonmetropolitan Great
Plains. Rural Sociology 64:92-112.
Bloomquist, L. E., and B. E. Murphy. 1997. Work in Rural America. Pp. 782-785 in Gary
Goreham, ed., Encyclopedia of Rural America. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO
Williams, D. D., and L. E. Bloomquist. 1997. Gaining a perspective of community: A
community case study viewed from multiple theoretical approaches. Journal of the
Community Development Society 28:277-302.
Bloomquist, L. E., C. Gringeri, D. Tomaskovic-Devey and C. Truelove. 1993. Work Structures
and Rural Poverty. Pp. 68-105 in Rural Sociological Society Task Force on Rural Poverty:
Persistent Poverty in Rural America. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.
Hooks, G., and L. E. Bloomquist. 1992. The legacy of World War II for regional growth and
decline: The cumulative effects of wartime investments in U.S. manufacturing, 1947-1972.
Social Forces 71:303-337.
Norman, D.W., L. E. Bloomquist, S. G. Freyenberger, D. L. Regehr, B.W. Schurle, and R. R.
Janke. 1998. Farmers’ attitudes concerning on-farm research: Kansas survey results. Journal
of Natural Resources Life Science Education 27:35-41.
Bloomquist. L. E. 1990. Local labor market characteristics and the occupational concentration of
different sociodemographic groups. Rural Sociology 55:199-213.
Bloomquist, L. E. 1988. Performance of the rural manufacturing sector. Pp. 49-75 in David L.
Brown et al., eds., Rural economic development in the1980's. U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Washington.
Bloomquist, L. E., S. B. Fawcett,, and A. Kaluzny. 2000. What Kansans recommend to improve
health and well-being. Pp. 323-337 in Alvin R. Tarlov and Robert St. Peter, eds., The society
and population health reader: A state and community perspective. The New Press, New
Bloomquist, L. E., and G. F. Summers. 1982. Organization of production and community income
distributions. American Sociological Review 47: 325-338.
Professional Communications Chair (1997-1998); Development Committee Chair, 1995-1997;
Chair (1995-1996); Development Committee Member (1994-1997); Nominations Committee
Member (1992-1993); Topic Manager, Small Business Innovation Research Review Panel,
USDA (1994); Member, Rural Development Review Panel, National Research Initiative, USDA
(1992 & 1996).
Collaborators: A. Allison, Kansas Health Institute; K. Bausman, Maryville University; B.
Bratsberg, Kansas State University (KSU); S. Freyenberger, KSU; J. Gibbons, KSU; B. K.
Goodwin, Clemson University; G. Green, University of Wisconsin-Madison; W. R. Goe, KSU;
R. Janke, KSU; J. Jost, Kansas Rural Center; H. Kok, Monsanto Corporation; B. Murphy,
University of Missouri; R. Rathge, North Dakota State University; D. Regehr, KSU; B. Schurle,
KSU; J. Shanteau, KSU; R. St. Peter, Kansas Health Institute; D. Williams, University of
Graduate Advisors: Gene F. Summers, University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: A. Al Roumi, Imam University-Riyadh; M.
Al Saawi, Imam University-Qassim; S. Alvarez, Indiana State University; S. Fisher, Kansas State
University; R. Hage, North Carolina State University; A. Harris, University of Michigan; K.
McEwen, Duke University; B. Reid, Kansas State University. Thesis advisor for a total of 15
students since 1993.
Associate Professor, Department of Plant Biology
Arizona State University, PO Box 871601, Tempe AZ 85287-1601
Phone: (480) 965-3414; Fax: (680) 965-6899; Email: [email protected]
University of Inner Mongolia, Huhhot, China, B. S, Biology (Ecology), 1982
Miami University, Oxford, OH, M. S., Botany (Ecology), August 1987
Miami University, Oxford, OH, Ph.D., Botany (Ecology), August 1991
Postdoc – Landscape Ecology, Spatial Modeling, and Theoretical Ecology
NSF Postdoc Research Associate, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, August 1991-August 1993
Visiting Research Associate, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, August 1992-August 1993
August 2001-present, Associate Professor, Department of Plant Biology, Arizona State
University (ASU); April 1999-present, Associate Professor, Department of Life Sciences,
ASU-West, Phoenix; August 1995-1999, Assistant Professor, Department of Life Sciences,
ASU-West, Phoenix; October 1993-August 1995, Assistant Research Professor, Desert Research
Institute, Reno, NV; August 1992-August 1993, Visiting Research Fellow, Princeton University,
Princeton, NJ; September 1991-August 1993, NSF Research Associate, Cornell University,
Ithaca, NY; 1987-1991, Teaching Fellow, Department of Botany, Miami University, Oxford,
OH; 1985-1986, Visiting Scientist, University of California, Davis, CA.
Wu, J., and J. L. David. In press. A spatially explicit hierarchical approach to modeling complex
ecological systems: Theory and applications. Ecological Modelling.
Jenerette, G. D., and J. Wu. 2001. Analysis and simulation of land use change in the central
Arizona - Phoenix region. Landscape Ecology 16:611-626.
Wu, J., D. E. Jelinski, M. Luck and P. T. Tueller. 2000. Multiscale analysis of landscape
heterogeneity: Scale variance and pattern metrics. Geo. Info. Sci. 6(1):6-19.
Wu, J. 1999. Hierarchy and scaling: Extrapolating information along a scaling ladder. Canadian
Journal of Remote Sensing 25(4):367-380.
Wu, J., and S. A. Levin. 1994. A spatial patch dynamic modeling approach to pattern and
process in an annual grassland. Ecological Monographs 64:447-464.
Wu, J., Y. Liu and D. E. Jelinski. 2000. Effects of leaf area profiles and canopy stratification on
simulated energy fluxes: The problem of vertical spatial scale. Ecol. Modell. 134:283-297.
Zipperer, W. C., J. Wu, R. V. Pouyat, and S. T. A. Pickett. 2000. The application of ecological
principles to urban and urbanizing landscapes. Ecol. Applications 10(3):685-688.
Reynolds, J., and J. Wu. 1999. Do landscape structural and functional units exist? Pp. 273-296 in
Tenhunen, J. D. and P. Kabat, eds., Integrating Hydrology, Ecosystem Dynamics, and
Biogeochemistry in Complex Landscapes. Wiley.
Wu, J., and S. A. Levin. 1997. A patch-based spatial modeling approach: Conceptual framework
and simulation scheme. Ecological Modelling 101:325-346.
Wu, J., and O. L. Loucks. 1995. From balance-of-nature to hierarchical patch dynamics: A
paradigm shift in ecology. Quarterly Review of Biology 70:439-466.
Co-PI and Team Leader for Modeling/Theoretical/GIS for the NSF-supported Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research (CAP LTER, 1997-2003), and Senior Personnel of
IGERT (Integrative Graduate Education and Research Training in Urban Ecology), Arizona State
University, 2000-2005; Program Chair, 2001 Annual Symposium of US-International
Association for Landscape Ecology; Chair, Asian Ecology Section, Ecological Society of
America (ESA), 1998-2000; Councilor-at-Large, International Association for Landscape
Ecology-US Section, 2001-; Member of Foreign Scholar Travel Award Committee, International
Association of Landscape Ecology, US Chapter (March 2000, August 1999); Task Leader, (Task
2.1.4 - Semiarid and Arid Ecosystems), GCTE, IGBP,1997 - present; Co-organizer for
Symposium on Resilience of Cities at 2002 Annual Meeting of ESA, Tucson, AZ; Co-organizer
for International Conference on Modeling Complex Systems, Montreal, July 31-Aug. 4, 2000;
Organizer for Symposium on Urban Landscape Ecology at the 2000 US-IALE Symposium, Fort
Lauderdale, Florida; Co-organizer for Symposium on Urban Ecology at the 2000 Annual
Meeting of Ecological Society of America, Snowbird, UT; Co-organizer for International
Symposium on Grassland Management, Huhhot, August 15-19, 1997; Editorial Board Member
for Landscape Ecology, Geographic Information Sciences, Acta Ecologica Sinica, Acta
Phytoecologica Sinica; Reviewer for journals including Ecology, Ecological Applications,
Ecosystems, Ecological Modelling, Conservation Biology, Photogrammetric Engineering &
Remote Sensing, Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing; Panel Member and Reviewer for funding
agencies including NSF, USDA, and EPA
Collaborators: John D. Aber, University of NH; B. Acock, U.S. Department of Agriculture; H.
K. M. Bugmann, Swiss Fed. Inst. of Technology; Indy C. Burke, Colorado State; Mary L.
Cadenasso, IES; Qiong Gao, China; Kevin J. Gaston, University of Sheffield; Fanglian He,
Canadian Forest Service; Richard Hobbs, Murdoch; D. E. Jelinski, Queen’s, Canada; Habin Li,
U.S. Forest Service; Orie L. Loucks, Miami; Danielle Marceau, University of Montreal; E. Meir,
University of WA; I. R. Noble, Australian National; D. T. Price, Canadian Forest Service;
Steward Pickett, IES; R. V. Pouyat, University of MD; Ye Qi, University of CA-Berkeley; Jim
Reynolds, Duke; W. L. Steffen, GCTE-IGBP; Paul Tueller, University of NV-Reno; James
Wickham, U.S. EPA; W. C. Zipperer, U.S. Forest Service.
Graduate Advisors: John L. Vankat, Miami, MS, Ph.D; Simon A. Levin, Princeton, Postdoctoral.
Thesis Advisor and Postgraduate Scholar Sponsor: Russell Watkins, 3001, Inc.; Hai Ren, China;
Yuanbo Liu, China; Matt A. Luck, University of California-Davis; Wanli Wu, Arizona State