Through matches of Mar 27, 2015

Wellness Trading Post
www.wellnesstradingpost.com
604-760-6425
Julieta Criollo
DNM, CHT
Doctor of Natural Medicine
Clinical Herbal Therapist
ju [email protected] elln esstrad ingpo st.co m
Notice to the Reader
This information is intended for educational purposes only. The information has been compiled from
published books/material; although the information has been check for correctness, the author does not
assume any legal responsibility or liability for any errors/omissions. This information is not intended to
be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of a medical doctor or qualified
health practitioner prior to starting any new treatment, or with any questions regarding a medical
condition.
Some General Rules to Consider when Wildcrafting
•
•
•
•
•
•
Become familiar with the legality of wildcrafting in an area (i.e. if private property, ask for permission; if a
regional/provincial/national park, check if a permit is needed, etc.).
Become familiar with endangered species (illegal to wildcraft), and those potentially at risk (visit:
http://unitedplantsavers.org/index.php).
Become aware of the plant and animal life in the area, and take into account how we may affected with our actions.
Avoid over-harvesting. Always leave behind enough of the plant specimen so it can continue to reproduce and thrive. A
rule of thumb is 30% or less of a specific plant/herb in its immediate habitat. However, avoid harvesting a plant in an area
where there are only a few specimens around.
Observe and research how specific herbs proliferate and encourage reproduction as often as possible:
•
Learn if a plant is: annual (a plant that last only one year/season; hence, it needs to be able to propagate, to
flower and produce seeds for the following year); biennial (a plant with a two year life circle; often, they flower
and seed on the second year), or perennial (last more than two years).
•
learn the what/where/how a plant can be cut/picked that it won’t kill it, or prevent it from re-growing,
reproducing, or propagating (for example, nettle can re-grow even when clip close to the soil; sage normally
dies if left with no leaves, and a branch left with no leaves commonly dies; an annual plant that is prevented
from flowering/seeding will not grow the following year; collecting the inner bark may kill a tree if not done
properly).
•
When harvesting aerial parts (i.e. leaves, flowers, branches, flowering tops), clip only small amount from each
plant (esp. if annual).
•
If necessary, replant the areas where you are harvesting from (scatter seeds, replace plant roots; leave plenty of
mature plants to reproduce).
Offering: it is considered a good practice to leave an offering in the area where one is planning to wildcraft (i.e. a piece of
fruit, planting a local plant), give thanks, offer a prayer to nature or the plants being harvest, some even explain to plants
what they will be used for (to increase the healing energy of the parts harvested).
General Rules for harvesting
•
•
Harvesting plant parts: flowers, leaves, and stems are best collected in the spring; fruits in the summer; and root in the
fall. Harvest in dry days, toward mid-day, after dew has dried.
Harvest annuals just before flowering; biennials after the first year growth; perennials after the 2-4 year growth.
Recommended Books and/or Web Links
1) Endanger species: http://unitedplantsavers.org/index.php
2) Learning to recognize plants while walking in a forest park
"Plants of Coastal British Columbia, including Washington, Oregon and Alaska" by Pojar & Mackinnon
"Wild Berries of the West" by Betty Derig and Margaret Fuller.
"Edible and Medicinal Plants of the West" by Gregory Tilford
"Western Medicinal Plants and Herbs" by Steven Foster and Christopher Hobbs
3) Learning about Edible Plants and/or Herbal Medicine:
“The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants.” by Andrew Chevallier.
“New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses.” by Deni Bown.
1
“Indian Herbalogy of North America” by Alma R. Hutchens.
“Medical Herbalism – the Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine” by David Hoffmann
Plants For A Future: www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php
A Modern Herbal, by Mrs. M. Grieve http://botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/comindx.html
4) Others:
Canadian Herbalist’s Association of BC (CHAofBC): www.chaofbc.ca
Dominion Herbal College: www.dominionherbal.com
Plants that may be encountered during a Herb-Walk
Common Name
Latin Name
[Related specie]
< FAMILY NAME >
(NA) = name is not longer accepted,
synonym name.
Edible Parts
Medicinal Part Used
Food usage
Medicinal Properties
Nutrients
Preparation
Some contraindications
1 = toxicity.
Ø = contraindications
† = caution, warning
[References]
1.
Bethroot, Birthroot,
Wake Robin
Trillium erectum
[T. ovatum]
[T. pendulum]
* = reported by 3 or more Ref’s.
+ = reported by 2 Ref’s.
- = reported by only one Ref.
[d. = once a day; bid = twice a day; tid= 3
times/day; g = gram; min. = minutes]
Some Medicinal Usage
NS= nervous system
End= Endocrine system
Imm= Immune system
Rs = respiratory system
CVS= cardiovascular system
GIT= gastrointestinal
Rep= Reproductive system
Ur= Urinary system
Mus-Sk= musculo-skeletal
€: additional native use.
[References]
[References]
[References]
Leaves
Rhizome, root (dried [BHP, DH1]).
Leaves – raw or cooked (young
unfolding leaves in salad)
*) astringent, anti-hemorrhagic,
expectorant.
+) tonic, antiseptic, alterative.
-) diaphoretic, pectoral, uterine tonic,
parturient, emmenagogue.
Rs- For coughs, coughing blood,
bronchial/pulmonary conditions.
GIT- for digestive system bleeding,
diarrhea, dysentery.
Rep- For menorrhagia (esp. menopausal
menorrhagia), metrorrhagia, bleeding
associated with uterine fibroids, postpartum hemorrhage. Topically (douche)
for leucorrhea, yeast infections.
Ur- For blood in the urine, kidney/bladder
fibroids.
Skin- Topically, for skin ulcers, tumors,
gangrene, insect bites.
< LILIACEAE >
Decoction
[BT]: ½–2 g/cup, simmer 10 min., ½–1
cup tid.
Ø– In pregnancy only under
professional supervision
.
†– Fresh rhizome may cause
nausea/vomiting.
[CA]
†– Endangered Specie [LOUPSO]
2.
[LG-ITIS, LG-GRIN, LO-GBIG, LOUPSO, FH]
[LO-PFF]
[BD, BHP, BT, CA, DHC, FH, HA2, HD1, MR]
[BD, BHP, BT, CA, DHC, FH, HA2, HD1, MR]
Blackberry
Fruit, leaves, root, shoots.
Root, root bark, leaves, berries.
• Fruit - raw or cooked (i.e. syrups,
jams).
• Root – cooked (shouldn’t be too
young nor too old and requires a
lot of boiling).
• Leaves – as tea (young leaves are
best).
• Young shoots – raw (harvested
as they emerge through the
ground in the spring, peeled and
then eaten in salads).
*) tonic, astringent
-) anti-hemorrhagic, mild diuretic
EENT/mouth- Topically (esp. leaf), for
mouth ulcers, gum inflammations,
spongy gums, bleeding gums sore
throat; to fasten loose teeth.
Rs- For whooping cough in children [FH].
GIT- For diarrhea, infant irritable bowel,
gastritis, enteritis, dysentery,
appendicitis, hemorrhoids, colorectal
bleedings. Topically, for hemorrhoids.
Rep- As a female tonic. For leucorrhea,
gonorrhea. For childbirth pains (strong
infusion) [FH].
Rep- For menorrhagia [HA2].
Ur- For cystitis.
Skin- Topically, for skin eruptions, burns,
wounds.
Rubus corchorifolius
R. villosus(NA)
R. fructicosus,
R. occidentalis
< ROSACEAE >
Fruit: Vitamin. C.
[LG-GRIN, LG-ITIS]
[LO-PFF, CA, CM, HD2]
Infusion
[HD2]: dried, 1–2g/cup, decoct 10
min., 1 cup tid.
[BT]: 30g/500ml water, infuse 15
minutes, drink freely.
[LJB]: dried leaf, 4 tsp/cup, ½–1 cup
d.).
Decoction
[LJB]: root/leaf, 1 tsp/cup, 1 cup d.–
bid, cold).
[BD, BT, CA, CM, DJ2, FH, HA2, HD2, LJB, LCSSBM]
[BD, BT, CA, CM, DJ2, FH, HA2, HD2, LJB]
2
3.
Broom, Scotch broom
Cytisus scoparius
Sarothamnus scoparius(NA)
[Spartium junceum]
< FABACEAE/LEGUMINOSAE >
1– may cause impaired vision,
nausea, vomiting, profuse
sweating [DHC].
1– may produce dizziness,
headaches, sleepiness, leg
weakness, tingling
sensation on hands/feet [DJ2].
Flower, leaf, seed.
• Flowers – used as a substitute for
capers, and they can also be
added to salads.
• Tender green tops – used like
hops to give a bitter flavor to
beer and to render it more
intoxicating.
• Seeds – roasted and used as a
coffee substitute
†– some caution is advised due to
Flowering tops (dried; harvested when
flowering [BHP, BT]).
Flowerheads [BAP].
*) peripheral vasoconstrictor, cardio
active, cathartic, diuretic.
+) anti-hemorrhagic, emetic, oxytocic.
-) narcotic, respiratory depressant,
hypertensive (↑BP), bitter, laxative.
†– Use only under the professional
CVS/heart- Regulates and strengthens the
heartbeat. For irregular and/or fast heart,
arrhythmias, tachycardia, weak heart,
cardiac edema, venous insufficiency,
edema. To improve capillary integrity,
blood return. €: tea of dried herb as
cardiac depressant and diuretic.
Rep- For profuse menstruation, post-partum
menorrhagia.
Ur- As strong diuretic.
supervision.
toxicity.
1– in high dose, may cause
uterine contractions, ↑BP,
respiratory arrest,… death.
4.
[LG-ITIS, BAP, BD, BHP, BT, CA,
DHC, DJ2, FH, LJ, MR, LC-SSBM]
[LO-PFF]
[BAP, BD, BHP, BT, CA, DHC, DJ2, FH, LJ, MR,
LC-SSBM]
[BAP, BD, BHP, BT, CA, DJ2, FH, LJ, MR]
Burdock, Lappa
Young leaves, stalks, branches,
root, seeds.
Root. Aerial parts (dried [BHP, CA].
Harvested in the first year of growth
[BHP]). Seeds.
Decoction:
[BHP]: 1:20, 500ml d.
[BT]: ½–1 tsp/cup, simmer 5 min., ½–1
cup tid.
[HD2]: 1 tsp/cup, simmer 10–15 min., 1
cup tid).
Imm - To promote detox (incl. heavy
metals), and to clear congestion of
circulatory, lymphatic, Rs., and Ur.
systems. For cancer, edema, fever,
measles, inflammatory conditions due to
toxicity. €: as a general tonic.
CVS- For anemia, high cholesterol. €: as a
blood purifier.
GIT- To promote appetite and digestion, to
aid detox of the liver. For anorexia,
dyspepsia, liver diseases, liver damage.
Skin- For skin disorders (esp. dry/scaly
skin conditions such as psoriasis,
eczema, dandruff), acne, seborrhea,
abscesses, skin eruptions, boils.
Topically, for eczema, psoriasis,
wounds, ulcers, skin infections.
Mus-Sk- To promote excretion of uric acid,
and calcified deposit in the body. For
rheumatism, gout, arthritis, sciatica.
Topically (leaves) for boils, abscess.
Arctium lappa
< ASTERACEAE/COMPOSITAE >
†– may cause allergic
reactions in sensitive
people to Asteraceae
family.
Young leaves - raw or cooked
Young stalks and branches - raw
or cooked (eaten like asparagus
or spinach).
The sprouted seed (can be used
like bean-sprouts).
Root - raw or cooked (very young
roots can be eaten raw, but
older ones are normally
cooked; may be dried for later
use).
• Carbohydrates (inulin, mucilage,
pectin, sugars).
• Protein, fats.
5.
*) antibiotic, diaphoretic, detoxifier,
alterative, blood tonic, orexigenic,
bitter, mild laxative, diuretic.
+) lymphatic, adaptogen, antiseptic,
anti-microbial.
-) anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, liver
tonic, choleretic, anti-rheumatic.
Seeds
-) anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, hypoglycemic.
[HD2, LG-ITIS]
[BAP, BHP, BK, CA, HD2, LO-PFF]
[BAP, BD, BHP, BK, BP1 BT, CA, CH, DHC,
HD2, MR, OP]
[BAP, BD, BHP, BK, BP1 BT, CA, CH, DHC, HD2, MR,
OP]
California Poppy
Leaves
Aerial parts [BK].
Whole plant [DHC].
Dried aerial parts [HD2].
NS- Regulates sleeping patterns. For
disturbed sleep, pains, neuralgias,
headaches, migraines, stress, nervous
bowel, depression, anxiety, childhood
neuropathies, anxiety, hyperactivity
(incl. children).
EENT/mouth- For toothaches.
GIT- For nervous bowel conditions, colic
(incl. children), gallbladder colic. €:
spastic colon, gallbladder conditions.
Ur- For enuresis, incontinence.
Skin- topically for sores and skin ulcers.
Eschscholzia californica
< PAPAVERACEAE >
Leaves (cooked).
*) sedative, hypnotic, anti-spasmodic,
analgesic
-) NS relaxant, anti-anxiety, bitter,
diaphoretic, anti-inflammatory,
diuretic.
†– This plant is in a family
that contains many
poisonous plants so some
caution is advised in using
it.
[LG-ITIS]
Infusion
[DHC]: 1 tsp/cup, 1 cup bid.
[HD2]: dried, 1–2 tsp/cup, infuse 10
min., 1 cup at bedtime for sleep.
[LO-PFF]
[BD, BK, BP1 BT, CA, DHC, HD2, MM1, TG1]
[BD, BK, BP1 BT, DHC, CA, HD2, MM1, TG1]
3
6.
Cleavers, Clivers,
Goosegrass
Galium aparine
< RUBIACEAE >
Young shoot, seeds.
• Young shoots – raw or cooked;
they have a bitter taste that some
may find unpalatable). They
make a useful addition to
vegetable soups[7, 244].
• Seeds – roasted, used as a coffee
substitute.
• whole dried herb – prepared as
decoction and drank as tea.
Aerial parts (dried; harvested when
flowering or fruiting [BHP]).
Whole plants, seeds
[BD]
.
*) tonic, anti-inflammatory, astringent,
strong diuretic.
+) lymphatic tonic, anti-tumor,
detoxifier, alterative, cooling,
hypotensive (↓BP), mild laxative.
-) adaptogen, anti-obesity, vulnerary,
deodorant.
Fresh juice
[BHP]: 3–15ml tid.
[BT]: 1–3 tsp tid; or ½–1 wineglass in
terminal cancer cases.
[HD2]: herb may be puree in a blender or
juiced, may be frozen into icecubes for later use; 5–15ml (BHC).
Infusion
[BT]: 1 tsp/cup, infuse 5–10min., ½–1
cup tid.
[HD2]: dried herb, 2–3 tsp/cup, infuse
10–15min., 1 cup tid.
[LG-ITIS]
7.
Comfrey, Knitbone
Symphytum officinale
S. uliginosum(NA)
< BORAGINACEAE >
1– contains small quantities of
a toxic alkaloid that may
have a cumulative effect
upon the liver. Largest
concentrations are found in
the roots.
Ø– Internal use of root.
Ø– with babies.
Ø– with liver disease, cancer,
alcoholism, lung edema.
Ø– On dirty wounds [CA].
Ø– On deep wounds, broken
skin, dirty wound.
[LO-PFF]
Imm- Lymphatic tonic, detoxifier. For
cancer/tumors (i.e. skin, breast; best as
juice), lymphadenitis, enlarged lymph
nodes, cysts, mononucleosis, glandular
swelling associated with TB. Topically,
for swollen lymph glands, breast lumps,
minor injuries.
GIT- For hepatitis, ulcers.
Rep- For prostate disorders, sore nipples.
Ur- For kidney stones, obstruction of Ur
organs (i.e. due to stone/gravel),
inflammation of kidneys and bladder,
dysuria, difficult urination, cystitis
Skin- For eczema, psoriasis, seborrhea, skin
cancer.
[BAP, BD, BHP, BK, BT, CA, DHC, HD2, MM1,
MR]
[BAP, BD, BHP, BK, BT, CA, DHC, HD2, MM1, MR]
Imm/Neop- For wasting disease, cancer.
GIT- Topically, for hemorrhoids.
Skin- Relieves pain and inflammations
from injuries. Topically, for acne,
psoriasis, eczema, sores, scars, bruises,
skin rashes, sprains, skin ulcers, varicose
ulcers, wounds (esp. root), athlete’s foot,
STD skin lesions, burns, skin tags, warts,
insect bites.
Mus-Sk- For rheumatic pain, arthritis, RA.
Topically, for sore muscles, bone
fractures (esp. root), sprains, bunions,
rickets, Paget’s disease, ligament tares,
tendonitis, damage and aching joints.
Young leaves, shoots, roots.
Leaves; root, rhizome (dried [BHP]).
Young leaves – cooked or raw (it
can be chopped up finely and
added to salads, in this way the
hairiness is not so obvious).
Dried leaves as tea.
Young shoots – can be used as an
asparagus substitute;
Root – the peeled roots added to
soups. The dried roots in tea.
*) anti-inflammatory (esp. leaf),
astringent (esp. root), antihemorrhagic, demulcent, vulnerary,
cell proliferant (esp. root).
+) expectorant, wound/tissue healer,
bone healer,
-) tonic, hemostatic, anti-rheumatic.
[LO-PFF]
[BAP, BD, BHP, BP1 BT, CA, CH, DHC, FH,
HA2, HD2, RZ, WKH]
Infusion:
[BT]: dried herb, 1 heaped tsp/cup, ½–1
cup tid, 8 weeks max.
[BHP]: root/rhizome, 2–4g tid).
Cold infusion:
[HD2]: root, 2 tsp/cup cold-water, let it
stand 6–8 hrs.1 cup tid).
†– Before flowering, can be
easily be mistaken for
foxglove with potentially
fatal consequences.
†– internal use is restricted in
Canada.
[BAP, BP, BT, FH, RZ, LG-IT IS, LOPFF, DHC]
[BAP, BD, BHP, BP1 BT, CA, CH, DHC, FH, HA2, HD2,
RZ, WKH]
4
8.
Dandelion, Lion’s Tooth
Taraxacum officinale
< ASTERACEAE/COMPOSITAE >
Ø– With obstructed bile ducts,
obstructed ileum.
Ø– With known allergy [BK].
Ø– With gallbladder empyema
[BAP, BGB].
Ø– With cholecystitis [BK];
gallstone [BP].
†– may cause allergic
dermatitis in sensitive
people [BAP, HD2].
†– may cause hyperacidity
(due to bitter principle) [BGB,
BP], and ulcer pain [BP].
9.
Flower, leave, root
• Leaves – raw/fresh or cooked
(fresh leaves in salad; the
younger leaves tend to be less
bitter; to flavor herbal beers and
soft drinks).
• Flowers – raw or cooked (they
can also be preserved in vinegar
and used like capers, for wine
making).
• Root – raw or cooked (to flavor
herbal beers and soft drinks;
grounded and roasted can be
used as coffee substitute).
• Vitamins A (esp. leaves), B’s, C,
D, carotenoids, choline.
• Mineral: potassium (esp. leaves),
calcium, magnesium,
phosphorus, iron, sodium.
• Fatty acids.
• Protein, carbohydrates
Leaves, root (dried; leaves harvested in
May, root in the fall [BHP, BT]. Root
harvested after 2 yrs [CA]).
Also, flowers [BD].
Infusion
[BT]: leaf, 3–4 tsp/cup, infuse 15 min.,
½–1 cup freely.
[HD2]: dried leaves, 1–2 tsp/cup, infuse
10–15 min., 1 cup tid.
Decoction
[BT]: root, 1 tsp/cup, simmer 15min.,
½–1 cup freely.
[HD2]: 2–3 tsp/cup, decoct 10–15min., 1
cup tid.
End- For hypoglycemia, DM.
Imm- For cachexia, or any wasting disease,
edema (esp. of heart origin), splenic
disorders, splenomegaly.
Adam Seller (herbalist): Fresh root as
emergency-aid for anaphylactic shock
(an aid while waiting for emergency
care, but not a substitute).
CVS/♥- For congestive heart failure, ↑BP,
anemia.
GIT- To restore hepatic and biliary normal
function. As preventative of gallstones.
For low appetite, anorexia nervosa,
indigestion, dyspepsia, bloating,
flatulence, liver and gallbladder
disorders, pancreatic problems, IBS,
constipation, hemorrhoids. €: heartburn
(root), tonic (leaves).
Rep- For PMS.
Ur- (esp. leaves) to promote diuresis. For
oliguria, cystitis (with anti-microbial).
As a preventative of renal gravel.
Skin- For chronic skin problems (as eczema,
acne, psoriasis). Topically, the fresh leaf
milky juice for warts.
Mus-Sk- For muscular/rheumatic problems,
osteoarthritis, gout.
*) mild laxative, bitter tonic, digestive,
choleretic, cholagogue, diuretic
(esp. leaves), anti-rheumatic.
+) tonic, detoxifier (esp. root),
orexigenic, liver tonic.
-) urinary antiseptic, deobstruent, antiinflammatory, alterative (esp.
leaves), nutritive (esp. leaves), anticholesterol, bile duct stimulant,
pancreatic regulator, pancreatic
stimulant, galactagogue, antieczema.
[BAP, BGB, BK, BP, HD2, LG-ITIS]
[BAP, BD, BGB, BHP, BK, BP1 BT, CA, CH,
DHC, HA2, HD2]
[BAP, BD, BGB, BHP, BK, BP1 BT, CA, CH,
DHC, HA2, HD2]
[BAP, BD, BGB, BHP, BK, BP1 BT, CA, DHC, HA2,
HD2]
Elder, Red Elder
Flower, fruit
None.
None.
Sambucus microbotrys
< CAPRIFOLIACEAE >
1– No specific reports found
Flowers - raw or cooked.
Fruit - raw or cooked (see
cautions).
on for this species,
however, the leaves and
stems of some, and possibly
all members of this genus
are poisonous.
Note – The related specie Sambucus
nigra (European Black elder) is
used medicinally.
†– The fruit of many species
can cause stomach upsets in
some people. Yet, any toxin
the fruit might contain is
probably of low toxicity
and is destroyed when the
fruit is cooked
[LG-ITIS, HF, MP, RD1, RD2, LO-PFF]
10. Fireweed, Willow herb,
Rosebay willow-herb
Chamerion angustifolium
subsp. angustifolium
Chamaenerion
angustifolium(NA)
Epilobium
angustifolium(NA)
[LO-PFF]
[HF, MP, RD1, RD2, LO-PFF]
[HF, MP, RD1, RD2, LO-PFF]
None found.
Aerial parts.
Native also use: also, root, rhizome.
NS- For narcolepsy, myasthenia gravis.
Imm- As a spring tonic. For candidiasis.
EENT/mouth- For mouth ulcers, sore throat.
Rs- For coughs, whooping coughs, asthma
(decoction of aerial parts).
GIT- As spring tonic (infusion). For weak or
upset stomach, dysentery, constipation,
diarrhea, colitis, IBS, diverticulosis.
Rep- For yeast infections.
Ur- For cystitis, irritable bladder. For
prostate problems [LO-PFF]. €: dysuria in
men.
Skin- Topically, for infantile eczema,
contact dermatitis, skin irritations, minor
cuts, boils, abrasions, burns and
sunburns, swellings, insect bites. €:
topically, for swelling, boils (root),
bruises or slivers (leaf).
None found.
• Nutrients (young leaves and
shoots, Vit. A, C, beta-carotene)
[TG1].
< ONAGRACEAE >
*) anti-inflammatory, astringent,
demulcent.
+) general tonic, laxative, emollient,
anti-spasmodic,
-) hypnotic, mild anti-microbial,
hemostatic, anti-diarrheal, diuretic
(leaves), vulnerary.
Infusion:
[BT]: dried leaves/flowers, 2tsp/cup; ½
cup tid).
Decoction:
[BT]: rhizome, 1 tsp/cup, simmer 15
min; ½ cup tid.
[LG-ITIS]
[TG1]
[BT, FH, GM, MM1, TG1, TG2, LO-PFF]
[BT, FH, GM, MM1, TG1, TG2, LO-PFF]
5
11. Fox Glove
Digitalis purpurea
None reported.
Leaves
< SCROPHULARIACEAE >
Cardioactive tonic, diuretic.
1– Poison in very small
†– Do not used.
†– Due to legal restriction, no
preparations are available.
amount (toxicity symptoms:
dizziness, vomiting,
irregular heartbeat, and
delirium or hallucinations,
cardiac arrhythmias,…
heart failure, death.).
CVS- A tonic for a diseased heart. The
cardiac glycosides strengthen the heart
contractions while slows/regulate the
heart rate without needing more oxygen.
It stimulates urine production, which
reduces the blood volume, helping
reduce the load on a sick heart.
†– Before flowering, can be
easily be mistaken for
comfrey.
[LG-ITIS, HF, MP, RD1, RD2, LO-PFF]
12. Herb Robert
Geranium robertianum
[LO-PFF]
[HF, MP, RD1, RD2, LO-PFF]
[HF, MP, RD1, RD2, LO-PFF]
None found.
Leaves [BT].
Imm- For internal & external hemorrhages.
For intermittent fever, tumor/cancer.
EENT/mouth- For nose-bleeding (snuffed
powder [BT]). Topically, for gums,
mouth, and throat inflammations, ulcers.
GIT- For GIT infections, gastroenteritis,
peptic ulcers, diarrhea (incl. children),
dysentery, IBS, colitis, GIT bleedings,
jaundice. Topically, for hemorrhoids.
Rep- Topically, for swollen breasts.
Skin- Topically, for skin ulcers, skin
eruptions, bruises, bleeding wounds,
hemorrhages.
Mus-Sk- Topically, for rheumatism, gout,
inflammation, pain.
*) astringent, anti-hemorrhagic,
vulnerary.
+) mild diuretic.
-) anti-diabetic, anti-hemorrhagic,
hemostatic, bitter, anti-diarrheal,
anti-rheumatic.
< GERANIACEAE >
Infusion
[BT]: herb, 1 oz/pint water, infuse 15
min., ½–1 cup freely.
[LG-ITIS]
13. Holly, English Holly
Ilex aquifolium
< AQUIFOLIACEAE >
Ø– Fruit and possibly other
[LO-PFF]
Fruit, leaves.
Leaves, fruit, root.
Fruit – roasted has been used as
coffee substitute
Leaves – as tea
-) tonic, astringent, anti-pyretic,
diaphoretic, emetic (fruit), cathartic
(fruit), diuretic (root).
parts of the plant are toxic
(due to presence of
saponins) causing diarrhea,
vomiting. However, toxicity
levels are normally with
large doses.
†– Fruit can be purgative and
emetic.
[LG-IT IS, LO-PFF]
[BD, BT, CA, LJB, LO-PFF, LC-HH]
[BD, BT, CA, LJB, LO-PFF, LC-HH]
Imm- For intermittent fevers.
Rs- catarrh, pleurisy
GIT- For jaundice (juice).
Mus-Sk- For rheumatism.
†– Fruit only used under the
supervision of a Health
Practitioner.
[LO-PFF]
[LO-PFF]
[LO-PFF]
6
14. Horsetail, Butterbrush
Equisetum arvense
< EQUISETACEAE >
1– Large quantities of the
plant can be toxic. It
contains the enzyme
thiaminase, a substance that
can rob the body of the
vitamin B complex.
Ø– Children under 2.
Ø– If edema from cardiac
origin [BK].
Ø– With prostate cancer.
Ø– Avoid powdered herb in
children [BGB].
†– Under the supervision of a
Health Practitioner with
high BP or heart disease; or
if using longer than 6
weeks.
†– Short-term: up to 6 weeks.
†– Long term may cause
kidney and/or heart damage
Young strobile, leaf sheaths, root.
• Strobile (the fertile young shoots
in spring) – cooked and used as
an asparagus substitute (best to
change the water, perhaps 3 - 4
times).
• Leaf sheaths – were peeled off
and the stems eaten raw.
• Roots – raw (native used; the
tuberous growths on the
rhizomes, and the black nodules
attached to the roots).
• Minerals: silica in the form of
Silicic acid & silicates. Also,
potassium, aluminum, magnesium
[BP1 CA].
Sterile stem (dried [BHP, BT]).
Stem (dried [DHC, HD2]).
Aerial parts [CA].
*) mild leukocytosis agent, astringent
(genito-urinary [BHP]), antihemorrhagic, hemostatic, diuretic,
vulnerary.
-) immuno stimulant, WBC stimulant,
anti-inflammatory, anti-atheroma,
connective tissue healer, antirheumatic
Infusion
[HD2]: 2 tsp/cup, infuse 15–20min., 1
cup tid).
Decoction
[BT]: ½–1 tsp/cup, bring to boil, simmer
5 min., infused 30 min., ½–1 cup,
cold).
[BP].
†– may cause dermatitis with
high cholesterol diets.
[BK, BP, CALG-ITIS, LO-PFF]
15. Huckleberry,
Red Huckleberry
Vaccinium parvifolium
< ERICACEAE >
LG-ITIS
16. Lily of the Valley,
May Lily
Convallaria majalis
< LILIACEAE >
[BP1, CA, LO-PFF]
[BD, BGB, BHP, BK, BP1 BT, CA, HA2, HD2,
MR, OP]
Fruit, leaves.
Leaves
Fruit – raw, cooked, dried (used in
making jams, pies, jellies etc.;
or dried for later use).
Leaves – a tea is made from the
dried leaves.
-) antiseptic, astringent, carminative,
hypoglycemic.
[LO-PFF]
[LO-PFF]
[LO-PFF]
Flower
Flower.
Leaves (dried [BHP, BT]).
Whole plant when flowering [GM].
Lymph- For edema associated with heart
disease (helps drain excess fluids
without depletion of potassium)
Rs- Restores regular deep breathing. For
SOB associated with heart diseases,
emphysema.
CVS/♥- For palpitations, arrhythmias,
painful and silent ischaemia,
bradycardia, cardiac weakness, cardiac
irregularities due to mechanical
impairment (i.e. valvular regurgitation,
stenosis); ventricular hypertrophy, left
ventricular failure, cor-pulmonale,
congestive heart failure, endocarditis,
renal hypertension, feeble circulation,
↑BP. For arteriosclerosis with angina [BD].
Ur- For renal hypertension.
Flower – A wine can be prepared
from the flowers, mixed with
raisins
1– Berries are poisonous.
1– All parts are poisonous [BD].
1– Toxicity symptoms:
*) cardio active tonic, cardio active
stimulant, diuretic.
-) bitter, mild gastric tonic, laxative,
anti-spasmodic.
supervision.
†– Use only under the
professional supervision.
[LO-PFF]
[BD, BGB, BHP, BK, BP, BT, CA, HA2, HD2, MR, OP]
Imm- for colds
Decoction
†– Use only under the professional
tremor, vomiting,
confusion, ↑BP, cardiac
arrhythmias,… death.
[BD, BHP, BT, CA, DHC, GM, HD1,
LJB, MR, LG-ITIS, LO-PFF]
Imm- For uterus cancer [BT]. To detox
heavy-metals (i.e. lead) [DHC].
EENT/mouth- Strengthens teeth. For nosebleeding (juice applied with cotton swab
[OP]); mouth and gum infections, throat
inflammation.
Rs- To promote repair of lung tissue. For
coughing blood, emphysema, chest
problems.
CVS- For arteriosclerosis, hemorrhoids.
GIT- For hematemesis, hemorrhage,
hemorrhoids.
Rep- For prostate issues, uterus cancer,
gonorrhea. For menorrhagia.
Ur- Strengthens & tones the genito-urinary
system. To promote renal function. For
lower urinary tract inflammations or
infections, blood in the urine,
incontinence, frequency, enuresis,
urinary catarrh, renal colic, kidney
stones/gravel, strictures.
Skin- Promotes growth of healthy skin, hair,
and nails. Topically, for poor healing
wounds, eczema, skin ulcers.
Mus-Sk- Promotes repair of damaged
connective tissue and healthy growth of
bones. Promotes removal of uric acid.
For cellulites, rheumatism, arthritis,
bursitis. Topically (bath) for sprains,
fractures.
[BD, BHP, BT, CA, DHC, GM, HD1, LJB, MR]
[BD, BHP, BT, CA, DHC, GM, HD1, LJB, MR]
7
17. Maidenhair Fern
Adiantum capillusveneris
< POLYPODIACEAE >
†– Specie potentially at risk
[LO-UPSO].
[LG-IT IS, LO-UPSO]
18. Mountain Ash,
American Mountain Ash
Sorbus americana
Sorbus aucuparia
< ROSACEA >
†– large quantities of the raw
fruit can cause stomach
upsets or vomiting.
†– seeds are toxic (remove
Plant, fronds.
Aerial parts
The fronds – used as a garnish on
sweet dishes. Dried fronds used
in tea.
The plant – used to make a syrup
which then is used to make a
refreshing summer drink.
-) tonic, vermifuge, refrigerant,
depurative, antitussive,
expectorant, galactagogue,
emmenagogue, emollient, antidandruff.
Imm- As a detoxifier in alcoholism.
EENT/mouth- For chronic nasal congestion,
sore throat.
Rs- For coughs, bronchitis.
GIT- For worms.
Skin- Topically, for snake bites, bee stings
[LO-PFF]
[CA, LO-PFF]
[CA, LO-PFF]
Flower, fruit, leaves.
Fruit [CA, LO-PFF].
Bark, Flower [LO-PFF].
EENT/mouth- Topically, for sore throat
(gargle).
GIT- For diarrhea, hemorrhoids Topically,
for hemorrhoids.
Rep- For excessive vaginal discharge
(wash), dysmenorrhea.
Fruit – raw, cooked, dried (used to
make jams and preserves; dried
can be used as a flour mixed
with cereals).
Leaves and flowers – used as a tea
substitute.
• Vitamins C
• Sugars
+) astringent
-) anti-ascorbic, aperient, mildly
diuretic, laxative and
emmenagogue
Infusion (fruit, flowers)
Jam (fruit)
them before using fruit). In
small quantities this acts as
a stimulant to the
respiratory system but in
larger doses can cause
respiratory failure and
death.
[CA, LG-ITIS, LO-PFF]
19. Mullein
Verbascum thapsus
[V. densiflorum]
[V. phlomoides]
[LO-PFF]
[CA, LO-PFF]
[CA, LO-PFF]
Flowers, leaves.
Leaves (dried [BHP, HD2]; harvested in the
summer [BHP]).
Stems (dried; harvested in the summer
[BHP]);
Flowers (dried [HD2]).
EENT- For hay-fever, tonsillitis, sore throat,
laryngitis. Topically, for earaches and
temporary deafness (infused oil). €:
Smoked for sore throat.
Rs- For coughs, colds/flus, catarrh/phlegm,
asthma, pleurisy, bronchitis (esp. with
hard cough and soreness), whooping
cough, emphysema, TB. €: Smoked for
asthma, sore throat; inhalation for
catarrh.
CVS- Topically (infused oil), for
hemorrhoids.
GIT- For GI conditions that needs soothing
such as diarrhea, ulcers. Topically
(infused oil), for hemorrhoids, anal
pain/itchiness.
Skin- Topically (infused oil) for inflamed
mucosa, wounds, skin ulcers. €:
Topically (poultice) for abscesses,
swellings, bruises, sores, cuts, wounds.
Mus-Sk- Topically (infused oil), for
rheumatic pain. €: for muscle/joint pain
(leaf-tea); topically (poultice), for
muscle aches, sprains.
Flowers – as tea (fresh or dried).
Dried leaves - as tea.
< SCROPHULARIACEAE >
*) expectorant, anti-spasmodic,
diuretic, vulnerary, demulcent.
+) analgesic, pectoral, antiinflammatory, emollient.
-) relaxant, mild sedative, antiseptic,
astringent, cooling, antitussive,
anti-catarrhal, bitter.
Ø– Avoid seeds (poisonous)
.
[BP]
Infusion:
[BT]: 2–3 tsp/cup, infuse 15 min.; ½–1
cup.
[HD2]: dried leaf/flower, 2 tsp/cup,
infuse 10–15 min.; 1 cup tid.
[LG-ITIS]
[LO-PFF]
[BD, BGB, BHP, BK, BP1 BT, CA, DHC, FH,
HA2, HD2]
[BD, BGB, BHP, BK, BP1 BT, CA, DHC, FH, HA2, HD2]
8
20. Nettle, Singing Nettle
Urtica dioica
< URTICACEAE >
Ø– With allergic to nettle
sting.
Ø– With edema due to heart or
kidney conditions [BP]
(only as part of irrigation
therapy [BGB]).
†– only use young leaves and
wear stout gloves when
harvesting them to prevent
being stung. Cooking the
leaves, or thoroughly
drying them, neutralizes the
sting.
†– Old leaves can be laxative.
†– may cause gastric
Young leaves or young shoots.
Young leaves, young shoots –
cooked as a potherb and added
to soups. They can also be dried
for winter use, including for tea.
The juice, or a decoction of the
herb, can be used as a rennet
substitute in curdling plant
milks. Nettle beer is brewed
from the young shoots.
• Vitamins A, B2, B5, C, K1, folic
acid, carotenoids.
• Minerals: calcium, potassium,
silicon, iron.
• Chlorophyll [BT].
• Dietary fiber, proteins [HD2].
• Amines (incl. acetylcholine,
betaine, choline, lecithin,
histamine, serotonin, a
glycoprotein).
Aerial parts (dried [BHP, BT]; harvested
when flowering [BHP]).
Root. Leaves [BK].
Leaves:
*) tonic, mild hypoglycemic,
astringent, anti-hemorrhagic,
detoxifier, diuretic.
+) anti-allergic, hemostatic,
hypotensive (↓BP), galactagogue
(amphoteric), anti-rheumatic.
-) antiseptic, splenic, expectorant,
pectoral, blood tonic, vasodilator,
circulatory stimulant, nutritive.
Root:
*) anti-prostatic
Infusion
[BT]: herb, 1 oz/pint water, infuse 15
min., 1 cup tid).
discomfort, skin reactions,
edema, oliguria.
†– Under professional
supervision with BPH.
[BAP, BGB, BK, BP, HD2, LG-ITIS, LOPFF]
21. Oregon Grape,
Mountain Grape
Mahonia aquifolium
Berberis aquifolium(NA)
< BERBERIDACEAE >
Ø– Pregnancy.
Ø– Jaundiced neonates.
†– Short term: 2-3 weeks at a
End- For hyperglycemia, DM.
Imm - Strengthens and supports the whole
body. As a spring tonic and to promote
detoxification. For fever, allergies,
splenic disorders.
Rs- For nose-bleeds, hay fever, asthma,
bronchial conditions.
CVS/blood- As a blood cleanser. For iron
deficiency anemia.
GIT- For weak digestion due to low HCL
acid, diarrhea, dysentery, bleedings; for
food allergies.
Ur- For lower urinary tract inflammatory
conditions.
Rep- For uterine hemorrhages, menorrhagia.
As an iron and Calcium supplement
during pregnancy. To promote milk in
nursing mothers.
Skin- For acne, skin eruption, eczema.
Mus-Sk- Internally/topically, for arthritic,
rheumatic conditions (esp.
degenerative).
Root:
Imm- For edema, allergic reactions.
Rep- For BPH, early stages of prostatitis,
low libido.
Ur- For dysuria, difficult urination and
nocturia (esp. associated with enlarged
prostate).
[LO-PPF, BAP, BGB, BK, BT, CA, DHC,
HD2]
[BAP, BD, BGB, BHP, BK, BT, CA, CH, DHC,
HA2, HD2]
[BAP, BD, BGB, BHP, BK, BT, CA, CH, DHC, HA2,
HD2]
Flower, fruit
Rhizome, root.
Fruit – raw, cooked, dried (raw can
be added to porridge or muesli;
cooked tastes like blackcurrant;
dried for later use.
Flowers – raw (to make a
lemonade-like drink).
*) anti-catarrhal, alterative, antiemetic, cholagogue, laxative.
+) anti-microbial, hepatic,
-) tonic, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory,
anti-diarrheal, diuretic, antipsoriatic.
EENT/mouth- Topically for ulcerated
gums, sore throat.
CVS/blood- As a blood cleanser.
GIT- For stomach conditions (esp. with
nausea, vomiting), anorexia, weak
digestion, gastritis, cholecystitis, liver
and gallbladder conditions, jaundice,
chronic constipation, diarrhea. €: bitter
tonic for loss of appetite.
Rep- For syphilis, leucorrhea.
Skin- For chronic skin conditions (esp.
scaly) such as acne, pimples, eczema,
psoriasis. Topically, for psoriasis, acne,
cold sores, boils, herpes.
Decoction
[BT]: ¼–½ tsp/cup; simmer 20 min., ½
cup tid.
[HD2]: 1–2 tsp/cup, bring to boil,
simmer 10–15 min., 1 cup tid).
time [BP].
†– When used for skinproblem and it is combined
with others alterative herbs,
it may aggravate condition
[DHC].
†– it may aggravate diarrhea,
or heartburn [BP].
†–
Leaves:
Specie potentially at risk
[LO-UPSO].
[LG-IT IS, LO-UPSO]
22. Oxyde daisy
Leucanthemum vulgare
< ASTERACEAE/COMPOSITAE >
[LO-PFF]
[BHP, BK, BP1 BT, CA, DHC, MR, HD1, HD2]
[BHP, BK, BP1 BT, CA, DHC, MR, HD1, HD2]
Leaves, root.
Whole plant, flower (harvested in May
and June then dried for later use).
Rs- For whooping cough, asthma and
NS- For nervous excitability
Skin- Topically, for bruises, wounds,
ulcers, chapped hands.
Leaves – raw or cooked (young
spring shoots are finely chopped
and added to salads.
Root – raw.
-) tonic, antispasmodic, antitussive,
diaphoretic, emmenagogue,
diuretic, vulnerary
Infusion
Decoction
[LG-IT IS, LO-UPSO]
[LO-PFF]
[LO-PFF]
[LO-PFF]
9
Plantain
Common Plantain,
23. Broadleaf Plantain,
Greater Plantain
Plantago major
24.
English Plantain,
Narrowleaf Plantain
Plantago lanceolata
< PLANTAGINACEAE >
Note: most of the literature
refers to P. major.
Young leaves, seeds
Young leaves – raw/fresh or
cooked (fibrous strands need to
be removed before use. They
may be blanched in boiling
water to make them more
tender. Dried leaves as tea).
Seed – raw or cooked (can be
ground into a meal and mixed
with flour).
• Minerals: zinc, potassium,
magnesium, phosphorus.
• (seed) rich in vitamin B1.
†– may cause contact
dermatitis [BAP].
†– in high dose may be
Leaves (dried; harvested when
flowering [BHP]).
Leaves, aerial parts [HD2].
Whole plant [BT, HA2].
*) astringent, anti-bacterial,
expectorant, anti-hemorrhagic,
diuretic, vulnerary.
+) antiseptic, demulcent, emollient.
-) anti-microbial, lymphatic, antiinflammatory, anti-allergic,
decongestant, anti-histaminic, anticatarrhal, alterative, blood tonic,
vasoconstrictor, antacid.
Infusion:
[BT]: dried leaf, 1-oz/pint, infuse 15
min., ½–1 cup tid (2-oz if fresh
leaves).
[HD2]: 1–2tsp/cup; 1 cup tid.
laxative [BAP].
†– Before flowering, leaves
may be confused with lilies
and hellebore, so best to
harvest when flowering for
proper identification [MM1].
[LG-ITIS]
25. Red clover
Trifolium pratense
[T. repens]
< FABACEAE/LEGUMINOSAE >
Ø– (controversial) in
pregnancy/lactation (due to
estrogenic effects and lack
of data).
OK in pregnancy and
lactation [BK].
No contraindications
reported; No adverse effects
expected within
recommended doses [BK].
Ø– (controversial) with
estrogenic dependent
cancer [DHC].
†– may cause urticaria in some
EENT/mouth- For hay fever, sinusitis,
rhinitis, pharyngeal mucosa
inflammations. Topically, for sore eyes
or inflammation, loss of voice, bleeding
gums, toothache, thrush (mouthwash).
Rs- Gentle and soothing expectorant. For
dry coughs, colds, asthma, chronic
bronchitis, URTI’s and catarrh/phlegm
congestion, chronic lung problems in
children.
CVS/blood- For high cholesterol, chronic
blood disorders. Topically, for
hemorrhoids (esp. if irritated or
bleeding), varicose ulcers.
GIT- Soothing to GIT (fresh leaves juice,
tea, chewed/eating). For acidity,
gastritis, diarrhea, dysentery, peptic
ulcers, IBS, internal bleedings (from
ulcers, hemorrhoids, etc).
Rep- For menorrhagia. Topically, for yeast
infection (douche).
Ur- For blood in the urine, cystitis, kidney,
bladder problems, bed-wetting.
Skin- Topically (fresh leaves, tea, juice,
tincture), for acne, psoriasis, eczema,
bruises, rashes, burns, skin ulcers, cuts,
bleedings, skin infections, irritations,
itchiness, insect bites, snake bytes. €:
for snake bites.
[BAP, BGB, CA, FH, HD2, LO-PFF]
[BAP, BD, BGB, BHP, BT, CA, DHC, FH, HA2,
HD2, MM1]
[BAP, BD, BGB, BHP, BT, CA, DHC, FH, HA2, HD2,
MM1]
Flower, leaves, root, sprouted
seeds.
Flower heads (dried [BHP]).
Imm- For debilitating or chronic diseases
*) mild expectorant, alterative, mild
anti-spasmodic.
+) anti-tumor, diuretic, dermatological
agent.
-) sedative, deobstruent, lymphatic
cleanser, anti-inflammatory,
cooling, phytoestrogenic.
as mono, hepatitis. As part of anticancer Rx. (esp. prostate, ovaries and
breast cancer; internal/topical). For TB
night sweats. As a blood cleanser.
Lymph- A lymphatic cleanser (esp. T.
repens).
EENT/mouth- Topically, for dried/irritated
throat, mouth ulcers.
Rs- For spasms, coughs, whooping cough,
bronchitis in children.
Rep- For menopause, hot flushes, vaginitis.
Skin- To reduce the wear and tear of tissues.
For chronic skin disease, sores, boils,
acne, eczema, psoriasis; dermatitis.
Mus-Sk- For gout, osteoporosis.
Flowers – fresh, dried (in salad,
tea; dried and ground into
flour).
Young leaves (before flowering) –
raw or cooked (i.e. salads,
soups, cooked as spinach; dried
and powdered use as
condiment).
Sprouted seed – (in salad).
Root – cooked.
Infusion:
[BT]: 1-oz/pint, infuse 15 min., 1 cup
tid.
[HD2]: 1–3 tsp/cup, infuse 10–15 min., 1
cup tid.
[BAP].
[LG-ITIS]
26. Salal, Shallon
Gaultheria shallon
< ERICACEA >
[LG-ITIS]
[LO-PFF]
[BAP, BD, BHP, BK, BT, CA, DHC, HA2, HD2,
HN]
[BAP, BD, BHP, BK, BT, CA, DHC, HA2, HD2, HN]
Fruit, leaves
Leaves.
Fruit – raw, cooked or dried (can
be made into preserves, pies,
drinks etc.; or be dried and used
like raisins
Leaves – as tea.
-) astringent, stomachic.
Rs- For coughs, TB.
GIT- As a stomach tonic. For diarrhea.
Skin- Topically, for cuts, burns, sores.
[LO-PFF]
[LO-PFF]
Infusion
Poultice
[LO-PFF]
10
27. Salmonberry
Rubus spectabilis
< ROSACEA >
[LG-ITIS]
28. Skunk Cabbage,
Yellow Skunk cabbage (YSK)
Symplocarpus foetidus
Dracontium foetidum(NA)
[Lysichitum americanum]
< ARACEAE >
1– Poisonous plant (must be
thoroughly cooked or else
they are poisonous).
Ø–with kidney problems [DJ2].
†– Fresh parts may cause
contact dermatitis,
inflammation and itchiness.
The YSK fresh root may
cause burning sensation on
mouth, tongue; nausea,
vomiting.
†– False Hellebore (Veratrum
viride) resembles skunk
cabbage, often grows sideby-side, is deadly
poisonous.
[FH, HD1, LG-ITIS, LG-GRIN, LOGBIF, LO-PFF, LO-MPS, LN-SKM]
29. St. John's Wort
Hypericum perforatum
< CLUSIACEAE/HYPERICACEAE
>
Fruit, flower, stems
Leaves, root, root bark.
Fruit - raw, cooked (i.e. jam, jelly)
or dried.
Flowers - raw.
Young shoots - peeled and eaten
raw or cooked like asparagus.
Leaves are used as a tea substitute.
-) analgesic, astringent, disinfectant,
stomachic.
[LO-PFF]
[LO-PFF]
Young flower stalks, young shoots,
root.
Root, rhizome (dried
Young shoots (YSK) – (cooked
otherwise they are poisonous,
with several changes of water,
the end result being a tasteless
mush).
Leaves (YSK) – can be dried then
powdered and used as a
thickening agent.
Older leaves have been used to
wrap up food that was being
baked.
Young flower stalks (YSK) –
cooked (cooked thoroughly or
else are poisonous).
Root (YSK) – cooked (thoroughly
cooked or dried before use,
otherwise it is poisonous).
Infusion.
Decoction.
[LO-PFF]
[BHP]
).
*) sedative, diaphoretic, expectorant,
diuretic, anti-spasmodic.
+) pungent, bitter.
-) mild narcotic, anti-pyretic,
antitussive.
Decoction:
[BHP]: ½–1g tid as a decoction. [HD2]:
root, ½ tsp/cup.
Infusion:
[HD2]: leaf, ½ tsp/cup.
Imm- Topically, for tumors (ointment).
CVS- To stop bleedings.
Rs- For irritable or dry coughs, asthma
(esp. bronchial asthma), bronchitis,
whooping cough. For TB, pleurisy [HA2].
For tightness of the chest [MR]. €: (YSK)
for coughs, asthma.
Skin- €: (YSK) topically (fresh, see
cautions), for sores, boils, fungal
infections, burns, splinters.
Mus-Sk- For rheumatic problems [CA]. €:
(YSK) for arthritis and low back pain
(steam bath).
• Minerals (iron; silica,
manganese).
[LO-PFF, MR]
[BAP, BD, BHP, BT, CA, DJ2, FH, HA2, HD1,
HD2, MR, LO-MPS, LN-MSK]
[BAP, BD, BHP, BT, CA, DJ2, FH, HA2, HD1, HD2,
MR, LO-MPS, LN-MSK]
Herb, fruit.
Aerial parts (dried; harvested during
early flowering or just before).
Flowers. Flowering tops [CA].
Leaves [BT].
NS- For mild/moderate depression (2-8
The herb and the fruit are
sometimes used as a tea
substitute
*) sedative, anti-depressant, analgesic
(topically), antiseptic (topically),
anti-viral, anti-inflammatory,
astringent, vulnerary.
+) NS tonic, NS t trophorestorative,
NS relaxant,
-) anti-microbial, expectorant,
alterative, cardiotonic, mild liver
tonic, choleretic, diuretic, antispasmodic.
Ø– With depressive state [BHP].
Ø– with all drugs.
Infusion:
[BT]: 1 heaped tsp/cup, infuse 15 min.,
½ cup tid.
[HD2]: dried, 1–2 tsp/cup, infuse 10–
15min., 1 cup tid.).
Infused oil:
[HA2]: bruised fresh flowers, macerate
for 10–14 d. under sunlight, filter,
add new bruised fresh flower.
[LG-ITIS, LG-GRIN]
GIT- For stomach complaints (root bark).
Skin- Topically, for wounds, burns, sores.
[LO-PFF]
[BAP, BD, BGB, BHP, BK, BP1 BT, CA, CH,
DHC, HA2, HD2]
weeks to see effects), anxiety, tension,
stress, SAD, insomnia, migraines,
irritability, hyperactivity, OCD,
hysteria, nervous irritability, CFS,
fibromyalgia, shingles, CTS, neuralgia,
sciatica/
Imm- For HIV/AIDS, herpes (oral/genital),
Lyme disease, cancer, radio-protective
effects. Topically (infused oil), for
tumors.
GIT- For dyspepsia, liver/gallbladder
problems, obesity. The infused oil,
internally, for IBS, Crohn’s disease. For
diarrhea, dysentery, worms [HA2].
Rep- For menstrual cramps, PMS,
menopausal nervousness. For irregular
menses [HA2]. Topically, for mastitis.
Skin- Topically, for inflammations, bruises,
wounds, burns, sunburns, cuts,
abrasions, skin infections, vitiligo, skin
cancer, myalgia.
Mus-Sk- Topically, for pains and
inflammations, wound, injuries (esp. if
nerve damage), spinal injuries, CTS,
neuralgia, sciatica, fibrositis, back pains.
[BAP, BD, BGB, BHP, BK, BP1 BT, CA, CH, DHC,
HA2, HD2]
11
30. Tansy
Tanacetum vulgare
< ASTERACEAE/COMPOSITAE
>
Leaves.
Aerial parts (dried [BHP]).
Young leaflets - raw or cooked (can
be added in small quantities to
salads; as tea).
*) anthelmintic, emmenagogue, antispasmodic.
+) carminative, abdominal viscera
stimulant, bitter.
-) tonic, stimulant, diaphoretic,
digestive, carminative.
1– The plant is poisonous.
Symptoms: convulsion,
miscarriage, abdominal
venous congestion,
vomiting,… coma ,death.
1– Toxicity may happen with
internal and external use.
Ø– in pregnancy and lactation.
[BAP, BD, HA2, CA, LG-ITIS, LO-PFF]
31. Thimbleberry
Rubus parviflorus
< ROSACEAE >
GIT- For intestinal worms (enema [BT]).
Topically, for anal itching (ointment).
Skin- Topically (strong tea, decoction,
lotion), for lice, fleas, scabies.
†– Use only under the professional
supervision.
[LO-PFF]
[BAP, BD, BHP, BT, CA, HA2, LJ]
[BAP, BD, BHP, BT, CA, HA2, LJ]
Fruit.
Leaves.
Fruit - raw or cooked (jams and
preserves. It can be dried for
later use).
Young shoots - peeled and eaten
cooked or raw (can be cooked
like asparagus).
Flowers - raw.
+) tonic, astringent.
-) blood tonic, orexigenic, anti-emetic,
stomachic
Imm- For swellings
CVS- To strengthen the blood. For anemia.
GIT- For spitting blood, vomiting,
indigestion, diarrhea, dysentery.
Rep- For prolong menstruation.
Skin- for wounds (reduce scaring), burns;
pimples/blackheads.
Infusion.
Decoction.
• Vitamins: C.
[LG-ITIS]
32. Vinca, Lesser Periwinkle.
Vinca minor
[V. major]
< APOCYNACEAE
[LO-PFF]
[HF, LO-PFF]]
[HF, LO-PFF]]
None.
Leaves.
Root [BT].
NS- For dementia.
EENT/mouth- For nosebleeds,
gingivitis, cankers sores, mouth ulcers,
sore throat.
CVS- For arteriosclerosis.
GIT- For chronic dyspepsia, flatulence,
internal bleeding.
Rep- For metrorrhagia.
Skin- Topically, for wound.
+) astringent,
-) sedative, blood tonic, hemostatic,
circulatory stimulant, bitter
(leaves), anti-spasmodic (root),
hypotensive (root).
>
1– Large quantities of the
plant are poisonous
Ø- Pregnancy, brain tumor.
Infusion:
[BT]: 1 oz dried herb per 1 pint boiling
water; infuse 15 minutes; ½ - 1 cup
tid.
†– Avoid in constipation.
†– If eaten, may cause stomach
upset
[BT, CA, LG-ITIS]
33. Yellow Dock,
Curled Dock
Rumex crispus
< POLYGONACEAE >
[LO-PFF]
[BT, CA, LO-PFF]
Young leaves, stem, seeds.
Root (dried
[BT, CA, LO-PFF]
).
-
Young leaves - raw or cooked, or
dried (leaves can be added to
salads, cooked as a potherb or
added to soups).
Stems - raw or cooked.
Seed - raw or cooked (can be
ground into a powder and used
as a flour. The roasted seed has
been used as a coffee substitute.
Vitamins: A, C
Minerals: iron.
[LG-ITIS]
[BHP]
[BT, MR, LO-PFF]
*) tonic, astringent, detoxifier,
alterative, cholagogue, laxative.
+) cathartic.
-) lymphatic, anti-scorbutic, cooling,
bitter, hepatic.
Decoction:
[BT]: ½ oz/pint water, simmer 20 min.,
½–1 cup tid.
[HD2]: 1–2 tsp/cup, simmer 10–15 min.,
1 cup tid).
Imm - For lymphatic enlargement, spleen
problems, cancer.
CVS/blood- To purify the blood. For
anemia.
GIT- For indigestion, sluggish digestion,
flatulence, liver problems, obstructive
jaundice, constipation.
Rep- For menstrual pain associated with
constipation.
Skin- For chronic skin conditions (i.e.
psoriasis, eczema, acne), dry/itchy skin
eruption, itchy skin, boils, fungal
infections. Topically, for skin disorders,
itchy skin.
Mus-Sk- For rheumatism, arthritis,
osteoarthritis.
[BAP, BD, BHP, BK, BT, CA, HA2, HD2, LJB, MR]
12
References:
BAP
“Herbal Medicines.” 2nd Edition; by Joanne Barnes, Linda Anderson, &, J David Phillipson
BD
“New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses.” by Deni Bown – Dorling Kindersley, 2001.
BGB
“Herbal Medicine – Expanded Commission E Monograph.” by Blumenthal, Goldberg, & Brinckmann
BHP
“British Herbal Pharmacopoeia” by British Herbal Medicine Association
BK
“A Clinical Guide to Blending liquid herbs.” by Kerry Bone
BP1
“Prescription for Herbal Healing.” Fourth Edition, by By Phyllis A. Balch
BT
“Bartram’s Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine.” by Thomas Bartram
CA
“The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants.” by Andrew Chevallier
CH
“Herbal–Drug Interactions” Capital Health, 2001
CM
“The Healing Herbs” by Michael Castleman
DHC
Dominion Herbal College – Materia Medica Class Notes; by Pinky Mattu, Rob McDonald, Armand Ayaltin
DJ2
“The Green Pharmacy Herbal Handbook.” By Duke, James.
FH
“Western Medicinal Plants and Herbs” by Steven Foster and Christopher Hobbs
GE
“Ethnobotay of Western Washington – The Knowledge and use of Indigenous Plants by Native Americans” by Erna Gunther
GM
“A Modern Herbal” by Mrs. M. Grieve.
HA2
“Indian Herbalogy of North America” by Alma R. Hutchens.
HD1
“Holistic Herbal” by David Hoffmann .
HD2
“Medical Herbalism, The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine” by David Hoffmann.
HN
“The Natural Pharmacy” 3rd Edition, Health Notes Medical Team.
LJ
“The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils” by Julia Lawless – Element, 1995.
LJB
“The Herb Book” by John B. Lust – Benedict Lust Publications, 1974.
MB
“The Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy.” by Simon Mills & Kerry Bone – Churchill Livingstone, 2000.
MM1
“Medicinal Plants of the Mountain West” by Michael Moore – Museum of New Mexico Press, 2003
MR
“The New Age Herbalist” by Richard Mabey – Simon & Schuster Inc, 1988.
OM
“Native Medicine Plants” by Maurice L.B. Oates jr.; Zone Conference Research.
OP
“Complete Guide to Medicinal Plants.” by Penelope Ody – Dorling Kindersley, 2000.
PM
“Plants of Coastal British Columbia” Compiled/edited by Jim Pojar, Andy macKinnon – Lone Pine Publishing, 1994.
RZ
“Evidence-based Herbal Medicine” by Michael Rotblatt, Irwin Ziment – Hanley & Belfus Inc. 2002
TG1
“Edible and medicinal Plants of the West” by Gregory L. Tilford – Mountain Press Publishing Company, 1997
TG2
“From Earth to herbalist” by Gregory L. Tilford – Mountain Press Publishing Company, 1998
WKH
“Guide to Popular Natural Products” 3rd Edition, Wolters Kluwer Health – Facts and Comparisons, 2003.
RD1
“Magic and Medicine of Plants.” Reader’s Digest General Books, 1986.
RD2
“North American Folk Healing.” Reader’s Digest Association, 1998.
MP
"Plants of Coastal British Columbia, including Washington, Oregon and Alaska" by Pojar & Mackinnon
Note: ordered alphabetically by reference-tag (name tags are generally form by last-first name of authors, editor, or publisher).
WEB Link Reference:
LG-ITIS
Integrated Taxonomic Information System: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt
LO-GBIF
United States Department of Agriculture – Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)
http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxgenform.pl
The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF): http://data.gbif.org/species/
LC-HH
Henriette’s Herbal: http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/kings/sabbatia.html
LO-PFF
Plants For A Future – Database (UK database): http://www.pfaf.org/database/plants.php
LG-GRIN
LE-ML3
LN-MSK
LO-MPS
LO-UPSO
Oulu University article: “STUDIES ON THE LICHEN GENUS USNEA IN EAST FENNOSCANDIA AND PASIFIC NORTH
AMERICA”
http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514255240/isbn9514255240.pdf
“Skunk Cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus)” Article by "Wildman" Steve Brill
http://www.econetwork.net/~wildmansteve/Plants.Folder/Skunk%20Cabbage.html
The Maryland Native Plant Society: http://www.mdflora.org/
United Plant Savers Organization: http://unitedplantsavers.org/
13
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