# 10.7 Locus What

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10.7
What you should learn
GOAL 1 Draw the locus of
points that satisfy a given
condition.
GOAL 2 Draw the locus of
points that satisfy two or
more conditions.
Why you should learn it
RE
FE
To use real-life
constraints, such as using
an epicenter in Example 4
and Ex. 29.
AL LI
Locus
GOAL 1
DRAWING A LOCUS SATISFYING ONE CONDITION
A locus in a plane is the set of all points in a plane that satisfy a given condition
or a set of given conditions. The word locus is derived from the Latin word for
“location.” The plural of locus is loci, pronounced “low-sigh.”
A locus is often described as the path of an object
moving in a plane. For instance, the reason that
many clock faces are circular is that the locus of
the end of a clock’s minute hand is a circle.
EXAMPLE 1
Finding a Locus
Draw point C on a piece of paper. Draw and describe the locus of all points on
the paper that are 3 inches from C.
SOLUTION
C
In ancient China, a
seismometer like this
one could measure the
direction to an epicenter.
1
C
Draw point C. Locate
several points 3 inches
from C.
2
Recognize a pattern:
the points lie on
a circle.
C
3
Draw the circle.
The locus of points on the paper that are 3 inches from C is a circle with
center C and a radius of 3 inches.
CONCEPT
SUMMARY
FINDING A LOCUS
To find the locus of points that satisfy a given condition, use the
following steps.
. . .1. . .Draw
. . . . any figures that are given in the statement of the problem.
2
Locate several points that satisfy the given condition.
Continue
C O3N C
E
4
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drawing points until you can recognize the pattern.
Draw the locus and describe it in words.
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GOAL 2
LOCI SATISFYING TWO OR MORE CONDITIONS
To find the locus of points that satisfy two or more conditions, first find the locus
of points that satisfy each condition alone. Then find the intersection of these loci.
EXAMPLE 2
Logical
Reasoning
Drawing a Locus Satisfying Two Conditions
Points A and B lie in a plane. What is the locus of points in the plane that are
equidistant from points A and B and are a distance of AB from B?
SOLUTION
D
A
B
A
B
A
B
E
The locus of all points
that are equidistant
from A and B is the
perpendicular bisector
Æ
of AB.
EXAMPLE 3
The locus of all points
that are a distance of AB
from B is the circle with
These loci intersect at D
and E. So D and E are the
locus of points that satisfy
both conditions.
Drawing a Locus Satisfying Two Conditions
Point P is in the interior of ™ABC. What is the locus of points in the interior
of ™ABC that are equidistant from both sides of ™ABC and 2 inches from P?
How does the location of P within ™ABC affect the locus?
SOLUTION
The locus of points equidistant from both sides of ™ABC is the angle bisector.
The locus of points 2 inches from P is a circle. The intersection of the angle
bisector and the circle depends on the location of P. The locus can be 2 points,
1 point, or 0 points.
A
A
P
B
C
The locus is 2 points.
A
P
B
C
The locus is 1 point.
P
B
C
The locus is 0 points.
10.7 Locus
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EARTHQUAKES The epicenter of an earthquake is the point on Earth’s surface
that is directly above the earthquake’s origin. A seismograph can measure the
distance to the epicenter, but not the direction to the epicenter. To locate the
epicenter, readings from three seismographs in different locations are needed.
B
B
A
B
A
A
epicenter
C
C
seismograph A tells
you that the epicenter
is somewhere on a
circle centered at A.
EXAMPLE 4
C
you which of the two
points of intersection
is the epicenter.
you that the epicenter is
one of the two points of
intersection of ›A and
›B.
Finding a Locus Satisfying Three Conditions
LOCATING AN EPICENTER You are given readings from three seismographs.
•
•
•
FOCUS ON
At A(º5, 5), the epicenter is 4 miles away.
At B(º4, º3.5), the epicenter is 5 miles away.
At C(1, 1.5), the epicenter is 7 miles away.
Where is the epicenter?
CAREERS
SOLUTION
Each seismograph gives you a locus that is a circle.
Circle A has center (º5, 5) and radius 4.
Circle B has center (º4, º3.5) and radius 5.
Circle C has center (1, 1.5) and radius 7.
Draw the three circles in a coordinate plane. The point of intersection of the three
circles is the epicenter.
y
A
2
RE
FE
L
AL I
2
GEOSCIENTISTS
INT
do a variety of
things, including locating
earthquakes, searching for
oil, studying fossils, and
mapping the ocean floor.
B
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www.mcdougallittell.com
644
C
The epicenter is at about (º6, 1).
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x
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GUIDED PRACTICE
Vocabulary Check
Concept Check
✓
✓
1. The radius of ›C is 3 inches. The locus of points in the plane that are more
? of ›C.
than 3 inches from C is the 2. Draw two points A and B on a piece of paper. Draw and describe the locus
of points on the paper that are equidistant from A and B.
Skill Check
✓
Match the object with the locus of point P.
A. Arc
B. Circle
C. Parabola
D. Line segment
3.
4.
5.
6.
P
P
P
P
7. What is the locus of points in the coordinate plane that are equidistant from
A(0, 0) and B(6, 0) and 5 units from A? Make a sketch.
8. Points C and D are in a plane. What is the locus of points in the plane that
are 3 units from C and 5 units from D?
PRACTICE AND APPLICATIONS
STUDENT HELP
Extra Practice
skills is on p. 822.
LOGICAL REASONING Draw the figure. Then sketch and describe the
locus of points on the paper that satisfy the given condition.
9. Point P, the locus of points that are 1 inch from P
10. Line k, the locus of points that are 1 inch from k
11. Point C, the locus of points that are no more than 1 inch from C
12. Line j, the locus of points that are at least 1 inch from j
LOGICAL REASONING Copy the figure. Then sketch and describe the
locus of points on the paper that satisfy the given condition(s).
13. equidistant from j and k
14. in the interior of ™A and equidistant
from both sides of ™A
j
k
STUDENT HELP
A
HOMEWORK HELP
Example 1: Exs. 9–23
Example 2: Exs. 14, 24,
25
Example 3: Exs. 26, 27,
31
Example 4: Exs. 19–25,
28–30
15. midpoint of a radius of ›C
16. equidistant from r and s
r
C
s
10.7 Locus
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Æ
CRITICAL THINKING Draw AB . Then sketch and describe the locus of
points on the paper that satisfy the given condition.
17. the locus of points P such that ™PAB is 30°
Æ
18. the locus of points Q such that ¤QAB is an isosceles triangle with base AB
xy USING ALGEBRA Use the graph at the right to
write equation(s) for the locus of points in the
coordinate plane that satisfy the given condition.
y
J
K
M
L
19. equidistant from J and K
2
20. equidistant from J and M
21. equidistant from M and K
x
1
22. 3 units from K
¯
˘
23. 3 units from ML
COORDINATE GEOMETRY Copy the graph. Then sketch and describe the
locus of points in the plane that satisfy the given conditions. Explain your
reasoning.
24. equidistant from A and B and
less than 4 units from the origin
25. equidistant from C and D
and 1 unit from line k
y
y
A
k
1
O
C
x
1
1
B
x
1
D
LOGICAL REASONING Sketch and describe the locus. How do the
positions of the given points affect the locus?
26. Point R and line k are in a plane. What is the locus of points in the plane that
are 1 unit from k and 2 units from R?
FOCUS ON
27. Noncollinear points P, Q, and R are in a plane. What is the locus of points in
APPLICATIONS
the plane that are equidistant from P and Q and 4 units from R?
EARTHQUAKES In Exercises 28–30, use the following information.
You are given seismograph readings from three locations.
•
•
•
RE
FE
L
AL I
SAN ANDREAS
FAULT In 1857,
an earthquake on this fault
and flung the water out of
a lake, stranding fish miles
away.
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At A(º5, 6), the epicenter is 13 miles away.
At B(6, 2), the epicenter is 10 miles away.
At O(0, 0), the epicenter is 6 miles away.
28. For each seismograph, graph the locus of all
y
A
B
2
O
2
possible locations for the epicenter.
29. Where is the epicenter?
30. People could feel the earthquake up to 14 miles away. If your friend lives at
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TECHNOLOGY Using geometry software, construct and label a line k
31.
and a point P not on k. Construct the locus of points that are 2 units
from P. Construct the locus of points that are 2 units from k. What is the
locus of points that are 2 units from P and 2 units from k? Drag P and k to
determine how the location of P and k affects the locus.
32. CRITICAL THINKING Given points A and B, describe the locus of points P
such that ¤APB is a right triangle.
Test
Preparation
33. MULTIPLE CHOICE What is the locus of points in the coordinate plane that
are 3 units from the origin?
A
¡
D
¡
B
¡
The line x = 3
The line y = 3
E
¡
The circle x2 + y2 = 9
C
¡
The circle x2 + y2 = 3
None of the above
34. MULTIPLE CHOICE Circles C and D are externally tangent. The radius of
circle C is 6 centimeters and the radius of circle D is 9 centimeters. What is
the locus of all points that are a distance of CD from point C?
★ Challenge
A
¡
B
¡
C
¡
D
¡
35.
Circle with center C and a radius of 3 centimeters
Circle with center D and a radius of 3 centimeters
Circle with center C and a radius of 15 centimeters
Circle with center D and a radius of 15 centimeters
DOG LEASH A dog’s leash is tied to a stake at the
corner of its doghouse, as shown at the right. The leash
is 9 feet long. Make a scale drawing of the doghouse
and sketch the locus of points that the dog can reach.
3 ft
9 ft
4 ft
MIXED REVIEW
FINDING ANGLE MEASURES Find the value of x. (Review 4.1, 4.6, 6.1 for 11.1)
30
36. A
37.
128
C
38.
A
x
106 96
42
B
x
B
x
C
88
FINDING LENGTHS Find the value of x. (Review 10.5)
39.
40.
10
12
41.
x
21
x
21
20
9
16
x
10
DRAWING GRAPHS Graph the equation. (Review 10.6)
42. x 2 + y 2 = 81
43. (x + 6)2 + (y º 4)2 = 9
44. x 2 + (y º 7)2 = 100
45. (x º 4)2 + (y º 5)2 = 1
10.7 Locus
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QUIZ 3
Self-Test for Lessons 10.6 and 10.7
Graph the equation. (Lesson 10.6)
1. x 2 + y 2 = 100
2. (x + 3) 2 + (y + 3) 2 = 49
3. (x º 1) 2 + y 2 = 36
4. (x + 4) 2 + (y º 7) 2 = 25
5. The point (º3, º9) is on a circle whose center is (2, º2). What is the
standard equation of the circle? (Lesson 10.6)
6. Draw point P on a piece of paper. Draw and describe the locus of points on
the paper that are more than 6 units and less than 9 units from P. (Lesson 10.7)
Æ˘
7. Draw the locus of all points in a plane that are 4 centimeters from a ray AB .
(Lesson 10.7)
SOCCER In a soccer game, play begins with a kick-off. All players not
involved in the kick-off must stay at least 10 yards from the ball. The ball is
in the center of the field. Sketch a 50 yard by 100 yard soccer field with a
ball in the center. Then draw and describe the locus of points at which the
players not involved in the kick-off can stand. (Lesson 10.7)
INT
8.
History of Timekeeping
THEN
NE
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www.mcdougallittell.com
SCHOLARS BELIEVE THAT the practice of dividing a circle into 360 equal parts has its
origins in ancient Babylon. Around 1000 B.C., the Babylonians divided the day (one
rotation of Earth) into 12 equal time units. Each unit was divided into 30 smaller
units. So one of Earth’s rotations was divided into 12 ª 30 = 360 equal parts.
1. Before the introduction of accurate clocks, other
civilizations divided the time between sunrise and
sunset into 12 equal “temporary hours.” These hours
varied in length, depending on the time of year.
The table at the right shows the times of sunrise
and sunset in New York City. To the nearest minute,
find the length of a temporary hour on June 21 and
the length of a temporary hour on December 21.
NOW
New York City
Date
Sunrise
Sunset
June 21
4:25 A.M.
7:30 P.M.
Dec. 21
7:16 A.M.
4:31 P.M.
TODAY, a day is divided into 24 hours. Atomic clocks are used to give the correct
time with an accuracy of better than one second in six million years.
As water drips out of this
clock, “hour” markers on
the inside are revealed.
c. 950 B . C .
1757
1963
c. 1500 B . C .
divides the morning
into six parts.
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Chapter 10 Circles
Atomic clocks use the
resonances of atoms.
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