Faculty of Management and Human Resource Development Lecturer Course/ Code Title Section : Pn. Siti Rokiah : Effective Communication : Group and Team Communication : 05 Group Members = Group 3 + 7 + 8 No Name Matrix No 1 Elnara Latifova AH104014 2 Ong Shwu Er AH100215 3 Ong Siow Thing AH100216 4 Ching Sim Mei AH100196 5 Siti Sakinah Binti Burhanuddin AH100219 6 Tee Hui Lee AH100226 7 Fatin Mohammad Zahir AH100198 8 Michele Sylvester AH100206 No Name Matrix No 9 Tan Yuen Li AH100224 10 Tan Shea Lee AH100223 11 Tan Kai Quan AH100222 12 Ashmal Hafiz bin Ahmad Suhaimi AH100193 13 Gan Swee Fong AH100199 14 Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed AH104007 15 Chan Khye Lin AH100194 Synopsis ( Part I) Introduction Gender Differences + Ethical Behavior in Group Communication Disadvantages of Small Groups What is Group & Team Characteristics of Small Groups Virtual Groups & Teams Group Formation Types & Purposes of Small Groups Synopsis ( Part II) Team Building Reflective Thinking Managing Group Conflict Leadership Problem Solving & Decision Making Evaluating Small Group Performance Conducting Meeting Member Participation Conclusion What is Group and Team? Consists small number of people Common purpose Collection of individuals who influence one another Interact together Are interdependent Small-Group Communication • Consists at least 3 interacting people • Less than 3 (interview or interpersonal communication) Interpersonal Interviewing Presentation Effective Group Communication • Example: – Ability to ask effective questions – To listen – Deal with interpersonal relationships – Resolve conflict – Present idea • Small group communication involve: – Share common purpose • Solve problems, make decision and share information – Respect one another • Honest, tolerant, and hold high ethical standards – Ensure the willingness – not only to listen but also – give feedback, discuss and argue Team • A coordinated group of people • organized to work together to achieve a specific goal – Teams develop clearly defined responsibilities for team members. – Teams have clearly defined rules for team operation. – Teams develop clear goals. – Teams develop a way of coordinating their efforts. Effective team communication Listen others speak Good manners Speak only when necessary Think before your speak Good attention Group Group Group Group TEAM Group Formation: why we join: Satisfy important psychological & social needs Help people achieve goals Multiple sources information& knowledge Need for security Individual’s positive social identity Adopt position and policies Restricting personal freedom Why we leave Demand( time, energy & resources) Timeconsuming , ineffective Primary Groups Purpose : to accomplish a task or achieve a goal Example : decision making problem solving Learning Group Characteristics of Small Groups Interdependence Mutual dependence of group members on one another Group’s success based on : member’s cooperation, accountability and willingness. Commitment Desire of group members to work together to complete a task to the satisfaction of the entire group. Often stem from interpersonal attraction, commonality of attitude, beliefs, and values. Cohesiveness • The attraction that group members feel for each other and willingness to stick together • A form of loyalty • But, too much – lead to unwillingness to change an unsuccessful decision • Group Size Group Norms Points to consider: I. II. III. Large groups reduce the time and amount of individual interaction Large groups provide a greater opportunity for aggressive members to assert their dominance. As a result, less assertive members might feel isolated and might withdraw from the group altogether Large groups make it difficult to follow a set agenda. It is easy for someone in a large group to switch topics or introduce subjects that are not related to the group’s original priorities. Expected and shared ways in which group members behave. Both informal and formal guidelines determine which behaviors are acceptable and which are not. For a group to function effectively, its members must agree on how things are to be done. Norms also develop in virtual groups. As virtual groups mature over time, so does conformity to the norms of the groups. Group Culture • The pattern of values, beliefs, norms, and behaviors that is shared by group members and that shapes a group’s individual personality. • Created by many factors • Not static, but constantly changing and developing Gender Differences in Group Communication Men Women • More engage in aggressive behavior • dominate the talking • Interested in winning • More goal oriented • More cooperative with opponent • Share resources • Interested in fairness *both women and men understand stereotypes exist and make sure each person participates in group is provide equal opportunities to participate Ethical Behavior in Group Communication • responsibility to be ethnical in group • respect each other opinions especially to behaviors within the group member when participating in group-related activities. • Group members -have right to state opinion or perspective -willing to share legitimate information -honesty and integrity -use information ethically -keep confidential information confidential Disadvantages of Small Groups Going Along to Get Along •Group can become too cohesive or committed. •Groupthink (a dysfunction in which group members value the harmony of the group more than new ideas, fails to critically examine ideas, hesitate to change flawed decision, and lack willingness to allow new members to participate. ) Time consuming •It always takes longer to accomplish something when a group does it. •Individual can always complete a task in a short time than a group. Varying Communications Styles • Different communication style and comfort level with the group. • Some members might dominate and overwhelm conversations, whereas others members might not contribute at all. Unfair Workload • Students complain that some group members lack motivation and do not do their fair share of the work. • Also referred to as Social Loafing. (Tendency for individual to lower their work effort after they join a group.) Pressure to Fail • Groups may not meet their potential because the majority of group members place pressure on the most capable members not to excel. • Members who do not cooperate and do excel might find themselves teased, chastised, or worse for breaking the group’s norm. Grouphate Phenomenon • People who have negative experiences with group or those who do not have the communications skills to be effective in groups dislike group work. Virtual Groups and Teams -a group of people that relies on electronic forms of communication to work together to accomplish goal Teleconferencing use telephones and speakerphones to connect people in different location limited-cannot see at other location Losing nonverbal cues Videoconferencing -includes picture and sound -connect group via television in different location -cost and need special equipment to allow picture and sound transmitted -increase face to face interaction Interactive computer conferencing interaction via computer convenience only computer and connected video camera are required equipment failure occur Team Building Setting Goals ~Goals must be clear, specific, challenging, and worthwhile. Determining Roles ~Leader ~Team members Leadership Leadership An influence process that includes any behavior that helps clarify a group’s purpose or guides the group to achieve its goal Leader A person who is assigned or selected , or who emerges from a group, to guide or provide direction toward reaching the group’s goals. FIVE WAYS TO BECOME A BETTER LEADER Get 360-degree feedback on your present level of effectiveness, as judged by coworkers you respect. Pick the most important behaviors for change—those you believe will enhance your effectiveness as a leader—e.g., "become a more effective listener" or "make decisions in a timelier manner"). Periodically ask co-workers for suggestions on how you can do an even better job in your selected behaviors for change. Listen to their ideas—don't promise to change everything—and make the changes that you believe will further increase your effectiveness. Follow-up and measure change in your effectiveness over time. Leadership styles and behavior 1. Autocratic • Keeps complete control • Sets policy and makes all decisions for the group • Defines task and assigns them to members 2. Democratic • Shares control • Involves members in making the decisions and etc. • Guide the task instead of setting it. 3. Laissez-faire • Gives up control • Total freedom • Completely avoid participation What is gender? Gender is the culturally created idea of differences between the sexes. Gender is a culturally created order of power related to the idea of female and male. Gender is one´s unaware actions that are the result of power structure and these unaware gender related actions do not aspire to change the order of power, but to preserve them. -For the first time, the members usually begin by introducing themselves & briefly telling their reasons for joining the group. -Members may appoint or elect a recording secretary. Conducting a Meeting -To ensure efficiency, procedures must be established, and meeting must be conducted according to a wellorganized plan. -The best way to accomplish this is by producing an agenda, a list of all topics to be discussed during a meeting. Meeting agenda look like : Roll call / attendance Reading, correction, and approval of minutes from previous meeting Unfinished business from previous meeting New business Announcements Adjournment Members Participation • Roles of group members • Contribution of group members Roles of group members • Group task & building – Help to accomplish task & objective – E.g :initiator-contributor, energizer, recorder • Group building & maintenance – Help to define group’s social atmosphere – E.g : encourager, harmonizer, compromiser • Self centered roles – Counterproductive/destructive – E.g : aggressor, blocker, buffoon Contribution of group members • Comments that are open to evaluation – Group discussion lead to best possible info and decision if members offer comments for evaluation. – Criticism cant be avoided or ignored • Provocative comments – Every comments/ideas are valuable • Prepare to contribute – Study the agenda in advance Problem Solving And Decision Making 1) Determining problem Select problem and topic. Should be stated in the form question. Question of value asks whether something is good or bad, desirable or undesirable. Question of fact asks whether something is true or false. 4 types of discussion Questions Question of policy asks what actions should be taken. Question of interpretation asks for the meaning or explanation of something. 2) Discussing The Problem 5 specific steps developed by the Philosopher John Dewey 5.1 Definition of the problem 5.2 Analysis of the problem 5.3 Suggestion of possible problem 5.4 Selection of the best solution 5.5 Putting the best solution into operation Reflective Thinking in Problem Solving and Decision Making Problem solving is a set of activities designed to analyze a situation systematically and generate, implement, and evaluate solutions Decision making is a mechanism for making choices at each step of the problem-solving process. Steps Involved In Decision Making Process 1. Defining / Identifying the managerial problem 2.Analyzing the problem 3.Developing alternative solutions 4.Selecting the best solution out of the available alternatives 5. Converting the decision into action 6. Ensuring feedback for follow-up Brainstorming Brainstorming is a popular tool that helps you generate creative solutions to a problem. Individual brainstorming : 1. Draw or doodle while you're thinking. 2. Ask questions. Read something. 3. Take a walk with a little notepad and pen. 4.Work a crossword puzzle or a word search. 5. Do something with the intention of figuring out what you want to focus on. 6. Look around: Write down the interesting things you see, hear, touch, feel, smell, or taste. Group brainstorming • Group brainstorming can be very effective for bringing the full experience and creativity of all members of the group to bear on an issue • How to Use the Tool: 1. Find a comfortable meeting environment, and set it up ready for the session. 2. Define the problem you want solved clearly, and lay out any criteria to be met. 3. Make it clear that that the objective of the meeting is to generate as many ideas as possible. 4. Give people plenty of time on their own at the start of the session to generate as many ideas as possible. 5. Ask people to give their ideas, making sure that you give everyone a fair opportunity to contribute. 6. Encourage people to develop other people's ideas, or to use other ideas to create new ones. Managing Group Conflict o Conflict??? Negative?? o Communication is bound to be conflict. o if properly managed, better decisions and solutions to problem. Group decision making and problem solving Better understanding of issues, better involvement, increased motivation, better decision, greater group cohesiveness. Conflict and open disagreement Tension, increase disagreement, increase in personal attacks, hurt feelings, withdrawal, disbanding of other group Principle negotiation – A procedure that helps group members negotiate consensus by collaboration through the expression of each differing need and a search for alternatives to meet those needs. Ways : 1) Express disagreement openly and honestly for discussion 2) Stick to the issues and direct get to the point. 3) Criticize the idea not the person. 4) Don’t simply put down others’ ideas or views. 5) Always remain calm even if someone attacks you. Take a reasoned approach and do not take the attack personally. Evaluating Small-Group Performance Time for the hands on exercise !!! • firstly, think back the last time u had your small group discussion • secondly, raise up your hands based on instructions Conclusion There is no way for you to get away from being in a group. Everyone will need to learn on how to get along well with others. This is where communication skills play its significant role.
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