FISIOPATOLOGÍA de la REPRODUCCIÓN

RECOPILACIÓN y TRANSCRIPCIÓN de RESÚMENES
de TRABAJOS PUBLICADOS en REVISTAS INTERNACIONALES
correspondientes a parte de la bibliografía recomendada a los alumnos de
FISIOPATOLOGÍA de la REPRODUCCIÓN
por su profesor titular Juan María Ulberich
PARTE I
Relacionada con los distintos capítulos del LIBRO de
"Fisiopatología de la Reproducción"
PARTE I I
En relación con el "ANEXO"
al libro de "Fisiopatología de la Reproducción"
1
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
PARTE I
Relacionada con los distintos capítulos del
libro de "Fisiopatología de la Reproducción"
CAPÍTULO I
INFERTILIDAD - INFECUNDIDAD - ESTERILIDAD
DHALIWAL, G.S.; MURRAY, R.D.; DOBSON, H.
"Effects of milk yield, and calving to first service interval, in determining herd fertility
in dairy cows",
"Animal Reproduction Science","FEB1996","41","2","109-117",
"H. Dobson/Univ Liverpool/Dept Vet Clin Sci & Anim Husb/Wirral L64 7TE/Merseyside,
England"
"Fertility and 305-day milk yield data, comprising 3527 lactation records over a period
of 2 to 8 years from eight dairy herds, were used to assess the interrelationship between
different calving to first service (C-S) intervals and levels of production. Lactatingcows were
placed into low and high yielding groups with due consideration to parity. Fertility parameters
such as first service to conception (S-C) interval, calving to conception (C-C) interval and
serves per conception for cows conceiving (S/C) were significantly lower (P < 0.001) for low
yielding cows than high yielding animals. Low yielding cows had higher first service
conception rate (FSCR) and overall conception rate (OCR).%Overall, the high yielding cows
conceived 19 days later after calving than low yielding herd- mates and required 0.27 extra
inseminations per conception. The differences were even greater for those cows inseminated
within 80 days of calving, i.e. approximately 25 days longer from calving to conception with
0.42 extra inseminations needed for the high yielding cows. With the increase of C-S interval,
the FSCR of low yielding cows increased steadily while there was a sudden step-wise
increase in high yielding animals; the differences were highly significant (P < 0.001) for the
cows served within 60 days of calving but were more consistent for the matings after 100
days. Within high and low yielding groups, the probability of conceiving to each successive
service did not differ significantly.%To conclude, the inherent genetic potential of milk
production of individual cows may lower their fertility."
GELLERMANN, G.; HOPPE, H.; AURICH, C.
"Factors influencing fertility in the horse"
"Praktische Tierarzt","APR 1 1996","77","4","320"
"G. Gellermann/Tierarztl Klin Pferde/Kurzenmoor 13/D-25370 Seester, Germany"
"In this study fertility on a large stud farm between 1945 and 1988 was evaluated and
factors influencing fertility in the horse are discussed. During the period of investigation, a
total of 2672 mares were bred, resulting in 2050 pregnancies (77 per cent) and 1893 foals
born (71 per cent). Under stud farm conditions, the anovulatory season in warmblood mares
usually is restricted to only a few weeks and prolongation of the breeding season can
contribute to improved annual fertility rates. No obvious decrease in fertility with increasing
age of the mares was found, indicating that reduced fertility in old mares can be compensated
2
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
to a certain degree by management and veterinary intervention. The incidence of foal losses
due to infectious diseases could be markedly reduced, when new therapeutic approaches
became available in the early sixties. In a total of 36 cases (1,8 percent of all foalings) twins
were born, however only 9 twin foals survived the neonatal period. Fertility also differed
markedly between stallions. For breeders it would therefore be help ful if information on the
fertility of individual stallions would be available."
HEUWIESER, W.; MANSFELD, R.; FOOTE, R.H.
"Effect of GnRH treatment on fertility of dairy cows with special regard to body
condition score"
"Praktische Tierarzt","OCT 1 1995", "76","10","886"
"W. Heuwieser/Free Univ Berlin/FB Vet Med/Tierklin Fortpflanzung/Konigsweg 63/D-14163
Berlin,Germany"
"The objective of this study was to determine the effect of GnRH treatment in dairy
cows differing in body condition score. A total of 2437 primiparous and multiparous cows
was allocated randomly to receive either GnRH (100 mu g) or placebo at the post partum
exam (25 to 35 d) and at the first breeding. Complete records were available from 1906 cows:
Group 1 (n = 535) placebo and placebo;Group 2 (n = 489) GnRH and placebo; group 3 (n =
438) placebo and GnRH; and Group 4 (n = 444) GnRH and GnRH. The change of body
condition score during early lactation was determined on a 1 to5 scale (1 = emaciated to 5 =
obese). Cows with a high body condition score (3.0) at the first breeding had 8.8 fewer days
to first service and 6.4 fewer days open but more services per conception (0.16) than cows
with low body condition score (< 3.0). Conception rate improved when GnRH was
administered at the first breeding to cows with a body condition score of < 3.0 at the first
breeding regardless of parity. The administration of GnRH at the post partum exam decreased
the conception rate in first lactation cows but was beneficial for cows in second and greater
lactations. Thus the efficacy of GnRH was not consistent in all parities and body condition
groups."
MACMILLAN, K.L.; LEAN, I.J.; WESTWOOD, C.T.
"The effects of lactation on the fertility of dairy cows"
"Australian Veterinary Journal","APR 1996","73","4","141-147"
"K.L. Macmillan/Dairying Res Corp/Private Bag 3123/Hamilton, New Zealand"
"Lactation has been negatively associated with fertility because pregnancy rates in
maiden heifers exceed those obtained after first or subsequent calvings. The extent of this
difference is less in pasture-fed dairy cows (< 10%) than in American Holsteins (> 20%) fed
grain and conserved forages. The latter cows have pregnancy rates to first insemination and
oestrus detection rates of only 40 to 45%. This suggests that the subsequent fertility of
inherently fertile Holstein heifers may be severely compromised by high levels of milk
production. International comparisons show that pasture-fed dairy cows may experience
extended periods of anovulatory anoestrum but have normal fertility (60% pregnancy rate to
first insemination) once cycling, The high-producing American Holstein may ovulate within 4
weeks postpartum but is more likely to continue ovulating without being detected in
oestrus.%Both situations are associated with negative energy balances (NEB) during early
lactation. The severity and duration of this NEB may vary with body condition at calving, age
or parity, ration formulation, production level and environmental factors. Relative daily milk
yield is not an absolute indicator of NEB, because some lower producing cows within a herd
have lower feed intakes and more severe energy deficits. NEB is not simple to measure;
nonetheless, it is correlated with genetic improvement for milk yield.%A positive energy
3
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
balance, greater weight gain and higher body condition score have all been shown to be
positively correlated with plasma progesterone concentrations in early lactation. No studies
have investigated the possibility that the rapid increase in metabolic rate at this time may also
alter steroid concentrations with consequent effects on oestrous behaviour and
fertility.%Studies to more precisely define the effects of increasing milk yields in early
lactation, especially in Holsteins, may need to be completed in Australia and New Zealand.
Oestrus detection rates and pregnancy rates for American Holsteins of less than 50% are
accepted widely in the USA. Such low detection rates confound studies on fertility. The
objective should be to increase these 2 rates to at least 80% and 60% respectively. This may
involve the use of controlled breeding, especially if oestrous behaviour is less overt in
high-producing Holstein cows."
PLATEN, M.; MUNNICH, A.; LINDEMANN, E.; KROCKER, M.
"Fertility and milk production in high yielding dairy cows"
"Tierarztliche Umschau","DEC 1995","50","12","815"
"M.
Platen/Humboldt
Univ
Berlin/Inst
Angew
Nutztierwissensch/Fg
Tierhaltungssyst/Philippstr 13/D-10115 Berlin, Germany",
"The inter-relationship between milk production and fertility was examined in a dairy
herd with art average of 10,071 litres per lactation. The variability in fertility and milk yield
which is influenced by environmental factors are discussed. Regression coefficients indicated
that the reproductive status of high yielding factors was independent of the variation in milk
yield factors. The competition between milk yield and fertility is the product of physiological
factors and not genotype. A milk yield of 8,400 litres per lactation is the point at which this
physiological competition begins. The relatively high milk yield and fertility status of
approximately one third of the herd indicated that individual animals which are capable of the
necessary adaptation can achieve this. The best milk yield together with art acceptably
fertility status was observed in animals with a high quotient of protein- to- fed in the milk."
SENATORE, E.M.; BUTLER, W.R.; OLTENACU, P.A.
"Relationships between energy balance and post-partum ovarian activity and fertility in
first lactation dairy cows"
"Animal Science","FEB 1996","62"," Part 1","17-23"
"E.M. Senatore/Univ Milan/Ist Alimentazione Anim/Milan, Italy"
"Forty primiparous Holstein dairy cows were monitored from calving through 100
days in milk to evaluate the effect of energy balance in the early post-partum period on
subsequent fertility. The post-partum interval to first ovulation (R(2) = 0 . 41; P < 0 . 005)
was lengthened by greater negative energy balance, and reduced by greater body Weight at
parturition or decreased body-Weight loss during the experimental period. Luteal activity
(R(2) = 0 . 58; P < 0 . 0001), measured by plasma progesterone area under curve, was
increased in the first cycle post partum by a shorter interval to first ovulation, improved
energy balance during the 1st week of lactation and by decreased body-weight loss.
Pregnancy status following first artificial insemination was related positively to the number of
ovulations before insemination, improved energy balance during the 1st month post partum,
fewer days to first ovulation and greater body weight at calving. These data suggest that
energy balance and body weight are important in determining the post-partum interval to first
ovulation and the subsequent fertility of first lactation dairy cows."
4
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
THATCHER, W.W.; DELASOTA, R.L.; SCHMITT, E.J.P.; DIAZ, T.C.; BADINGA, L.;
SIMMEN, F.A.; STAPLES, C.R.; DROST, M.
"Control and management of ovarian follicles in cattle to optimize fertility"
"Reproduction Fertility and Development"," 1996","8","2","203-217"
"W.W. Thatcher/Univ Florida/Dept Dairy & Poultry Sci/Gainesville, FL 32611 USA"
"Experiments were designed to elucidate the control of ovarian follicle turnover and
the impact of follicular dynamics on the subsequent fertility of dairy cattle. An experimental
model was established to examine the interrelationships of gene expression for steroid
enzymes, the insulin- like growth factor system and inhibin production as associated with
follicle selection, dominance and atresia, Follicular dynamics during the postpartum period
and the oestrous cycle are shown to be altered markedly by the metabolic demands of
lactation. The feeding of ruminally- inert fat stimulated follicular development and improved
reproductive performance. The development of persistent follicles during oestrus
synchronization causes a reduction in fertility that can be corrected by recruitment and
selection of a new ovulatory follicle after the injection of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone
agonist. Present systems of oestrus synchronization need to consider both synchronization of
follicular development and corpus luteal regression in order to optimize fertility. With current
systems manipulating follicle development, the potential to implement a timed insemination
programme to improve reproductive management exists. Ovulation of the first-wave dominant
follicle with human chorionic gonadotrophin provides a means to markedly enhance
concentrations of plasma progesterone in the luteal phase."
CAPÍTULO I I
TRASTORNOS FUNCIONALES de INFERTILIDAD o de ESTERILIDAD en la
HEMBRA
ADAMS, N.R.
"Detection of the effects of PHYTOESTROGENS on sheep and cattle"
"Journal of Animal Science 73: 5 (MAY 1995) Page(s) 1509-1515."
"N.R. Adams, CSIRO, Div Anim Prod, Wembly, Wa 6014, Australia."
"Cows and ewes fed estrogenic forage may suffer impaired ovarian function, often
accompanied by reduced conception rates and increased embryonic loss. Males are relatively
unaffected, but the mammary glands in females and castrate males may undergo hypertrophy
of the duct epithelium, accompanied by secretion of clear or milky fluid. In cows, clinical
signs resemble those associated with cystic ovaries. The infertility is temporary, normally
resolving within 1 mo after removal from the estrogenic feed. However, ewes exposed to
estrogen for prolonged periods may suffer a second form of infertility that is permanent,
caused by developmental actions of estrogen during adult life. The cervix becomes
defeminized and loses its ability to store spermatozoa, so conception rates are reduced,
although ovarian functio n remains normal. Importantly, both temporary and permanent
infertility in ewes often occur without observable signs and can be detected only by
measurement of phytoestrogens in the diet, or measurement of their effects on the animal.
Low background concentrations of dietary phytoestrogens are suggested to play an important
role in prevention of disease in humans and laboratory rats, but subclinical effects of
phytoestrogens in cattle have not yet been described. Effects of low concentrations of
phytoestrogens on reproductive function in ruminants are likely to receive increasing
attention."
5
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
BORROMEO, V.; BRAMANI, S.; BERRINI, A.; SIRONI, G.; FINAZZI, M.; CREMONESI,
F.; SECCHI, C.
"Growth hormone but not prolactin concentrations in the fluid of bovine ovarian cysts
are related to the cystic stage of luteinization"
"Theriogenology","AUG 1996","46","3","481-489"
"C. Secchi/Univ Milan/Inst Vet Physiol & Biochem/Via Celoria 10/I-20133 Milan, Italy"
"Regulation of follicular growth and ovulation as well as steroid production by the
ovary depends principally on gonadotropins. However nonsteroid systemic hormones and
autocrine and paracrine factors contribute to the regulation of ovarian function. The objectives
of the present work were 1) to asses the presence of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin
(PRL) in fluid drawn from normal bovine ovarian follicles, cysts or cystic corpora lutea; 2) to
relate the stage of luteinization of the cyst with the GH and PRL concentrations in fluids; and
3) to asses the feasibility of providing a defined nonsteroid hormone marker to distinguish
between normal and pathological ovarian structures. Cysts were classified according to
histological and morphological appearance as follicular or luteal. Concentrations of GH, PRL,
estrogens (E(2)), progesterone (P-4) and testosterone (T) were measured in follicular and
cystic fluids. On the basis of the E(2) to P-4 ratio, ovarian formation classes were further
divided into two subclasses (E(2) dominant and P-4 dominant). The results provide evidence
of
1) the presence of immunoreactive GH and PRL in all the follicular and cystic fluids assayed,
2) an increasing concentration of GH correlated to the stage of luteinization of the cyst and a
direct correlation between GH and P-4 concentrations,
3) a significant variability of intraovarian fluid PRL concentration not related to the
histological class of the cyst nor to the concentrations of steroid hormones examined, and
4) the possibility of distinguishing 6 different ovarian formation classes by merely measuring
GH, P-4, E(2) and T concentrations in fluids. These data contribute to a better understanding
of the endocrine milieu of bovine ovarian cystic degeneration."
CARSONDUNKERLEY, S.A.; HANSON, R.R.
"Ovariectomy of granulosa cell tumors in mares by use of the diagonal paramedian
approach: 12 cases (1989-1995)"
"Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association" "JUL 15 1997","211","2","204"
"S.A. Carsondunkerley/Auburn Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Large Anim Surg & Med/Auburn,
AL 36849 USA"
"Objective-To describe the short- and long-term survival rates in horses undergoing
ovariectomy for granulosa cell tumors by use of the diagonal paramedian
approach.%Design-Retrospective case study.%Animals-12 horses with granulosa cell
tumors.%Procedure-A diagonal paramedian approach for unilateral ovariectomy was used for
removal of each mare's granulosa cell tumor. Information about complications and outcomes
was analyzed.%Results-Only minimal complications were detected postoperatively when the
diagonal paramedian approach was used, regardless of the preferred technique for ovarian
pedicle ligation or incisional closure and the use of pre- and postoperative medications.
Clinical signs of moderate or severe postoperative abdominal pain were not evident in any of
the 12 horses. Short- and longterm survival rates were 100%.%Clinical Implications-The
diagonal paramedian approach was advantageous for ovarian tumor removal, because the
ovary was immediately adjacent to the body wall at a portion of the incision site. Size of the
ovary was not a limitation, because muscle tissues al the edges of the incision were flexible
and easily retractable. All of these factors improved exposure, decreased traction on the
6
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
ovary, increased our ability to observe the vasculature, and decreased postoperative
morbidity, aiding in the removal of granulosa cell tumors in mares."
FIKE, K.E.; WEHRMAN, M.E.; BERGFELD, E.G.M.; KOJIMA, F.N.; KINDER, J.E.
"Prolonged increased concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol associated with development of
persistent ovarian follicles do not influence conception rates in beef cattle"
"Journal of Animal Science","MAY 1997","75","5","1363-1367"
"J.E. Kinder/Univ Nebraska/Dept Anim Sci/Lincoln, NE 68583 USA"
"Objectives were to evaluate conception rates and time to estrus following cessation of
treatments designed to either cause prolonged elevated concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol
associated with development of persistent ovarian follicles or to inhibit elevated
concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and development of persistent ovarian follicles. Beef
heifers (n = 80) and 2-yr-old nonlactating cows (n = 39) were stratified by age, blocked by
estrual status (previously exhibited estrus or anestrus) and assigned to receive either 1) four
norgestomet implants (4 Norg; n = 59) for 9 d (d 0 = treatment initiation) or 2) one
norgestomet implant from d 0 to 7 and three additional norgestomet implants from d 7 to 9 (1
+ 3 Norg; n = 60). All animals received PGF(2 alpha) on d 0 to lyse corpora lutea. All
implants were removed on d 9 followed by estrus detection every 6 h for 7 d following
implant removal. Females exhibiting estrus were artificially inseminated 6 to 12 h after
detection of estrus. A treatment x day interaction (P < .01) for concentrations of 17
beta-estradiol from d 0 to 9 of the experiment with elevated 17 beta-estradiol occurring in
females treated with 1 + 3 Norg implants. The interval from treatment withdrawal to estrus
was longer (P < .01) in females treated with 1 + 3 Norg (105 h) than in those treated with 4
Norg (61 h). Synchrony of estrus among anestrous females was greater (P < .10) in females
treated with 4 Norg (97%) than in females treated with 1 + 3 Norg (67%) but was similar in
estrual females. Conception rates (number conceiving to AI/number bred by AI) did not differ
(4 Norg = 67%; 1 + 3 Norg = 72%; P > .10). Pregnancy rates (number conceiving to
AI/number in treatment group) also did not differ between treatment groups of either estrual
or anestrous females. Conception rates are not compromised in females that develop persistent
ovarian follicles and have prolonged elevated concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol when
persistent ovarian follicles are not allowed to ovulate."
FOLEY, G.L.
"Pathology of the corpus luteum of cows"
"Theriogenology","MAY 1 1996","45","7","1413-1428"
"G.L. Foley/Univ Illinois/Dept Vet Pathobiol/Urbana, IL 61801 USA"
"The corpus luteum (CL) is a transient endocrine organ which can manifest a number
of pathologic conditions such as cysts, inflammation, adhesions, dysfunction and neoplasia.
Luteal and follicular cysts are the most commonly encountered abnormalities and need to be
distinguished from cysts within a normal CL. Inflammatory lesions are also frequently
encountered and can be caused by viral, bacterial, or iatrogenic causes. If inflammation is
severe, adhesions and subfertility/infertility can result. Luteal dysfunction is a broad
classification of another pathologic condition encountered in the cow. Generally this results in
abnormal production of progesterone or abnormal luteal lifespan resulting in infertility.
Neoplasms are relatively rare in the CL but include both primary and metastatic tumors.
Understanding the pathologic conditions that occur within the CL will allow a more accurate
clinical assessment of these very dynamic endocrine structures."
7
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
GARVERICK, H.A.
"Ovarian follicular cysts in dairy cows"
"Journal of Dairy Science","MAY 1997","80","5","995-1004"
"H.A. Garverick/Univ Missouri/Dept Anim Sci/Anim Sci Res Ctr 163/Columbia, MO 65211
USA"
"Ovarian follicular cysts are anovulatory follicular structures that occur in 10 to 13%
of dairy cows. This review focuses upon the dynamics of cyst growth, development, and
persistence as well as on associated endocrine and cellular mechanisms. During the estrous
cycle of cows, two to four waves of follicular growth occur. From a cohort of recruited
follicles, one is selected for continued growth and dominance while the others undergo atresia
and regress. In contrast, cysts have long been thought to be static structures that persist for
extended periods. Although cysts can persist for extended periods, most regress over time and
are replaced during subsequent follicular waves. The next dominant follicle either ovulates or
develops into a new cyst. The recruitment of a cohort of follicles from which a cyst develops
and the growth rate of cysts to ovulatory size are similar to ovulatory follicular waves, but the
cyst continues to grow for a longer period. The interval between waves of follicular growth is
longer for cows with cysts than for cows with normal estrous cycles. Each wave is preceded
by a transient increase in circulating FSH. Near the time of cyst development and persistence,
the concentration of FSH is not different from that during normal estrous cycles. Serum
concentrations of LH and estradiol-17 beta are higher in cows that develop cysts than in cows
that do not. Conversely, hypothalamic content of GnRH is lower in cows with cysts. Thus,
cysts are dynamic structures, and their deve lopment and lifespan are likely associated with
altered hypothalamic-hypophysial-ovarian function."
GASTAL, E.L.; KOT, K.; GINTHER, O.J.
"Ultrasound-guided intrafollicular treatment in mares"
"Theriogenology","NOV 1995","44","7","1027-1037"
"E.L. Gastal/Univ Wisconsin/1655 Linden Dr/Madison, WI 53706 USA"
"A technique for intrafollicular treatment with a transvaginal
ultrasound-guided
injection needle was developed using equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) as the test
substance. An injection was made into one growing follicle of a wave when the follicles were
20 to 23 mm.The treated follicles were injected with 1000 iu of eCG in 0.2 ml saline solution
and control follicles were injected with 0.2 ml of the saline vehicle (10 mares per group, 1
follicle per mare). The injection system used an inner 25-gauge needle and an outer 20-gauge
needle inserted together through the needle-guide channel of a linear-array transvaginal
transducer. The outer needle was pushed through the vaginal wall and the inner needle was
then advanced into the follicle during monitoring on the ultrasound screen. The turbulence in
the follicular fluid associated with injection was observable on the screen. Seven follicles
were successfully injected in each group. The follicular fluid in the control follicles remained
anechoic until thefollicle was no longer identifiable or ovulated. All 7 follicles in the eCG
group showed ultrasonic indications of luteinization, based on the formation of an echogenic,
thickened wall or area. Five of the 7 developed a central area that had the ultrasonic
appearance of a blood clot similar to the appearance of a corpus hemorrhagicum. Ovulation
was not detected in any of the eCG-treated follicles. The maximum post-treatment diameter of
follicles was greater (P<0.05) for the eCG group (32.7 +/- 3.8 mm) than for the control group
(23.4 +/- 1.8 mm). The mean diameter for the first 5 days post-treatment (before the
occurrence of an ovulation in any mare) was also greater (P<0.002) in the eCG group (21.6
+/- 0.8 mm vs 19.6 +/- 0.8 mm). Results indicated that this novel research approach is
8
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
practical and has potential for studies on folliculogenesis. The technique provides a research
model between the extremes of an in vitro culture system and treatment of the who le animal."
GRYGAR, I.; KUDLAC, E.; DOLEZEL, R.; NEDBALKOVA, J.
"Volume of luteal tissue and concentration of serum progesterone in cows bearing
homogeneous corpus luteum or corpus luteum with cavity"
"Animal Reproduction Science","DEC 5 1997","49","2-3", "77-82"
"R. Dolezel/Univ Vet & Pharmaceut Sci Brno/Brno 61242, Czech Republic"
"Ultrasonographical examinations of ovarian structures were performed in 27
inseminated cows at estrus days and on days 4, 9, 20, 25, 30, and 40 after ovulation. Three
cows were used twice, Corpora lutea (CLs) with a cavity were compared with homogeneous
CLs in pregnant and nonpregnant cows. Diameters and volumes of CLs and cavities, as well
as volumes of luteal tissue and concentrations of serum progesterone were determined, The
volumes of the structures were calculated using a mathematical formula for a rotary ellipsoid.
Homogeneous CLs and CLs with a cavity and their luteal tissue reached a maximum volume
in nonpregnant and pregnant cows on day 9 after ovulation. At this time, CLs volumes were
7.52 +/- 3.14 (homogeneous CLs, n = 4) and 4.54 cm(3) (CLs with a cavity, n = 1) in
nonpregnant cows, and 6.05 +/- 1.71 (homogeneous CLs, n = 10) and 9.54 +/- 2.67 cm(3)
(CLs with a cavity, n = 15) in pregnant cows. The volumes of luteal tissue were 7.52 +/- 3.14
and 4.33 cm(3) in nonpregnant cows and 6.05 +/- 1.71 and 8.62 +/- 3.46 cm(3) in pregnant
cows. Concentrations of progesterone in peripheral blood in pregnant cows bearing a
homogeneous CLs or CLs with a cavity on day 9 were 3.15 +/- 0.69 ng ml(-1) and 4.12 +/1.28 ng ml(-1), respectively. The concentrations of progesterone were higher in pregnant
cows in comparison with nonpregnant cows. CLs with a cavity in pregnant cows contained a
higher volume of luteal tissue and higher secretory activity compared to homogeneous CLs.
(C) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V."
KASARI, T.R.; FULLER, D.T.; WIDEMAN, D.; JAQUES, J.T.; SLAY, L.; LEE, J.
"Bovine cystic ovarian disease and the role norgestomet can play in its treatment"
"Veterinary Medicine","FEB 1996","91","2","156-162"
"T.R. Kasari/Texas A&M Univ/Coll Vet Med/Texas Vet Med Ctr/Dept Large Anim Med &
Surg/College Stn, TX 77843 USA"
"In the case described in this article, norgestomet implants were used to treat cystic
ovarian disease after other established hormonal therapies failed."
OHNAMI, Y; KIKUCHI, M; ONUMA, H.
"The use of ultrasonography to study the responses of cystic ovarian follicles in cows
to treatment with GnRH analogue"
"Irish Veterinary Journal 48: 7-8 (JUL-AUG 1995)- Page(s) 275-276"
"Y. Ohnami, Kitasato Univ, Sch Vet Med & Anim Sci, Towada, Aomori 034, Japan"
"A single intramuscular injection of 200 mu g GnRH-A induced rupture of persistent
follicles in nine cows within one or two days. On four occasions the luteal tissue that
developed at the site of rupture was not identified by rectal palpation but in each case
transrectal ultrasonography revealed the doughnut image of a cystic corpus luteum and
hormone assay revealed that it was actively secreting normal quantities of progesterone."
9
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
OSAWA, T.; NAKAO, T.; KIMURA, M.; KANEKO, K.; TAKAGI, H.; MORIYOSHI, M.;
KAWATA, K.
"Fertirelin and buserelin compared by LH release, milk progesterone and subsequent
reproductive performance in dairy cows treated for follicular cysts"
"Theriogenology","OCT 15 1995","44","6","835-847"
"T.Osawa/RakunoGakuen Univ/Dept Vet Obstet & Gynecol/582-1 Midorimachi
Bunkyodai/Ebetsu/Hokkaido 069, Japan"
"This field study compared the efficacy of a single injection of 200 mu g fertirelin
with that of 20 mu g buserelin in shortening the recovery period of 68 lactating
Holstein-Friesian cows with ovarian follicularcysts 65 d post partum or later. Differential
diagnosis was based not only on palpation per rectum but also on skim milk progesterone
profiles (less than or equal to 1.0 ng/ml) spanning a 15-d period rather than the conventional
7-d period, and diagnostic accuracy was markedly enhanced by the 15-d progesterone
profiles. At 2 to 2.5 h post treatment all the cows showed an LH increase four- fold or greater.
Luteinization, indicated by progesterone levels (greater than or equal to 1.0 ng/ml) 1 wk
after treatment, was evidenced in 75% of the fertirelin group and 72% of the buserelin group.
A 74% conception rate was achieved in fertirelin-treated cows, with a mean interval of 71 d
from treatment to conception. In the buserelin-treated cows, 65% conceived and the
treatment-to-conception interval was 63 d. Differences were insignificant. At the doses used
the two GnRH analogs were deemed equally effective in managing particularly stubborn
follicular cysts."
RAGLE, C.A.; SOUTHWOOD, L.L.; HOPPER, S.A.; BUOTE, P.L.
"Laparoscopic ovariectomy in two horses with granulosa cell tumors"
"Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","SEP 15 1996","209","6","1121"
"C.A. Ragle/Washington State Univ/Dept Vet Clin Sci/Pullman, WA 99164 USA"
"Two mares were admitted for ovariectomy of unilateral granulosa cell tumors. Both
mares were ovariectomized (1 unilateral and 1 bilateral) by use of a ventral abdominal
laparoscopic technique. This approach required tilting the operative table 30 degrees to
elevate the pelvis and to allow observation of the ovaries. Using a single laparoscopic portal
and 3 to 4 instrument portals, a triangulation technique was used. The ovarian pedicles were
isolated and secured via loop ligation. The ovaries then were divided from the ligated pedicle
and placed within specimen bags for extraction. The specimen bags then were removed
through a ventral midline celiotomy. Using this technique, it was determined that granulosa
cell tumors or ovaries of up to 20 cm in diameter can be removed. Laparoscopic ovariectomy
provided a means to provide tension- free dissection and ligation of the ovarian pedicle. In
comparison to conventional techniques, this may improve suture security and reduce
complications related to excessive pedicle tension. Improved observation during surgery, less
pedicle tension, and minimal invasiveness made laparoscopic ovariectomy of these 2 mares
advantageous."
WOLLGARTEN, B.
"Treatment of ovarian cysts in cattle by injection of a non-specific irritant agent into
ovarian associated acupuncture points"
"Tierarztliche Umschau","DEC 1996","51","12","754"
"Wollgarten/Univ Giessen/Ambulator & Geburtshilfliche Vet Klin/Frank furter Str
106/D-35392 Giessen,Germany"
"The effect of the injection of diluted formidium acid into ovarian associated
acupuncture points on the oestrus cycles of dairy cows was examined. This involved the
10
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
bilateral sub- and intra-cutaneous injection of 4 ml of formidium(R) D4 between the first and
second and second and third lateral processes of the lumbar vertebra approximately 8 cm
paravertebrally. The oestrus rates were 37.5% until day 7, 71.4% until day 14 and 87.5% until
day 20 after treatment. The ultimate pregnancy rate was 72.9% and that after first
insemination after the first oestrus was 56.1%. The results therefore indicate and improvement
competitive to classical hormonal therapy."
CAPÍTULO I I I
AFECCIONES de las VIAS GENITALES de la HEMBRA
COHEN, R.O; BERNSTEIN, M; ZIV, G."Isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility of Actinomyces pyogenes recovered from the
uterus of dairy cows with retained fetal membranes and post parturient Endometritis"
"Theriogenology 43: 8 (JUN 1995) Page(s) 1389-1397"
"R.O. Cohen, Hachaklait, Qiryat Tivon, Israel"
"The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 14 antimicrobial agents for
Actinomyces pyogenes isolates recovered from the uterus of cows with retained fetal
membranes (RFM) and post-partur ient endometritis (PPE) were determined. Cows with RFM
received a course of intrauterine tetracycline therapy, whereas some cows with PPE received
a similar treatment and others did not. Samples of uterine exudate were aseptically collected
at least 10 d after the last treatment. A profuse growth of A. pyogenes was observed on blood
agar plates inoculated with uterine exudate from 72% of the 54 cows sampled. Differences
were not observed in the type and characteristics of bacterial growth in the exudate of cows
with PPE which were sampled before and after antibiotic treatment. The MIC of penicillin G,
amoxycillin, cephalothin lincomycin and tylosin for 90% of the isolates was < 0.5 mu g/ml;
the corresponding value for streptomycin, oxytetracycline (OTC), chloramphenicol, nor for
floxacin and sulfadiazine/trimethoprim was > 10.0 mu g/ml. The MIC of OTC for 90% of the
A. pyogenes isolates was >100 mu/ml. The susceptibility of 14 A. pyogenes isolates of bovine
udder origin and 3 A. pyogenes ATCC isolates from the bovine udder and abscesses in sheep
and swine to antibiotics was determined, for comparative purposes. Most of the isolates
recovered from the uterus were resistant to OTC and sulpha/TMP whereas this was not the
case for isolates recovered from other sources."
COHEN, R.O.; COLODNER, R.; ZIV, G.; KENESS, J.
"Isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility of obligate anaerobic bacteria recovered
from the uteri of dairy cows with retained fetal membranes and postparturient
endometritis"
"Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B - Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin Reihe B Infectious Diseases and Veterinary Public Health","JUN 1996","43","4","193-199"
"G. Ziv/Kimron Vet Inst/Minist Agr/POB 12/IL-50250 Bet Dagan, Israel"
"The uteri of 77 postparturient dairy cows were sampled. Samples were cultured
aerobically and anaerobically, and the nature of bacterial growth was identified. A mixed
aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infection was found in 55 % of the samples. Actinomyces
pyogenes was the predominant aerobic species; it was found in 70 % of the samples, whereas
Bacteroides melaninogenicus was the most frequent anaerobic species isolated. Altogether, 16
species belonging to the genus Bacteroides were identified with variable frequencies. It
11
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
appears that more than one Bacteroides species colonizes the uterus of a given cow
postpartum. %The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of clindamycin, metronidazole,
tetracycline and ciprofloxacin for 83 anaerobic isolates were determined. All isolates were
susceptible to clindamycin (MIC(90) of 0.064 mu g/ml) and all but two to metronidazole.
Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was variable, with a bimodal distribution of MIC values. The
MIC of tetracycline for 90 % of the isolates was >256 mu g/ml."
DOHMEN, M.J.W.; LOHUIS, J.A.C.M.; HUSZENICZA, G.; NAGY, P.; GACS, M.
"The relationship between bacteriological and clinical findings in cows with subacute
chronic endometritis"
"Theriogenology 43: 8 (JUN 1995) Page(s) 1379-1388"
"M..J.W. Dohmen, Intervet Int BV, POB 31, 5830 AA Boxmeer, Netherlands"
"Bacteriological data from the uterine swabs of 101 cows with subacute/chronic (> 14
d post partum) endometritis, with additional clinical observations (cervical discharge score),
were collected before and at 14 d after intrauterine treatment with antibiotics. The discharge
score ranged from 0 (clear mucus) to 4, and increased when it was more purulent. On the day
of treatment, Actinomyces pyogenes, Bacteroides spp. and Fusobacterium necrophorum were
isolated from 65, 77 and 61% of the uterine swabs. Escherichia coli was present in 36% and
other bacteria in 48% of the swabs. The presence of A. pyogenes was positively correlated
with that of Bacteroides spp. (P < 0.001) and F. necrophorum (P < 0.05), whereas E. coli and
streptococci were negatively associated with the presence of A. pyogenes (P < 0.05).
Actinomyc pyogenes, Bacteroides spp and F. necrophorum were positively correlated with a
discharge score (P < 0.05). The absence of A. pyogenes and/or F. necrophorum at 14 d after
treatment resulted in higher clinical cure rates (defined as absence of pathologic discharge), (P
< 0.01). These data support the importance of A. pyogenes and Gram- negative anaerobes in
the pathology of endometritis. We also conclude that vaginoscopic examination is a good tool
for the diagnosis of subacute/chronic endometritis and evaluation of the result of the
treatment".
LAMPE, A.
"Recurring colic in a mare with an ovary hematoma"
"Praktische Tierarzt","SEP 1 1997","78","9","744"
"A.Lampe/Tierarztlichen Praxis Dr Kraemer/Lindenstr 10/D-41569 Rommerskirchen,
Germany"
"An incomplete left dorsal displacement of the large colon with an impaction of the
stenostenotic gut segment was diagnosed in a 6-year-old Trakehner mare. The presence of an
ovarian hematoma on the left ovary is a possible reason for appearance of colic."
PEELER, E.J.; OTTE, M.J..; ESSLEMONT, R.J.
"Inter-relationships of periparturient diseases in dairy cows"
Veterinary Record 134: 6 (FEB 5 1994)
Page(s) 129-132
E.J. Peeler, Univ Reading, Dept Agr,Vet Epidemiol & Econ Res Unit, Reading RG6 2AT,
England.
The associations between periparturient diseases in 3603 lactations over three calving
seasons were assessed on 10 dairy farms in the south west of England by using logistic
regression. Calf mortality and dystocia were strongly associated. Twinning and dystocia were
important predictors of calf mortality. Twinning was also a significant predictor for retained
fetal membranes. Retained fetal membranes, twins, calf mortality and dystocia,in that order of
importance, were risk factors for vulval discharge. Twinning, dystocia, retained fetal
12
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
membranes and lameness before service increased the risk of mastitis before service.
Similarly, mastitis and dystocia before service increased the risk of lameness before service.
Oestrus was less likely to be observed in cows that had twinned or suffered lameness before
service, the latter having a significantly greater influence in first calvers than older cows.
SAR, G.C.; MOHANTY, B.N.; RAY, S.K.H.; MOHANTY, D.N.
"Endometrial biopsy in infertile cows"
"Indian Journal of Animal Sciences","NOV 1996","66","11","1100-1105"
"G.C. Sar/Frozen Semen Bank/Sambalpur/Orissa, India"
"Endometrial samples from 39 clinical cases and 18 slaughtered cows were collected
by Nielson's biopsy cathetor. These samples revealed acute and sub-acute inflammation of
uterus in 90 and 10% samples, respectively, in repeaters with normal discharge, whereas in
cows with abnormal discharge the corresponding percentage was 10 and 40 with 50%
showing chronic form of endometritis. Occurrence of acute, sub-acute and chronic forms of
endometritis in 18 sterile cows was 22.22, 27.78 and 50.00%, whereas all the control animals
did not show any inflammatory changes in the biopsy materials."
SLIMANE, N.; AHMADI, C.; OUALI, F.; KACHTI, M.; THIBIER, M.
"Epidemiological and clinical analysis of post puerperium endometritis in dairy cows "
"Recueil de Médecine Veterinaire 170: 12 (DEC 1994) Page(s) 823-832"
"N. Slimane, Ecole Natl Med Vet, Sidi Thabet 2020, Tunisia"
"The aim of the present study was to analyse some of the epidemiological factors
involved in post-partum endometritis and their influence on the subsequent fertility in tunisian
dairy herd as well as the effectiveness of various treatments. This study was carried on a
number of 250 cows approximately from the same farm during four consecutive years in
which a Reproduction survey such as the so-called Integrated Veterinary Program of Action
for Reproduction (PAVIR) was applied. The overall rate of endometritis was 17,2 p. cent.
Significant factors susceptible to modify this rate were the age and season. By contrast,
individual repeatability and milk production were without effect.
Corynebacterium were the most often isolated from the vulvae and uterine cavity in
respectively 39.5 p. cent and 52.5 p. cent of these cases of endometritis.
Treatments with Antibiotherapy and Prostaglandine F-2 alpha resulted in a conception rate of
70 p. cent in the 120 days after calving.
In conclusion, systematic clinical examination performed 30 day after parturition was
found to be an important feature to preduce the detrimental effect of such post-puerperium
endometritis and the majority of cases had recovered in an interval of time compatible with
the herds economics."
WATSON, E.D.; THOMSON, R.M.
"Lymphocyte subsets in the endometrium of genitally normal mares and mares
susceptible to endometritis"
"Equine Veterinary Journal","MAR 1996","28","2","106-110"
"E.D. Watson/Royal Dick Sch Vet Studies/Dept Vet Clin Studies/Easter Bush/Roslin EH25
9RG/Midlothian, Scotland"
"The density and distribution of MHC Class II positive cells and subpopulations of
lymphocytes were studied in the endometrium of genitally normal mares and mares
susceptible to endometritis. In genitally normal mares, more MHC Class II positive cells were
present in the epithelium and stratum compactum during oestrus than dioestrus, Significantly
more CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes were present in the stratum compactum than in the
13
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
stratum spongiosum, CD4+ lymphocytes were present in greater numbers than CD8+
lymphocytes in the stratum compactum but approximately equal numbers were present in the
stratum spongiosum and in lymphoid aggregates, Occasional CD4+ and CD8+ cells were seen
in the luminal and glandular epithelium. Infrequently, B cells were present in the
endometrium and were not observed in the epithelium. Numbers of T and B cells did not
appear to be affected by cycle stage, In mares with endometritis, the densities of CD4+, CD8+
and B cells were significantly increased, Large aggregates of lymphoid cells which containe
approximately twice as many CD4+ cells as CD8+ cells were present in the endometrium of
these mares and all 3 subclasses of lymphocyte were seen occasionally in luminal and
glandular epithelium.
WATSON, E.D.
"Swabbing protocols in screening for contagious equine metritis"
"Veterinary Record","MAR 15 1997","140","11","268-271"
"E.D. Watson/Univ Edinburgh/Dept Vet Clin Studies/Vet Field Stn/Easter Bush/Roslin EH25
9RG/Midlothian, Scotland"
"Outbreaks of contagious equine metritis in Britain during 1996 emphasised the
importance of preventing the disease through full and widespread implementation of the
Horserace Betting Levy Board's code of practice. The provision of satisfactory samples for
testing represents an integral part of applying the cone. Here, in an article commissioned by
the British Equine Veterinary Association, Dr Elaine Watson describes the techniques
involved."
WEBER, J.A.; WOODS, G.L.; AGUILAR, J.J.
"Effects of cervical dilation and intrauterine infusions on the timing of oviductal
transport of equine embryos"
"Theriogenology","JUN 1996","45","8","1443-1448"
"G.L. Woods/Univ Idaho/Dept Vet & Anim Sci/NW Equine Reprod Lab/Moscow, ID 83844
USA"
"Equine embryos spend 5 to 6 d in the oviduct before entering the uterus as expanded
blastocysts, and cannot be consistently collected nonsurgically until Day 7. Technologies such
as cryopreservation and embryo splitting, which are most successful with embryos at the
morula or early blastocyst stage, have not been used in mares because equine morulae and
early blastocysts are located in the oviduct and cannot be recovered nonsurgically. These
experiments test the hypothesis that transport of equine embryos through the oviduct can be
hastened by cervical dilation or by acute, sterile endometritis induced by intrauterine oyster
glycogen treatment. Cervical dilation with or without intrauterine infusion of 0.5 ml PBS on
Day 4 did not appear to hasten the transport of embryos into the uterus since Day 5 uterine
embryo recovery rates were not higher (P >0.1) for mares with cervical dilation or cervical
dilation plus PBS infusion vs mares receiving no treatments (0 of 5 and 0 of 5 vs 0 of 10,
respectively). Intrauterine infusions of 40 ml of 1% oyster glycogen or 40 ml of PBS on Day
3 did not appear to hasten the transport of embryos into the uterus since Day 5 uterine embryo
recovery rates were not higher (P >0.1) for oyster glycogen- or PBS-treated vs untreated
mares (2 of 12 and 3 of 11 vs 0 of 10, respectively). Cervical and uterine treatments on Day 3
or Day 4 and uterine lavages on Day 5 decreased (P <0.05) Days 11 to Day 15 pregnancy
rates compared with that of untreated mares. Day 11 to Day 15 pregnancy rates were 1 of 5
for mares with Day 4 cervical dilation and Day 5 uterine lavage, 1 of 5 for mares with Day 4
PBS infusion and Dy 5 uterine lavage, 2 of 12 for mares with Day 3 oyster glycogen infusion
and Day 5 uterine lavage, and 3 of 11 for mares with Day 3 PBS infusion and Day 5 uterine
14
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
lavage vs 7 of 10 for mares that received no treatment or lavage. Cervical and uterine
manipulations on Day 3 or 4 and uterine lavage on Day 5 appeared to decrease pregnancy
rates by Days 11 to 15. The results of these experiments do not support the hypothesis that
cervical dilation or uterine infusion hasten oviductal transport, since neither cervical
manipulation nor transcervical infusion of oyster glycogen or PBS into the uterus significantly
hastened the rate of embryo transport into the uterus."
WELLE, M.M.; AUDIGE, L.; BELZ, J.P.
"The equine endometrial mast cell during the puerperal period: Evaluation of mast cell
numbers and types in comparison to other inflammatory changes"
"Veterinary Pathology","JAN 1997","34","1","23-30"
"M.M. Welle/Univ Bern/Inst Tierpathol/Langgass Str 122/CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland"
"Endometrial biopsies of 44 broodmares were histologically examined on days 3, 6,
and 9 postpartum. The mares were subdivided into three groups according to the course of the
puerperal period. In 29 mares, parturition and expulsion of the placenta was normal, six mares
showed dystocia, and in nine mares, the placenta was retained for >2 hours. Tissue samples
were evaluated histologically, and the average numbers of granulocytes, lymphocytes,
macrophages, siderophages, and mast cells was determined. Protease content of mast cells
was examined with a double-enzyme immunohistochemical staining technique, using a
histochemical reaction for chloroacetate esterase and fast blue to detect chymase activity and
an immunohistochemical staining method with a polyclonal antibody and fast red for the
detection of tryptase. Analyzing the cell numbers using the statistical software Statistica, a
marked inflammatory reaction was observed in the endometrium postpartum. Although the
number of granulocytes decreased during the first 9 days postpartum, the number of
lymphocytes, macrophages, and siderophages increased. No significant difference in the
number of any of these cell types could be demonstrated in the three different courses of the
puerperal period, although the numbers of these cells seemed to be lower in mares with
dystocia. In contrast with other cells, no change in the number of endometrial mast cells was
observed during the puerperal period, but a significantly lower number were found in the
endometrium of mares with retained placenta. The enzyme immunohistochemical
double-labeling technique could demonstrate only tryptase-positive mast cells; no chymase
activity was detectable in any endometrial mast cells. The number of mast cells detected with
the metachromatic staining technique was significantly higher than that detected with double
labeling. These results support the hypothesis that a sufficient number of mast cells may be
necessary for a normal postnatal period and suggest a mast cell subtype in the equine
endometrium that is tryptase and chymase negative."
ZERBE, H.; SCHUBERTH, H.J.; HOEDEMAKER, M.; GRUNERT, E.; LEIBOLD, W.
"A new model system for endometritis: Basic concepts and characterization of
phenotypic and functional properties of bovine uterine neutrophils"
"Theriogenology","DEC 1996","46","8","1339-1356"
"H. Zerbe/Hannover Sch Vet Med/Ctr Bovine Gynecol & Obstet/D-30173 Hannover,
Germany"
"The intention of this study was to develop a model system of puerperal endometritis
in cows, which would permit detailed analysis of components and mechanisms relevant to the
onset and development of this disease. As the first essential step we examined the induction
and migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMNs) into the uterus under
defined conditions. Migration of neutrophils into the uterus of healthy estrus synchronized
heifers (n=8) was induced by intrauterine infusion of 50 ml of a 30 nmol/l solution of
15
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
leukotriene B-4 (LTB(4)). Before and 24 h after the infusion, cells were flushed from the
uterine lumen. In addition to total leukocyte counts, viability and morphological
differentiation of various leukocyte populations, phenotypic characteristics of PMNs were
monitored by means of quantitative immunofluorescence using monoclonal antibodies. The
capacity of PMNs to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) following activation with
phorbol ester was measured using dihydrorhodamine 123. The phagocytic activity of PMNs
was determined by their ingestion of fluorochrome labeled nonviable staphylococci. Most
methods mentioned above were adapted to flow cytometric analysis. The LTB(4) attracted
selectively large numbers of PMNs into the uterus. In comparison with contemporarily
harvested blood PMNs, neutrophils recovered from the uterine lumen showed changes in the
expression of some but not all of their surface structures. Phagocytic activity of uterine PMNs
was significantly lower when compared with that of blood PMNs. In contrast, the generation
of ROS was not different between blood and uterine PMNs. Thus, the concept of inducing
endometritis directly by local application of a physiological mediator of inflammation such as
LTB(4) has been successful. This bovine model permits detailed analysis of migration of
PMNs into the uterus and their behavior under defined conditions within the autologous
system.
CAPÍTULO IV
FACTORES GENÉTICOS de ESTERILIDAD o de INFERTILIDAD
JUSTI, A.; HECHT, W.; HERZOG, A.; SPECK, J.
"Comparison of different methods for the diagnosis of freemartins - Polymerase chain
reaction, blood group serology and karyotyping"
"Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift","DEC 1995","102","12","471-474"
"A.Herzog/Univ Giessen/Fachgebiet Vet Med Genet & Zytogenet/Hofmannstr 10/D-35392
Giessen, Germany"
"The percentage of freemartins among blood samples tested by chromosome analysis
amounted to 83,9%, by blood group serologie 71,4%. 126 blood samples have been tested by
blood group serology and PCR. Employing blood group serology, 71,3% and using PCR with
BOV97M primers 85,8% of the animals proved to be freemartins. 40 blood samples were
additionally analysed using PCR with zinc- finger-gene primers. 36 animals (90%) were
identified as being freemartins by means of BOV97M and 34 animals (85%) by means of the
zinc-finger- gene primer. The PCR method proved to be a rapid and very sensitive method for
the diagnosis of freemartins and also suitable for routine testing. The BOV97M primer
showed to have a higher Y chromosome specifity than the zinc-finger- gene primer."
MIYAKE, Y.I.; KANEMAKI, M.; CHIBA, A.
"Chromosomal analysis of cases with chimerism that consisted of normal cells and cells
with 1/29 translocation in homosexual twin cows and their calves"
"Reproduction in Domestic Animals","MAY 1997","32","3","175-177"
"Y.I. Miyake/Iwate Univ/Fac Agr/Dept Vet Med/Lab Theriogenol/Morioka/Iwate 020, Japan"
"This communication describes cases with chimeric patterns that consisted of cells
with 60,XX and 59,XX,t(1:29) in homosexual twin cows and a dam having heterozygosity for
1/29 Robertsonian translocation. The calves from one partner twin had 1/29 translocation
16
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
only. On the other hand, calves from another partner twin had normal cells only. From the
results obtained, it is proposed that germ cells would not migrate in bovine freemartin
syndrome."
MOMMENS, G.; VANZEVEREN, A.; PEELMAN, L.
"Detection of freemartins by a Y chromosome specific DNA sequence"
"Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift","MAR-APR 1997","66","2","88-92"
"G.Mommens/Lab Bloedgrp Onderzoek Runderen/St Lenaartsebaan 29/B-2390 Malle,
Belgium"
"Freemartins which go unrecognized represent an economic loss for the farmer
holding them for breeding. Consequently, early diagnosis is needed. The presence of the Y
chromosome in freemartins can be detected immediately after birth by a DNA technique. This
method is quicker than classical karyotyping, is easier to interpret than blood typing, and its
efficiency is guaranteed by the inclusion of a control band. The results of 36 cases are
presented. Freemartinism was diagnosed in 31 (86%) of them. Comparisons with blood typing
were made in 20 cases. Seventeen freemartins and two negatives were diagnosed with both
techniques. In one case the Y chromosome was revealed only by the DNA technique."
NG, A.; SATHASIVAM, K.; LAURIE, S.; NOTARIANNI, E.
"Determination of sex and chimaerism in the domestic sheep by DNA amplification
using HMG-box and microsatellite sequences"
"Animal Reproduction Science","FEB 1996","41","2","131-139"
"E. Notarianni/Univ Newcastle/Sch Med/Dept Physiol Sci/Newcastle Tyne NE2 4HH/Tyne &
Wear, England"
"We describe a rapid, reliable method for the sexing of the domestic sheep (Ovis aries)
by amplification of Y-chromosome-specific sequences in male ge nomic DNA using the
polymerase-chain reaction (PCR). Oligonucleotide primers were selected from a conserved
sequence, the HMG box, in the sequence of ovine Sry, permitting amplification of a defined
161 bp fragment only from male-specific genomic DNA. As a control, microsatellite primers
also were used in PCR reactions, recognising a sequence that is amplifiable in genomic DNA
from both males and females. In addition, we demonstrate the feasibility of using this
technique for the detection of Y-specific sequences in foetal biopsies (specifically small
numbers of foetal germ cells), and in reconstruction mixtures of male and female genomic
DNA to simulate the analysis of intersex chimaeras which would be produced when
pluripotent cells have been established for this species."
SATOH, S.; HIRATA, T.I.; MIYAKE, Y.I.; KANEDA, Y.
"The possibility of early estimation for fertility in bovine heterosexual twin females –
Note"
"Journal of Veterinary Medical Science","MAR 1997","59","3","221-222"
"Y.I. Miyake/Iwate Univ/Fac Agr/Dept Vet Med/Lab Theriogenol/Morioka/Iwate 020, Japan"
"To diagnose the possibility of early estimation for fertility in bovine heterosexual
twin females, we designed a new diagnostic program. The 9 freemartins (FM) and 5 normal
females (Normal) were used in this study. All 14 cases, at 4 months of age, were given
Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG)
1.5-2 days later. Thereafter, the concentration of estradiol-17 beta (E(2)) was determined by
RIA, and that of progesterone (P) was done by RIA and EIA (Ovcheck EIA Kit). The
concentration of E(2) in the Group of Normal rapidly increased after administration of
PMSG, but in the Group of FM, the concentration of E(2) changed in very low levels over 14
17
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
days. The concentration of P in the Group of Normal rapidly increased after administration of
PMSG, but in the Group of FM, the concentration of P changed in very low levels over 14
days."
SCHMUTZ, S.M.; MOKER, J.S.; PAWLYSHYN, V.; HAUGEN, B.; CLARK, E.G.
"Fertility effects of the 14;20 robertsonian translocation in cattle"
"Theriogenology","MAR 1997","47","4","815-823"
"S.M. Schmutz/Univ Saskatchewan/Dept Anim & Poultry Sci/Saskatoon/SK S7N 0W0,
Canada"
"Superovulation and embryo collection procedures were used to study the effect of the
14;20 Robertsonian translocation on fertility and embryo viability. Karyotypes were
successfully completed on cells from 77 of the 279 embryos prepared for such analysis.
Embryos from 4 cows heterozygous for the translocation were studied. Two bulls with the
same condition were studied by using their semen in artificial insemination of cows with
normal karyotypes. The proportions of fertilized ova and transferable embryos were not
different between cows with the 14;20 translocation and those with normal karyotypes,
indicating that fertilization rates were not affected: by the translocation. Twenty-two percent
of the embryos which were karyotyped had an unbalanced karyotype and would theoretically
not have survived to term. All of the theoretically predicted chromosome complements from
such a translocation were observed as were three 58,XX,t karyotypes and a 58,XX karyotype.
There was no difference in the percentage of embryos with abnormal karyotypes whether the
cow or bull was the carrier. Results therefore indicate that fertility is rather severely impaired
in carriers of the 14;20 translocation, as was observed with the 1;29 translocation, with most
loss due to embryo mortality rather than a lowered conception rate. (C) 1997 by Elsevier
Science Inc."
CAPÍTULO V
ENFERMEDADES QUE AFECTAN LA REPRODUCCIÓN
ALBINA, E.
"Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: ten years of experience (1986-1996)
with this undesirable virus infection"
"Veterinary Research","JUL-AUG 1997","28","4","305-352"
"E Albina/Cneva Ploufragan/Lab Cent Rech Avicole & Porcine/Unite Rech Virol &
Immunol Porcines/BP 53/F-22440 Ploufragan, France"
"Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an infectious disease in
swine that emerged 10 years ago. Today, PRRS is endemic in many if not all the
pig-producing countries. The syndrome is due to a small enveloped RNA virus which
belongs to the new Arteriviridae group. This group also includes the equine arterivirus and
the simian hemorrhagic fever virus. The disease produces many clinical symptoms in pigs of
any age but the two major features of the syndrome are respiratory and reproductive failure.
An influenza- like illness is often observed consisting of a transient loss of appetite, slight
hyperthermia and respiratory distress. The reproductive problems include late-term abortion,
stillbirth and young piglet mortality. The virus is remarkably well adapted to its natural host.
It infects almost exclusively pig monocytes or macrophages. For unexplained reasons, the
18
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
virus may persist in the body for extended periods (several weeks) after an antibody immune
response has been mounted. Within herds, the virus may persist for several years. In the acute
phase of the infection, the immune functions of the pig may be impaired, however, a chronic
immunosuppressive effect does not seem to occur thereafter. Several vaccines are available,
which all have protective value against PRRS clinical disorders.None of them, however, has
been tested for its ability to prevent or shorten the persistent infection in individual pigs or
the long-term effect of virus circulation within herds. In the future, PRRS virus may be only
an additional contaminant of farms with limited effects on profitability; however the
possibility for this persistent infection to supply swine or eventually other species with new
pathogenic variants must be also considered. This review provides a detailed description of
the aetiology, pathology, immunology, diagnostic methods and epidemiology of PRRS."
ANDERSON, M.L.; PALMER, C.W.; THURMOND, M.C.; PICANSO, J.P.; BLANCHARD,
P.C.; BREITMEYER, R.E.; LAYTON, A.W.; MCALLISTER, M.; DAFT, B.; KINDE, H.;
READ, D.H.; DUBEY, J.P.; CONRAD, P.A.; BARR, B.C.
"Evaluation of abortions in cattle attributable to neosporosis in selected dairy herds in
California"
"Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","NOV 1 1995","207","9","1206"
"M.L. Anderson/Univ Calif Davis/Sch Vet Med/Vet Diagnost Lab/Davis, CA 95616USA"
"Objective-To estimate the minimum rate of abortion attributable to infection with
Neospora
sp
in
selected
California
dairy
herds.%Design-Prospective
study.%Animals-Twenty-six dairy herds containing 19,708 cows were studied. Fourteen
herds had a history of abortions attributable to neosporosis, and 12 were herds in which
neosporosis had not been identified as a cause of abortions.%Procedure-During a 1-year
period, all available aborted fetuses were submitted to veterinary diagnostic laboratories to
determine the cause of abortion. Reproductive records of cows that aborted were
reviewed.%Results-Neospora sp infection was the major cause of abortion identified (113/266
abortions, 42.5%). The majority (232/266, 87.2%) of the aborted fetuses were submitted from
herds with a history of abortions attributable to neosporosis, and Neospora sp infection was
identified as the causative agent in 101 of 232 (43.5%) of the abortions from these herds.
Fewer aborted fetuses were submitted from the 12 herds that did not have a history of
abortion attributable to Neospora sp; however, neosporosis was confirmed as a cause of
abortion in 6 of these 12 herds and was identified as the causative agent in 12 of 34 (35.3%)
abortions from these herds. The disease was widespread throughout the state (19/26 herds in
our study). Available reproductive histories of cows that had abortions attributed to
neosporosis were evaluated, and 4 cows were identified that twice aborted Neospora- infected
fetuses."
BJORKMAN, C.; JOHANSSON, O.; STENLUND, S.; HOLMDAHL, O.J.M.; UGGLA, A.
"Neospora species infection in a herd of dairy cattle"
"Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","MAY 1 1996","208","9","1441"
"C. Bjorkman/Swedish Univ Agr Sci/Dept Cattle & Sheep Dis/POB 7019/S-75007 Uppsala,
Sweden"
"Objective-To investigate the route of transmission of Neospora sp in a herd of dairy
cattle in which sporadic abortions had been observed since the establishment of the farm in
1980.%Design-Serum samples were screened for antibodies to Neospora sp, and records from
an artificial insemination program were analyzed.%Animals-58 female cattle.%Procedure-An
ELISA was used to screen serum samples for antibodies to Neospora sp. Fertility, calf
mortality, and relationships between specific cattle were investigated. Statistical analysis was
19
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
performed on the fertility data.%Results-Antibodies were detected in 17 of 58 (29%) tested
cattle, All seropositive cattle were descendants of 2 cows purchased in 1980. Cattle that were
descendants of those 2 cows were compared with their herdmates, but significant differences
were not detected in the number of inseminations per confirmed pregnancy or in the number
of cattle that required more than 1 insemination/pregnancy. Since 1980, there were 323
confirmed pregnancies in the herd, and calf mortality (prenatal and perinatal mortality) was
24 of 323 (7%).%Clinical implications-Congenital transmission of Neospora organisms
together with the apparent lack of horizontal transmission observed in the herd reported here
indicated that Neospora sp has the ability to be transmitted from dam to offspring for several
generations. This mode of transmission would explain the maintenance of infection in a
population of cattle despite the lack of a definitive host for the parasite."
BJORKMAN, C.; HOLMDAHL, O.J.M.; UGGLA, A.
"An indirect enzyme -linked immunoassay (ELISA) for demonstration of antibodies to
Neospora caninum in serum and milk of cattle"
"Veterinary Parasitology","FEB 1997","68","3","251-260"
"C. Bjorkman/Swedish Univ Agr Sci/Dept Cattle & Sheep Dis/Box 7019/S-75007 Uppsala,
Sweden"
"An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of antibodies
to Neospora caninum in serum from cattle is described, Extracted tachyzoite proteins
incorporated into immunostimulating complexes (iscoms) were used as coating antigen and a
mouse monoclonal antibody to bovine immunoglobulin G1 as conjugate. Western blot
analysis of the iscom preparation revealed a restricted number of antigens compared with
whole parasite homogenates. When probed with a serum from an experimentally infected calf,
heavily stained antigens with apparent molecular masses of 28, 35, 45 and 78 kDa were seen,
The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA was 100% and 96%, respectively, against an
indirect fluorescent antibody test as indicator of true status, The applicability of the ELISA for
demonstration of antibodies in milk was evaluated and the agreement between serum and milk
ELISA was 95%."
BONDURANT, R.H.
"Pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of trichomoniasis in cattle"
"Veterinary Clinics of North America - Food Animal Practice","JUL 1997","13","2","345"
"R.H. Bondurant/Univ Calif Davis/Sch Vet Med/Dept Populat Hlth & Reprod/Davis, CA
95616 USA"
"Bulls are increasingly able to carry Tritrichomonas foetus in the folds of epithelium
on the surface of the penis and prepuce as they age. Transmission to the female reproductive
tract at coitus does not necessarily interrupt fertilization, but results in embryonic or fetal
death after the determination of pregna ncy. A definitive diagnosis in a suspect herd requires
positive identification of the cause, either from preputial scrapings/flushings, or from
aspirated cervicovaginal mucus. The self- limiting nature of infection in the female, and the
chronic nature of infection in the male, make it more profitable to pursue the diagnosis in the
bull battery first. Serological tests for screening female herds have been successful under
experimental conditions. In natural service management systems, control involves segregation
of the female by pregnancy status; the use of young, culture- negative bulls; and vaccination of
females in enzootic areas."
20
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
BRENDEMUEHL, J.P.; CARSON, R.L.; WENZEL, J.G.W.; BOOSINGER, T.R.; SHELBY,
R.A.
"Effects of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue on eCG and progestogen
concentrations from gestation days 21 to 300 in the mare"
"Theriogenology","JUL 1996","46","1","85-95"
"J.P. Brendemuehl/Auburn Univ/Coll Agr & Vet Med/Dept Large Anim Surg &
Med/Auburn, AL 36849 USA"
"The influence of grazing endophyte- infected tall fescue on endometrial cup formation
and function, progestogen production, and embryonic and fetal development were examined
in pregnant mares between Day 21 and Day 300 of gestation. Total immunoreactive
progestogens and equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) concentrations were compared
between untreated controls (endophyte- free, n=12) and treated mares (endophyte- infected,
n=12). There were no differences in endometrial cup formation or function, as determined by
eCG concentrations at Days 45, 60, 75, 90 and 120 (P > 0.05) between mares grazing
endophyte-infected and endophyte- free tall fescue.
Mares grazing the endophyte- infected tall fescue had lower total progestogen concentrations
(P < 0.01) from Days 90 to 120 than the mares grazing endophyte- free tall fescue. Embryonic
development based on mean vesicle height was not affected by endophyte exposure. No
pregnancies were lost by mares in either treatment group during the trial period. The results of
this study indicate that grazing endophyte- infected tall fescue between Day 21 and Day 300
does not alter endometrial cup formation and function, or result in increased pregnancy losses
during this period. Lower progestogen concentrations between Days 90 and 120 with
exposure to endophyte- infected tall fescue could reflect decreased luteal progesterone
production."
BUXTON, D.; BREBNER, J.; WRIGHT, S.; MALEY, S.W.; THOMSON, K.M.; MILLARD,
K.
"Decoquinate and the control of experimental ovine toxoplasmosis"
"Veterinary Record","MAY 4 1996","138","18","434-436"
"D. Buxton/Moredun Res Inst/408 Gilmerton Rd/Edinburgh EH17
7JH/Midlothian,
Scotland"
"Decoquinate was tested for its ability to reduce the effect of experimentally induced
toxoplasmosis in pregnant ewes, Sheep were given decoquinate in their feed daily at either 2
mg or 1 mg/kg bodyweight from 10 days before an oral challenge with Toxoplasma gondii
oocysts at 90 days of gestation, until lambing, Feeding decoquinate at the higher rate caused
a delay in the onset of the febrile response to infection, reduced the overall severity of the
fever and delayed the production of antibodies to the parasite. This treatment also reduced the
placental damage caused by the parasite, lengthened the mean gestation period and increased
the number and weight of live lambs, in comparison with ewes not fed decoquinate but
challenged with T gondii oocysts. The treatment with 1 mg of decoquinate had smaller
effects."
BUXTON, D.; CALDOW, G.L.; MALEY, S.W.; MARKS, J.; INNES, E.A.
"Neosporosis and bovine abortion in Scotland"
"Veterinary Record","DEC 27 1997","141","25","649-651"
"D. Buxton/Moredun Res Inst/408
Gilmerton Rd/Edinburgh EH17 7JH/Midlothian,
Scotland"
"Serum samples were collected over a two-year period from aborting cows and their
fetuses from throughout Scotland; 465 maternal sera were examined
using an
21
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
immunofluorescent antibody test for IgG antibody to Neospora caninum and 547 fetal sera
were examined for IgM and IgG antibody to the parasite; 355 of the maternal sera were
paired with their respective fetal samples. The maternal titres ranged from ys to 1/16,384,
with 59 per cent (275) having titres of 1/128 or 1/256, Of the 547 fetal sera, 9.9 per cent had
IgM titres equal to or greater than 1/64, 11.2 per cent had IgG titres equal to or greater than
1/64 and 15.9 per cent had IgM and/or IgG titres equal to or greater than 1/64, It is concluded
that a fetal IgM or IgG titre of 1/64 or more is evidence of fetal exposure to N caninum but
that the examination of maternal sera is less reliable on an individual basis, although valuable
for indicating the degree of infection in a herd, Although fetal seropositivity does not
necessarily provide proof that N caninum was the cause of death in a given case, the
observation that 15.9 per cent of aborted fetuses had antibody to the parasite shows that
vertical transmission from dam to fetus is relatively common and may be an important cause
of fetal loss in cattle in Scotland."
COX, B.T.; REICHEL, M.P.; GRIFFITHS, L.M.
"Serology of a Neospora abortion outbreak on a dairy farm in New Zealand: A case
study"
"New Zealand Veterinary Journal","FEB 1998","46","1","28-31"
"M.P. Reichel/Maf Qual Management/Cent Anim Hlth Lab/POB 40063/Upper Hutt, New
Zealand"
"To describe the kinetics of serological titres after an abortion outbreak in April- May
1995 due to Neospora caninum affected 17 dairy cows in a herd of 320.%Methods.
Thirty- five cows, that had either aborted, carried mummified calves, were not pregnant or
calved normally were bled several times at regular intervals and the sera tested for Neospora
antibodies in the indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT).%Results. Maximal IFAT titres of
up to 1:4000 occurred within 6 weeks of the abortion outbreak, decreased over the next 2
months to less than or equal to 1:200 and remained at this level until the next scheduled bleed
a further 2 months later. A rise in titres was subsequently observed in the cows that had
aborted or were not pregnant (at the time of the abortions) or had carried mummified foetuses,
Seroconversion was also observed in some of the control cows, which had, up until then,
remained seronegative. A dog and cat in contact with the cows in the herd investigated were,
however, negative in the IFAT.%Conclusions, Maximal serological titres in Neospora
abortions are observed within weeks of the abortion event and then quickly return to very law
levels. Subsequently, a recrudescence of titres can be observed in infected cows during the
next pregnancy, without it being associated with repeat abortions."
CHRISTOPHERHENNINGS, J.; NELSON, E.A.; NELSON, J.K.; BENFIELD, D.A.
"Effects of a modified-live virus vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory
syndrome in boars"
"American Journal of Veterinary Research","JAN 1997","58","1","40-45"
"J. Christopherhennings/S Dakota State Univ/Anim Dis Res & Diagnost Lab/Brookings, SD
57007 USA"
"Objectives-To determine whether Vaccine virus is found inserum and semen of
vaccinated boars, whether vaccination prevents subsequent shedding of wild-type virus after
challenge exposure, and whether semen and blood variables are altered after vaccination or
challenge exposure with wild-type virus, or both.%Design- Throughout the 50-day
postvaccination period, serum and semen from exposed boars were eva luated for the presence
of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). All boars were then
challenge-exposed with PRRSV isolate VR-2332 and evaluated for an additional 27 days.
22
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
Semen quality variables, serostatus, and blood variables were monitored.%Animals-7
PRRSV-seronegative adult boars.%Procedure-Semen was collected 3 times weekly and
evaluated by use of a nested reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of
PRRSV RNA. Serum was obtained weekly and evaluated by nested reverse-transcriptase
polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation. and PRRSV ELISA. Semen quality variables were
evaluated 3 times weekly, and CBC was performed weekly.%Results-Vaccine virus was shed
in the semen of all vaccinated boars, but shedding was of shorter duration in 4 of 5 vaccinated
boars than that generally observed after exposure to wild-type virus. After challenge
exposure, shedding of wild-type Virus in semen was shortened or eliminated in 4 of 5
vaccinated boars. Percentage of forward movement and normal spermatozoal morphology and
motility were significantly reduced in vaccinated boars after challenge exposure.
%Conclusions-Vaccine Virus was shed in semen of vaccinated boars, but vaccination
generally reduced or eliminated shedding of wild-type PRRSV after challenge exposure.
Semen quality appeared to be less than optimal, particularly after vaccination and subsequent
challenge exposure with wild-type virus.%Clinical Relevance-Extra- label use of the PRRSV
vaccine in boars remains controversial because some boars may still shed wild-type virus in
semen after challenge exposure at postvaccination day 50. Semen quality also appeared to be
altered after vaccination and subsequent challenge exposure."
CRAVENS, R.L.; ELLSWORTH, M.A.; SORENSEN, C.D.; WHITE, A.K.
"Efficacy of a temperature -sensitive modified-live bovine herpesvirus type -1 vaccine
against abortion and stillbirth in pregnant heifers"
"Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","JUN 15 1996","208","12","2031"
"R.L. Crave ns/Pfizer Anim Hlth/812 Springdale Dr/Exton, PA 19341 USA"
"Objective-To evaluate the efficacy of a commercially available temperature-sensitive
modified- live bovine her pesvirus type-1 (BHV-1) vaccine against BHV-1 challenge- induced
abortion and stillbirth.%Design-Prospective randomized control trial. %Animals-20 cycling,
nonpregnant, BHV-1 seronegative heifers of various breeds and weights, 12 to 15 months
old.%Procedure-Heifers were randomly assigned to a vac cinate (n = 10) or nonvaccinate
control (n = 10) group. Seventeen td 26 days after members of the vaccinate group received a
second dose oi vaccine, all heifers were artificially inseminated. Heifers were challenged
intravenously with Cooper strainBHV-1 between days 177 and 187 of gestation. Aborted
fetuses and stillborn calves were necropsied, and tissues collected for histologic examination
and virus isolation. Heifers, calves, and fetuses were tested for BHV-1 antibody throughout
the study.%Results-The difference in number of abortions or still-births between vaccinated
heifers (1/10) and control heifers (10/10) was significant (P < 0.003). Seven of 10 control
heifers had a virus neutralization antibody titer to BHV-1 at abortion or stillbirth that declined
or remained unchanged from their titer at a previous serologic evaluation (7 to 66 days
earlier).%Clinical Implications-Prebreeding vaccination of replacement heifers with
modified- live BHV-1 vaccine provides fetal protection at 6 months of gestation (7 months
after vaccination) and appears to be a reasonable precaution to control economic losses
associated with BHV-1 infection-Abortions induced by BHV-1 are not necessarily associated
with rising or markedly high virus neutralization antibody titers. These titers should be used
cautiously when assessing the role of BHV-1 in bovine abortion and stillbirth."
CRUZ, N.; ARAYA, O.; ZAROR, L.; DELCAMPO, C.H.
"Reproductive problems related to fescue toxicosis in mares"
"Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria"," 1997","29","1","167-169"
"N. Cruz/Gen Gorostiaga 548/Santiago, Chile"
23
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
"An outbreak of abortion, agalactia and weak foals was observed in a thorougbred
breeding farm in south central Chile. Of 96 pregnant mares, grazing on tall fescue, 11 aborted
and 6 presented agalactia. A high percentage of weak foals was also observed.%Acremonium
coenophialum was isolated from tall fescue, suggesting that the reproductive problem
observed was due to the presence of the endophyte."
DEKRUIF, A.; OPSOMER, G.; DEMEULEMEESTER, L.
"Abortion on a Belgian dairy farm due to Neospora caninum"
"Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift","JUL-AUG 1997","66","4","179-182"
"A. Dekruif/Vakgrp Voortplanting/Verloskunde & 133/B-9820 Merelbeke, Belgium"
"In this article special attention is paid to infections with Neospora caninum as a cause
of abortion in cattle. Recently (1996) Neospora caninum was diagnosed in an aborted calf.
This calf originated from a dairy herd with 65 cows. During the last seven years on average
nine cows (14 %) have aborted per year on this farm. This finding shows that Neospora
caninum infections are enzootic in Belgium."
DONE, S.H.; PATON, D.J.; WHITE, M.E.C.
"Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS): A review, with emphasis on
pathological, virological and diagnostic aspects"
"British Veterinary Journal","MAR 1996","152","2","153-174"
"S.H. Done/Cent Vet Lab Weybridge/Addlestone KT15 3NB/Surrey, England"
"Despite early attempts to control the spread of the disease, porcine reproductive and
respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has now become endemic in many countries including Britain.
The occurrence of subclinical herd infections, the prolonged circulation of virus within herds
and probable aerogenic virus spread all mitigated against the success of control measures. The
origin of the disease is unknown but the causative agent has been shown to be an arterivirus
with shared features to lactate dehydrogenase virus of mice. There is evidence of extreme
genetic and antigenic variability between American and European isolates. PRRS virus has a
predilection for alveolar macrophages and does not grow in most cell lines. In infected pigs,
viraemia can persist for many weeks in the face of circulating antibodies and little is known
about the mechanisms by which immunity to infection develops. A wide spectrum of disease
has been reported from the field, accompanied in some cases by heavy economic losses.
Reproductive and perinatal losses were most prominent when the disease first appeared. In the
endemic phase, PRRS may be more significant as a contributory factor to a post-weaning
respiratory syndrome of young pigs of 3-8 weeks. On- farm techniques have been developed
to reduce the recycling of PRRS virus fi om older infected nursery pigs to the younger newly
weaned pig. Vaccines are now marketed for the control of PRRS, but are not licensed for use
in Britain. Improvements in knowledge of virion composition and antigenic stability and in
the nature of the immune response of the pig should result in genetically engineered subunit
vaccines becoming available. Diagnosis of PRRS is still difficult as many animals do not
show clinical signs and may only be detected by serology and often only when other
respiratory diseases are being investigated, Now that the infection is widespread, serological
testing must be properly targeted and interpreted to give meaningful results about virus
circulation. An increasing arsenal of diagnostic methods are becoming available to detect
virus in both fresh and fixed specimens. The pathogenic mechanisms of PRRS remain poorly
defined and more work is needed to reveal the nature of the interaction between PRRS virus
and other factor's in disease.","Bailliere Tindall/24-28 Oval Rd/London/England NW1
7DX",""
24
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
EAGLESOME, M.D,; SAMPATH, M.I.; GARCIA, M.M.
"A detection assay for Campylobacter fetus in bovine semen by restriction analysis of
PCR amplified DNA"
"Veterinary Research Communications 19: 4 (AUG 1995) Page(s) 253-263"
"M.D. Eaglesome, Agr Agrifood Canada, Anim Dis Res Inst. POB 11300, Stn H, Nepean, on
K2H 8P9, Canada."
"A rapid screening assay for Campylobacter fetus in bull semen was developed using
the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) to
complement isolation by culture. An oligonucleotide primer pair (C-1/C-2) from the
hypervariable region of 16S rRNA of C. fetus was used to amplify a 362 base pair fragment
by PCR. Tile PCR/REA assay, which is completed in 10 hours, detected as few as three C.
fetus subsp. venerealis cells in experimentally infected raw bull semen and in semen diluted
with milk or egg yolk Tris (EYT). All the strains tested, of both subspecies of C. fetus, were
amplified, as were some other Campylobacter species. Restricting the amplified products by
AluI differentiated C. fetus from the other organisms. There was no visible product generated
by PCR from C. sputorum subsp. bubulus, a saprophytic organism found in the prepuce of
bulls, or from seven other species of bacteria found in semen. A modification of the PCR
assay, using another primer pair (C-3/C-2) and two temperature PCR cycling conditions,
increased the proba of detecting C. fetus subsp, venerealis. PCR amplification followed by
REA could be used to screen bovine semen rapidly for C. fetus. In most cases, sequencing of
C-1/C-2 PCR generated products would be preferable fo r distinguishing between the two
subspecies of C. fetus.
GAY, J.M.; EBEL, E.D.; KEARLEY, W.P.
"Commingled grazing as a risk factor for trichomonosis in beef herds"
"Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","AUG 1 1996","209","3","643"
"J.M. Gay/Washington State Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Vet Clin Sci/Field Dis Invest
Unit/Pullman, WA 99164 USA"
"Objective-To evaluate commingled grazing on public lands as a risk factor for
Tritrichomonas foetus infection in beef herd bulls.%Design-Case-control study.%Sample
Population-Based on 1994 data from the mandatory Idaho bull testing program, all 65
infected herds (case herds), 78 randomly selected test-negative herds that tested < 10
nonvirgin bulls, and 81 randomly elected test-negative herds that tested greater than or equal
to 10 nonvirgin bulls (control herds). %Procedure-Managers of government-owned grazing
lands in Idaho identified producers who had grazing permits for an allotment under their
jurisdiction in 1993 and for that allotment recorded the number of animals the producer was
permitted to graze on the allotment, the number of herds with grazing permits, The total
number of animals permitted, and the dates on which grazing began and ended. The number
of bulls tested, number of times tested, and test results were collated from the testing
database.%Results-The relative sensitivity of bacterial culture of preputial smegma was 81%.
The attributable fraction of T foetus infection associated with commingled grazing was 33%,
and the odds ratio of infection was 9.0 for herds commingled with greater than or equal to 14
other herds. The total number of animals permitted on an allotment, the use of public lands,
and type of public lands used were not significantly associated with infection status.%Clinical
implications-These results suggest that to control the spread of trichomonosis, the number of
herds commingling on a grazing allotment should be minimized and commingled herds
should be managed collectively.
25
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
GRIFFITHS, P.C.; PLATER, J.M.; MARTIN, T.C.; HUGHES, S.L.; HUGHES, K.J.;
HEWINSON, R.G.; DAWSON, M.
"Epizootic bovine abortion in a dairy herd: Characterization of a Chlamydia psittaci
isolate and antibody response"
"British Veterinary Journal","NOV-DEC 1995","151","6","683-693"
"P.C. Griffiths/Cent Vet Lab/Dept Virol/Minist Agr Fisheries & Food/Addlestone KT15
3NB/Surrey, England"
"A chlamydial agent was recovered from the placental cotyledons of an aborting cow
from a 100-cow dairy herd in Cumbria. Immunoblotting analysis of purified elementary
bodies of the isolate revealed a reactivity pattern typical of serotype I Chlamydia psittaci
strains. Nucleotide sequencing of the major outer membrane protein (MOMP) gene further
confirmed the isolate, BA1, as a serotype I strain. The sequence was identical to that of the
type strain of ovine enzootic abortion, B577. In both the antigenic and MOMP sequencing
analyses BA1 was distinguishable from serotype II C. pecorum strains. A sequential series of
sera obtained from the aborting cow, from which BA1 was recovered, was analysed by
immuno-blotting against the homologous isolate, and demonstrated reactivity to major
chlamydial antigens over a 110-day period. Close contact between ruminant species on the
farm suggested that the C. psittaci strain may have been transmitted to cattle from infected
sheep."
GUMBRELL, R.C.; SAVILLE, D.J.; GRAHAM, C.F.
"Tactical control of ovine Campylobacter abortionoutbreaks with a bacterin"
"New Zealand Veterinary Journal","APR 1996","44","2","61-63"
"C.F. Graham/Lincoln Anim Hlth Lab/POB 24/Lincoln, New Zealand"
"Abortions due to Campylobacter fetus fetus (C. fetus fetus) were diagnosed in three
Canterbury ewe flocks 6 weeks prior to lambing. In two of the necks, two inoculations of a C.
fetus fetus bacterin, 10 days apart, reduced the incidence of abortions in the treated ewes to
about one third and one half respectively of the level in the control ewes in the same nock.
The treatment had no effect in a third nock where an outbreak had been in progress for 2
weeks before investigations started. The results confirm earlier Scottish work where pregnant
sheep were inoculated with a C. fetus fetus vaccine following artificial challenge with C. fetus
fetus. This inoculation significantly reduced the number of C. fetus fetus abortions. The
results also indicate that treatment must start very early in an outbreak."
ISHIYAMA, T.; NISHIMORI, T.; KATO, M.; YAMADA, H.; SATO, K.; SENTSUI, H.
"Direct detection of equine herpesvirus DNA in tissues of aborted equine fetuses"
"Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series B - Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin Reihe B Infectious Diseases and Veterinary Public Health","DEC 1996","43","10","639-642"
"T. Ishiyama/Natl Inst Anim Hlth/Hokkaido Branch/Kannondai 3-1-1/Tsukuba/Ibaraki 305,
Japan"
"Restriction endonuc lease analysis of equine herpesviruses 1 (EHV-1) and 4 has been
investigated using cultured cells infected with these viruses. The DNA cleavage patterns of
these viruses were observed in the intracellular DNA after digestion with Eco RI and
electrophoresis. This procedure mas applied to the diagnosis of equine herpesvirus infection
in aborted equine fetuses. The characteristic Eco RI restriction pattern of EHV-1 DNA was
directly detectable in the emulsion of lungs collected from aborted equine fetuses."
26
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
JAMALUDDIN, A.A.; CASE, J.T.; HIRD, D.W.; BLANCHARD, P.C.; PEAUROI, J.R.;
ANDERSON, M.L.
"Dairy cattle abortion in California: Evaluation of diagnostic laboratory data"
"Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation","APR 1996","8","2","210-218"
"A.A. Jamaluddin/Univ Calif Davis/Calif Vet Diagnost Lab Syst/Davis, CA 95616 USA"
"A descriptive study was undertaken on 595 dairy cattle abortion submissions to the
California Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory System from July 1, 1987, to December 31,
1989, to determine the etiologic nature and distribution (seasonal and geographical) of dairy
cattle abortion in California as reflected by laboratory submissions. Univariate analysis was
performed to characterize abortion-related submissions by farm and laboratory variables, and
logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors that may influence success of
abortion diagnosis in the laboratory. The proportions of dairies that submitted abortion-related
specimens from northern, central, and southern milksheds during the 2.5-year period were
20.3%, 15.7%, and 13.1%, respectively, and 60% of submissions were from medium-sized
(200-999 cows) dairies. Submissions consisted of fetus (58%), placenta (2%), fetus and
placenta (12%), and fetus, placenta, and materna l blood (0.84%); fetal tissues and uterine
fluid constituted the rest. An apparent pattern in abortion submissions was indicated by a peak
in submissions during the winter and summer of 1988 and 1989. Infectious agents were
associated with 37.1% of submissions; noninfectious causes, 5.5%, and undetermined
etiology, 57.3%. Bacterial abortion accounted for 18% of etiologic diagnoses; protozoal,
14.6%; viral, 3.2%; and fungal, 1,3%. Submissions comprising fetus, placenta, maternal
blood, or their combinations were associated with a higher likelihood of definitive diagnosis
for abortion than tissues, as were fresher specimens and submissions associated with the
second trimester of fetal gestation."
JONES, G.E.; LOW, J.C.; MACHELL, J.; ARMSTRONG, K.
"Comparison of five tests for the detection of antibodies against chlamydial (enzootic)
abortion of ewes"
"Veterinary Record","AUG 16 1997","141","7","164-168"
"G.E. Jones/Moredun Res Inst/408 Gilmerton Rd/Edinburgh EH17 7JH/Midlothian, Scotland"
"Five tests for antibodies against chlamydial (enzootic) abortion of ewes were
compared using 255 sera from experimentally (group 1) or naturally (group 2) infected
animals, flocks free of the disease (group 3) and individual animals testing positively by the
complement fixation test but from flocks with no evidence of chlamydial abortion (group 4)
Sera from five specific pathogen-free lambs vaccinated with two different subtypes of
Chlamydia pecorum were also included (group 5), AU tests used some form of processed
culture of C psittaci as antigen, Specificities, established with groups 3 and 4 sera, ranged
between 96 per cent (ELISA using lipopolysaccharide antigen) and 59 per cent
(Immunocomb). Reactions with group 5 sera suggested that the cause of false positive results
in the field might be cross-reactive antibodies against tile arthritogenic subtype of C pecorum.
Sensitivities, Established with groups 1 and 2 sera, ranged between 81 per cent
(Immunocomb) and 51 per cent (ELISA using solubilised protein antigen), The minimum
sample sizes required to be 95 per cent certain of detecting at least five seropositives in two
infected flocks (combined data) were 15 to 48, dependent on the test applied, The Western
blot test, applied to a proportion of samples, yielded no false positives with group 3 sera bat
31.7 per cent with group 4 sera, Thus, none of the tests in this comparison emerged as
sufficiently satisfactory in all respects, suggesting that further improvements in chlamydial
serology must come through the use of non-native antigens or in the form of a competitive
ELISA."
27
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
KAMOGAWA, O.; TOMITA, Y.; KANEKO, M.; YAMADA, S.; KUBO, M.; SHIMIZU, M.
"Isolation of porcine
respiratory coronavirusfrom pigs affected with porcine
reproductive and respiratory syndrome"
"Journal of Veterinary Medical Science","APR 1996","58","4","385-388"
"M. Shimizu/Natl Inst Anim Hlth/3-1-1 Kannondai/Tsukuba/Ibaraki 305, Japan"
"Four cytopathogenic viruses were isolated in CPK cells derived from porcine
kidneys from tonsils and lungs of 3 of 15 pigs affected with porcine reproductive and
respiratory syndrome virus. Physicochemically and morphologically, the isolates were similar
to a coronavirus. The isolates were not distinguished from transmissible gastroenteritis virus
(TGEV) by a neutralizatio n test using polyclonal antibodies, but differentiated from TGEV
by monoclonal antibodies capable of discriminating between TGEV and porcine respiratory
coronavirus (PRCV), indicating that the isolates were PRCV. In a serological survey of 30
serum samples each collected from about 50 days old pigs in the 2 affected farms, 29 (97%)
and 15 (50%) sera were positive for neutralizing antibody against the isolate with the titers
ranging from 2 to 64, respectively."
KASZANYITZKY, J.E.; BAJMOCY, E.; BACSADI, A.; MATIZ, K.
"Observations on the abortion caused by leptospiras in domestic farm animals"
"Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja","JUL 1997","119","7","415-419"
"J.E. Kaszanyitzky/Debrecen Allat Egeszsegugyi Intezet/Bornemissza U 3-7/H-4002
Debrecen, Hungary"
"Patho logical, bacteriological and histological investigations of 50 horse fetuses, 1141
bovine fetuses, 709 swine fetuses and 247 sheep fetuses have been carried out at the
Mammalian Diagnostic Department of the Veterinary Institute of Debrecen during the past 7
years since 1990. Of them abortion caused by leptospiras was diagnosed by the histological
investigation in 21 bovine and 41 swine fetuses (Table 1). Serological examination of the
blood of dams served valuable data to clarify the etiology of abortions. Of the blood samples
collected from 843 aborted cows, as well as from 644 aborted sows and investigated at the
Bacteriological Department of the institute 210 and 16s samples were positive for one of the
leptospira serotypes, respectively (Table 2).%To clarify the role of different serotypes in the
damage caused in Hungarian cattle stocks, 23,867 blood samples were investigated for 12
leptospira strains which occurred also in Europe according to the literature data and caused
diseases or seroconversion in cattle and might play a role in human diseases also (Tables 3
and 4). According to the data obtained, the Hungarian cattle stocks were most frequently
infected by L.bardjo, L.grippotyphosa and L.pomona. The incidence of other serotypes was
less frequent (Tables 5 and 6).%Considering that cattle is the main reservoir of L.bardjo, this
serotype persists in cattle stocks for a long time, its high incidence is comprehensible. The
role played of L.grippotyphosa and L.pomona in the infections of cattle stocks is essentially
determined by the environmental factors and by the vicinity of most important natural hosts
(rodents, pigs). I.e. the role of natural hosts - in case of leptospiras sensitive for the
environmental effects - is important for maintaining the infections in different
territories.%Laboratory investigations are needed to clarify the etiology of abortions caused
by leptospiras. Owing to the frequent subclinical seroconversion, the serological investigation
in itself is not enough to clarify their role. The pathological findings - due to the existing
differences among serotypes, as well as depending on the time of infection and pathogenicity
of the strain - can be variable. Only a positive histological finding can be consider
pathognostic for leptospirosis. The negative histological findings do not exclude the role of
leptospiras in an abortion.%Anamnestic data, as well as complex evaluation of the results of
28
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
laboratory investigations of the samples originating from the same place can be very useful to
achieve an accurate diagnosis."
LAGER, K.M.; HALBUR, P.G.
"Gross and microscopic lesions in porcine fetuses infected with porcine reproductive
and respiratory syndrome virus"
"Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation","JUL 1996","8","3","275-282"
"K.M. Lager/USDA ARS/Natl Anim Dis Ctr/Virol Swine Res Unit/POB 70/Ames, IA 50010
USA"
"Diagnosis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)- induced
reproductive failure in swine is difficult because of the rapid inactivation of virus in fetuses
that have died prior to abortion or farrowing. In this report, we describe gross and microscopic
lesions of diagnostic value found in fetuses transplacentally infected with PRRSV during late
gestation. Seven sows free of PRRSV-specific antibody and 1 sow (#8) that had been
previously infected with PRRSV were oronasally exposed to a PRRSV inoculum at or about
90 days of gestation (DG). One control sow (#9) was oronasally exposed to a sham inoculum
at 90 DG. Sows were euthanized 21 days postexposure, and fetuses were tested for virus.
Transplacental infection was detected in litters 1-7, and gross lesions of the umbilical cord
were observed in some fetuses in 6 of the 7 litters. No transplacental infection or fetal lesions
were found in litters 8 and 9. The gross lesions in the umbilical cords ranged from segmental
hemorrhagic areas 1-2 cm in length to a full length involvement of the cord, which was
grossly distended with frank hemorrhage.
All live fetuses that had gross lesions in the umbilical cord were viremic, and histopathologic
examination revealed a necrotizing umbilical arteritis with periarterial hemorrhage. This was
the most consistent microscopic lesion in fetuses infected with PRRSV. Sows 1-7 had
endometritis and myometritis of various degrees, suggesting PRRSV also may induce these
lesions. Careful gross and microscopic examination of the umbilical cord may aid in the
diagnosis of PRRSV-induced reproductive failure."
LEHMANN, C.; ELZE, K.
"Results of microbiological investigations of abortions in horses, cattle, pigs and sheep in
Germany"
"Tierarztliche Umschau","SEP 1 1997","52","9","495"
"K. Elze/Univ Leipzig/Fak Vet Med/Ambulator & Geburtshilfl Tierklin/Margarete Blank Str
8/D-04103 Leipzig, Germany"
"The results of microbiological investigations of abortions in horses, cattle, pig and
sheep in North-west and Middle Thuringia (the former district of Erfurt, Germany) from 1983
to 1992 are described. These involved 12 602 cases in cattle, 1113 in pigs, 201 in sheep and
112 in horses. Bacteriological, virological and mycological methods were used. The following
were the commonest organisms detected in bovine abortion material: Actinomyces pyogenes
(980); E. coli (501); Streptococcus spp (215); Listeria monocytogenes (178), and
Staphylococcus spp (122). In addition, Chlamydia psittaci was isolated from 7% of cases, bur
Coxiella burnetii was detected in less than 1% of bovine abortions. Virological examinations,
conducted after 1990, indicated that 10 to 20% of abortions were caused by BVD/MD virus.
Depending on the year, 16.6 to 88.2% of bovine abortions were associated with chlamydia
with other specific abortion agents being isolated infrequently. In equine abortions, chlamydia
predominated and represented 18.7% of all micro-organisms isolated. EHV was detected in
10.7% of all equine abortions and other predominant agents included Streptococcus spp of
Lancefield Group C. In abortion material from pigs, E. coli predominated (49.9%) followed
29
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
by Streptococcus spp (20%) and Staphylococcus spp (19.3%). Cell culture techniques
revealed chlamydia in 30 to 50% of porcine abortions."
LINDSAY, D.S.; BUTLER, J.M.; BLAGBURN, B.L.
"Efficacy of decoquinate against Neospora caninum tachyzoites in cell cultures"
"Veterinary Parasitology","JAN 1997","68","1-2","35-40"
"D.S. Lindsay/Auburn Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Pathobiol/166 Greene Hall/Auburn, AL
36849 USA"
"Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in dairy cattle in the United States and
other countries. Abortions and neonatal mortality also occur in other ruminant species.
Decoquinate is an anticoccidial that is approved for use in cattle and goats in the United
States. We studied the efficacy of decoquinate against tachyzoites of N. caninum in a 5-day of
treatment, cell culture flask lesion-based assay. Decoquinate killed tachyzoites at
concentrations of 0.1 and 0.01 mu g ml(-1). Decoquinate had little measurable effect on
extracellular tachyzoites. Decoquinate acted quickly to kill intracellular stages at
coccidiocidal concentrations; tachyzoites were killed within 5 min at 0.1 mu g ml(-1)
decoquinate."
MADIC, J.; HAJSIG, D.; SOSTARIC, B.; CURIC, S.; SEOL, B.;NAGLIC, T.; CVETNIC, Z.
"An outbreak of abortion in mares associated with Salmonella abortus equi infection"
"Equine Veterinary Journal","MAY 1997","29","3","230-233"
"J. Madic/Univ Zagreb/Fac Vet/Dept Microbiol & Infect Dis/Heinzelova 55/Zagreb 10000,
Croatia"
"An abortion outbreak occurred in a herd of 38 horses, 26 of which were pregnant
mares. Twenty-one mares aborted between 5-10 months of gestatio n. In no case were there
indications of impending abortion. Pathoanatomical, histopathological, virological and
bacteriological examinations were carried out on 4 aborted fetuses. Histopathology identified
Gram- negative bacteria compatible with salmonella in all 4 placentae. By subsequent
bacteriological examination Salmonella abortusequi was isolated as the single causative agent
in each case. Nonmotile Salmonella abortusequi with antigenic formula 4,12:- :- was isolated
from one of the 4 fetuses. The described episode of equine abortion clearly indicates that
Salmonella abortusequi has not been eradicated from Europe as previously thought."
MASRI, S.A.; OLSON, W.; NGUYEN, P.T.; PRINS, S.; DEREGT, D.
"Rapid detection of bovine herpesvirus 1 in the semen of infected bulls by a nested
polymerase chain reaction assay"
"Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research - Revue Canadienne de Recherche
Veterinaire","APR 1996","60","2","100-107"
"S.A. Masri/Agr & Agri Food Canada/Anim Dis Res Inst/Lethbridge/Ab T1J 3Z4, Canada"
"A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the detection of
bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) in bovine semen and compared with the virus isolation
method. When extended semen, commonly used in the bovine artificial insemination indus try,
was inoculated with BHV-1, the PCR assay detected BHV-1 DNA in semen inoculated at
0.25-2.5 TCID50 per 0.5 mL. In contrast, the lower limit of detection for virus isolation was
250 TCID50 of BHV-1 inoculated in 0.5 mL of extended semen. These methods were also
used to detect BHV-1 in the semen of four bulls which were experimentally infected with
BHV-1. All infected bulls demonstrated balanitis at 3 d post-inoculation (DPI) and severe
balanoposthitis at 4 DPI. BHV-1 was detected in raw semen by virus isolation and PCR at 2
DPI, before balanitis was evident. For virus isolation, the last day that BHV-1 was detected
30
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
during primary infection was 7 DPI for two bulls and 9 and 11 DPI for the other two bulls. In
contrast, PCR detected BHV-1 in the bulls' semen until 14 or 18 DPI. For individual animals,
PCR detected BHV-1 during primary infection for at least 1-10 d longer than virus isolation.
Reactivation of BHV-1 from latency without the presence of visible lesions was promoted
twice by two series of 5 d dexamethasone injections. For the first series of dexamethasone
treatments, a positive virus isolation result was obtained on the 5th d of treatment for only one
bull. In contrast, two bulls demonstrated evidence of viral reactivation on this day by PCR.
All bulls shed BHV-1 in semen on d 4 after dexamethasone treatment, as evidenced by
positive virus isolation and PCR results. One bull was still PCR positive 13 d later. For the
second series of dexamethasone treatments, a small amount of virus was isolated from semen
collected on d 3 or 4 after treatment for two bulls but not from the other two bulls. In contrast,
semen samples from all bulls were PCR positive for either or both of these 2 d. In total, from
80 semen samples, 45 were PCR positive and 26 were virus isolation positive. Thus, the PCR
assay detected BHV-1 shedding in bulls earlier, more often, and for a longer duration, than
did the virus isolation method.","Canadian Vet Med Assn/339 Booth St/Attn: Kimberely
Alle/Ottawa on K1R 7K1/Canada"
MCALLISTER, M.M.; HUFFMAN, E.M.; HIETALA, S.K.; CONRAD, P.A.; ANDERSON,
M.L.; SALMAN, M.D.
"Evidence suggesting a point source exposure in an outbreak of bovine abortion due to
neosporosis"
"Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation","JUL 1996","8","3","355-357"
"M.M. Mcallister/Univ Wyoming/Wyoming State Vet Lab/1174 Snowy Range Rd/Laramie,
WY 82070 USA"
"A Holstein dairy farm suffered an abortion outbreak due to neosporosis. Abortion
losses were > 18%. Cows with the highest Neospora antibody titers were at the greatest risk
of aborting. Mummified fetuses were found after the 43rd day of the outbreak. The epidemic
curve was suggestive of a point source exposure, which is consistent with the hypothesis that
Neospora can be spread by a definitive host."
MEDVECZKY, I.
"Comprehensive review on the recent knowledge of porcine reproductive and
respiratory syndrome (PRRS)"
"Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja","JUN 1996","51","6","367-371"
"I. Medveczky/Aote/Jarvanytani & Mikrobiol Tanszek/Hungaria Krt 23/H-1143 Budapest,
Hungary"
"A comprehensive review has been given on the recent scientific results (causative
agent, pathogenesis, epizootiology, diagnosis, clinical symptoms, control) of PRRS, a
diseases endangering also the Hungarian pig population. Clinical features and economical
losses have been detailed in Tables which characterized the PRRS infections observed by
Danish SPF farms with mild clinical symptoms. Of the symptoms observed by the Danish
farmers, agalactia (64%) and drastic increase of the number of stillbirths (56%) were the most
characteristics at the beginning of the infection on the 40 SPF farms investigated (Table 1).
Table 2 gives information about the number of piglets born alive and dead pro litter, as well
as about the number of losses observed on Danish SPF farms. Losses in finishing units
originated mainly from the decrease of daily weight gain (26 g/day) and from the increased
feed conversion (0.4 FEs/kg, Table 3). Production indices of the infected farms reached the
original levels 26 weeks after the outbreaks, on an average.%The review has been based on
the information of the lectures held on the Expert Course organized by the Federation of
31
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
Danish Pig Producers and Slaughterhouses and 2nd International Symposium on PRRS
(Copenhagen, 1995). Hungary is still free of the diseases at the time of receiving the article
(January, 1996). PRRS is a reportable disease since 1996."
MENGELING, W.L.; VORWALD, A.C.; LAGER, K.M.; BROCKMEIER, S.L.
"Comparison among strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus for
their ability to cause reproductive failure"
"American Journal of Veterinary Research","JUN 1996","57","6","834-839"
"W.L. Mengeling/USDA ARS/Natl Anim Dis Ctr/Virol Swine Res Unit/POB 70/2300
Dayton Ave/Ames, IA 50010 USA"
"Objective-To compare the virulence of selected strains of porcine reproductive and
respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) relative to reproductive performance of pregnant
gilts.%Design-16 pregnant gilts (principals) were exposed oronasally to 4 strains (vaccine
strain RespPRRS, field strains VR-2385, VR-2431, and NADC-8, 4 gilts/strain) of PRRSV on
or about day 90 of gestation. 4 pregnant gilts (controls) were kept under similar conditions,
except for exposure to PRRSV. Samples and specimens obtained from gilts, pigs (before
ingestion of colostrum), and fetuses were tested for PRRSV and homologous
antibody.%Animals-20 pregnant gilts.%Procedure-The virulence of each strain of PRRSV
was evaluated mainly on the clinical status of the corresponding litters at
farrowing.%Results-Most gilts remained clinically normal throughout the study and farrowed
normally at or near the expected farrowing time. All virus strains crossed the placenta of
principal gilts to infect fetuses in utero. The number of late-term dead fetuses (which appeared
to be the best measure of relative virulence) ranged from 0 for litters of control gilts and gilts
exposed to strain RespPRRS, to 38 for gilts exposed to strain NADC-8. Ail principal gilts
became viremic and developed antibody against PRRSV, Ail strains persisted in alveolar
macrophages of at least some principal gilts for at least 7 weeks after
exposure;%Conclusion-Strains of PRRSV vary in virulence.%Clinical Relevance-The effects
of PRRSV on reproductive performance are strain dependent and this should be considered in
making a tentative diagnosis on the basis of clinical observations."
OLSEN, S.C.; EVANS, D.; HENNAGER, S.G.; CHEVILLE, N.F.; STEVENS, M.G.
"Serologic responses of Brucella abortus strain 19 calfhood-vaccinated cattle following
adult vaccination with strain RB51"
"Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation","OCT 1996","8","4","451-454"
"S.C. Olsen/Agr Res Serv/USDA/Natl Anim Dis Ctr/Ames, IA 50010 USA"
"This study was designed to determine if Brucella abortus strain RB51, which
expresses small amounts of the lipopolysaccharide O side chain, would cause positive
responses on brucellosis serologic surveillance tests when given to adult cattle that were
vaccinated as calves with B. abortus strain 19. Cattle vaccinated as adults with strain RB51
that had been vaccinated as calves with strain 19 (n = 40) had significantly greater antibody
titers (P < 0.05) against strain RB51 at 4 and 8 weeks postvaccination in the dot blot assay
than did animals (n = 10) not vaccinated with strain RB51. When evaluated using the card or
buffered acid plate agglutination presumptive tests, 7 strain RB51 vaccinates tested positive
at either 4 or 8 weeks following vaccination as compared with 4 cattle in the control group
that were not vaccinated with strain RB51. One strain RB51 vaccinate was scored as suspect
on the standard tube agglutination (STA) test at 8 weeks following vaccination. Remaining
samples from strain RB51 vaccinates tested negative on the STA, complement fixation (CF),
rivanol, and particle concentration fluorescence immunoassay (PCFIA) confirmatory tests.
Samples from 2 control cattle were PCFIA positive at time 0; 1 of these animals was CF
32
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
positive throughout the study. This study suggests that use of strain RB51 in cattle vaccina ted
with strain 19 as calves will not cause positive responses on confirmatory tests and will not
impair brucellosis serologic surveillance efforts."
PALMER, M.V.; CHEVILLE, N.F.; JENSEN, A.E.
"Experimental infection of pregnant cattle with the vaccine candidate Brucella abortus
strain RB51: Pathologic, bacteriologic, and serologic findings"
"Veterinary Pathology","NOV 1996","33","6","682-691"
"M.V. Palmer/USDA ARS/Natl Anim Dis Ctr/Brucellosis Res Unit/2300 Dayton Ave/Ames,
IA 50010 USA"
"To determine the placental tropism and abortigenicity of the vaccine candidate
Brucella abortus strain RB51 (SRB51), a rough mutant of the virulent strain 2308, ten Polled
Hereford heifers were inoculated intravenously in the 6th month of gestation. Heifers were
euthanatized and examined at postinoculation week (PIW) 8 (n = 5) or at full term (n = 5).
Four of five infected heifers sampled at PIW 8 and three of four infected heifers at term had
placentitis, whereas reproductive tissues of three normal cows used for comparison had no
placentitis. Numerous macrophages, immunoreactive for SRB51 antigen, as well as
neutrophils, fibrin, and cell debris filled the arcade zone between chorion and maternal septae.
Trophoblastic epithelium of the placentomal arcade zone had intracellular bacteria that were
immunoreactive for SRB51 antigen. The tips of maternal septa had a lymphoplasmacytic
infiltrate with small multifocal erosions and ulcerations of maternal epithelium. SRB51 was
cultured from all tissues in which lesions were seen. Placentae of one cow from each group
had no placentitis and contained no SRB51. In mammae, interstitial lymphoplasmacytic
infiltrates and suppurative infiltrates within alveoli and intralobular ductules were seen in two
of five heifers at PIW 8. SRB51 was cultured from liver, spleen, lung, and bronchial lymph
nodes in four of five calves at PIW 8 and three of four full;term calves, but no lesions were
seen. One near-term heifer had disseminated infection, placentitis, and lymphoplasmacytic
endometritis, and delivered a premature weak calf. These results establish that SRB51 is less
abortifacient than previously published reports with strain 19, in that only one of four heifers
delivered prematurely following intravenous inoculation with SRB51, whereas intravenous
inoculation with strain 19 leads to 100% abortion. However, it also shows that SRB51 can
infect the bovine placenta, mammary gland, and fetus, can induce placentitis, and, in some
cases, can lead to preterm expulsion of the fetus."
PALMER, M.V.; OLSEN, S.C.; CHEVILLE, N.F.
"Safety and immunogenicity of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in pregnant
cattle"
"American Journal of Veterinary Research","MAY 1997","58","5","472-477"
"M.V. Palmer/USDA ARS/Natl Anim Dis Ctr/Zoonot Dis Res Unit/POB 70/Ames, IA 50010
USA"
"Objective-To determine the safety and immunogenicity of Brucella abortus strain
RB51 as a vaccine in pregnant cattle.%Animals-12 Polled Hereford heifers obtained from a
brucellosis- free herd and bred on site at 16 months of age to a brucellosis-free
bull.%Procedure-Pregnant heifers were vaccinated at 6 months' gestation with 10(9)
colony-forming units of B abortus strain RB51 (n = 5), 3 x 10(8) colony- forming units of B
abortus strain 19 (n = 5), or sterile pyrogen- free saline solution (n = 2). Samples were
periodically collected for serologic testing and lymphocyte blastogenesis assays. At full
gestation, heifers were euthanatized and specimens were collected for bacteriologic culture,
histologic analysis, and lymphocyte blastogenesis assay, using various antigenic
33
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
stimuli.%Results-None of the strain RB51- or strain 19-vaccinates aborted or had gross or
microscopic lesions at necropsy that were consistent with brucellosis. Maternal blood
mononuclear cells from strain RB51- and strain 19-vaccinates had proliferative responses to
gamma- irradiated strain RB51 and strain 19 that were greater than responses by cells from
nonvaccinated controls. In contrast, maternal superficial cervical lymph node cells from strain
19-vaccinates had proliferative responses to gamma- irradiated strain RB51 or strain 19
bacteria greater than those of cells from RB51-vaccinates and nonvaccinated controls. None
of the heifers vaccinated with strain RB51 developed antibodies detected by use of the
standard tube agglutination test, but all developed antibodies to strain RB51 that reacted in a
dot ELISA, using irradiated strain RB51 as antigen. %Conclusions-Pregnant cattle can be
safely vaccinated with strain RB51 without subsequent abortion or placentitis. Furthermore,
strain RB51 is immunogenic in pregnant cattle, resulting in humoral and cell- mediated
immune responses, but does not interfere with serologic diagnosis of field infections."
PAPP, J.R.; SHEWEN, P.E.; THORN, C.E.; ANDERSEN, A.A.
"Immunocytologic detection of Chlamydia psittaci from cervical and vaginal samples of
chronically infected ewes"
"Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research - Revue Canadienne de Recherche
Veterinaire","JAN 1998","62","1","72-74"
"J.R. Papp/Univ Guelph/Ontario Vet Coll/Dept Pathobiol/Guelph/on N1G 2W1, Canada"
"An immunocytologic method was developed for the detection of chronic Chlamydia
psittaci infection from the reproductive tract of ewes. Vaginal and cervical samples from 8
infected and 2 non- infected ewes were stained with a C. psittaci-specific monoclonal
antibody. Cells containing C. psittaci were only detected from the 8 infected ewes and the
level of detection varied with respect to the estrus cycle. An increased number of infected
cells were observed during the periovulation period, thus indicating an optimal window for
detection."
POUILLOT, R.; GARINBASTUJI, B.; GERBIER, G.; COCHE, Y.; CAU, C.; DUFOUR, B.;
MOUTOU, F.
"The Brucellin skin test as a tool to discriminate false positive serological reactions in
bovine brucellosis"
"Veterinary Research","JUL-AUG 1997","28","4","365-374"
"B. Garinbastuji/Lab Reference Oie Brucellose/BP 67/F-94703 Maisons Alfort, France"
"Three experiments were performed in order to assess the diagnostic value of the
Brucellin allergic skin test (AST) in a brucellosis false positive serological reactions (FPSR)
context. First, 1 259 cattle from 20 Brucella- free herds in a FPSR area were tested twice with
AST to estimate its specificity. Secondly, AST and serological tests (complement fixation
test [CFT], tube agglutination test, dithiothreitol- microagglutination test and ELISA)
sensitivities were evaluated on 111 cattle positive to the Rose Bengal test (RBT) belonging to
15 Brucella- infected herds. Thirdly, AST was used in a field trial to discriminate FPSR from
true brucellosis reactions. AST specificity in non-vaccinated cattle was very high (99.83%;
confidence interval 95% [CI95%]: 99.67-99.96%). Skin thickening 72 h post- injection was
significantly higher on vaccinated cattle (1.42 vs 0.15 mm). In this sub-population, AST
specificity decreased significantly to 78% (CI95%: 68-87%). Individual sensitivity of AST
relative to Rose Bengal test was 64% (CI95%: 54-72%), while all infected herds were AST
positive (n = 15). When associated with CFT, it detected 95% (CI95%: 90-98%) of the
infected cattle. These results were consistent with the field trial. In a FPSR context, AST was
34
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
more specific than RBT or CFT. Therefore, this test could be used at herd level as a
confirmation test, on cattle non vaccinated against brucellosis."
REICHEL, M.P.; DRAKE, J.M.
"The diagnosis of Neospora abortions in cattle"
"New Zealand Veterinary Journal","AUG 1996","44","4","151-154"
"M.P. Reichel/Maf Qual Management/Cent Anim Hlth Lab/POB 40063/Lower Hutt, New
Zealand"
"An indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and an enzyme- linked
immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for specific anti-Neospora antibodies in bovine sera and foetal
fluids were compared with histological examination results on aborted foetal material. The
agreement between serological and histological examination results was poor, while the two
serological tests showed a high degree of agreement. Serological testing of diagnostic serum
samples and foetal fluids suggests that the prevalence of anti-Neospora antibodies in cattle
which recently aborted is around 40%, in line with previous estimates of the number of
abortions in dairy cattle caused by Neospora sp. A sero-epidemiological approach to the
diagnosis of Neospora abortions in cattle may be suggested from these data."
SCHARES, G.; PETERS, M.; WURM, R.; TACKMANN, K.; HENNING, K.; CONRATHS,
F.J.
"Neospora caninum causes abortions in a cattle herd in North Rhine Westphalia"
"Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift","JUN 1997","104","6","208-212"
"G. Schares/Bundesforsch Anstalt/Viruskrankheiten Tiere/Inst Epidemiol Diagnost/Seestr
55/D-16868 Wusterhausen, Germany"
"In a cattle herd in North Rhine-Westphalia a series of eight abortions occurred
between 15th August and 14th October, 1996. Four of the aborted fetuses were
histopathologically, virologically, bacteriologically and parasitologically examined. A
multifocal necrotising encephalitis was observed in two fetuses. In addition, the liver of two
fetuses and the placenta of one fetus contained infected foci. In three fetuses protozoan stages
were detected which were identified as N. caninum by immunohistochemistry. A polymerase
chain reaction conducted with histological material revealed N. caninum- DNA in the
placenta of an aborted fetus. When seven cows that had aborted were tested for antibodies
directed against N. caninum, six animals were positive by immunofluorescence and all seven
by immunoblotting. The serological examination of the entire herd revealed a high herd
seroprevalence of antibodies directed against N. caninum. Potential modes of infection with
N. caninum in the herd are discussed, in particular the possibility of exposure to a point
source (definitive host)."
SMITH, K.C.
"Herpesviral abortion in domestic animals"
"Veterinary Journal" "MAY 1997","153","3","253-268"
"K.C. Smith/Anim Hlth Trust/Ctr Prevent Med/POB 5/Newmarket CB8 7DW/Suffolk,
England"
"Abortion or neonatal disease may follow infection with several alpha, beta and
gamma-herpesviruses. The alpha-herpesvirus, equid herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), causes single or
epizootic abortions or neonatal deaths in equids, and the closely related virus EHV-4 causes
sporadic equine abortions. In cattle, the alpha- herpesviruses, bovine herpesvirus-1 (infectious
bovine rhinotracheitis virus) and bovine herpesvirus-5 (bovine encephalitis virus), and a
gamma-herpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus-4, have all been implicated as causes of abortion. In
35
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
pigs, suid herpesvirus-1 (SHV-1: pseudorabies virus), an alpha-herpesvirus, and SHV-2
(porcine cytomegalovirus), a beta- herpesvirus, each cause abortion or neonatal piglet losses.
Caprine herpesvirus-1, canine herpesvirus and feline herpesvirus-1, all alpha-herpesviruses,
cause abortions or neonatal deaths in goats, dogs and cats, respectively. This review discusses
the pathogenesis, pathology and laboratory diagnosis of these herpesviral abortions and
neonatal disease, with an emphasis on experimental studies of each disease. Alternative
reviews covering other aspects of each infection, such as the genetic and antigenic structure of
the viruses, host immune responses and approaches to vaccination and disease control are
indicated at appropriate points in the test."
SMITH, K.C.; MCGLADDERY, A.J.; BINNS, M.M.; MUMFORD, J.A.
"Use of transabdominal ultrasound-guided amniocentesis for detection of equid
herpesvirus 1-induced fetal infection in utero"
"American Journal of Veterinary Research","SEP 1997","58","9","997-1002"
"K.C. Smith/Anim Hlth Trust/Ctr Prevent Med/POB 5/Newmarket CB8 7DW/Suffolk,
England"
"Objective-To evaluate transabdominal ultrasound- guided amniocentesis for detection
of equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV- l)-induced fetal infection in utero.%Animals-4 Welsh Mountain
mares.%Procedure-Pregnant mares were inoculated intranasally with EHV-1 during the ninth
month of gestation. Amniocentesis was initiated on postinoculation day (PID) 12, and was
performed at 2- to 3-day intervals in standing mares under deep sedation. Amniotic fluid
samples were tested by virus isolation (VI), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and
immunoperoxidase cytologic examination (IC) for detection of EHV-1.%Results-Exposure to
EHV-1 in the ninth month of gestation resulted in nasal shedding of infective virus,
establishment of cell-associated viremia, and seroconversion. Eq uid herpesvirus 1 was
detected by VI, PCR, and IC in amniotic fluid collected on PID 14 from 1 mare and on PID
16 and 17 from a second mare. Specimens of amniotic fluid from a third mare were VI
negative until PID 18, when collections ceased, although this mare subsequently aborted an
EHV- l-infected fetus on PID 28. The fourth mare aborted an EHV-1 infected fetus on PID 14.
The 2 mares with VI-positive amniotic fluid were each carrying an EHV-1 infected fetus in
utero, confirmed by examination of the uterus, placenta, and fetus, using specific
immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Endothelial cells in the endometrium and
allantochorion were often virus- infected, with accompanying vascular lesions. The fetus had
been infected via the chorionic vasculature in the first and fourth mares, and by inhalation of
infected amniotic fluid in the second mare.%Conclusion-Amniocentesis permits specific
detection of EHV- l- induced fetal infection in utero.%Clinical Relevance-Amniocentesis may
have a clinical role in the specific identification and isolation of mares carrying virus- infected
fetuses during EHV-1-induced abortion epizootics."
STING, R.
"Chlamydia psittaci infection in cows and ewes in northern Baden-Wurttemberg"
"Tierarztliche Umschau","JUN 1 1997","52","6","332"
R. Sting/Azenbergstr 16/D-70174 Stuttgart, Germany"
"The excretion of Chlamydia psittaci by cows and ewes in herds and flocks
experiencing fertility problems was studied to elucidate the potential sources of infection for
the transmission of this pathogen. The prevalence of infection in cows, as determined by
testing of samples of genital swabs, placentae andfetuses, using the capture ELISA was 37%
with 73% of the herds infected The corresponding values for ewes and flocks were 71% and
87%, respectively. The complement fixation test (CFT) on sera revealed an 8% prevalence
36
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
and the ELISA a 40% prevalence of the cows sampled, and herd prevalences of 45% and
91%, respectively. Serological examinations of ewes revealed a prevalence of 22%, using the
CFT, and 64% using the ELISA, with flock prevalences of 74% and 91%, respectively. The
zoonotic significance of C. psittaci is discussed.
TAKIKAWA, N.; KOBAYASHI, S.; IDE, S.; YAMANE, Y.; TANAKA, Y.;
HIGASHIHARA, M.; YAMAGISHI, H.
"Early serodiagnosis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection
of pigs by detection of slow-reacting and complement -requiring neutralizing antibody"
"Journal of Veterinary Medical Science","JAN 1997","59","1","31-34"
"N. Takikawa/Kitasato Inst/Res Ctr Vet Sci/111/Arai 6 Chome/Kaitamotoshi/Saitama 364,
Japan"
"In order to evaluate and enhance the sensitivity of the neutralization (NT) test for
detecting antibody in pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome
(PRRS) virus, the effect of altered incubation conditions and complement use on neutralizing
(NT) antibody titer were investigated. Higher NT antibody titers were consistently obtained
by addition of 20% guinea pig fresh serum to virus-serum mixtures in NT tests. Furthermore,
the comp lement-requiring NT antibody titer increased in many serum samples when the
virus-serum mixtures, rather than being incubated at 37 degrees C for 60 min, were incubated
first at 4 degrees C for 48 hr and then with a complement at 37 degrees C for 60 min. The
slow-reacting and complement-requiring NT antibody was detected as early as 8 days
post-inoculation. It was detected in sera collected at 8 to 28 days post- inoculation and was
sensitive to 2- mercaptoethanol treatment. Sera collected at 35 to 44 days post-inoculation
contained 2- mercaptoethanol resistant NT antibodies. These results indicate that the modified
NT test is useful for early serodiagnosis of PRRS virus infection through detection of higher
NT antibody titers, and in detecting them earlier."
THOMA, R.; GUSCETTI, F.; SCHILLER, I.;SCHMEER, N.;CORBOZ, L.;POSPISCHIL, A.
"Chlamydiae in porcine abortion"
"Veterinary Pathology","SEP 1997","34","5","467-469"
"A.Pospischil/Univ Zurich/Inst Vet Pathol/Winterthurerstr 268/CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland"
"Formalin- fixed, paraffin-embedded fetal livers and lungs from 139 cases of swine
abortion were investigated retrospectively for chlamydiae by means of
immunohistochemistry. Using a genus-specific antibody, chlamydial antigen was found in
eight livers obtained from five (3.6%) abortion cases from different herds. All lung sections
were negative. Chlamydiae were also labeled in five of the eight positive livers using a
monoclonal antibody against immunotype 1 of Chlamydia psittaci; the remaining three livers
were negative. No reactivity was seen using an antibody specific for C. trachomatis.
Chlamydiae should be considered a cause of abortion in sows in Switzerland. Porcine
abortigenic strains identified in this study differed immunologically from intestinal strains
(known to be mainly C. trachomatis) but shared similarities with abortigenic chlamydiae of
ruminants."
VEZNIK, Z.; KUMMER, V.; CANDERLE, J.; MASKOVA, J.; SVECOVA, D.; POSPISIL,
L.; DIBLIKOVA, I.; ZRALY, Z.
"Role of Chlamydia sp in inflammatory conditions of the birth canal of cows"
"Veterinarni Medicina","OCT 1996","41","10","297-304"
"Z. Veznik/Vet Res Inst/Hudcova 70/Brno 62132, Czech Republic"
37
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
"Clinical findings in cows of seven farms with a frequent occurrence of birth canal
inflammations were matched against results of serological and direct immunofluorescence
tests for Chlamydia sp. infection. Normal clinical picture, weak to moderate and serious
inflammations were found in 16.1%, 46.7% and 37.2% of the 205 examined cows,
respectively. The results of micro CFT were negative in 32.7% and titres 1 : 5, 1 : 10, 1 : 20,
and 1 : greater than or equal to 40 were found in 8.7%, 38.0%, 12.3%, and 8.3%, respectively.
Direct immunofluorescence test of cervical swabs, using the Progen Biotechnic GmbH set,
was negative in 29.1% and clearly positive in 34.7% of the tested cows. The rest was animals
in which sporadic elementary bodies were seen. The significance of the findings is discussed
and the necessity to test Chlamydia infections in herds affected by frequent and/or chronic
inflammations of genital organs is stressed. Evidence of the transmission of Chlamydia
infection by contaminated semen is presented."
WEBER, A.; ROTH, M.; EWRINGMANN, T.; KELLER, B.
"Abortion in cattle - microbiological findings"
"Praktische Tierarzt","AUG 1 1997","78","8","661"
"A.Weber/Landesuntersuchungsamt Gesundheitswesen/Heimerichstr 31/D-90419 Nurnberg,
Germany"
"Bacteria are still the most frequent cause for infectious abortions in cattle. In this
connection is described the present significance of Brucella ssp., Campylobacter ssp.,
Actinomyces pyogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydia psittaci,
Salmonella ssp., Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Mycobacterium ssp. Further the difficulties
of the isolation of BVD-and IBR-virus as infectious cause of bovine abortion are mentioned.
In addition a report ist given for the significance of mould fungus Aspergillus fumigatus and
Mortierella wolfii as well as the parasites Tritrichomonas foetus and Neospora caninum as
cause of bovine abortion."
WEBBER, J.J.; PRITCHARD, D.H.; GORDON, L.M.; DEAN, H.F.
"Isolation of bacteria resembling Histophilus ovis from cattle"
"Australian-Veterinary-Journal. 1983, 60: 9, 276; 14 ref."
"Dep. Agric., Reg. Vet. Lab., PO Box 406, Hamilton, Victoria 3300, Australia."
"Although both H. ovis and Haemophilus somnus are significant pathogens of
domestic animals, these names are not valid. H. somnus has not been reported from Australia,
but H. ovis has been isolated frequently from cases of septicaemia, synovitis, abscessation,
perinatal death, meningitis, mastitis and suppurative epididymitis in sheep over the past 10
years. In addition, an organism resembling H. ovis morphologically and biochemically has
been isolated from cattle with vaginitis (14 herds), puerperal endometritis (3 herds), infertility
(more than 10 herds) and sporadically from cases of pneumonia, abortion and haematuria
since 1978. Two calves were inoculated with an isolate of this organism from a case of bovine
endometritis into the cisterna magna through the atlanto-occipital joint. Both developed
clinical signs and lesions similar to those described in H. somnus- induced thrombo-embolic
meningoencephalitis, and the organism was recovered in pure culture from the CNS and
spinal cord of both calves, also from blood and stifle synovial fluid of one calf and liver of the
second."
WOUDA, W.; MOEN, A.R.; VISSER, I.J.R.; VANKNAPEN, F.
"Bovine fetal neosporosis: A comparison of epizootic and sporadic abortion cases and
different age classes with regard to lesion severity and
immunohistochemical
identification of organisms in brain, heart, and liver"
38
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
"Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation","APR 1997","9","2","180-185"
"W. Wouda/Anim Hlth Serv/Drachten, Netherlands"
"Eighty bovine fetuses with confirmed neosporosis were used to score lesion severity
and presence of parasites in brain, heart, and liver. A comparison was made between
epizootic and sporadic abortion cases. The possible influence of fetal age was also
investigated. Histologic lesions of multifocal encephalitis, myocarditis, and periportal
hepatitis with or without focal hepatocellular necrosis were almost always observed.
Neospora caninum tachyzoites were identified immunohistochemically in 85% of the brains,
14% of the hearts, and 26% of the livers. Tissue cysts were observed in 21% of the brains.
Significant differences between epizootic and sporadic abortion cases were found only in the
liver. Hepatic lesions were more prominent and N. caninum tachyzoites were observed more
frequently and in higher numbers in epizootic cases. Examination by immunohistochemistry
of the liver in addition to the brain can be highly contributive diagnostically, particularly in
epizootic cases. There were no significant age-related differences except for a higher
presence of tachyzoites in the hearts of younger fetuses (3-4 months gestational age)."
ZAMBRANO, A.J.; VILLAVA, F.M.; SCHURIG, G.G.; CHERWONOGRODZKY, J.W.
"Preliminary results for the vaccination of pregnant cattle with Brucella abortus strain
19 or B. abortus RB51"
"Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria"," 1995","27"," Sp. Iss.","119-123"
"A.J. Zambrano/Inst NaCl Hig & Med Trop/Leopoldo Izquita Perez/Labs Vet/Ave Amer/C
5584/Guayaquil, Ecuador"
"As cattle are the most susceptible to Brucella abortus infections when these animals
are pregnant, a study was done to compare the effects of vaccine strains 19 and RB51. Three
cows served as controls, six received 4x10(7) strain 19 subcutaneously into the neck and six
received 5x10(7) strain RB51 by the same route. Although one of the controls aborted, this
was subsequently found to be due to a Staphylococcus aureus infection. The pregnant cattle,
that were vaccinated with strain 19, showed sero-conversion and one cow aborted with B.
abortus S19 isolated from the fetus. Pregnant cattle that received B. abortus RB51 neither
showed any sere-conversion nor any abortions."
CAPITULO VI
NUTRICIÓN e INFERTILIDAD
COSGROVE, J.R.; FOXCROFT, G.R.
"Nutrition and reproduction in the pig: Ovarian aetiology"
"Animal Reproduction Science","APR 1996","42","1-4","131-141"
"J.R. Cosgrove/Alberta Swine Genet Corp/Box 3310/Leduc/Ab T9E 6M1, Canada"
"All mammalian reproductive processes will ultimately be determined by nutrient
availability, from gametogenesis to lactation, The modem production gilt and sow, selected
for lean growth rate and optimal milk production over an abbreviated lactation, represent
extreme models in which to investigate interactions between the demands of somatic growth
and reproduction, The focus of this review is nutritional modulation of the porcine gonad and,
more specifically, the ovary, rather than the entire hypothalamo-hypophysial- gonadal axis.
The influences and mechanisms of action of metabolic hormones and growth factors of both
39
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
extra- and intra-ovarian origin are considered, Additionally, regulation of circulating gonadal
steroids by nutrition and the consequent implications for gonadotrophin secretion and embryo
mortality are discussed."
FEKETE, S.; HUSZENICZA, G.
"Relations between feeding and reproduction. Review article"
"Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja","JUL 1996","51","7","413-420"
"S. Fekete/Aote/Takarmanyozastani Tanszek/Rottenbiller U 50/H-1077 Budapest, Hungary"
"Long- lasting effect of feeding (first of all the energy and protein supply) has been
reviewed on the reproduction of male and female animals. Energy deficiency does not harm
permanently the embryonic development of primordial germ cells. However even a slight feed
deficiency in ewe during the last 6 weeks of pregnancy or during the lactation period can
worsen the future ovulation rate of lambs. Questions of nutriment supply and sexual
maturation have been treated in case of both sexes. Thereafter the effect of feed doses on the
number of ovulated eggs has been reviewed. Hormonal bases of flushing effect has also been
treated. Fertility rate and survival of embryos determine the realization of the potential of
ovulated eggs. Incorporation rate of different nutriments int the embryos has also been treated.
Energy deficiency together with protein deficiency in highly pregnant dams diminish most
firmly the body- mass of offsprings to be born. %System of lobulo-alveolar epithelial cells in
the mammary gland of ruminants develops mainly during th pregnancy. The undernutrition
not only diminishes the quantity of colostrum but the start of milk production is also retarded.
Nutriment supply has a significant effect on the length of period between birth and
refertilization. In this case, the restart of ovarian functio n is the key factor. Although
deficiency of certain mineral matters (P, Mn,I) may also cause anoestrus, in most of practical
cases disturbances of energy and protein supply cause the most problems.%Hormonal
changes in the background of the above mentioned processes have also been evaluated.
Finally, the most important future research areas of the topic have been prognosticated."
GIRARD, C.L.
"B-complex vitamins for dairy cows: A new approach"
"Canadian Journal of Animal Science","1998","78","","71-90"
"Girard C.L./Agr & Agroalimentaire Canada/Ctr Rech & Dev Bovin Laitier & Porc/CP
90/Lennoxville/PQ J1M 1Z3/CANADA"
"It is generally accepted that ruminant requirements for B-complex vitamins are
fulfilled by the synthesis of these vitamins by ruminal microflora. Most of the studies on this
topic were conducted during 1940-1950. These works demonstrated that, even when
ruminants are fed a B-complex vitamin- free diet, the synthesis of these vitamins by the
ruminal microflora was sufficient to avoid deficiency symptoms if the rumen is welldeveloped and functional. These works led to the conclusion that dairy cow requirements for
B-complex vitamins are the minimal quantity to be fed to avoid deficiency symptoms.
However, in a context of maximisation of the effects of nutrition on dairy cow health and
performances, the criteria used to define the requirements need to reviewed. As for the major
nutrients, requirements for B-complex vitamins need to be studied, not on the point of view of
deficiency, but rather in rela tion with an optimisation of cow health, performances and the
quality of the product. Only some of the B-complex vitamins, biotin, nicotinic acid, folic acid
and vitamin B-12, have been studied in that purpose, they will be discussed in the present
talk.", "","0008-3984","Agr Inst Canada/Suite 907/151 Slater St/Ottawa on K1P 5H4/Canada"
40
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
ROBINSON, J.J.
"Nutrition and reproduction"
"Animal Reproduction Science" - "APR 1996","42","1 -4","25-34"
"J.J. Robinson/Scottish Agr Coll/Ferguson Bldg/Craibstone Estate/Aberdeen AB21 9YA,
Scotland"
"Through their influence on embryonic and early fetal development dietary nutrients
affect the size, vigour and viability of the newborn and, in the case of SHEEP, adult ovulation
rates. Nutritional regimens that impair post- natal growth reduce ovarian follicular
development and delay puberty but have little, if any, effect on either N-methyl- D-aspartate
stimulated GnRH release or the pituitary content of gonadotrophins. Nutritional effects on
ovulation rate in ewes are not always accompanied by shifts in circulating FSH
concentrations. Instead they may operate through altered ovarian hormone feedback
mechanisms that influence the duration of exposure of the gonadotrophin-dependent follicles
to FSH or through threshold-reducing actions of specific nutrients and dietary- induced
metabolites on the amount of FSH needed to support the gonadotrophin-dependent follicles.
Recent results suggest that the enhanced faecal excretion of oestradiol by well- fed ewes may
increase ovulation rate by reducing ovarian oestradiol feedback.%In the post-partum period,
the key hypothalamic and pituitary secretions for successful ovulation develop normally
despite undernutrition but ovulation is prevented by failure of GnRH release with, in the case
of suckler beef COWS, a delay in oestrus arising from the repeated developmen and atresia of
dominant ovarian follicles. This affect is accentuated in cows that are in poor body condition
at calving. Alleviating the energy deficits of high- yielding dairy cows in early lactation by
giving supplements of dietary fat can reduce the interval to first oestrus but subsequent
fertility can be impaired. Loss of body protein delays oestrous cyclicity; paradoxically
attempts to coned this loss in ruminants by feeding diets high in rumen undegradable protein
can stimulate body fat mobilization and milk production with detrimental effects on
rebreeding. Excess rumen degradable protein and high feeding levels reduce embryo survival,
the latter by suppressing circulating progesterone concentrations. In superovulated ewes
diet- induced reductions in progesterone concentrations during oocyte maturation can impart a
legacy of developmental retardation leading to decreased embryo survival. In late pregnancy,
undernutrition decreases uterine blood flow, fetal insulin and IGF-I concentrations and
impairs growth and development. In the newborn, low insulin and a low selenium and iodine
status inhibit thermogenesis from brown adipose tissue. Insulin may also be important in
conveying info rmation on nutritional status to the GnRH neurones thereby initiating the
cascade of events that is required for successful reproduction in both sexes."
SEJRSEN, K.; PURUP, S.
"Influence of prepubertal feeding level on milk yield potential of dairy heifers: A
review"
"Journal of Animal Science","MAR 1997","75","3","828-835"
"K. Sejrsen/Natl Inst Anim Sci/Dept Prod Qual/DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark"
"In replacement heifers, high levels of feeding resulting in high growth rates in the
prepubertal period can cause severe reduction of the milk production potential. This has been
demonstrated in many experiments; however, there are a number of experiments where this
effect is not seen. In many cases, the reason for the lack of effect seems fairly obvious (short
treatment periods, high pretreatment growth rates, small growth rate differences between
treatment groups, variation of growth rates within treatment groups, treatment periods outside
the critical period, etc.). However, in a few experiments absence of treatment effect cannot be
explained in this way. This demonstrates that our knowledge on the effect of nutrition during
41
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
rearing on the future milk yield of heifers is incomplete and that it may be possible to
develop high growth rate feeding regimens for heifers. Experimental evidence suggests that
the observed negative effects of feeding level on subsequent milk are due to impaired
mammary development. Development of suitable high growth rate feeding regimens
therefore requires understanding of the influence of nutrition on the physiological regulation
of mammary development. Available data suggest that the growth hormone- insulin- like
growth factor I axis is involved, but it is not clear how. It is likely that understanding of the
role of insulin- like growth factor binding proteins is important. Alternative hypotheses
involve possible effects of growth factors and modifications of mammary tissue sensitivity to
hormones and growth factors."
CAPITULO VII
INFERTILIDAD y ESTERILIDAD del MACHO
ANDERSON, D.E.; STJEAN, G.; DESROCHERS, A.; HOSKINSON, J.J.
"Use of Doppler ultrasonography and positive-contrast corpus cavernosography to
evaluate a persistent penile hematoma in a bull"
"Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","NOV 1 1996","209","9","1611"
"D.E. Anderson/Ohio State Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Vet Clin Sci/Columbus, OH 43210
USA"
"A 32- month-old Angus bull was evaluated because of a 2-month history of a slowly
progressive swelling located cranial to the base of the scrotum. The mass was 8 X 8 X 6 cm,
and was causing phimosis. The mass was determined to be a penile hematoma on the basis of
results of ultrasonography and exploratory surgery Surgical evacuation was not performed
initially because the deep fascia of the penis was intact and the hematoma was small;
however, the hematoma enlarged slowly during the ensuing 2 months, despite sexual rest and
isolation from other livestock. Doppler ultrasonography and positive-contrast corpus
cavernosography were performed, and the hematoma was seen as a space-occupying mass
within the corpus cavernosum penis; vascular anomalies were not found. The penile
hematoma was surgically excised, and the bull was isolated for 60 days. At followup, the
owner indicated that the bull had returned to pasture-breeding soundness and was still being
used 2 years after surgery. The small penile hematoma in this bull was unusual in that it did
not respond to medical treatment. Surgical treatment was apparently curative, even though
surgery was not performed until 4 months after the hematoma was first detected."
DESROCHERS, A.; STJEAN, G.; ANDERSON, D.E.
"Surgical management of preputial injuries in bulls: 51 cases (1986-1994)"
"Canadian Veterinary Journal - Revue Veterinaire Canadienne 36: 9 (SEP 1995) 553-556"
"A. Desrochers, Kansas State Univ Agr & Appl Sci, Coll Vet Med, Dept Clin Sci,
Manhattan, KS 66506 USA"
"The purpose of this study was to compare success rates for preputial surgery
depending on the initial diagnosis, ability to extend the penis, use of sedation and local
anesthesia versus general anesthesia for surgery, and surgical technique, Medical records of
51 bulls treated surgically for preputial injury were reviewed, The mean age of the bulls was
2.5 years ranging from 1 to 5 years. Bos taurus breeds (82.3%) were more often affected than
Bos indicus breeds (17.7%), The most common breeds represented in this study were Angus
(45.1%), Simmental (11.8%), and brangus (9.8%). The seasonal incidence of preputial
42
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
injuries was higher during the period of May-July (52.9%) and November-February (33.3%),
The overall success rate was 70%, Posthioplasty was more successful than circumcision
(90% to 43%) (P < 0.05), The success rate for surgeries performed under inhalation anesthesia
in the surgery suite was 100% compared with a success rate of 63% for those animals
operated on with injectable and local anesthesia in a rotary chute (P < 0.05), The success rate
was 88% if the penis could be extended before the surgery and 36% if extension was not
achieved (P < 0.05)."
MAARSCHALKERWEERD, R.J.; ENDENBURG, N.; KIRPENSTEIJN, J.; KNOL, B.W.
"Influence of orchiectomy on canine behaviour"
"Veterinary Record","JUN 14 1997","140","24","617-619"
"R.J. Maarschalkerweerd/Univ Utrecht/Fac Vet Med/Dept Clin Sci Compan Anim/POB
80-145/NL-3508 Td Utrecht, Netherlands"
"One hundred and twenty-two dog owners were interviewed to obtain information
about the effects of orchiectomy on the behaviour, unwanted side effects, and
testosterone-dependent disease processes in their dogs. Behavioural problems were the main
reason for orchiectomy, unwanted sexual behaviour being the most common, together with
roaming, aggression, and abnormal urination behaviour, Objectionable sexual behaviour,
inter- male aggression, roaming, and abnormalurination were reduced after orchiectomy in
approximately 60 per cent of the dogs, The side effects of orchiectomy included increased
bodyweight, increased appetite and decreased activity in less than 50 per cent of the dogs, and
there was asignificant relationship between increased appetite and bodyweight, The clinical
signs of testosterone-dependent disease in most of the dogs either decreased or disappeared
after orchiectomy."
NIE, G.J.; POPE, K.C.
"Persistent penile prolapse associated with acute blood loss and acepromazine maleate
administration in a horse"
"Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","SEP 1 1997","211","5","587"
"G.J. Nie/Auburn Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Large Anim Surg & Med/Auburn, AL 36849
USA"
"Prolonged penile prolapse in horses has been reported in association with
administration of phenothiazine tranquilizers, trauma, neuropathies, severe general
debilitation or exhaustion, starvation, rabies, herpes myeloencephalitis, equine infectious
anemia, and purpura hemorrhagica. A 5-year-old gelding was admitted for treatment of
prolonged penile prolapse of 12 days' duration that developed after acepromazine maleate was
administered to allow examination of a laceration that had resulted in severe blood loss. The
horse was sedated, and the penis was replaced in the preputial cavity by use of a combination
of massage and bandaging. Treatment was successful, and recovery was complete."
ROSER, J.F.
"Endocrine regulation of reproductive function in fertile, subfertile and infertile
stallions"
"Reproduction in Domestic Animals","AUG 1995","30","4","245-250"
"J.F. Roser/Univ Calif Davis/Dept Anim Sci/Davis, CA 95616 USA"
"The specific nature and relative contribution of the various factors involved in the
endocrine/paracrine/autocrine control of reproductive function in normal stallions are not well
defined nor have they been elucidated in the idiopathic subfertile/infertile stallion. Over the
last 9 years, our laboratory has been engaged in characterizing the
43
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis (HPT) in fertile, subfertile (idiopathic oligospermia)
and infertile (idiopathic azoospermia) stallions. Our studies have not only identified endocrine
factors and mechanisms important for normal reproductive function, but they have
demonstrated specific hormonal alterations in pituitary and testicular function between fertile,
subfertile and infertile stallions. Recent evidence suggests that the primary defect is at the
level of the testes. The nature of the dysfunction does not appear to involve changes in LH
receptor binding kinetics but may be related to post-receptor mechanisms."
CAPITULO VIII
ENFOQUE CLÍNICO de la INFERTILIDAD y de la ESTERILIDAD del MACHO
AURICH, C.; BADER, H.; TOPFERPETERSEN, E.
"Diagnosis of reproduc tive disorders in the stallion"
"Praktische Tierarzt","OCT 1 1995","76","10","905"
"C. Aurich/Hannover Sch Vet Med/Inst Reprod Med/Bunteweg 15/D-30559 Hannover,
Germany"
"This article reviews possibilities for the diagnosis of reproductive disorders in the male
horse. The procedure of reproductive evaluation (examination of genital organs and sexual
behaviour, analysis of semen parameters) is described. Possibilities for reproductive
endocrine function testing in stallions and cryptorchids are given. Recent procedures in
reproductive evaluation of the male (ultrasonography of testes and accessory sexual glands,
endoscopic examination of the urethra, computerized analysis of sperm motility, assessment
of membrane integrity by fluorescent stains) are shown.
The physiology of sperm-egg- interactions and the use of zona-sperm binding assays for the
assessment of equine sub- and infertility are described."
JOHNSON, L.; BLANCHARD, T.L.; VARNER, D.D.; SCRUTCHFIELD, W.L.
"Factors affecting spermatogenesis in the stallion"
"Theriogenology","NOV 1997","48","7","1199-1216"
"L. Johnson/Texas A&M Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Vet Anat & Publ Hlth/College Stn, TX
77843 USA"
"Spermatogenesis is a process of division and differentiation by which spermatozoa
are produced in seminiferous tubules. Seminiferous tubules are composed of somatic cells
(myoid cells and Sertoli cells) and germ cells (spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and
spermatids). Activities of these three germ cells divide spermatogenesis into
spermatocytogenesis, meiosis, and spermiogenesis, respectively. Spermatocytogenesis
involves mitotic cell division to increase the yield of spermatogenesis and to produce stem
cells and primary spermatocytes. Meiosis involves duplication and exchange of genetic
material and two cell divisions that reduce the chromosome number to haploid and yield four
spermatids. Spermiogenesis is the differentiation without division of spherical spermatids into
mature spermatids which are released from the luminal free surface as spermatozoa, The
spermatogenic cycle (12.2 days in the horse) is superimposed on the three major divisions of
spermatogenesis which takes 57 days. Spermatogenesis and germ cell degeneration can be
quantified from numbers of germ cells in various steps of development throughout
spermatogenesis, and quantitative measures are related to number of spermatozoa in the
44
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
ejaculate. Germ cell degeneration occurs throughout spermatogenesis; however, the greatest
seasonal impact on horses occurs during spermatocytogenesis. Daily spermatozoan
production is related to the amount of germ cell degeneration, pubertal development, season
of the year, and aging. Number of Sertoli cells and amount of smooth endoplasmic reticulum
of Leydig cells and Leydig cell number are related to spermatozoan production. Seminiferous
epithelium is sensitive to elevated temperature, dietary deficiencies, androgenic drugs
(anabolic steroids), metals (cadmium and lead), x-ray exposure, dioxin, alcohol, and
infectious diseases. However, these different factors may elicit the same temporary or
permanent response in that degenerating germ cells become more common, multinucleate
giant germ cells form by coalescence of spermatocytes or spermatids, the ratio of germ cells
to Sertoli cells is reduced, and spermatozoan production is adversely affected. In short,
spermatogenesis involves both mitotic and meiotic cell divisions and an unsurpassed example
of cell differentiation in the production of the spermatozoon. Several extrinsic factors can
influence spermatogenesis to cause a similar degenerative response of the seminiferous
epithelium and reduce fertility of stallions. (C) 1997 by Elsevier Science Inc."
THOMPSON, J.A.; JOHNSON, W.H.
"Scrotal size of yearling sires and early calving in beef herds: Epidemiological
investigation of possible causal pathways"
"Theriogenology 43: 7 (MAY 1995) Page(s) 1279-1287"
"J.A. Thompson, Texas A&M Univ, Texas Vet Med Ctr, College Stn, TX 77843 USA"
"Scrotal circumference has been recommended as a clinical test for predicting the
fertility potential of yearling bulls. The objectives of this study were to determine if scrotal
size of yearling bulls influences herd fertility and to investigate specific causal pathways.
Calving records from 44 herds enrolled in the Beef Herd Improvement Plan were selected
from the data base for 1984 to 1989. Logistic regression was used to model the event of
calving within the first 3 wk of the calving season as a function of scrotal circumference, herd
size, age and the interactions of scrotal circumference with age, scrotal circumference with
herd size, and herd size with age and the random effects of herd. The odds of cows calving in
the first 3 weeks of the calving season were lower in large herds (> 30 vs 20 to 30 calves born
per season) and with younger yearling bulls (12 to 15 vs. 16 to 18 months of age). Early
calving was not associated with scrotal circumference, or the interactions scrotal
circumference with herd size and scrotal circumference with age p > 0.15). It was concluded
that the female:male ratio and age of bull both affected the odds of a cow calving early, but
neither of the associations was altered by selection for bulls with a larger scrotal
circumference, and therefore scrotal circumference is not included in either of the 2 causal
pathways.
45
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
PARTE II
En relación con el "ANEXO" al libro de "Fisiopatología de la Reproducción"
ANEXO I
"ACTUALIZACIÓN BIBLIOGRÁFICA COMPLEMENTARIA"
ARCHBALD, L.F.; TSAI, I.F.; THATCHER, W.W.; TRAN, T.; WOLFSDORF, K.; RISCO,
C.
"Use of plasma concent rations of 13,14-dihydro,15-keto-PGF2 alpha (PGFM) in the
diagnosis of sub-clinical endometritis and its relationship to fertility in the postpartum
dairy cow"
"Theriogenology","JUN 1998","49","8","1425-1436"
"L.F. Archbald/Univ Florida/Coll Vet Med/Gainesville, FL 32610 USA"
"The objective of this study was to determine the value of using plasma concentrations
of PGFM to diagnose subclinical endometritis in the dairy cow, and its relationship to
subsequent fertility. A total of 274 cows between 24 to 29 d post partum was divided into 4
groups on the basis of clinical features of the uterus and ovary. Cows in Group 1 (n=74) had a
normal, involuting uterus and a CL on the ovary; cows in Group 2 (n=51) had a normal,
involuting uterus but no CL on the ovary; cows in Group 3 (n=83) did not have a normal,
involuting uterus but had a CL on the ovary; and cows in Group 4 (n=66) did not have a
normal, involuting uterus or a CL on the ovary. A blood sample was obtained from each cow
on the day they were placed on the study, and plasma concentrations of PGFM and P4 were
determined using RIA. Cows were artificially inseminated (AI) at the first observed estrus
after Day 60 post partum, and pregnancy was determined by palpation of the uterus per
rectum between 45 and 50 d postAI. Reproductive responses evaluated were conception rate
to first service, days open, and percentage of cows pregnant by 90, 120, 150 and 180 d post
partum. Data were analyzed using GLM procedures of SAS and a 2x2 factorial with contrast
procedures. Polynomial regression analysis was used to determine the shape of the PGFM, P4
and fertility curves. There was no difference among mean PGFM concentrations of cows in
each group. The rate of decline of plasma PGFM concentrations was lower in cows with an
abnormal uterus and a CL on the ovary compared with those without a CL. A lower
percentage of cows with abnormal uteri was pregnant by 90 d post partum compared with
cows with normal uteri. From the results of this study, it was concluded that plasma PGFM
concentrations between Days 24 to 29 post partum were not effective in identifying cows with
subclinical endometritis. (C) 1998 by Elsevier Science Inc."
ARECHIGA, C.F.; VAZQUEZFLORES, S.; ORTIZ, O.; HERNANDEZCERON, J.;
PORRAS, A.; MCDOWELL, L.R.; HANSEN, P.J.
"Effect of injection of beta-carotene or vitamin E and selenium on fertility of lactating
dairy cows"
"Theriogenology","JUL 1 1998","50","1","65-76"
"P.J. Hansen/Univ Florida/Dept Dairy Poultry Sci/Gainesville, FL 32611 USA"
"Experiments tested whether supplemental antioxidants improved fertility. To test
effects of beta-carotene, cows in a hot environment were injected with prostaglandin F-2
46
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
alpha (PGF(2 alpha)) and were given 3 injections, im, of 800 mg beta-carotene or saline at
Days -6 and -3 before the anticipated date of insemination and at insemination (n=37-41
inseminated cows/group). There was no effect of beta-carotene on the proportion of cows
detected in estrus following PGF(2 alpha), timing of estrus after PGF(2 alpha), injection or
pregnancy rate in inseminated cows. In a second trial, cows in a temperate climate received
intramuscular injections of vitamin E (500 mg) and selenium (50 mg) at 30 d post partum
(n=97) or were unheated controls (n=89). Treatment did not affect interval from calving to
first insemination or the proportion of cows pregnant at first service, but it increased the
pregnancy rate at second service (69.8 vs 52.1%; P=0.07) and reduced services per
conception(1.7 vs 2.0; P<0.05) and interval from calving to conception (84.6 vs 98.1;
P<0.05). Thus, injection of vitamin E and selenium increased fertility in cattle that did not
become pregnant at first service. (C) 1998 by Elsevier Science Inc."
AWADEH, F.T.; ABDELRAHMAN, M.M.; KINCAID, R.L.; FINLEY, J.W.
"Effect of selenium supplements on the distribution of selenium among serum proteins in
cattle"
"Journal of Dairy Science","APR 1998","81","4","1089-1094"
"R.L. Kincaid/Washington State Univ/Dept Anim Sci/Pullman, WA 99164 USA"
"The objective of this study was to determine the effects of the amount and chemical
form of dietary Se on the distribution of Se among serum proteins. Six growing calves were
assigned in a completely randomized design to receive diets containing either adequate (0.41
mu g/g) or excess (0.73 mu g/g) dietary Se. Proteins in serum collected from the calves were
separated into albumin, glutathione peroxidase, and selenoprotein P fractions, and the
concentration of Se in each was determined. The concentration of Se within serum was
elevated by dietary Se supplementation. The selenoprotein P fraction within serum contained
the largest percentage of Se among the serum proteins. In a second study, 12 mature cows
were assigned to receive one of four experimental salt mixes containing 20, 60, or 120 mu g
of Se as sodium selenite/g of salt mix; the fourth treatment was 60 mu g of Se as selenized
yeast/g of salt mix. Cows given salt with 120 mu g of Se as selenite or 60 mu g of Se as
selenized yeast had the highest concentrations of Se in whole blood; however, concentrations
of Se in serum did not differ among treatments. Concentrations of Se in the protein fractions
within serum were not affected by treatment. Within serum, the highest concentration of Se
was in the selenoprotein P fraction (31.6 ng/ml), the smallest concentration was in the
glutathione peroxidase fraction (4.7 ng/ml), and an intermediate amount of Se was obtained
from the albumin fraction (8.5 ng/ml). In conclusion, selenized yeast and selenite as sources
of Se for supplementation of cattle resulted in similar patterns of Se distribution among
proteins in serum. The greatest concentration of Se was found in the selenoprotein P fraction,
which may contribute to Se transportation or function as an antioxidant."
BAUMGARTNER, W.; MATZKA, B.; SCHERR, E.; TATARUCH, F.
"Comparison of inorganic and organically bound selenium-supplementation in dairy
cows"
"Praktische Tierarzt","JUN 1998","79"," Sp. Iss.","76-77"
"W. Baumgartner/Vet Med Univ Wien/Med Klin Klauentiere 2/Vet Pl 1/A-1210 Vienna,
Austria"
"From June to September 1996 three groups of 10 cows each (Fleckvieh and
Braunvieh) at the research farm of the University of Veterinary Medicine were chosen to
conduct a feed trial. Group I received a daily supplement of 5 mg Selenium as
selenomethionine (organic selenium), group II the same amount of Selenium as sodium
47
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
selenite (inorganic selenium) and group III was used as control group without
supplementation. In this period whole blood-, serum- and milk samples were drawn every
three weeks (6 times). At the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the trial feed samples
were taken. For selenium analysis a direct detection method was used. In the supplemented
groups all evaluated parameters increased whereas the selenium contents declined in animals
of the control group. There was no significant difference in Selenium concentration in blood
at any time between group I and II. Serum concentration in group I was significantly higher at
day 42, 84 and 105. Milk concentration was significantly higher in group I at any time of the
trial. All animals that were supplemented with 5 mg selenium/day were able to meet the
requirements for selenium in blood and serum. No direct advantage for the dairy cow was
seen for either selenium source. However there was a difference of the selenium content in
milk. There were significantly higher selenium levels with the organic supplemented animals.
Because of that, there is an advantage for the supply as well for the calves as for man."
BECKETT, S.; LEAN, I.; DYSON, R.; TRANTER, W.; WADE, L.
"Effects of monensin on the reproduction, health, and milk production of dairy cows"
"Journal of Dairy Science","JUN 1998","81","6","1563-1573"
"S. Beckett/Massey Univ/Dept Vet Clin Sci/Palmerston North, New Zealand"
"A randomized clinical trial including 1109 cows from 12 Australian dairy herds was
used to evaluate the effects of monensin on the health (n = >686 cows), production (n = 915
cows), and reproduction (n = >908 cows) of dairy cows. Cows were allocated to a treatment
group receiving a slow-release intraruminal bolus containing 32 g of sodium monensin that
was administered 40 d before and 50 d following the anticipated calving date or to a control:
group. Treatment did not significantly alter any reproductive outcome; 54.5% of cows treated
with monensin and 58.2% of control cows were pregnant at first service, and days to
conception were lower for cows treated with monensin. The hazard rate (0.95) was not
significant for these cows. The percentage of cows pregnant was 83.8 for cows treated with
monensin and 83.3 for control cows, and days to first estrus (hazard rate = 1.04) and first
service (hazard rate = 1.04) were not significantly higher for treated cows.%Treatment with
monensin did not significantly alter the risk of any disease. The incidence of retained fetal
membranes, pyometra, lameness, abortion, and infectious diseases was not significantly lower
for cows in the treatment group, and the incidence of mastitis was not significantly higher for
cows in the treatment group. Monensin significantly increased milk production by 0.75 L/d
per cow and tended to increase milk fat and protein yields but had no significant effect on
milk fat or milk protein percentages. Changes in the production of milk and milk constituents
were consistent throughout lactation."
BOERSMA, A.; BRAUN, J.
"Computer-assisted analysis of sperm morphology in veterinary medicine"
"Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift","1999","112","3","81-85","German
Article"
"Boersma A./Univ Munich/Gynakol & Ambulator Tierklin/Koniginstr 12/D-80539
Munich/GERMANY"
"The evaluation of spermatozoal morphology is an essential step to determine the
fertility potential in male individuals. The method of computer-assisted morphometry
provides an efficient tool to evaluate objectively morphological anomalies of the sperm head.
This review describes the development acid current status of morphometry systems and
addresses the various problems associated with this method in veterinary medicine. Although
there are some unanswered questions, a number of interesting results have been obtained. In
48
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
all species investigated an individual influence on sperm head dimensions could be
demonstrated. In the bull the extent of variability rather than absolute morphometric data is
related to ind ividual fertility. The method of computer-assisted morphometry will also help to
develop well defined criteria for subjective evaluation of sperm morphology. Further research
has to be directed towards the evaluation of the sperm mid-piece. The ultimate goal is the
automatic determination of spermatozoal morphology.","","0005-9366","Blackwell
Wissenschafts-Verlag Gmbh/Kurfurstendamm 57/D-10707 Berlin/Germany"
BRAUN, J.; WORNER, B.; STOLLA, R.
"Follicular development and cyclic functions in cows after intra uterine treatment with
Lotagen(R)"
"Tierarztliche Umschau","JUL 1998","53","7","409-412"
"J. Braun/Univ Munich/Gynakol & Ambulator Tierklin/Koniginstr 12/D-80539 Munich,
Germany"
"The aim of this study was to examine the follicular wave pattern in non- lactating
cows (Simmenthal, Brown Swiss) during spontaneous estrous cycles and after intrauterine
treatment with a 4% Lotagen(R) solution on day 5 or 15 of the estrous cycle. Follicular
activity was monitored by ultrasonography using a 5-MHz linens array trans rectal transducer.
Number and diameter of follicles with a diameter of >5 mm were recorded. During 22 control
cycles, a two-wave pattern was detected in 16 cases and a three-wave pattern in 6 cases. The
mean cycle length of two-wave inter-estrus intervals (21.4 days) was shorter than for
three-wave intervals (23.7 days). Uterine infusion on day 5 led to a shortened cycle length
(15.7 days). In 5 of 13 cows treated, only one follicular wave developed. A two-wave pattern
was observed in 7 cases. In one-wave cycles, the treatment led to prolonged period of a static
dominant follicle, before ovulation occurred.. Intrauterine infusion on day 15 (11 cows)
extended the inter-estrous interval (24.9 days). In 10 cows the follicular wave producing the
ovulatory follicle developed after treatment. Seven three-wave and four two-wave cycles were
observed. The results demonstrate the influence of uterine infusion on estrous cycle length
and follicular growth. The prolonged static phase of the dominant follicle in one-wave cycles
after treatment on day 5 may compromise fertility in the following estrous period."
BUSCH, W.; GRUSSEL, T.
"Use of peroxiethan acid (peracetate acid Uterofertil (R)) for treatment of bovine
endometritis"
"Praktische Tierarzt","AUG 1 1998","79","8", "746"
"W. Busch/Philippstr 13/D-10117 Berlin, Germany"
"We used the drug peroxiethan acid (peracetate acid-PAS) for treatment of
endometritis in cattle. PAS was used before in flushing of wounds and for desinfection in
human medicine. This drug posesses a bacteriocid, a virucid and an antimycotic effect, caused
by the low pH, by the O-2 in statu nascendi and by development of acetate some times after
application. A lot of biochemical reactions in the cell wall and in the cell body are induced.
Applied into the uterus we observed a high incidence of phagocytosis. In a clinical experiment
2.305 cows were treated, one part with PAS and the other with the traditional procedure. In
five experiments we achieved equal or higher reproductive results after treatment with PAS in
comparision with the traditional drugs. Besides the above described results there are
additional advantages: no resistence, no residuals in milk or meat. The PAS is contained in
the trademark ''Uterofertil(R) neu''."
49
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
BUXTON, D.
"Protozoan infections (Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis spp.) in
sheep and goats: recent advances"
"Veterinary Research","MAY-AUG 1998","29","3 -4","289-310"
"D. Buxton/Int Res Ctr/Moredun Res Inst/Div Virol/Pentlands Sci Pk/Bush Loan/Penicuik
EH26 0PZ/Midlothian, Scotland"
"The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a serious cause of fetal mortality in
sheep and goats. Oocysts, the parasite stage responsible for initiating infection, are produced
following a primary infection in cats. A primary infection in pregnant sheep and goats can
establish a placental and fetal infection which may result in fetal death and resorption,
abortion or stillbirth. Diagnosis is aided by the clinical picture, the presence of characteristic
small white necrotic foci in placental cotyledons, the possible presence of a mummified fetus
and on fetal serology and histopathology. Development of the polymerase chain reaction
(PCR) specific for T. gondii may also provide a valuable diagnostic tool. Measures to control
abortion include improved management: of farm cats, fodder and water. Vaccination of sheep
with the live vaccine is an effective preventive measure and the use of decoquinate in feed
may be useful in some situations. Neospora caninum is related to T. gondii and while its
asexual life cycle is similar to that of the latter it is currently not known whether it has a
similar sexual life cycle in a definitive host. Neospora is an important cause of fetal loss in
cattle and parallels that of T. gondii infection in sheep and goats. While it does not appear to
cause frequent losses in these latter animals, experimental infection is readily induced in them
and if initiated during pregnancy provides a very good model of the bovine infection.
Furthermore clinical signs and patho logical lesions in sheep and goats are similar to those
induced in them by T. gondii, although there are subtle histopathological differences. These
changes will aid possible diagnosis as will specific serological tests such as the indirect
immunofluorescent antibody test and the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and the PCR.
Sarcocystis, which exists as numerous species, undergoes a coccidian- like life cycle with each
having a distinctive definitive (usually carnivore) host which excretes sporocysts into the
environment. Clinical sarcocystiosis is much less commonly diagnosed than toxoplasmosis
and neither is it normally associated with fetal infection or abortion in either sheep or goats.
However, infection is extremely common throughout the world and follows ingestion of food
or water contaminated with sporocysts. Clinical signs, when seen, include fever, anaemia,
inappetance and weight loss or reduced weight gain. Central nervous signs (hind limb
weakness, ataxia, paresis), acute myopathy and death may occur. Diagnosis is difficult as
infection is %so common and clinical signs absent, mild or non-specific. Serology may be
useful in some situations and histopathology/immunohistochemistry is valuable for
confirming the cause of death. Control relies on preventing contamination of pasture and
water with faeces of dogs, foxes and cats or by controlling access of young susceptible stock
to contaminated land. Relatively little is known of the immunity induced by infection with
Sarcocystis spp, but research indicates that protective immunity does develop and that
cell- mediated mechanisms are probably important. It is likely that sarcocystiosis is
underdiagnosed as a problem and that better diagnostic methods are needed to show the true
extent of the losses caused. Neosporosis on the other hand would appear not to be so common
in sheep and goats. The value of experimental infections in these animals may be to provide a
comparative model of the infection in cattle in the same way that our understanding of
toxoplasmosis in sheep provides a superior model of human toxoplasmosis. (C) Inra/Elsevier,
Paris."
50
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
CAMPBELL, M.H.; MILLER, J.K.; SCHRICK, F.N.
"Effect of additional cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc on reproduction and milk
yield of lactating dairy cows receiving bovine somatotropin"
"Journal of Dairy Science","1999","82","5","1019-1025"
"Campbell M.H./Univ Tennessee/Dept Anim Sci/Knoxville,TN 37996 USA"
"The objective of this study was to determine whether organically complexed Co, Cu,
Mn, and Zn would improve the reproductive performance and milk and milk component
production in lactating dairy cows that began receiving bovine somatotropin in the ninth week
of lactation. Holstein(n = 50) and Jersey(n = 10) cows were blocked by breed, lactation
number, and incidence of retained fetal membranes. Two diets assigned within blocks and fed
from parturition until 154 d of lactation were control or control supplemented daily with 26
mg of Co as Co glucoheptonate, 125 mg of Cu as Cu-Lys, 199 mg of Mn as Mn-Met, and 359
mg of Zn as Zn-Met. Cows were fitted with electronic pressure-sensing devices in the second
week of lactation for detection of estrus. Ovarian structures were determined via transrectal
ultrasonography at 7-d intervals from parturition until observation of the first corpus luteum.
Blood samples were taken at 7-d intervals and analyzed for plasma concentrations of
progesterone, insulin, and urea nitrogen. Onset of luteal activity was identified by
progesterone concentrations greater than or equal to 1 ng/ml. Retained fetal membranes
increased days to first estrus (detected via electronic estrous detection), first luteal activity,
and first corpus luteum in control cows but not in supplemented cows. Days to first observed
estrus were greater for control cows than for supplemented cows. Days to first service, days
open, days from first service to conception, services per conception, milk yield, milk
components, and somatic cell counts were similar for control and supplemented cows.
Supplementation with complexed trace minerals effectively reduced days to first
estrus.","","0022-0302","Amer Dairy Science Assoc/1111 N Dunlap Ave/Savoy/IL
61874/USA"
CORRO, M.; RUBIO, I.; CASTILLO, E.; GALINDO,L.; ALUJA, A.; GALINA,C.S.;
MURCIA, C.
"Effect of blood metabolites, body condition and pasture management on milk yield and
postpartum intervals in dual-purpose cattle farms in tropics of the State of Veracruz,
Mexico"
"Preventive veterinary Medicine", "1999, 38, 2-3, 101-117"
"Corro M./Natl Autonomous Univ Mexico/Fac Vet Med & Zootechn/Ctr Res Teaching &
Extens
Trop
Anim
Husbandry/Apartado
Postal
136/Martinez
De
La
Torre/Veracruz/MEXICO"
"Research was conducted on typical smallholder farms with dual-purpose cattle (DPC)
(Bos indicus x B. Taurus) in the coastal north-central area of Veracruz, Mexico. The study
was divided into two phases. The aim of the first phase was to investigate the effect of blood
metabolites, body condition and pasture management on milk yield and postpartum intervals,
in order to investigate if the former are suitable indicators of the reproductive and nutritional
status of DPC. One hundred and sixty- five calvings of crossbred cows were recorded from
January 1992 to November 1994 on 12 small farms. Milk samples were collected twice a
week for progesterone analysis. Blood samples and BCS were taken once a month. However,
in Phase II emphasis was placed on the effect of pasture management upon reproductive and
productive performance of DPC. Records of four farms were obtained from June 1995 to
November 1996. Stocking rates were 0.40, 0.87, 0.35 and 1.5 cows/ha for farms A, B, C and
D, respectively. Farms A and C used a slow rotation while B and D used a rapid rotation. In
Phase I, the changes in BCS during the last month of pregnancy and first month postpartum
51
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
did not correlate (p>0.05) with milk yield or reproductive performance. Blood the metabolite
profiles were not consistently related to productive or reproductive variables. The effect of
farm and season was significant (p<0.05) on most of the response variables and low
productivity on overstocked farms lead to the conclusion that the low reproductive
performance of DPC was linked to poor pasture management. During Phase II, farms A (FA)
and D (FD) produce more milk than the others. Days to first service, days open, and carving
interval were similar for farms B (FB) and C (FC), highest for Farm A, and lowest for Farm
D. The forage availability mean was above the critical range of 6-8 kg of city matter per 100
kg of liveweight (kg DM/100 kg LW) in all Farms (range from 6.1 +/- 5.0 to 21.1 +/- 11.2 kg
DM/100 kg LW). Farm D had the highest stocking rate (1.5 cows/ha), a rapid rotation (10
paddocks), a good forage availability (7.1 +/- 3.9 kg DM/100 kg LW) with a Good quality for
a tropical pasture (11.6 +/- 2.4% crude protein), and an economic energy supplementation.
These results suggest this type of management could be more widely employed to improve
the productivity of DPC on smallholder farms in the Mexican tropics. (C) 1999 published by
Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.","","0167-5877","Elsevier Science Bv/PO Box
211/1000 AE Amsterdam/Netherlands"
DOBSON, H.; SMITH, R.F.
"Stress and subfertility"
"Reproduction in Domestic Animals""JUN 1998","33","3 -4","107-111"
"H. Dobson/Univ Liverpool/Dept Vet Clin Sci & Anim Husb/Wirral, England"
"Common stressful conditions imposed by the environment in the postpartum period
reduce fertility. For example, lameness in cattle results in an extra 14 days and 0.42
inseminations to achieve conception, and a decrease in social status leads to an extra 46 days
and 0.6 inseminations.%To examine the mechanisms involved in stress- induced subfertility,
LH secretion has been monitored in sheep models to observe the influence of experimental
stressors such as transport. A normal preovulatory LH surge occurs as a result of increasing
frequency of GnRH, and hence LH pulses which drive follicles to produce increasing amounts
of oestradiol. The latter develops a negative feedback on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis so
that stores of LH can build- up before LH release during the pre-ovulatory surge.%Activation
of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis by 4h transport reduced by 50% the amount of LH
released by small doses of exogenous GnRH, and caused an 8h delay in the onset of the LH
surge. It is suggested that these effects may be mediated at pituitary level by interference with
GnRH receptor activity and/or LH synthesis. Transport also reduced endogenous LH pulse
amplitude by 50% and frequency by 0.25 pulses/h, possibly by effects at hypothalamic level.
%Using a different model in which follicular growth was induced by exogenous LH,
oestradiol production declined markedly when both LH pulse frequency and amplitude were
reduced by 50% for a 12h period in the mid- follicular phase.%Clearly, stress- induced
reductions of fertility are mediated by effects at pituitary and hypothalamic levels to reduce
LH drive of follicular growth and oestradiol production."
DRANSFIELD, M.B.G.; NEBEL, R.L.; PEARSON, R.E.; WARNICK, L.D.
"Timing of insemina tion for dairy cows identified in estrus by a radiotelemetric estrus
detection system"
"Journal of Dairy Science","JUL 1998","81","7","1874-1882"
"R.L. Nebel/Virginia Polytech Inst & State Univ/Dept Dairy Sci/Blacksburg, VA 24061
USA"
"The optimal time of artificial insemination (AI) was determined from data for 2661
AI in 17 herds utilizing a radiotelemetric system for estrus detection that has the potential for
52
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
continuous 24-h surveillance to monitor behavioral events associated with estrus. The system
consisted of pressure-sensitive radio frequency transmitters affixed over the sacrum region of
cows,The activation of the sensor sent a radiotelemetric signal to a microcomputer via a fixed
antenna. Cow identification, date, time, and duration of each standing event were recorded in
the software program provided with the system. Each farm selected a 3-h interval to Al far
cows that were identified in estrus during the previous 24 h. Pregnancy status was determined
from data for return to estrus and palpation of the uterus 35 to 75 d following Al. Standing
events during estrus averaged (+/- SD) 8.5 +/- 6.6 per cow, and the number of events per
estrus across herds averaged from 6.2 +/- 5.1 to 12.8 +/- 9.9 per cow. The duration of estrus
ranged from 5.1 +/- 3.8 to 10.6 +/- 6.8 h across herds; the mean was 7.1 +/- 5.4 h. The interval
from the first standing event to Al affected the probability of pregnancy; the highest
conception rates for Al occurred between 4 and 12 h after the onset of standing activity. The
probability of pregnancy was higher for cows >100 d in milk, exhibiting >2 standing events
during estrus, and inseminated during March, April, or May."
DRANSFIELD, M.B.G.; NEBEL, R.L.; PEARSON, R.E.; WARNICK, L.D.
"Timing of insemination for dairy cows ident ified in estrus by a radiotelemetric estrus
detection system"
"Journal of Dairy Science","JUL 1998","81","7","1874-1882"
"R.L. Nebel/Virginia Polytech Inst & State Univ/Dept Dairy Sci/Blacksburg, VA 24061
USA"
"The optimal time of artificial insemination (AI) was determined from data for 2661
AI in 17 herds utilizing a radiotelemetric system for estrus detection that has the potential for
continuous 24-h surveillance to monitor behavioral events associated with estrus. The system
consisted of pressure-sensitive radio frequency transmitters affixed over the sacrum region of
cows,The activation of the sensor sent a radiotelemetric signal to a microcomputer via a fixed
antenna. Cow identification, date, time, and duration of each standing event were recorded in
the software program provided with the system. Each farm selected a 3-h interval to Al far
cows that were identified in estrus during the previous 24 h. Pregnancy status was determined
from data for return to estrus and palpation of the uterus 35 to 75 d following Al. Standing
events during estrus averaged (+/- SD) 8.5 +/- 6.6 per cow, and the number of events per
estrus across herds averaged from 6.2 +/- 5.1 to 12.8 +/- 9.9 per cow. The duration of estrus
ranged from 5.1 +/- 3.8 to 10.6 +/- 6.8 h across herds; the mean was 7.1 +/- 5.4 h. The interval
from the first standing event to Al affected the probability of pregnancy; the highest
conception rates for Al occurred between 4 and 12 h after the onset of standing activity. The
probability of pregnancy was higher for cows >100 d in milk, exhibiting >2 standing events
during estrus, and inseminated during March, April, or May."
FOOTE, R.H.; RIEK, P.M.
"Gonadotropin-releasing dairy cows with hormone improves reproductive performance
of slow involution of the reproductive tract"
"Journal of Animal Science","1999","77","1","12-16"
"Foote R.H./Cornell Univ/Dept Anim Sci/204 Morrison Hall/Ithaca,NY 14853 USA"
"Eighty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly at calving to receive
either 100 mu g of GnRH or saline 13 or 14 d postpartum (PP). From 4 to 28 d PP the cows'
reproductive organs were palpated weekly per rectum, and cows were subclassified within
each group as undergoing slow (delayed) cervical and uterine involution (abnormal) or as
normal cows. La st milk obtained after removing the milking machine was assayed for
progesterone 3 times a week for 120 d PP. Fourteen of the 80 cows were removed from the
53
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
experiment because of culling or various veterinary treatments of pathologic conditions that
could confound analysis of the GnRH treatment effects. As expected, the treatment of normal
cows with GnRH had no significant effects on the first estrus or the first estrous cycle PP, on
services per conception, days open, or any other reproductive trait measured. However, in the
abnormal group of cows receiving saline, first rebreeding after calving was delayed (81 vs 67
d), fewer were pregnant by 105 d PP (23 vs 64%), and number of days open was greater (121
vs 87 d) compared with those receiving GnRH; all were significant(P < .05). Treated
abnormal cows were equivalent to the control normal cows. Thus, GnRH given 13 to 14 d PP
to cows characterized as undergoing slow involution of the reproductive system, but with no
other clinical problems, seems to assist in promoting rapid normal reproductive function.
Subsequent losses due to culling were greatly reduced.","","0021-8812","Amer Soc Animal
Science/1111 North Dunlap Ave/Savoy/IL 61874/USA"
GANT, R.G.; SANCHEZ, W.; KINCAID, R.L.
"Effect of anionic salts on selenium metabolism in nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows"
"Journal of Dairy Science""JUN 1998","81","6","1637-1642"
"RL Kincaid/Washington State Univ/Dept Anim Sci/Pullman, WA 99164 USA"
"The objective of this trial was to determine whether anionic salts in the diets of
nonlactating, pregnant cows for 14 to 21 d prepartum affected measures of Se status. One of
three dietary treatments (control, anionic salts, and anionic salts plus Se) was administered to
34 nonlactating, pregnant cows using a completely randomized design with repeated
measures. The anionic salts were delivered via gelatin capsules that were administered orally
in two equal amounts per day, and the Se (3 mg/d) was administered via an intraruminal
bolus. The incidence of milk fever among cows was not significantly different across dietary
treatments. The severity of hypocalcemia as indicated by concentrations of ionized Ca in
serum collected <2 h postpartum was significantly lessened by dietary anionic salts.
Supplementation of anionic salts to the diet did not significantly affect serum Ca
concentrations at either 7 d prepartum or 7 d postpartum. Anionic salts did not affect
concentrations of Se in blood; however, Se supplementation of the diets of cows significantly
increased postpartum concentrations of Se in serum. No treatment effects were detected for
concentrations of Se in either serum or whole blood of newborn calves. In conclusion, these
data indicate that diets supplemented with anionic salts for 14 to 21 d prepartum and the
supplementation of diets with Se had independent effects On concentrations of minerals in
blood. Thus, anionic salts can be administered to prevent milk fever without danger of
significantly reducing the transfer of Se from the dam to the calf and without compromising
the Se status of the cow when the anionic salts are limited to administration for 14 to 21 d
before calving."
GREEN, B.L.; McBRIDE, B.W,;SANDALS, D.; LESLIE, K.E.; BAGG, R. ; DICK, P.
"The impact of a monensin controlled-release capsule on subclinical Ketosis in the
transition cow"
"Journal of Dairy Science", "1999, 82, 2, 333-342"
"An experiment was designed to examine subclinical ketosis in periparturient dairy
cows and the antiketogenic effects of monensin. Subclinical ketosis was induced through a
10% feed restriction and was quantitatively determined using a blood beta-hydroxybutyrate
(BHBA) threshold of 1200 mu mol/L. Monensin decreased the BHBA concentration by 35%
and increased the glucose concentration by 15%. No effect of monensin on milk production
was detected, but rumen fermentation was altered. Monensin decreased the acetate to
propionate ratio, decreased the butyrate concentration, and increased pH. The lower
54
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
concentration of BHBA in blood and higher concentration of blood glucose in cows treated
with a monensin controlled-release capsule decreased subclinical ketosis in early lactation
cows.","","0022-0302","Amer Dairy Science Assoc/1111 N Dunlap Ave/Savoy/IL
61874/USA"
GRUNERT, E.; HARXHI, E.; BOOS, A.
"Diagnostic and therapeutic implications of partially luteinised follicular cysts in cattle"
"Tierarztliche Umschau","JUL 1998","53","7","384"
"E. Grunert/Bischofsholer Damm 15/D-30173 Hannover, Germany"
"This study examined the value ultrasonography in diagnosing partially luteinised
follicula r cysts and monitoring the transition of histologically and endocrinologically
confirmed ovarian cysts from the original state to luteal cysts. Of partially luteinised follicular
cyst, only 7 (58.3%) were diagnosed by a 7.5 Mhz transrectal transducer. Using the 5 Mhz
transducer only classical luteal cysts with a grey echogenic rim of luteal tissue more than 3
mm thick were diagnosed correctly. Progesterone concentrations in the cystic fluid of luteal
cysts were significantly increased (3,596.7 ng/ml) compared to the fluid of follicular cysts
with partial luteinisation (116-482.4 ng/ml), The findings of comparable concentrations of
progesterone in the cystic fluid question the need for the treatment with PGF2 alpha
analogues in or der to reduce luteal tissue in partially luteinised follicular cysts. Because of
this finding ultrasonic diagnosis is of limited value, However, ultrasonography does have a
diagnostic role when luteal cysts have a high progesterone concentration and detectable
ultrasound signs."
HENZE, P.; BICKHARDT, K.; FUHRMANN, H.; SALLMANN, H.P.
"Pregnancy toxaemia (ketosis) in sheep and the role of insulin"
"Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A - Physiology Pathology Clinical Medicine","JUL
1998","45","5","255-266"
"K. Bickhardt/Tierarztliche n Hsch Hannover/Klin Kleine Klauentiere/Ambulator Klin &
Forens M/D-30173 Hannover, Germany"
"214 ewes suffering from pregnancy toxaemia (ketosis) were examined. Clinical signs during
onset and course of disease and laboratory findings were compared between animals that
survived and those which died. In the latter the onset of ketosis was earlier in pregnancy (dap
143 +/- 7 vs, day 146 +/- 8) and duration of thr disease was shorter (10 +/- 13 vs. 14 +/- 9
days). The animals that died showed more severe clinical signs and higher values of
3-hydroxy-butyrate (4.3 +/- 3.6 vs. 3.5 +/- 2.6 mmol/l) and cortisol (72 +/- 98 vs. 52 +/- 80
nmol/l) as well as lower values of insulin (37 +/- 12 vs. 66 +/- 42 pmol/l) and potassium (4.1
+/- 1.0 vs. 4.4 +/- 1.0 mmol/l) at onset of the disease than those which survived (all of
differences with P < 0.05). Glucose levels did not differ between groups.%Treated animals
with glucose plus fructose infusions (n = 56) or with oral application of glucose precursors
plus electrolytes (n = 126) had survival rates of 53.6% and 62.7%, respectively. Oral
treatment with glucose precursors plus electrolytes and an additional subcutaneous insulin
treatment (n = 15) led to an enhanced survival rate of 86.7% (P < 0.05).%Low insulin levels
in ketotic pregnant sheep and the therapeutic effect of insulin treatment support the hypothesis
that insulin plays a causative role in the pathogenesis of ovine ketosis."
HEUER, C.; SCHUKKEN, Y.H.; DOBBELAAR, P.
"Postpartum body condition score and results from the first test day milk as predictors
of disease, fertility, yield, and culling in commercial dairy herds"
"Journal of Dairy Science","1999","82","2","295-304"
55
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
"Heuer C./Univ Utrecht/Dept Herd Hlth & Reprod/Yalelaan 7/NL-3584 CL
Utrecht/NETHERLANDS"
"The study used field data from a regular herd health service to investigate the
relationships between body condition scores or first test day milk data and disease incidence,
milk yield, fertility, and culling. Path model analysis with adjustment for time at risk was
applied to delineate the time sequence of events. Milk fever occurred more often in fat cows,
and endometritis occurred between calving and 20 d of lactation more often in thin cows. Fat
cows were less likely to conceive at first service than were cows in normal condition. Fat
body condition postpartum, higher first test day milk yield, and a fat to protein ratio of >1.5
increased body condition loss. Fat or thin condition or condition loss was not related to other
lactation diseases, fertility parameters, milk yield, or culling. First test day milk yield was 1.3
kg higher after milk fever and was 7.1 kg lower after displaced abomasum. Higher first test
day milk yield directly increased the risk of ovarian cyst and lameness, increased 100-d milk
yield, and reduced the risk of culling and indirectly decreased reproductive performance.
Cows with a fat to protein ratio of >1.5 had higher risks for ketosis, displaced abomasum,
ovarian cyst, lameness, and mastitis. Those cows produced more milk but sho wed poor
reproductive performance. Given this type of herd health data, we concluded that the first test
day milk yield and the fat to protein ratio were more reliable indicators of disease, fertility,
and milk yield than was body condition score or loss of body condition score.","","00220302","Amer Dairy Science Assoc/1111 N Dunlap Ave/Savoy/IL 61874/USA"
HOEDEMAKER, M.
"Postpartal pathological vaginal discharge: To treat or not to treat?"
"Reproduction in Domestic Animals","JUN 1998","33","3 -4","141-146"
"M. Hoedemaker/Tierarztliche Hochschule Hannover/Klin Geburtshilfe & Gynakol
Rindes/Hannover, Germany"
"In this paper, the physiology of bovine puerperium and pathogenesis of bovine
postpartal endometritis were reviewed. The economic impact of a disturbed uterine involution
were discussed and the current concepts of treatment of this disease critically evaluated.
Despite the fact that therapy is the most controversial aspect of endometritis, some
recommendations for the management of this problem were given considering the physiology
and pathology of puerperium."
HORUGEL, U.; FURLL, M.
"Investigations on early diagnosis of disposition to parturient paresis"
"Praktische Tierarzt","JUN 1998","79"," Sp. Iss.","86-92"
"U. Horugel/Univ Leipzig/Fak Vet Med/Med Klin/Zwickauer Str 53/D-04103 Leipzig,
Germany"
"From July to September examinations were performed in a dairy cowshed with a
stock of 1.930 cows. The examinations were confined to 47 cows of the breed
"Schwarzbuntes Milchrind'' (03.6 lactation periods, 05850 kg milk per pear). The aims were
to analyse the correlation between the acid-base-status (ABS) and the mineral-nutrient-status
(MNS) in the peripartal period and to check parameters of early diagnostic information and
their value for disposition to parturient paresis. For that purpose follow- up investigations of
ABS and MNS with the help of blood and urine samples were performed 14 days ante partum
to 14 days post partum. In order to make the differences clear all examined animals were
divided into groups according to the concentrations of ionized calcium (Ca- i) in their blood
sub partu and to some ABS parameters ante partum. Ante partum (a.p.) the fodder ration
contained a dietary-cation-anion-difference 2 (DCAD 2) of 281 mEq/kg dry matter with
56
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
potassium clearly dominating. The Calcium (Ca) intake totalled 42 g/d and the inorganic
phosphate intake was (P-i) 44 g/d. From 14 days a.p. to partus an average continuous 100
mmol/l decrease in the concentration of netto-acid-base-excretion (NABE), of bases and of
potassium in the urine was established. Equally the base-acid-quotient (BAQ) fell from 4.0 to
2.1 and the pH-value fell from 8.2 to 7.8, whereas the concentration of acids, ammonium, P-i
and Ca in the urine remained stable to a large extent. However, the concentration of Ca, and
Pi in the blood dropped immediately before parturition. The a. p. existing alcalotic ABS is
determined by a high base concentration especially of potassium. Moreover it was shown
clearly that the animals with a relatively high alcalotic ABS a. p. had the lowest
concentrations of Ca, in the blood at the time of parturition. Recommendations for early
diagnosis of parturient paresis are given. The following recommendations can be derived for
14 d a. p. (a/) and 7 d a. p. (/b): bases < 300/ < 270 mmol/l, NAPE < 250/ < 220 mmol/l, BAQ
4,3, potassium < 300/ < 250 mmol/l, pH-value < 8,4/ less than or equal to 7,8. Unfortunately
the formation of the creatinine quotient of the tested urine parameters did not provide any
convincing results."
JANOWSKI, T.; ZDUNCZYK, S.; CHMIELEWSKI, A.; MWAANGA, E.S.
"Progesterone profiles in cows with endometritis "
"Tierarztliche Umschau","JUL 1998","53","7","399-402"
"T. Janowski/Ul Oczapowskiego 14/PL-10957 Olsztyn, Poland"
"Plasma progesterone profiles were determined in 40 cows with endometritis and in 30
healthy cows. Blood samples were collected twice a week up to 60 days post partum.
Progesterone concentrations were determined by RIA and the profiles were classified into
four basic types. In the cows with endometritis, 45 per cent exhibited an irregular secretion of
progesterone with 2 or more short cycles, 30 per cent had a delayed onset of ovarian activity
at >30 days post partum and 15 per cent of animals had a prolonged (>20 days) luteal phase.
The early initiation of ovarian activity with regular cyclicity was observed in only 5% of cows
with endometritis and in 80 per cent of the healthy cows. The first ina ease in progesterone,
greater than 3.18 nmol/l occurred significantly later (27.8 +/- 12.3 days post partum) in
animals with uterine infection compared with normal cows (21.0 +/- 8.1 days post partum).
The duration of the first cycle post partum was longer (19.7 +/- 7.3 days) in cows with
endometritis compared with healthy cows (13.7 +/- 5.8 days). The mechanisms involved in
puerperal endometritis and disturbances of ovarian function are discussed."
JORRITSMA, R.; BALDEE, S.J.C.; SCHUKKEN, Y.H.; WENSING, T.; WENTINK, G.H.
"Evaluation of a milk test for detection of subclinical ketosis"
"Veterinary Quarterly","JUL 1998","20","3","108-110"
"R. Jorritsma/Univ Utrecht/Fac Vet Med/Dept Herd Hlth & Reprod/POB 80151/NL-3508 Td
Utrecht, Netherlands"
"This study included 190 lactating cows from eight dairy farms and was designed to
investigate the sensitivity and specificity of a milk test (Ketolac) for detecting subclinical
ketosis in dairy cattle. Blood and milk samples were collected between 38 and 50 days post
partum, At a beta- hydroxybutyric acid concentration in blood of 1.2 mmol/L, the prevalence
of ketosis was 14%. A Response Operator Characteristic curve was drawn for two milk test
values: 100 mu mol/L and 200 mu mol/L, Assessment of several beta- hydroxybutyric acid
cut-off values in blood showed that when 100 mu mol/L on the Ketolac milk test was defined
positive, the most desirable sensitivity-specificity combination was achieved. This milk test
can be routinely used to screen a herd for subclinical ketosis."
57
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
KAUFMANN, C.; THUN, R.
"The influence of acute stress on the secretion of cortisol and progesterone in the cow"
"Tierarztliche Umschau","JUL 1998","53","7","403"
"R. Thun/Univ Zurich/Klin Androl & Gynakol/Winterthurerstr 268/CH-8057 Zurich,
Switzerland"
"The effects of acute stress, induced by immobilisation in a crush for 2 hours for. hoof
treatment, on the secretion of cortisol and progesterone was studied in cows during two
different stages of the oestrous cycle. Five Brown Swiss cows were exposed to this stress on
two occasions, once in the luteal and once in the oestrous phase, during which cortisol and
progesterone were estimated in blood samples taken every ten minutes. During stress, cortisol
concentrations increased significantly in all cows with ma.maximum values of 27 ng/ml
plasma, independent of the phase of the cycle. PI Progesterone concentrations were elevated
only in cows in oestrous, with the greatest values between 1.9 and 8.8 ng/ml plasma. In
unstressed animals progesterone concentrations during oestrus varied below 0.6 ng/ml
plasma. The stress- induced increase in progesterone is most likely derived from the adrenal
cotter and possibly from the ovary. The results also suggest a cycle-dependent mechanism of
activating the pituitary-adrenocortical system."
KITTEL, D.R.; CAMPERO, C.; VANHOOSEAR, K.A.; RHYAN, J.C.; BONDURANT,
R.H.
"Comparison of diagnostic methods for detection of active infection with
Tritrichomonas foetus in beef heifers"
"Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","AUG 15 1998","213","4","519"
"D.R. Kittel/Univ Calif Davis/Sch Vet Med/Dept Populat Hlth & Reprod/Davis, CA 95616
USA"
"Objective-To compare sensitivity of a generic trypticase-yeast extract- maltose (TYM)
medium versus a commercial nutrient medium in the diagnosis of Tritrichomonas foetus
infection in heifers and to assess sensitivity when incubation of samples inoculated into
commercial medium pouches is delayed overnight.
Design-Prospective study.
Animals - 30 virgin beef heifers.
Procedures-20 heifers vaccinated with a trichomonad antigen and 10 unvaccinated control
heifers were exposed at synchronized estrus by intravaginal instillation of 10(6) T foetus
organisms. Cervicovaginal mucus samples were collected every other week for 10 weeks
from controls and once (10 weeks after exposure) from vaccinated heifers. Samples were
inoculated into both media and immediately incubated at 37 C (98.6 F). A duplicate
inoculation from controls was made into commercial medium, and the pouch was shipped
overnight to a diagnostic laboratory without prior incubation.
Results-For 40 of 50 samples from control heifers, there was agreement on diagnoses between
media. There was agreement on a positive diagnosis for 3 of 20 samples from vaccinated
heifers and on a negative diagnosis for 15 of these 20 samples. For samples shipped overnight
before incubation, there were 10% fewer positive diagnoses, compared with samples
incubated immediately in commercial medium and 10% more positive diagnoses, compared
with samples immediately incubated in TYM.
Clinical implications - Use of the commercial medium is a mo re sensitive indicator of current
infection in heifers than use of generic TYM medium. In herds where infection prevalence is
high, this method is likely to identify more infected females, an important consideration when
control programs include culling of infected cows."
58
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
KOLB, E.; SEEHAWER, J.; STEINBERG, W.
"Significance, utilization and application of B-vitamins in ruminants. 2. Niacin,
pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid and vitamin B-12"
"Praktische Tierarzt","1999","80","3","207+","German Article"
"Kolb E./Semmelweisstr 4/D-04103 Leipzig/GERMANY"
"Under certain feeding conditions the amount of resorbed niacin is not optimal, so
daily supplementation with 1 g nicotinic acid per head of growing cattle, 0,5 g per sheep and 6
g per lactating cow augments productivity. Nicotinic acid has an antilipolytic, antiketogenic
and a gluconeogenesis stimulating effect. Under usual feeding conditions the resorption of
pantothenic acid is sufficient. The synthesis of biotin in the forestomachs is small. The enteral
synthetized biotin is resorbed only to a small degree. Supply with 20 mg biotin per cow and
day augments the quality of claw horn. The supply with folic acid is under certain feeding
conditions not optimal. There is a high synthesis of vitamin B-12 in the forestomachs.
Preparations of B-vitamins are especially applied in cases of maldigestion and of a longer
interruption of feed intake for the stimulation of cell regeneration and of the activity of the
immune system.","","0032-681X","Schlutersche Verlag Druckerei/Georgswall 4/W-3000
Hanover 1/Germany"
KYLE, B.L.; KENNEDY, A.D.; SMALL, J.A."
"Measurement of vaginal temperature by radiotelemetry for the prediction of estrus in
beef cows"
"Theriogenology","JUN 1998","49","8","1437-1449"
"B.L. Kyle/Univ Manitoba/Dept Anim Sci/Winnipeg/MB R3T 2N2, Canada"
"Peaks in vaginal temperature were assessed as predictors of estrus in 22 suckled beef
cows during 2 breeding seasons. A flexible plastic anchor was used to retain a temperature
radiotransmitter within the cow va gina and vaginal temperature was monitored at C-min
intervals. Blood was collected twice weekly for analysis of serum progesterone to confirm the
occurrence of estrus and ovarian status was checked weekly using transrectal
ultrasonography. Visual observations of estrous behavior were made for 20 min/h between
0400 and 0800 h and casually from 0800 to 1600 h (4 to 6 times). Values for vaginal
temperature were available for 47 estrous periods. The prediction of estrus based on vaginal
temperature was excellent when an estral peak in vaginal temperature was defined as an
increase of at least 0.4 degrees C for 3 or more consecutive hours using the corresponding
hourly means of a 2 or 3-d baseline. Combining the results of 2 separate years and using a 3-d
baseline, a peak in vaginal temperature was found for 42 of 47 confirmed estrus periods
(detection sensitivity of 89.4% and prediction power positive of 85.7%). Corresponding
detection sensitivity and prediction power positive for visual observations of standing estrus
were 53.2 and 96.2%, respectively. The mean maximal increase in vaginal temperature at
estrus was 0.9 +/- 0.3 degrees C and the mean duration of the estrual peak in vaginal
temperature was 6.5 +/- 2.7 h. In addition, vaginal temperature was found to be significantly
depressed for 3 d prior to estrus and significantly elevated at mid-cycle. (C) 1998 by Elsevier
Science Inc."
MOLTENI, L.; MACCHI, A.D.; MEGGIOLARO, D.; SIRONI, G.;ENICE, F.; POPESCU, P.
"New cases of XXY constitution in cattle"
"Animal Reproduction Science","1999","55","2","107-113"
"Molteni L./Fac Agr/Ist Zootecn Generale/Via Celoria 2/I-20133 Milan/ITALY"
"The present paper describes two cases of an XXY condition in Chianina cattle. Both
young bulls were routinely investigated cytogenetically before entering progeny test stations.
59
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
Every cell examined in the blood cell cultures showed an XXY constitution. The histological
study of the gonads, performed on only one bull, showed degradation of the seminiferous
tubules. Only Sertoli cells and hyperplastic interstitial cells were observed. (C) 1999 Elsevier
Science B.V. All rights reserved.","","0378-4320","Elsevier Science Bv/PO Box 211/1000
AE Amsterdam/Netherlands"
NAGY, P.; HUSZENICZA, G.; JUHASZ, J.; SOLTI, L.; KULCSAR, M.
"Diagnostic problems associated with ovarian activity in barren and postpartum mares
early in the breeding season"
"Reproduction in Domestic Animals","JUN 1998","33","3 -4","187-192"
"P. Nagy/Univ Vet Sci Budapest/Dept Obstet & Reprod/Budapest, Hungary"
"Three studies were carried out to monitor or induce ovarian activity and sexual
behaviour in maiden, barren and postpartum mares during the anovulatory season. In the first
study maiden and barren mares were followed up by regular blood sampling. In 39% of
anoestrus mares the anovulatory season was started after December 1. Mares that stopped
cycling before December 1 had significantly longer anovulatory period (P<0.001) and
resumed cyclic ovarian activity one month later (P<0.01) than mares that stopped cycling
after December 1. The first ovulation was not preceded by overt oestrus in most of the cases
(64.7%). In the second study 38 mares, foaling in the first three month of the year, were
monitored. Cyclic ovarian activity resumed more than 20 days after parturition in 11 mares
(28.9%, between 22 and 111 days). Only 52.6% of the animals showed heat before the first
postpartum ovulation. The follicular phase after the luteolysis of the first corpus luteum was
longer than normal (>10days, between 22 and 64 days) in 10 mares (43.5%). In the third
study 44 mares in spring transition were treated with Altrenogest for 10 days. In 8 treated
mares a GnRH-challenge (40 mu g Buserelin iv.) was carried out before treatment. Despite
the same inclusion criteria used for all mares, in case of II mares (25%) the treatment was not
successful and the ovulation occurred more than 20 days after the end of treatment.(between
29 and 70 days). The result of the GnRH-stimulation gave an explanation for this difference.
Mares that were treated successfully with Altrenogest had a higher maximum LH-response
and area under the curve indicating higher LH-content of the pituitary before treatment."
ODOHERTY, J.V.; CROSBY, T.F.
"Blood metabolite concentrations in late pregnant ewes as indicators of nut ritional
status"
"Animal Science","JUN 1998","66"," Part 3","675-683"
"J.V. Odoherty/Univ Coll Dublin/Dept Anim Sci & Prod/Lyons Res Farm/Newcastle/Dublin,
Ireland"
"In a feeding experiment beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), glucose, albumin, total protein,
globulin and urea concentrations in the plasma of twin-bearing ewes were analysed. Mature
Suffolk cross ewes were given either formic acid (FA)-treated grass silage or grass/molassed
sugar-beet pulp (MSBP) silage in late pregnancy. The experiment commenced on day 91 of
pregnancy and the dietary treatments were FA-treated silage (T1), FA-treated silage +
soya-bean meal (SBM) (T2), MSBP silage (T3), MSBP silage + SBM (T4), FA-treated silage
+ MSBP (T5), FA-treated silage + MSBP + SBM (T6) or FA-treated silage + 150 g crude
protein (CP) per kg concentrate (T7). SBM was given only in the last 21 days of pregnancy
aiming for a total CP intake of 220 g per ewe per day. Blood samples were collected by
jugular venipuncture from each ewe 3 h following consumption of the morning dietary
allowance on days 121, 128, 135 and 142 of pregnancy. Daily metabolizable energy (ME)
intakes of 6.8, 11.4, 9.6, 12.8, 10.5, 13.7 and 14.7 (s.e. 0.58) MJ per ewe were recorded for T1
60
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
to T7 respectively over the last 3 weeks of pregnancy. Respective CP intakes of 72, 213, 110,
225, 109, 215 and 175 (s.e. 5.64) g per ewe were recorded for T1 to T7 respectively over the
last 3 weeks of pregnancy. BHB concentrations (mmol/l) on day 121 of pregnancy of 1.18,
1.25, 0.52, 0.52, 0.56, 0.39 and 0.45 (s.e. 0.17), on day 128 of pregnancy of 1.17, 0.94, 0.52,
0.51, 0.72, 0.62 and 0.39 (s.e. 0.20), on day 135 of pregnancy of 1.53, 0.68, 0.68, 0.66, 0.71,
0.62 and 0.46 (s.e. 0.20) and on day 142 of pregnancy of 1.43, 0.60, 0.62, 0.56, 0.62, 0.56 and
0.63 (s.e. 0.20) were recorded for T1 to T7 respectively. There teas a quadratic relationship
between plasma BHB concentration and ME intake on days 121 (R-2 = 0.538, P < 0.001), 128
(R-2 = 0.324, P < 0.001), 135 (R-2 = 0.429, P < 0.001) and 142 (R-2 = 0.344, P < 0.001) of
pregnancy. There was a positive relationship between plasma glucose concentration and ME
intake on day 121 (R-2 = 0.208, P < 0.001), 128 (R-2 = 0.103, P < 0.05), and 135 (R-2 =
0.160, P < 0.01) of pregnancy. Albumin concentrations (g/l) on day 128 of pregnancy of 21.8,
21.7, 23.6, 22.9, 22.5, 22.9 and 24.3 (s.e. 0.75), on day 135 of 20.9, 23.6, 24.2, 24.1, 22.4,
24.1 and 23.8 (s.e. 0.75), and on day 142 of 16.9, 22.9, 20.7, 22.1, 20.4, 22.7 and 21.1 (s.e.
1.05) were recorded for T1 to T7 respectively. Plasma albumin concentrations were
significantly affected by SBM supplementation (P < 0.05). Despite the lower than generally
recommended energy concentrations in T2 to T7, the concentrations of plasma BHB were
within the normal range for healthy she ep."
OPSOMER, G.; CORYN, M.; DELUYKER, H.; DEKRUIF, A.
"An analysis of ovarian dysfunction in high yielding dairy cows after calving based on
progesterone profiles"
"Reproduction in Domestic Animals","JUN 1998","33","3 -4","193-204"
"G. Opsomer/State Univ Ghent/Fac Med Vet/Dept Reprod Obstet & Herd Hlth/Merelbeke,
Belgium"
"448 post partum progesterone profiles of 335 high- yielding dairy cows of 6 well
managed dairy herds were analysed to monitor ovarian function and dysfunction in the
immediate post partum period. Progesterone was measured in milkfat by RIA, and profiles
were set up based on twice weekly milk sampling, starting from ten days after calving until
confirmation of a new pregnancy by rectal palpation. Attention was focused on the immediate
post partum period from 10 days after calving until first insemination (preservice period).
First progesterone rise indicative for the presence of active luteal tissue, occurred at an
average of 37 days (n=435; stdev=26) after calving, illustrating that the fir st ovulation after
calving appears at approximately day 32. The 448 examined profiles could be classified as
follows: I. Normal profile: 239 (53.5%); II. Delayed cyclicity: 91 (20.5%); III. Cessation of
cyclicity: 15 (3%); IV. Prolonged luteal phase: 89 (20%); V. Short luteal phase: 3 (0.5%) and
VI. Irregular profiles: 11 (2.5%).%Results show that almost half of the modern high- yielding
dairy cows suffer from ovarian dysfunction in the preservice post partum period. Most
important disorders are delayed cyclicity or anovulation and prolonged luteal phase, which
together account for almost 90% of the abnormalities."
PALMER, E.; GUILLAUME, D.
"Some mechanisms involved in the response of mares to photoperiodic stimulation of
reproductive activity"
"Reproduction in Domestic Animals","JUN 1998","33","3 -4","205-208"
"E. Palmer/Haras Nat/Nouzilly, France"
"The horse is a long-day breeder. In stallions, the annual variation of the reproductive
ability is small and it is mainly expressed through changes in hormonal levels and
consequently through sexual behaviour and accessory glands secretions. On the other hand,
61
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
the reproductive status of mares changes considerably around the year. An anovulatory period
is systematically observed during autumn and winter in young mares 2 or 3 years old and in
adult mares that have suckled a foal during the previous summer (Palmer and Driancourt
1983). Only half of non lactating adult mares, older than 3 years, however, exhibit winter
inactivity. These differences indicate that the physiological mechanism that drives the
initiation of winter inactivity differs between the three types of mares. Moreover, in adult
mares, parturition and lactation play an important role in the initiation of inactivity, even
though mares cycle normally during lactation. %The annual variation of the reproductive
function is illustrated by plasma progesterone profiles in normal mares or by the variation of
circulating LH in ovariectomised mares (fig 1). The annual variation of LH in ovariectomised
mares clearly demonstrates the existence of an annual rhythm for the reproduction in mares.
This rhythm parallels the changes in the daylength with a delay of approximately 2 months,
which suggests that light may influence this reproductive rhythm."
PETERS, A.R.; BENBOULAID, M.
"Studies on the timing of ovulation after synchronisation treatments in cattle"
"Reproduction in Domestic Animals","JUN 1998","33","3 -4","313-315"
"AR Peters/Royal Vet Coll/Dept Farm Anim & Equine Med & Surg/Boltons Pk Farm/Potters
Bar EN6 Inb/Herts, England"
"A series of studies was conducted to examine the effect of various GnRH - PG GnRH regimes on the timing of ovulation using ultrasound in cows. In Study 1 cows received
GnRH on day 5 of the oestrous cycle followed 7 days later by PG. Six cows received a second
GnRH 48 hours after PG. These cows ovulated between 72 and 96 hours after PG compared
to 96 and 120 hours for those not receiving a second GNRH.%In Study 2, 32 cows received a
first GNRH injection at a random stage of the cycle. When PG was injected 7 days later 29/32
were in the luteal phase. Eleven cows received a second GnRH at 56-60 hours after PG and
10 cows at 72 hours, the other 11 receiving no further treatment. Ovulation was most tightly
synchronised in the group receiving GnRH at 56-60 hours, 10/11 ovulating between 72 and
96 hours after PG. %In Study 3 six cows received PG on day 12 of the cycle followed by
GnRH 60 hours later. Five of the six cows ovulated between 84 and 96 hours after PG. %In
Study 4, 6 cows received GnRH on day 17 of the cycle followed by PG 7 days later and
GnRH 60 hours after PG. The first GnRH successfully prolonged the luteal phase in 5/6 cows.
Although the remaining cow ovulated 48 hours after PG, the others ovulated between 84 and
96 hours after PG.%It is concluded from these studies that GnRH given 48-60 hours after PG
is most critical in determining the time of ovulation, GnRH 72 hours after PG is clearly too
late. The first GnRH treatment does not appear to influence the timing of ovulation but could
be important in determining oocyte maturation through reprogramming follicular
development several days before luteolysis is induced. The first GnRH also has the effect of
delaying luteolysis if given late in the luteal phase."
RODOLAKIS, A.; SALINAS, J.; PAPP, J
"Recent advances on ovine chlamydial abortion"
"Veterinary Research","MAY-AUG 1998","29","3 -4","275-288"
"A. Rodolakis/Inra/Pathol Infect & Immunol Lab/Ctr Tours Nouzilly/F-37380 Nouzilly,
France"
"This paper reviews new findings on ovine chlamydial abortion. Concerning
chlamydial taxonomy, with the recent advances due to the analysis of the ribosomal genes,
nine genotypic groups were identified separated into two lineages. It also describes the
transmission of the disease, the site of entry of the organism and chlamydial shedding by
62
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
underlying the role of latent infections. Recent results also concern the pathogenesis, with the
kinetics of placental colonization and placental pathology leading to abortion in ruminants.
Studies using experimental infection in a pregnant mouse model have allowed the
identification of target placental cells and have shown the differential evolution of the
infection according to the stage of pregnancy. Different diagnosis techniques are compared
(ELISA, PCR and immunofluorescence for the direct diagnosis) but also the possibilities of
distinction between antibodies against Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci (for
serodiagnosis). The recent advances on prophylaxis are presented, as well as the research
efforts needs for the next century. (C) Inra/Elsevier, Paris."
RUKKWAMSUK, T.; KRUIP, T.A.M.; MEIJER, G.A.L.; WENSING, T.
"Hepatic fatty acid composition in periparturient dairy cows with fatty liver induced by
intake of a high energy diet in the dry period"
"Journal of Dairy Science","1999","82","2","280-287"
"Rukkwamsuk T./Univ Utrecht/Fac Vet Med/Grad Sch Anim Hlth/Dept Large Anim Med &
Nutr/POB 80-152/NL-3508 TD Utrecht/NETHERLANDS"
"The present study compared the hepatic fatty acid composition of cows that were fed
a high energy diet during the dry period to induce fatty liver after parturition with that of
control cows. Treated cows had higher concentrations of plasma nonesterified fatty acids as a
result of greater lipolysis after parturition than did control cows; consequently, the treated
cows accumulated greater amounts of triacylglycerols in the liver. Before parturition, treated
cows had lower percentages of oleic acid and higher percentages of linoleic acid than did
control cows, but percentages of other fatty acids were similar for both groups. After
parturition, percentages of each fatty acid were changed substantially, particularly the four
major fatty acids (palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids). For treated cows, the
percentages of palmitic and oleic acids were higher at 0.5 wk after parturition than at 1 wk
before parturition; percentages of stearic and linoleic acids decreased. Unlike treated cows,
the percentages of both oleic and linoleic acids in the control cows did not change during that
time. Moreover, we found that when lipolysis decreased, as indicated by lower plasma
nonesterified fatty acid concentrations, the percentages of each fatty acid gradually rebounded
toward the concentrations measured before parturition; this observation indicates that the shift
in hepatic fatty acid composition is influenced by lipolysis. The increased lipolysis after
parturition led to a vast increase in the hepatic triacylglycerol concentration and to a shift in
hepatic fatty acid composition.","","0022-0302","Amer Dairy Science Assoc/1111 N Dunlap
Ave/Savoy/IL 61874/USA"
SCHLERKA, G.
"Selenium and iron concentrations in blood plasma, haemoglobin values and packed cell
volume in clinically healthy newborn breeding calves"
"Tierarztliche Umschau","MAY 1 1998", "53","5","239-242"
"G. Schlerka/Univ Vienna/Med Klin Klauentiere 2/Vet Pl 21/A-1210 Vienna, Austria","At
periodical intervals, the selenium and iron concentrations in blood plasma, haemoglobin
values and packed cell volume were estimated in 42 calves from the day of birth until the 20th
week of life. The lowest selenium concentration was observed in calves immediately after
birth. The continuous increase in the selenium concentration up to the third day of life was
due to the colostral intake. The low selenium content of milk resulted in a decrease in
selenium concentration until the fifth week of life. Low iron concentrations were observed
from birth until the eleventh week of life. In the subsequent weeks, the iron concentration
increased due to the feed consumed."
63
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
SMITH, B.I.; DONOVAN, G.A.; RISCO, C.; LITTELL, R.; YOUNG, C.; STANKER, L.H.;
ELLIOTT, J.
"Comparison of various antibiotic treatments for cows diagnosed with toxic puerperal
metritis"
"Journal of Dairy Science","JUN 1998","81","6","1555-1562"
"B.I. Smith/Aurora Dairy Corp/3830 SW 38TH St/Gainesville, FL 32608 USA"
"Holstein cows (n = 51) that had been diagnosed with toxic puerperal metritis were
used to determine the treatment efficacy of various antibiotics. On the day of diagnosis, cows
affected with toxic puerperal metritis were assigned randomly to three treatment groups.
Cows in groups 1 and 2 received 22,000 IU/kg of procaine penicillin G i.m, for 5 d. In
addition, cows in group 2 received an intrauterine infusion of 6 g of oxytetracycline on d 1, 3,
and 5. Cows in group 3 received 2.2 mg/kg of ceftiofur sodium i.m. for 5 d. Dependent
variables used to determine antibiotic efficacy included milk yield on d 1 through 12, rectal
temperature on d 1 through 5, and serum haptoglobin concentration on d 1, 3, and 5. No
difference was observed among groups for milk yield on d 1 and 12 or for temperature on d 1
and 5. Serum haptoglobin was elevated to >10 mg/dl for cows in all groups; however, no
difference was observed among groups on d 1 and 5. Because all groups showed a favorable
response, this study suggests that there is no difference in treatment efficacy among
antibiotics used to treat cows affected with toxic puerperal metritis."
SOBIRAJ, A.; HERMULHEIM, A.; HERFEN, K.; SCHULZ, S.
"The effects of different pharmaceutical products on the uterus and placenta following
conservative and surgical methods "
"Tierarztliche Umschau","JUL 1998","53","7","392"
"A. Sobiraj/Univ Leipzig/Ambulator & Geburtshilflichen Tierklin/Margarete Blank Str
8/D-04103 Le ipzig, Germany"
"Dystocia is one of the common reasons for the retention of the afterbirth in cows. In
a study to prevent this primiparous and multiparous dairy cows which had either caesarean
sections of conservative assistance at parturition were treated during the procedure, im
mediately post surgery or post partum with pharmaceutical products affecting uterine tone.
Group 1 was treated with a secale-alkaloid (2 mg i.m.), the second group received 50 IU of
oxytocin intramuscularly together with 35 g calcium borogluconate in solution
subcutaneously. The third group received oxytocin intra- myometrially (30 IU), the fourth
group was treated with the beta(2)-adrenoreceptor blocking formulation carazolol at a nose of
5 mg intramuscularly the fifth group was injected intravenously with the prostaglandin F-2
alpha-analogue tiaprost and Group 6 received the long acting oxytoxin formulation
carbetocine at a dose of 0.35 mg intramuscularly. In comparison with an untreated control
group of heifers and cows which had caesarean sections, no reduction in the incidence of
retained placenta was observed whatever the parity of the animal. Animals which only
received conservative assistance at calving were formed into three treatment groups. The first
group received the same dose of carazolol, the second group received tiaprost and the third
group carbetocine. The results of these treatments compared with untreated primiparous and
multiparous cows with dystokia and conservative finishing of parturition indicated no effect
of treatment with carazolol. However; the incidence of release of placentae was increased in
primiparous animals treated with tiaprost or carbetocine; no effects were observed in
multiparous cows. These results are discussed."
64
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
THOMPSON, J.C.; THORNTON, R.N.; BRUERE, S.N.; ELLISON, R.S.
"Selenium reference ranges in New Zealand cattle"
"New Zealand Veterinary Journal","APR 1998","46","2","65-67"
"J.C. Thompson/Batchelar Anim Hlth Lab/POB 536/Palmerston North, New Zealand"
"Aim. To compare serum selenium and liver selenium concentrations with whole
blood concentrations in samples taken at the same time from unsupplemented cattle, and to
use these comparisons to establish a reference range for use in diagnosing selenium
deficiency.%Methods. Selenium was measured in concurrent whole blood, serum and liver
samples obtained from cattle in unsupplemented herds in the Manawatu, Waikato and
Wairarapa regions of New Zealand. The results were statistically analysed.%Results. The
revised reference ranges are as follows.%[GRAPHICS]%Conclusion. The serum and liver
selenium concentrations used as reference values prior to this study were inaccurate for the
detection of selenium deficiency."
VISSER, I.J.R.; TERLAAK, E.A.; JANSEN, H.B.
"Failure of antibiotics gentamycin, tylosin, lincomycin and spectinomycin to eliminate
Mycoplasma bovis in artificially infected frozen bovine semen"
"Theriogenology","1999","51","4","689-697"
"Visser I.J.R./Anim Hlth Serv/POB 361/NL-9200 AJ Drachten/NETHERLANDS"
"To study the effect of antibiotics upon Mycoplasma bovis in fresh bovine semen just
before freezing, specimens of bovine semen were artificially infected with 1 of 9 different
strains of M.bovis, Inocula of each strain were prepared to contain 10(5) to 10(6)/mL colonyforming units of M. Bovis at 3 different stages of the growth phase. The infected semen was
diluted with a Tris extender by a 3-step procedure using an antibiotic mixture of gentamicin,
tylosin, lincomycin and spectinomycin (GTLS). This semen-antibiotic mixture was placed
into French straws that were stored at -196 degrees C. The control semen specimens contained
no antibiotics. Mycoplasmas were counted after 8 d of storage in 3 decimal dilutions of the
frozen semen. No evident effect was noticed upon the 9 tested strains of mycoplasmas in the
semen frozen with the antibiotics, compared with that of the untreated control samples. It was
further shown that this lack of effect was irrespective of the stage of the growth phase of the
mycoplasmas. It was concluded that the antibiotic mixture (GTLS) in semen specimens is not
capable of total elimination of mycoplasmas in frozen bovine semen. (C) 1999 by Elsevier
Science Inc.","","0093-691X","Elsevier Science Inc/655 Avenue of the Americas/New
York/NY 10010/USA"
WEBB, R.; GUTIERREZ, C.G.; GONG, J.G.; CAMPBELL, B.K.
"Dynamics and aetiology of ovarian follicular cysts in post-partum dairy cattle"
"Reproduction in Domestic Animals","JUN 1998","33","3 -4","285-288"
"R. Webb/Univ Nottingham/Fac Agr & Food Sci/Dept Agr & Hort/Sch Biol/Sutton
Bonington Campus/Loughborough LE12 5RD/Leics, England"
"Ovarian follicular cysts affect approximately 7-13% of dairy cattle during the
post-partum period, prolonging the interval from calving to conception. This amounts to
significant losses to the dairy industry. Cysts are commonly accompanied by the expression of
behavioural oestrus, resulting in additional costs because of unsuccessful artificial
insemination. Although follicular cysts have been the subject of extensive study, particularly
in relation to their diagnosis and veterinary treatment, relatively little is known about the
mechanisms underlying their development. Some reports have shown that cows with cysts are
associated with higher milk production than non-cystic herdmates. A number of experimental
approaches have been utilised to induce follicular cysts, including giving erogenous steroids
65
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
and gonadotrophins and/or altering endogenous gonadotrophin secretion. Utilising these
approaches, coupled with rectal ultrasound, it has been observed that follicular cysts are
dynamic structures. Follicular cysts can inhibit the growth of subordinate follicles, although
the loss of this dominance is not necessarily accompanied by a decline in their diameter.
However, their ability to increase in size is not always associated with dominance. It appears
as though follicular cysts continue their growth because they are still responsive to the
stimulatory effects of gonadotrophins. Evaluation of the success of treatment for cysts is
complex because some cysts spontaneously regress and misdiagnosis of cysts occurs. Natural
resolution occurs by luteinization of the cyst or by ovulation of the follicular cyst. Some
treatments incorporate the induction of luteinization followed by luteolytic treatments. As the
improved understanding of the reasons for cyst formation and the mechanisms involved
should lead to the development of improved management and preventative strategies to
reduce their occurrence."
WESTWOOD, C.T.; LEAN, I.J.; KELLAWAY, R.C.
"Indications and implications for testing of milk urea in dairy cattle: A quantitative
review. Part 1. Dietary protein sources and metabolism"
"New Zealand Veterinary Journal","JUN 1998","46","3","87-96"
"C.T. Westwood/Wrightson Res/POB 939/Christchurch, New Zealand"
"Milk urea concentrations in dairy cattle. There has been increased use of milk urea
concentration as an indicator of dietary protein intake and protein metabolism in dairy cattle
over recent years. The value of milk urea content data in predicting dietary composition,
particularly for pasture- fed cattle, has not been well described.%Protein metabolism and urea
synthesis. Many factors influence the degradation of dietary proteins in the rumen,
post-ruminal protein metabolism and urea synthesis in cattle. Strong positive correlations
between nitrogenous fertiliser use and the crude protein content of pastures were identified by
use of meta-analysis. Similar strong positive correlations were noted between dietary protein
intake, rumen ammonia and plasma urea concentrations. The costs of urea synthesis include
energy losses, and importantly, the loss of endogenous amino acids, which are deaminated in
the synthesis of urea.%Milk urea as an indictor of protein metabolism. Urea concentrations in
blood, plasma and milk are strongly correlated. Milk is an adequate indicator of blood and
plasma urea content, but non-nutritional factors may significantly influence milk urea
concentrations. Recommendations for dietary protein management based on milk urea
concentrations must be undertaken with care."
WICHTEL, J.J.
"A review of selenium deficiency in grazing ruminants; part 1: New roles for selenium in
ruminant metabolism"
"New Zealand Veterinary Journal","APR 1998","46","2","47-52"
"J.J. Wichtel/Univ Prince Edward Isl/Atlantic Vet Coll/Charlottetown/PE C1A 4P3, Canada"
"Selenium availability. Selenium deficiency has been an important source of loss to
the pastoral industries of New Zealand. About 30% of farmed land in New Zealand is
considered to be selenium-deficient and continued development of soils and pasture will tend
to further decrease the concentration of selenium in pasture.%Biological functions. Formerly
it was believed that all biological functions of selenium in animals could be attributed to the
antioxidant activity of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase. More recently, it has been shown
that selenoproteins have roles in immune function and thyroid hormone
metabolism.%Responses to supplementation. Following supplementation of ruminants
grazing pastures deficient in selenium, milk production and growth responses are likely to
66
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
occur in cattle, while in sheep improvements in growth and fertility are most likely.
Reproductive dysfunction may not be as important as previously thought in cattle grazing
pasture moderately deficient in selenium. The relationship between selenium intake and
disease resistance deserves further study. %Clinical Relevance. Management of selenium
deficiency will continue to be important in grazing ruminants. Veterinarians should be aware
that many selenoenzymes exist, some with functions quite, distinct from the antioxidant role
of glutathione peroxidase."
WICHTEL, J.J.
"A review of selenium deficiency in grazing ruminants; part 2: Towards a more rational
approach to diagnosis and prevention"
"New Zealand Veterinary Journal","APR 1998","46","2","54-58"
"J.J. Wichtel/Univ Prince Edward Isl/Atlantic Vet Coll/Charlottetown/PE C1A 4P3, Canada"
"Estimating selenium status. Although the importance of selenium in ruminants has
been recognised for over 30 years, problems associated with selenium deficiency are still
frequently identified in grazing livestock operations. There is a growing diversity of tools
available for the management of selenium deficiency giving rise to diagnostic and therapeutic
dilemmas fo r the veterinary practitioner. There is no single test for selenium adequacy which
can be considered superior in all diagnostic situations because the method of choice depends
on the objective of the testing procedure.%Reference ranges. Reviewing the available data,
the current New Zealand reference ranges for selenium concentrations in ruminant tissue and
feed appear valid.%Clinical Relevance. Management of selenium deficiency will continue to
be important in grazing ruminants. Practising veterinarians sho uld be familiar with the
appropriate use of tests for selenium deficiency. Advice should be based on micronutrient
analysis of animal tissue, defensible reference ranges backed by production response data, and
supplementation programmes which optimise the return on investment."
WITTWER, F.G.; GALLARDO, P.; REYES, J.; OPITZ, H.
"Bulk milk urea concentrations and their relationship with cow fertility in grazing dairy
herds in Southern Chile"
"Preventive Veterinary Medicine","1999","38","2 -3","159-166"
"Wittwer F.G./Univ Austral Chile/POB 567/Valdivia/CHILE"
"Milk urea determination is being used as a broad indicator of protein/energy
imbalance in dairy herds. The main purpose of this study was to compare blood and bulk milk
urea values in grazing herds, to evaluate their seasonal variation under South Chilean
conditions, and to examine their potential relationships with herd fertility. The association
between herd blood urea concentration (mean of seven lactating cows) and bulk milk urea
concentration (tank containing milk from the previous 24 h) was determined in 21 dairy herds.
Reference values, seasonal and herd variance, and the frequency of herds with values outside
a range of 2.5 to 7.3 mmol/l were determined in bulk milk samples obtained monthly for a
period of one year from 82 suppliers at two creameries located in southern Chile. Finally, bulk
milk urea was measured every two weeks in samples from 24 herds, and the first service
conception rate (FSCR) from 2153 dairy cows was determined. Mean bulk urea concentration
was highly correlated with mean herd blood urea concentration (r=0.95; p<0.01). Mean urea
concentration in the bulk milk samples obtained during one year from 82 herds was 4.9+/-1.2
mmol/l, with a range of 1.5 to 11.6 mmol/l. The highest values were found during spring and
the lowest values during the summer. There was a high seasonal variation (CV=13-47%) and
between- herd variation (CV=20-31%). Out of a total of 984 samples, 5.4% had urea values
>7.3 mmol/l and 3.8% had values <2.5 mmol/l. Of the 82 herds, 27% had values outside the
67
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
reference interval (2.5-7.3 mmol/l) on two or more occasions. FSCR was lower in herds when
the bulk milk urea was >7.3 mmol/l (50.7%) than in cows, where the urea concentration was
<5.0 mmol/l (73.8%) at the time of insemination. The study concluded that bulk milk urea
concentrations provided information similar to herd blood urea concentrations in local grazing
dairy herds. There was a high frequency of herds with abnormal values, with large variations
between herds and between seasons. Increased milk urea concentrations during spring were
associated with lower conception rates. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights
reserved.","","0167-5877","Elsevier
Science
Bv/PO
Box
211/1000
AE
Amsterdam/Netherlands"
WOLF, C.
"Selenium status of cows - Deficiency or Excess?: 2nd Communication - The
development of glutathione peroxidase activity in dairy cows and extensively managed
mother cows in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern from 1993 to 1995"
"Praktische Tierarzt","AUG 1 1998","79","8","755"
"C. Wolf/Landesvet &/Lebensmitteluntersuchgsamt Mecklenbur/Thierfelderstr 18/D-18059
Rostock, Germany"
"From summer 1993 to autumn 1996 glutathione peroxidase activity in heparinised
whole blood samples from nearly 2.000 dairy cows and 350 mother cows was examined. The
results showed, that the selenium status of the extensively managed mother cows in 1993 was
predominant marginal or deficient. Since 1994, in some mother cow herds there were signs of
selenium substitution. The glutathione peroxidase activities of the mother cows were of 30 per
cent of the dairy cow values and mostly reflected selenium deficiency. Glutathione peroxidase
activities in dairy cows showed, in 1993, on average a sufficient selenium substitution. Since
autumn 1994 rising values reflected an increasing selenium supply in dairy herds. The
activities of glutathione peroxidase reached a plateau with progressive substitution and do not
reflect the whole extent of the selenium excess, but they indicate a tendency towards selenium
surplus in dairy cattle feeding without taking into account the real need of cows."
XU, Z.Z.; BURTON, L.J.
"Effects of oestrus synchronisation and fixed-time artificial insemination on the
reproductive performance of dairy heifers"
"New Zealand Veterinary Journal","1999","47","3","101-104"
"Xu Z..Z./Livestock Improvement Corp Ltd/Private Bag 3016/Hamilton/NEW ZEALAND"
"Aim. To compare the reproductive performance of heifers after oestrus
synchronisation and fixed-time artificial insemination with non-synchronised heifers bred by
herd sires. Methods. Heifers from 10 spring-calving herds were randomly divided into two
groups by herd, breed and age. Heifers in one group (the synchronised group, n = 478) were
synchronised with a combination of progesterone, oestradiol benzoate and PGF(2 alpha), and
inseminated 50-54 hours after progesterone treatment. Returns to first service were
resynchronised with progesterone treatment 16-21 days after the fixed-time artificial
insemination. Heifers in the other group (the control group, n = 470) did not receive any
treatment and were bred by herd sires, Results. The conception rate of synchronised heifers to
the fixed-time artificial insemination was 51.2% and to the artificial insemination after
resynchronisation 40.4%. The pregnancy rate at the end of the breeding season tvas lower (p
< 0.001) for the synchronised (92.9%) than for the control (97.2%) group. The interval from
start of breeding to calving was earlier for synchronised (295.9 +/- 22.5 days, mean +/- s.d.)
than for control (298.5 +/- 17.3 days) heifers. Conclusion. Results from this study indicate
that the oestrus synchronisation programme used in the present study can reduce reproductive
68
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
performance by increasing the empty rare compared with natural mating.","","00480169","New Zealand Veterinary Assoc Inc/PO Box 11-212 Manners St/Wellington/New
Zealand"
YAEGER, M.J.; NEIGER, R.D.; HOLLER, L.;FRASER, T.L.;HURLEY,D.J.; PALMER, I.S.
"The effect of subclinical selenium toxicosis on pregnant beef cattle"
"Journa l of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation","JUL 1998","10","3","268-273"
"M..J. Yaeger/S Dakota State Univ/Dept Vet Sci/Anim Dis Res & Diagnost Lab/Brookings,
SD 57007 USA"
"A field investigation conducted by the South Dakota Animal Disease Research and
Diagnostic Laboratory suggested that subclinical selenium toxicosis in pregnant cows may
have contributed to an outbreak of aborted/stillborn calves in a high-selenium region of South
Dakota. This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between abortion and
subclinical selenium toxicosis in the dam and to assess the effects of subclinical selenium
toxicosis on the bovine immune system. Fifteen pregnant cows were fed diets containing 0.25
(control), 6.0, and 12.0 ppm selenium beginning at 80-110 days gestation. Although selenium
toxicosis has been reported to cause abortion, this study failed to reproduce abortions. A
single cow in the 12-ppm selenium treatment group gave birth to a weak calf, which
subsequently died. This calf had myocardial lesions consistent with those described for
selenium toxicosis and had hepatic selenium levels of 9.68 ppm (wet weight). Elevated
dietary selenium resulted in the depression of several leukocyte function parameters in
pregnant cows. A statistically significant depression in forced antibody response was
identified in both selenium-supplemented groups. A significantly diminished mitogenic
response to concanavalin A and pokeweed mitogen was also observed in the 12-ppm selenium
group. Although a similar pattern of depression was also observed with phytohemagglutinin,
differences were not significant. These findings indicate that even in the absence of clinical
alkali disease, elevated selenium levels may adversely affect both pregnancy outcome and the
bovine immune system."
69
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
ANEXO II
"FISIOPATOLOGÍA de la REPRODUCCIÓN en EQUINOS"
I.- INFERTILIDAD y ESTERILIDAD en YEGUAS
BENNETTWIMBUSH, K.; LOCH, W.E.; PLATAMADRID, H.; EVANS, T.
"The effects of perphenazine and bromocriptine on follicular dynamics and endocrine
profiles in anestrous pony mares"
"Theriogenology","MAR 1998","49","4","717-733"
"K. Bennettwimbush/Ohio State Univ/Agr Tech Inst/Wooster, OH 44691 USA"
"Nineteen anestrous pony mares were used in a project designed to determine the
effects of altered prolactin concentrations on follicular dynamics and endocrine profiles
during spring transition. The dopamine antagonist, perphenazine, was administered daily to
mares (0.375 mg/kg body weight) in Group A (n=6), while Group B mares (n=7) received
0.08 mg/kg metabolic weight (kg(75)) dopamine agonist, 2-bromo-ergocriptine,
intramuscularly twice daily. Mares in Group C (n=6) received 0.08 mg/kg(75), im., saline
twice daily. Treatment began January 20, 1994, and continued until ovulation occurred. Mares
were teased 3 times weekly with an intact stallion. The ovaries of the ponies were palpated
and imaged weekly using an ultrasonic B- mode unit with a 5 Mhz intrarectal transducer until
they either exhibited estrual behavior and had at least a 20-mm follicle, or had at least a
25-mm follicle with no signs of estrus. At this time, ovaries were palpated and imaged 4 times
weekly. Blood samples were obtained immediately prior to ultrasonic imaging for
measurement of prolactin, FSH and estradiol-17 beta. Perphenazine treatment advanced the
spring transitional period and subsequent ovulation by approximately 30d. Group A exhibited
the onset of estrual behavior earlier (P < 0.01) than control mares. In addition, Group A mares
developed large follicles (> 30 mm) earlier (P < 0.01) than Group B mares, with least square
means for Groups A and B of 47.0 +/- 8.8 vs 88.1 +/- 8.2 d, respectively. Control mares
developed 30- mm follicles intermediate to Groups A and B at 67.3 +/- 8.8 d. Bromocriptine
decreased (P < 0.05) plasma prolactin levels throughout the study, while perphenazine had no
significant overall effect. However, perphenazine treatment did increase (P < 0.05) mean
plasma prolactin concentrations from Day 31 to 60 of treatment. There were no differences in
mean plasma FSH or estradiol-17 beta between treatment groups. We concluded that daily
perphenazine treatment hastened the growth of follicles and subsequent ovulation while
bromocriptine treatment appeared to delay the growth of preovulatory size follicles without
affecting the lime of ovulation. (C) 1998 by Elsevier Science Inc."
BESOGNET, B.; HANSEN, B.S.; DAELS, P.F.
"Induction of reproductive function in anestrous mares using a dopamine antagonist"
"Theriogenology","JAN 15 1997","47","2","467-480"
"B. Besognet/Cornell Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Clin Sci/Ithaca, NY 14853 USA"
"We investigated the role of dopamine in the regulation of seasonal reproductive
activity in mates. Nine seasonal anestrous mares, maintained under a natural photoperiod,
were treated daily with a dopamine D2 antagonist, [-]-sulpiride (200 mg/mare, im), beginning
February 5 (day of year = 36) until the first ovulation of the year or for a maximum of 58.
Nine untreated anestrous mates were maintained under the same conditions. The ovaries were
examined by ultrasonography twice a week, and blood was collected three times a week for
70
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
progesterone, LH FSH and prolactin determinations. Mean day of first ovulation was
significantly advanced for [-]-sulpiride-treated mares than control mares (mean day of year
+/- SEM = 77.3 +/- 7.9 and 110.0 +/- 6.8, respectively; P<0.01). Eight mares ovulated during
[-]-sulpiride treatment while one mare failed to ovulate. Ovulation occurred 91 d after the start
of treatment or on Day 127. All mates continued to have normal estrous cycles after the first
ovulation. First cycle length and luteal progesterone concentrations did not differ between
[-]-sulpiride-treated and control mares. Plasma prolactin concentrations were significantly
increased at 2 and 9 h after [-]-sulpiride administration (P<0.05), and had returned to basal
Levels by 24 h. At the time of the LH surge associated with the first ovulation, mean LH and
FSH secretion was significantly higher in [-]-sulpiride-treated mares than in control mates
(P<0.05). These results suggest that dopamine plays a role in the control of reproductive
seasonality in mares and exerts a tonic inhibition on reproductive activity during the
anovulatory season. (C) 1997 by Elsevier Science Inc."
BRACHER, V.; GERSTENBERG, C.; ALLEN, W.R.
"The influence of endometriosis on fertility, placentation and fetal development in the
horse"
"Pferdeheilkunde","SEP-OCT 1997","13","5","465"
"V. Bracher/Univ Zurich/Klin Wiederkauer & Pferdemed/Winterthurerstr 260/CH-8057
Zurich, Switzerland"
"This paper presents a review over endometrosis in the horse. The following subjects
are discussed: 1. Definition and aetiopathogenesis of the disease, influence of age and parity.
2. The correlation between endometrosis and chronic recurrent (infectious) endometritis. 3.
The correlation between endometrosis and conception rate, placentation and embryonic or
fetal losses. 4. The influence of endometrosis on later performance of the offspring."
CARNEVALE, E.M.; HERMENET, M.J.; GINTHER, O.J.
"Age and pasture effects on vernal transition in mares"
"Theriogenology","APR 1 1997","47","5","1009-1018"
"E.M. Carnevale/So Illinois Univ/Dept Anim Sci Food & Nutr/Carbondale, IL 62901 USA"
"The objectives of the present study were to determine if follicular activity was less in
old than in young mares during the spring transition and if green pasture would hasten onset
of the ovulatory season. Experiments were conducted over 2 sequential years using young
mares (3 to 7 yr) and old mares (greater than or equal to 14 yr). In Experiment 1, growth of
the largest and second- largest follicles were compared for young mares (5 to 7 yr) and old
mares (greater than or equal to 14 yr) for 21 d prior to the first ovulation of the year. More
follicular activity was noted in young than in old mares. Main effect of age was significant
for diameter of the largest follicle, and interaction of day-by-age was significant for diameter
of the second- largest follicle. Prior to the beginning of the breeding season, the mares were
randomly divided into dry-lot and pasture groups. The interval from May 2 to ovulation was
shorter (P<0.005) for mares put on pasture on May 2 than for mares kept in dry lot (means
+/- SEM, 14.5 +/- 2.7 and 21.3 +/- 3.2 d, respectively). In Experiment 2, follicular activity
was compared among 3 age groups (3 to 7, 17 to 19, and greater than or equal to 20 yr). The
total number of follicles greater than or equal to 10 mm was higher (P<0.05) for young mares
and lower (P<0.05) for old mares than for mares of an intermediate age. Main effect of age
and interaction of day-by-age were significant for diameter of largest and second- largest
follicles, being smaller for mares greater than or equal to 20 yr than for younger mares. The
interval from development of a follicle greater than or equal to 30 mm to ovulation was
shorter (P<0.05) for mares placed on pasture when a greater than or equal to 30 mm follicle
71
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
developed than the interval for mares kept in dry lot (5.7 +/- 0.7 and 8.2 +/- 0.9 d,
respectively). In summary, less follicular activity occurred in old than in young mares during
the transitional period, and mares pastured on green grass ovulated sooner in the spring than
mares housed on dry lot and fed hay. (C) 1997 by Elsevier Science Inc."
EVANS, T.J.; MILLER, M.A.; GANJAM, V.K.; NISWENDER, K.D.; ELLERSIECK, M.R.;
KRAUSE, W.J.; YOUNGQUIST, R.S.
"Morphometric analysis of endometrial periglandular fibrosis in mares"
"American Journal of Veterinary Research","1998","59","10","1209-1214"
"Evans T.J./Vet Med Diagnost Lab/POB 6023/Columbia,MO 65205 USA"
"Objectives-To develop an objective, quantifiable assay for endometrial periglandular
fibrosis (EPF) and correlate assay results with histologic and ultrastructural changes in equine
endometrial biopsy specimens. Sample Population-Endometrial biopsy specimens from 70
mares from 3 to 27 years old in estrus. Procedure-In a double-blinded study design.
Endometrial biopsy specimens were graded histologically (modified Kenney classification)
for EPF and inflammation. Endometrial periglandular collagen volume fraction (%EPCVF)
was determined by light microscopic image analysis of picrosirius red-stained sections.
Specimens from selected mares were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Results%EPCVF values varied significantly among the 4 modified Kenney EPF categories (I. IIA,
IIB, end III) and increased with increasing age of mares. Morphologically, EPF consisted of
concentric layers of transformed fibroblasts with myofibroblastic features and deposition of
fibrillar collagen around unaltered glandular basal laminae. Conclusions and Clinical
Relevance-%EPCVF correlates well with morphologic changes in endometrial biopsy
specimens. Determination of %EPCVF could be useful in evaluation and clinical manage ment
of subfertile mares and in investigations of the pathogenesis of EPF.","","0002-9645","Amer
Veterinary Medical Assoc/1931 N Meacham Rd/Suite 100/Schaumburg/IL 60173-4360"
GEBERT, F.; FRERKING, H.; BOHM, K.H.; POZVARI, M.; SIESENOP, U.; BUSSE, M.
"Occurence and importance of yeasts in genital swabs of mares"
"Praktische Tierarzt","APR 1 1998","79","4","311"
"H.Frerking/Landwirtschaftskammer,Hannover/Tiergesundheitsdienste/Heisterbergallee
12/D-30453 Hannover, Germany"
"In a thesis all vaginal swabs of mares which were sent to the Animal Health Center of
the Chamber of Agriculture of Hanover between February 1st 1993 and January 31st 1994
were examined for yeasts. Beside the normal bacteriological routine diagnostic all swabs were
examined in special culture medium for yeasts. In total there were samples of 6 250 mares.
With a special culture medium 393 cases (6.3%) with yeasts could be detected, in the routine
diagnosis there were only 87 (1.4%). According to the anamnesis all possible causes and
factors that would promote the growing of yeast in the genital tract of mares are discussed.
With special laboratory methods a representative number (n = 200) of yeast were identified.
Mostly there were Candida guilliermondii (31.5%) and Candida famata (25%)."
GELLERMANN, G.; HOPPE, H.; AURICH, C.
"Factors influencing fertility in the horse"
"Praktische Tierarzt","APR 1 1996","77","4","320"
"G. Gellermann/Tierarztl Klin Pferde/Kurzenmoor 13/D-25370 Seester, Germany"
"In this study fertility on a large stud farm between 1945 and 1988 was evaluated and
factors influencing fertility in the horse are discussed. During the period of investigation, a
total of 2672 mares were bred, resulting in 2050 pregnancies (77 per cent) and 1893 foals
72
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
born (71 per cent). Under stud farm conditions, the anovulatory season in warmblood mares
usually is restricted to only a few weeks and prolongation of the breeding season can
contribute to improved annual fertility rates. No obvious decrease in fertility with increasing
age of the mares was found, indicating that reduced fertility in old mares can be compensated
to a certain degree by management and veterinary intervention. The incidence of foal losses
due to infectious diseases could be markedly reduced, when new therapeutic approaches
became available in the early sixties. In a total of 36 cases (1,8 percent of all foalings) twins
were born, however only 9 twin foals survived the neonatal period. Fertility also differed
markedly between stallions. For breeders it would therefore be helpful if information on the
fertility of individual stallions would be available."
GLASER,A.L.;
DEVRIES,
A.A.F.;
ROTTIER,
P.J.M.;
HORZINEK,
M.C.;
COLENBRANDER, B.
"Equine arteritis virus: A review of clinical features and management aspects"
"Veterinary Quarterly"," 1996","18","3","95-99"
"B. Colenbrander/Dept Herd Hlth & Reprod/Yalelaan 7/NL-3584 Cl Utrecht, Netherlands"
"Sero-epidemiological surveys have revealed that equine arteritis virus (EAV) is
prevalent in most European countries, The virus causes sporadic cases of respiratory disease
and abortion in horses, the incidence of which has increased in recent years, Mares and
geldings eliminate virus after acute infection, but 30% to 60% of stallions become persistently
infected, In these animals, EAV is maintained within the reproductive tract and is shed
continuously in the semen, Persistent infection with EAV in stallions has no negative
consequences for fertility but mares inseminated with virus-contaminated semen can have an
acute infection, These mares shed large amounts of virus in respiratory secretions and urine,
leading to lateral spread of the virus to other susceptible horses, Acute infection at later stages
of gestation can lead to abortion, Effective control of the spread of EAV infection depends on
the identification of virus-shedding stallions. Persistently infected stallions should not be used
for breeding or should be bred only to seropositive mares, Mares bred to shedding stallions
should be isolated from other animals for a period of 3 weeks following insemination to
prevent the lateral spread of EAV."
ISHII, M.; JITSUKAWA, T.; SHIMAMURA, T.; UTSUMI, A.; ENDO, M.; YAMANOI, T.
"Effect of placental retention time and associated treatments on reproductive
performance in heavy draft horses"
"Journal of Equine Veterinary Science","1999","19","2","117-121"
"Ishii M/Kushiro Dist Agr Mutual Aid Assoc/Akan Kushiro Vet Clin Ctr/3-13-1
Chuo/Akan/Hokkaido 0850215/JAPAN"
"The effect of placental retention time on reproductive performance was investigated
in several heavy draft breeds of horses. The study was based on a total of 422 mares varying
from four to 20 years in age, which had foaled during the period 1991 to 1993. The placental
retention time for this group of mares ranged from a minimum of 119 minutes to a maximum
of 183 minutes with a mean of 148 minutes. A decrease in pregnancy rate followed on
breeding at the foaling heat in mares that had a placental retention time greater than one hour.
Mares with a placental retention time of less than one hour or longer than four hours had
pregnancy rates of 66% and 51.7%, respectively, when bred on their foaling heat. Manual
removal of a retained placenta was subsequently associated with reduced reproductive
performance in those mares. Mares with a placental retention time of less than four hours and
which had received oxytocin treatment, had a pregnancy rate at foaling heat of greater than
70%. Where oxytocin treatment was delayed, on the other hand, the number of days from
73
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
parturition to last breeding date was correspondingly increased. Aerobic bacteria were
cultured from the uterus in 47.2% and 100% of mares whose placental retention times were
less than eight hours or greater than eight hours, respectively. The subsequent reproductive
performance of ma res with a placental retention time of greater than four hours was improved
if the uterus was irrigated. The findings of this study indicate that rapid administration of
oxytocin administered at a dosage 50 IU is the best treatment for retained placenta and the
application of intrauterine treatments such as uterine irrigation in prolonged cases of placental
retention is likely to improve subsequent breeding efficiency.","","0737-0806","William E
Jones Dvm/20225 Grand Ave/Wildomar/CA 92595/USA"
KATILA, T.
"Uterine defence mechanisms in the mare"
"Animal Reproduction Science","APR 1996","42","1-4","197-204"
"T. Katila/Helsinki Univ/Fac Vet Med/Hautjarvi 04840, Finland"
"Breeding or insemination of mares is followed by a transient infection and
inflammation. Normal mares eliminate bacteria and clear inflammatory by-products rapidly.
Some mares are not capable of doing this. Studies on immunoglobulins, opsonins, chemotaxis
and migration and phagocytosis of neutrophils have failed to show good grounds for
susceptibility to uterine infections. The latest studies indicate that differences between these
two kinds of mares are best explained by factors involved in uterine clearance: cervical
dilation, myometrial activity and lymphatic drainage."
MATTOS, R.C.; MALSCHITZKY, E.; MATTOS, R.; GREGORY, R.M.
"Effects of different postbreeding treatments on fertility of thoroughbred mares"
"Pferdeheilkunde","SEP-OCT 1997","13","5","512-515"
"R.C. Mattos/Univ Fed Rio Grande Sul/Fac Vet/Dept Anim Med/Reprolab/POB
15094/BR-91501970 Porto Alegre/RS, Brazil"
"The purpose oi this study was to determine whether the postbreeding intrauterine
treatments with homologous plasma, homologous plasma with leukocytes, or homologous
plasma with antibiotics improve pregnancy rates per cycle. Control mares received no
treatment. Mares (n=394) were assigned to different groups according to their reproductive
status. All mares in each group were randomly allocated to one of the treatments. Intrauterine
treatments were given 13 to 36 hours after mating. The early pregnancy rates in maiden and
lactating mares were not significantly affected (p > 0,05). Barren mares treated with plasma
plus leukocytes had higher early pregnancy rates per cycle (p=0,047) than those submitted to
other treatments. Thus, an intrauterine infusion of plasma and leukocytes after breeding
improves pregnancy rates per cycle in barren mares."
MCCUE, P.M.
"Neoplasia of the female reproductive tract"
"Veterinary Clinics of North America - Equine Practice","1998","14","3","505+"
"McCue P.M./Coll Vet Med & Biomed Sci/Dept Clin Sci/300 W Drake Rd/Ft Collins,CO
80523 USA"
"The most common neoplasms of the reproductive tract of the mare are tumors of the
ovary and the external genitalia. In contrast, tumors of the oviduct, uterus, cervix, vagina, and
mammary gland are rare. In general, the overall incidence of reproductive tract neoplasia in
the mare increases with age. Tumors of the internal genitalia of mares may remain undetected
if a mare is not routinely examined for breeding or pregnancy diagnosis.","","0749-0739","W
74
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
B Saunders Co/Independence Square West Curtis Center/ Ste 300/Philadelphia/PA 191063399/USA"
NAGY, P.; HUSZENICZA, G.; JUHASZ, J.; SOLTI, L.; KULCSAR, M."
"Diagnostic problems associated with ovarian activity in barren and postpartum mares
early in the breeding season"
"Reproduction in Domestic Animals","JUN 1998","33","3 -4","187-192"
"P. Nagy/Univ Vet Sci Budapest/Dept Obstet & Reprod/Budapest, Hungary"
"Three studies were carried out to monitor or induce ovarian activity and sexual
behaviour in maiden, barren and postpartum mares during the anovulatory season. In the first
study maiden and barren mares were followed up by regular blood sampling. In 39% of
anoestrus mares the anovulatory season was started after December 1. Mares that stopped
cycling before December 1 had significantly longer anovulatory period (P<0.001) and
resumed cyclic ovarian activity one month later (P<0.01) than mares that stopped cycling
after December 1. The first ovulation was not preceded by overt oestrus in most of the cases
(64.7%). In the second study 38 mares, foaling in the first three month of the year, were
monitored. Cyclic ovarian activity resumed more than 20 days after parturition in 11 mares
(28.9%, between 22 and 111 days). Only 52.6% of the animals showed heat before the first
postpartum ovulation. The follicular phase after the luteolysis of the first corpus luteum was
longer than normal (>10days, between 22 and 64 days) in 10 mares (43.5%). In the third
study 44 mares in spring transition were treated with Altrenogest for 10 days. In 8 treated
mares a GnRH-challenge (40 mu g Buserelin iv.) was carried out before treatment. Despite
the same inclusion criteria used for all mares, in case of II mares (25%) the treatment was not
successful and the ovulation occurred more than 20 days after the end of treatment.(between
29 and 70 days). The result of the GnRH-stimulation gave an explanation for this difference.
Mares that were treated successfully with Altrenogest had a higher maximum LH-response
and area under the curve indicating higher LH-content of the pituitary before treatment."
NEWCOMBE, J.R.
"Anoestrus in mares: Experiences using Ovuplant, a short-term implant of the GnRH
analogue deslorelin, following implantation with CIDR-B, a progesterone releasing
intravaginal device"
"Irish Veterinary Journal","1998","51","11","582-585","English Article"
"Newcombe J.R./Newcombe & E/Warren House Farm/Brownhills WS8 6LS/W
Midlands/ENGLAND"
"On a single farm in south-east Queensland, 25% of 350 Standardbred mares were
anoestrous after October 15th. Over the period of examination, 87 mares (15 maiden, 49
barren and 23 lactating) failed to produce ovulatory follicles in the absence of a functional
corpus Luteum and they were treated with intervaginal progesterone releasing devices (CIDRB) for various periods until a follicle of at Least 30 mm had developed. Fifty seven of 58
(98%) mares that had a follicle Larger than 30 mm at the end of the progesterone treatment
ovulated after an injection of 2500 units hCG was given between zero and six days after
withdrawal of the device; 37 (65%) of these were pregnant at 14-17 days. Twenty six mares
failed to develop a follicle of at Least 30 mm even after prolonged periods of progesterone
treatment. Seven of these ovulated and seven failed to ovulate following removal of CIDR-B
and administration of hCG. The other 12 mares were given a short-term implant of deslorelin:
nine ovulated, seven were inseminated and four (57%) became pregnant. This preliminary
study indicates a possibly satisfactory method of treating persistently anoestrous
mares.","","0368-0762","Irish Veterinary Assn/53 Lansdowne Rd/Dublin 4/Ireland"
75
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
NICKERSON, K.C.; MCCUE, P.M.; SQUIRES, E.L.; NETT, T.M.
"Comparison of two dosage regimens of the GNRH agonist deslorelin acetate on
inducing ovulation in seasonally anestrous mares"
"Journal of Equine Veterinary Science","FEB 1998","18","2","121-124"
"K.C. Nickerson/Colorado State Univ/Anim Reprod & Biotechnol Lab/FT Collins, CO 80523
USA"
"This study investigated the efficacy of two dosage regimens of a potent GnRH
analogue (GnRHa), deslorelin acetate, in inducing ovulation in seasonally anestrous mares.
Forty-five seasonally anestrous mares were randomly assigned according to follicular size to
one of three treatment groups: control, increasing GnRHa dose, and constant GnRHa dose.
Treatment began on February 28 and continued until ovulation or for a maximum of seven
treatments. Mares were palpated every other day until a 35 mm follicle was detected, then
every day until ovulation or regression of the follicle occurred. Blood samples were taken
from five randomly chosen mares in each treatment group and analyzed for LH levels.
%Twenty percent of mares in both deslorelin treatment groups ovulated, while no control
mares ovulated during the treatment period. There was no difference in the number of mares
that ovulated between treatment groups. Four of the six mares that ovulated were in
transitional anestrus at the initiation of treatment, while only two were in deep
anestrus.%Concentrations of LH were greater (p=0.0008) in both GnRH-treated groups than
in the control mares. Concentrations of LH did not differ between the two GnRH-treated
groups until day 12 of treatment, when mares treated with a constant dosage had higher
(p=0.0358) levels of LH than those treated with an increasing dosage. It is possible that
administration of larger amounts of the GnRH agonist lowered the sensitivity of the pituitary
to stimulation by GnRH.%Deslorelin acetate did stimulate follicular growth and ovulation in
a limited number of anestrous mares. Further investigation into the potential of this short-term
implant to shorten the onset of the breeding season is recommended. "
ORSINI, J.A.; PARK, M.I.; SPENCER, P.A.
"Tissue and serum concentrations of amikacin after intramuscular and intrauterine
administration to mares in estrus"
"Canadian
Veterinary
Journal
Revue
Veterinaire
Canadienne","MAR
1996","37","3","157-160"
"J.A. Orsini/Univ Penn/Sch Vet Med/New Bolton Ctr/382 W St Rd/Kennett Sq, PA 19348
USA"
"Concentrations of amikacin in endometrial tissue and plasma were studied in mares in
estrus after intrauterine infusion of 1.0 or 2.0 g once a day for 3 consecutive d, and after 9.7 or
14.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) had been injected intramuscularly once a day for 3 consecutive
d to determine concentrations of amikacin sulfate in plasma and endometrial tissues, and
whether parenteral administration provides any advantages dyer intramuscular infusion, No
amikacin was detected in serum at the 1.0 g dose, At the infusion dose of 2.0 g once a day,
very low levels of serum amikacin were detected at 1 and 4 h postinfusion on the Ist treatment
day, Amikacin was found to penetrate the endometrium after intramuscular injection;
however, the levels attained were not as high as those achieved following intrauterine
infusion, Based on the tissue and serum concentrations of amikacin, an intrauterine infusion at
a dose of 4.4 mg/kg BW/d would appear to be an appropriate therapeutic regimen for the
treatment of gram- negative endometritis."
76
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
PARLEVLIET, J.M.; BLEUMINKPLUYM, N.M.C.; HOUWERS, D.J.; REMMEN,
J.L.A.M.; SLUIJTER, F.J.H.; COLENBRANDER, B.
"Epidemiologic aspects of Taylorella equigenitalis"
"Theriogenology","APR 15 1997","47","6","1169-1177"
"J. M. Parlevliet/Univ Utrecht/Fac Vet Med/Dept Herd Hlth & Reprod/POB 80165/Yalelaan
7/Utrecht, Netherlands"
"Contagious equine metritis (CEM) is a sexually transmissible disease in mares.
Although the disease is commonly diagnosed by culturing the causative bacterium Taylorella
equigenitalis (T. equigenitalis), false negative results do occur. A recently developed
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay, however, appeared to be much more sensitive, with
initial results indicating an unexpected high incidence of the agent in selected horses. In this
study, samples from 107 randomly selected mares with no clinical signs of CEM submitted
for conventional culture were all negative for T. equigenitalis, but in the PCR-assay 54 (49%)
were positive for Taylorella-DNA. Positives in the PCR-assay were found in all breeds tested,
even in horses imported from the isolated population in Iceland. These findings suggest that
T. equigenitalis was present long before it was first isolated in 1977. The high incidence of
Taylorella in horse populations without apparent clinical signs of CEM, the occurrence of
incidental clinical case and the known variability between strains, all indicate that Taylorella
is endemic in the horse population.%In order to explore whether the organism is present in
species other than the horse, we also used the PCR-assay on clinically health donkeys (n=14),
zebras (n=15), Przewalski horses (n=2) and cows (n=21). All the animals showed negative
results except one of the Przewalski horses, and one cow that was repeatedly found to give
positive reaction. We also found that the fertility of 7 stallions with cultures positive for
Taylorella (6 used in an AI-program and 1 by natural breeding) was not affected, as shown by
the normal range of foaling rates in mares inseminated or bred by these stallions. The overall
results may be interpreted to mean that Taylorella is of limited significance in horse breeding.
(C) 1997 by Elsevier Science Inc."
PYCOCK, J.F.; PACCAMONTI, D.; JONKER, H.; NEWCOMBE, J.; VANDERWEIJDEN,
G.; TAVERNE, M.
"Can mares be classified as resistant or susceptible to recurrent endometritis?"
"Pferdeheilkunde","SEP-OCT1997","13","5","431"
"J.F. Pycock/Howe Farm Cottage/Old Malton/N Yorkshire, England"
"To evaluate the efficacy of oxytocin as a treatment for persistent post-breeding endometritis,
a large clinical study was performed using 1,267 mares. The aim of the study was to assess
the effect of three different treatments on pregnancy rate in mares. All mares were bred and
allocated, in strict rotation, to one of four treatment groups: 1) non-treated controls; 2)
intrauterine infusion of broad-spectrum antibio ties; 3) intravenous oxytocin injection; 4)
intravenous oxytocin injection followed by intrauterine antibiotics. Pregnanc y status of mares
was determined at 13-15 days and 27-30 days post ovulation using ultrasonography. The
pregnancy rate of Group 4 (72%) was higher than that of Group 2 (64%; P < 0.01) or Group 3
(63%; P < 0.01). The pregnancy rates of Groups 2 and 3 were similar (P > 0.80) and higher
than that of Group 1 (56%; P < 0.01). Antibiotics and oxytocin appeared to have an additive
beneficial effect which suggested two different modes of action of the combination treatment,
namely antibacterial activity and fluid drainage. In non-treated mares more fluid accumulated
in the uterine lumen after mating which was the most likely reason for the reduced pregnancy
rates in this Group."
77
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
RICKETTS, S.W."
"Treatment of equine endometritis with intrauterine irrigations of ceftiofur sodium: a
comparison with mares treated in a similar manner with a mixture of sodium
benzylpenicillin, neomycin sulphate, polymixin B sulphate and furaltadone
hydrochloride"
"Pferdeheilkunde","SEP-OCT 1997","13","5","486-489"
"S.W. Ricketts/Rossdale & Partners/Beaufort Cottage Stables/High St/Newmarket CB8
8JS/Suffolk, England"
"1462 mares were treated for acute endometritis, of which 1207 were treated with
intrauterine irrigations of 3 g sodium benzylpenicillin, 1 g neomycin sulphate, 40,000 iu
polymixin B sulphate and 600 mg furaltadone hydrochloride dissolved in 100 ml sterile water
for injection and 255 were treated with intrauterine irrigations of 1 g ceftiofur sodium
(Excenel, Upjohn) dissolved in 100 ml sterile water for injection. 40 mares who were treated
by once daily intrauterine irrigation with either penicillin, neomycin, polymixin and
furaltadone mixture (24) or ceftiofur sodium (16), for three consecutive days, were selected
for more detailed pre-and post-treatment endometrial cytological and bacteriological analysis;
The results suggest that treatment with ceftiofur sodium is as safe and al least as efficacious in
the treatment of acute endometritis as treatment with penicillin, neomycin, polymixin and
furaltadone mixture."
RICKETTS, S.W.; BARRELET, A.
"A retrospective review of the histopathological features seen in a series of 4241
endometrial biopsy samples collected from UK Thoroughbred mares over a 25 year
period"
"Pferdeheilkunde","SEP-OCT 1997","13","5","525"
"S.W. Ricketts/Rossdale & Partners/Beaufort Cottage Stables/High St/Newmarket CB8
8JS/Suffolk, England"
"A retrospective review of the histopathological features and the groups in which they
are most frequently seen in combination, seen in 4214 endometrial biopsy samples collected
from UK Thoroughbred mares over a 25 year period revealed data which supports widely
held views on their pathogenesis and significance. Endometrial hypoplasia is most commonly
seen in young mares with delayed endometrial maturity. Mononuclear cell infiltrations
develop in the endometrial stroma as a reflection of local immune responses to challenge by
seminal proteins, micro-organisms, environmental debris and the products of pregnancy,
during a brood mare's life. Endometrial hyperplasia most commonly persists during delayed
post parium or post-pregnancy failure of uterine involution, more commonly in younger
mares. Glandular degenerative changes and stromal fibrosis develop as an inevitable
consequence of ageing, eventually leading to endometrial atrophy, a reflection of
gynaecological senility. These degenerative changes result in endometrial incompetence,
progressively reducing mares' foaling potentials and increasing their potential for barren
years, early pregnancy failures and abortions."
RUIZ, A.; QUEZADA, M.; GOMEZVILLAMANDOS, J.; BERRIOS, P.; SIERRA, A.
"Histopathological aspects of two cases of equine viral abortion in the VIII Region,
Chile"
"Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria"," 1998","30","1","161-168"
"A. Ruiz/Concepcion Univ/Dept Pathol/Fac Med Vet/Casilla 537/Chillan, Chile"
"Two cases of equine viral abortion are described: one foetus which was miscarried at
the end of the pregnancy and the other which was born and died 24 hs later. Both cases came
78
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
from a farm that had had 6 mare miscarriages during the 1996 birth period. The following
lesions were observed in the necropsy, icterus, oral and nasal haemorrhages, lymphoid
haemorrhages, general congestion, serophibrinous pleuritis, lung oedema, catarrhs
bronchopneumonia at the apical lobes, ascitis, enlarged spleen, liver necrosis and nephrosis.
Histopathology and electron microscopy indicated the presence of intranuclear inclusion
bodies Cowdry type A in the epithelial cells of the lung, hepatocytes and macrophages of the
spleen. All of the lesions are similar to those described in equine viral abortion or equine
rhinopneumonitis."
SCHOON, H.A.; SCHOON, D.; KLUG, E.
"The endometrial biopsy in the mare with regard to clinical correlations"
"Pferdeheilkunde","SEP-OCT 1997","13","5","453"
"H.A. Schoon/Univ Leipzig/Inst Vet Pathol/Margarete Blank Str 4/D-04103 Leipzig,
Germany"
"Based on own experiences completed by literature informations the possible
endometrial biopsy findings in mares are reviewed. The signifi cance of this technique is
explained taking clinical aspects into account. New results dealing with endometrosis,
angiopathies and functional endometrial lesions are described. Built on the system established
by Kenney and Doig (1986) new model for the assessment of biopsy findings is presented in
this paper."
SEDRISH, S.A.; MCCLURE, J.R.; PINTO, C.; OLIVER, J.; BURBA, D.J.
"Ovarian torsion associated with granulosa-theca cell tumor in a mare"
"Journal
of
the
American
Veterinary
Medical
Association","NOV
1
1997","211","9","1152-1154"
"S.A. Sedrish/Battenkill Vet Equine/POB 2/Middle Falls, NY 12848 USA"
"Ovarian torsion should be considered as a differential diagnosis for mares with a
known ovarian pathologic change such as neoplasia or abscess if signs of abdominal pain are
evident."
TROEDSSON, M.H.T.
"Therapeutic considerations for mating-induced endometritis"
"Pferdeheilkunde","SEP-OCT 1997","13","5","516-520"
"M.H.T. Troedsson/Univ Minnesota/Coll Vet Med/Dept Clin & Populat Sci/St Paul, MN
55108 USA"
"A transient mating- induced endometritis is most likely physiological in the mare,
serving to remove excess spermatozoa, seminal plasma, and contaminants from the uterus.
However, the inflammatory reaction has to be resolved and inflammatory products cleared
from the uterus prior to embryonal descent into the uterine lumen. Mares that fail to clear a
semen- induced inflammation from the uterus develop a persistent mating- induced
endometritis which may result in infertility. If susceptibility to persistent mating- induced
endometritis is suspected,the mare should be monitored by transrectal ultrasonography for
intrauterine fluid accumulation at 6-12 hours intervals after breeding. Treat ment should be
aimed at assisting the uterus to physically clear contaminants and inflammatory products.
Post-mating uterine lavage and/or the use of uterotonic drugs are recommended at 6-12 hours
after breeding in mares susceptible to persistent endometritis."
79
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
WATSON, E.D.; THOMSON, R.M."
"Lymphocyte subsets in the endometrium of genitally normal mares and mares
susceptible to endometritis"
"Equine Veterinary Journal","MAR 1996","28","2","106-110"
"E.D. Watson/Royal Dick Sch Vet Studies/Dept Vet Clin Studies/Easter Bush/Roslin EH25
9RG/Midlothian, Scotland"
"The density and distribution of MHC Class II positive cells and subpopulations of
lymphocytes were studied in the endometrium of genitally normal mares and mares
susceptible to endometritis. In genitally normal mares, more MHC Class II positive cells were
present in the epithelium and stratum compactum during oestrus than dioestrus, Significantly
more CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes were present in the stratum compactum than in the
stratum spongiosum, CD4+ lymphocytes were present in greater numbers than CD8+
lymphocytes in the stratum compactum but approximately equal numbers were present in the
stratum spongiosum and in lymphoid aggregates, Occasional CD4+ and CD8+ cells were seen
in the luminal and glandular epithelium. Infrequently, B cells were present in the
endometrium and were not observed in the epithelium. Numbers of T and B cells did not
appear to be affected by cycle stage, In mares with endometritis, the densities of CD4+, CD8+
and B cells were significantly increased, Large aggregates of lymphoid cells which containe
approximately twice as many CD4+ cells as CD8+ cells were present in the endometrium of
these mares and all 3 subclasses of lymphocyte were seen occasionally in luminal and
glandular epithelium.
WITTENBRINK, M.M.; HOLZLE, L.; BAUMEISTER, A.K.
"Mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis in equineendometritis"
"Pferdeheilkunde","SEP-OCT 1997","13","5","450-452"
"M.M. Wittenbrink/Univ Munich/Inst Med Mikrobiol Infekt & Seuchenmed/Vet Str
13/D-80539 Munich, Germany"
"Bacteria that are establishedas uterine pathogens in the mare are only partially
characterized with respect to virulence factors (mechanism of pathogenesis) that may
contribute to the development of endometritis. The study of these mechanisms will be useful
in defining many as pects of the complex interactions that occur between bacterial pathogens
and the equine endometrium. Bacterial adherence is the primary prerequisite for infection.
The role of the host cell cannot be ignored, since it obviously influences the regulation of
microbial virulence factore e.g. adhesins as well as provides the microenvironment in which
the bacteria can replicate and produce toxins that cause damage to the host. Detailed
knowledge about host-pathogen interactions will lead to a better etiological assessment of
uterine bacterial infections and probably lead to innovative strategies for therapy and
prevention."
I I.- INFERTILIDAD y ESTERILIDAD en PADRILLOS
AURICH, C.; BADER, H.; TOPFERPETERSEN, E.
"Diagnosis of reproductive disorders in the stallion"
"Praktische Tierarzt","OCT 1 1995","76","10","905"
"C. Aurich/Hannover Sch Vet Med/Inst Reprod Med/Bunteweg 15/D-30559 Hannover,
Germany",
"This article reviews possibilities for the diagnosis of reproductive disorders in the
male horse. The procedure of reproductive evaluation (examination of genital organs and
80
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
sexual behaviour, analysis of semen parameters) is described. Possibilities for reproductive
endocrine function testing in stallions and cryptorchids are given. Recent procedures in
reproductive evaluation of the male (ultrasonography of testes and accessory sexual glands,
endoscopic examination of the urethra, computerized analysis of sperm motility, assessment
of membrane integrity by fluorescent stains) are shown.
The physiology of sperm-egg- interactions and the use of zona-sperm binding assays for the
assessment of equine sub- and infertility are described."
BLANCHARD, T.L.; JORGENSEN, J.B.; VARNER, D.D.; FORREST, D.W.; EVANS, J.W.
"Clinical observations on changes in concentrations of hormones in plasma of two
stallions with thermally-induced testicular degeneration"
"Journal of Equine Veterinary Science","MAY 1996","16","5","195-201"
"T.L. Blanchard/Texas A&M Univ/College Stn, TX 77843 USA"
"To investigate effects of thermally- induced testicular degeneration on hormonal and
seminal parameters in stallions, the scrotum was insulated for 36 hours in two mature
(5-year-old mixed breed and 11-year-old Thoroughbred) stallions. Semen was collected daily
for 10 days (DSO) prior to, and at intervals after, scrotal insulation. When DSO
determinations were not being made, semen was collected 3 times weekly. Jugular blood
samples were collected at 15- minute intervals for 6 hours from each stallion prior to, and at
intervals after, scrotal insulation. A mouse interstitial cell testosterone assay was modified to
quantify biologic activity of equine luteinizing hormone (BLH) in plasma samples.
Immunoactive luteinizing hormone (ILH) and testosterone(T) concentrations were determined
in plasma samples by routine RIA procedures.%Percentages of progressively motile and
morphologically normal spermatozoa began to decrease by 1 to 2 weeks postinsulation,
reached nadir values at 3 to 3-1/2 weeks postinsulation, and returned to preinsulation valuesby
7 weeks postinsulation. Total number of spermatozoa and total number of progressively
motile, morphologically normal spermatozoa in ejaculates at DSO returned to normal by 8
weeks postinsulation in stallion 2 and 12 weeks postinsulation in stallion 1. Concentrations of
BLH and ILH increased, and whileT concentrations decreased, immediately postinsulation.
The increase in ILH concentrations was greater than the increase in BLH concentrations,
resulting in a decrease in the BLH:ILH (B:I) ratio. Following the peak in LH secretion
immediately postinsulation, LH concentrations gradually decreased while T concentrations
increased. The B:I ratio was elevated from 1 to 13 weeks postinsulation compared to
immediately postinsulation. In addition to changes in spermatozoal quality in ejaculates,
stallion response to scrotal insulation included increased secretion of luteinizing hormone and
impaired Leydig cell function (as determined by reduced testosterone concentration in
circulating plasma). The proportion of biologically active LH secreted in response to thermal
testicular injury increased during the recovery phase."
BRINSKO, S.P.
"GnRH therapy for subfertile stallions"
"Veterinary Clinics of North America - Equine Practice","APR 1996","12","1","149"
"S.P. Brinsko/Colorado State Univ/Coll Vet Med & Biomed Sci/Dept Clin Sci/FT Collins,
CO 80523 USA"
"Idiopathic infertility degeneration has been associated with altered endocrine function
in stallions. Therapy with gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) has been used in an
attempt to correct these endocrine imbalances and thereby improve fertility. This article
describes the physiologic basis of GnRH therapy and emphasizes the importance of endocrine
testing of those stallions for which GnRH therapy is being contemplated."
81
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
BRINSKO, S.P.
"Neoplasia of the male reproductive tract"
"Veterinary Clinics of North America - Equine Practice","1998","14","3","517+"
"Brinsko S.P./Colorado State Univ/Coll Vet Med & Biomed Sci/Dept Clin Sci/Ft Collins,CO
80523 USA"
"Neoplastic conditions of the male horse's genitalia are generally considered
uncommon but when they occur they can be devastating, especially in breeding stallions. This
article describes the clinical manifestations as well as techniques for diagnosing and treating
the common neoplastic conditions affecting the reproductive organs of the male
horse.","","0749-0739","W B Saunders Co/Independence Square West Curtis Center/ Ste
300/Philadelphia/PA 19106-3399/USA"
NIE, G.J.; POPE, K.C.
"Persistent penile prolapse associated with acute blood loss and acepromazine maleate
administration in a horse"
"Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","SEP 1 1997","211","5","587"
"G.J. Nie/Auburn Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Large Anim Surg & Med/Auburn, AL 36849
USA"
"Prolonged penile prolapse in horses has been reported in association with
administration of phenothiazine tranquilizers, trauma, neuropathies, severe general
debilitation or exhaustion, starvation, rabies, herpes myeloencephalitis, equine infectious
anemia, and purpura hemorrhagica. A 5-year-old gelding was admitted for treatment of
prolonged penile prolapse of 12 days' duration that developed after acepromazine maleate was
administered to allow examination of a laceration that had resulted in severe blood loss. The
horse was sedated, and the penis was replaced in the preputial cavity by use of a combination
of massage and bandaging. Treatment was successful, and recovery was complete."
PALME, R.; SCHERZER, S.; STOLLAR, K.; NAGY, P.; SZENCI, O.; MOSTL, E.
"Hormonal diagnosis of equine cryptorchidism"
"Wiener Tierarztliche Monatsschrift"," 1998","85","6","188-191"
"R. Palme/Veterinarpl 1/A-1210 Vienna, Austria"
"For the hormonal diagnosis of cryptorchidism in horses measurements of testosterone
and oestrogens are used. For this purpose the determination in blood and, for oestrogens, also
in faeces is suited. The aim of this study was to determine the decrease of steroid hormone
levels in blood and faeces of stallions after castration to evaluate the time lag until levels of
geldings are reached. In addition, the usefulness of measuring urinary oestrogens for
diagnosis of cryptorchids was evaluated. Mature stallions (n = 38) and cryptorchids (n = 5) of
various breeds were castrated. Blood samples were taken prior to castration and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8,
12, 24, 48 and 72 h after removing the second testis. Daily faecal samples were collected for
14 days and on day 21 after castration. Large individual differences were found concerning
both maximal concentrations of steroids and the time course of their decrease. Threshold
levels for differentiating geldings from horses with testicular tissue were reached in the blood
within 0.5 - 24 h (median: 4 h) and 4 - 48 h (median: 12 h) for testosterone and conjugated
oestrogens, respectively. For faecal oestrogens this level was reached 1 - 21 days (median: 5
days) after castration. These withdrawal times must be taken into account if steroid
measurements are used as a tool to diagnose remaining testicular tissue after castration.%As
in the urine of stallions or cryptorchids approximately 1,000 times higher (as compared with
geldings) concentrations of conjugated oestrogens were found, it will be possible to
82
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
discriminate geldings from horses with testicular tissue by measuring urinary oestrogens. The
avoidance of a stimulation test and the need of only a single urinary sample is advantageous."
PARKER, J.E.; RAKESTRAW, P.C.
"Intra-abdominal testicular torsion in a horse without signs of colic"
"Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","FEB 1 1997","210","3","375"
"J.E. Parker/Oregon State Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Large Anim Clin Sci/Corvallis, OR 97331
USA"
"A 5- year-old Quarter Horse stallion was admitted for cryptorchidectomy.
Abnormalities were not found on physical examination, except for an undescended left testis.
Cryptorchidectomy was performed, using an inguinal approach. The tail of the epididymis
was in the inguinal canal, and the testis was adjacent to the internal inguinal ring. The testis
was dark reddish purple to black, resulting from torsion at the level of the body of the
epididymis. On histologic examination, the left testis was necrotic, except for the tunica
albuginea and tunica vaginalis visceralis covering the testis. Intra-abdominal testicular torsion
developed without signs of abdominal pain and resulted in necrosis of the affected testis. If
cryptorchidectomy had not been performed, it is likely that the horse would have been found
to be monorchid. Unrecognized intra-abdominal testicular torsion may be the cause of
monorchidism in some horses."
PARLEVLIET, J.M.
"Clinical aspects of stallion fertility"
"Tijdschrift Voor Diergeneeskunde","MAR 15 1998","123","6","184-186"
"J.M. Parlevliet/Fac Diergeneeskunde Utrecht/Vakgrp Bedrijfsdiergeneeskunde/&
Voortplanting/Yalelaan 7/NL-3584 Cl Utrecht, Netherlands"
"The studies described in this thesis investigated the factors that can affect the fertility
of stallions. The introduction describes the male gamete and the processes that occur during
maturation of sperm and fertilization. Methods to evaluate the quality of sperm and ova are
then discussed. Fertility can be expressed in various ways and is also affected by many factors
such as the stallion, the mare and management factors. The fertility of stallions is usually
assessed a good year after they have served mares, because then the number of foals is
known. However, it would be preferable to be able to predict a stallion's fertility before he is
put to stud. To this end, it was investigated whether there is a relationship between a number
of sperm parameters and the percentage of non-return after the first cycle. The endocrine
control of reproduction is briefly described because hormonal factors can also influence the
reproductive potential of stallions. The venereal diseases that are important for regulations
concerning the international deserves further investigation. The minimum requirement for a
stud stallion is that the stallion should produce sperm of adequate quality and should be able
to fertilize mares."
ROELS, S.; DUCATELLE, R.; VANDEVIJVER, B.; DEKRUIF, A.
"Successful treatment of an equine preputial fibrosarcoma using 5fluorouracil/evaluation of the treatment using quantitative PCNA and KI67 (MIB 1)
immunostaining (Case report)"
"Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A - Physiology Pathology Clinical
Medicine","1998","45","10","591-598"
"Roels S./Vet & Agrochem Res Ctr/Dept Biontrol/Sect Pathol/Groeselenberg 99/B-1180
Brussels/BELGIUM"
83
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
"An 18- month-old cross-bred Fjord pony colt presenting a fibrosarcoma of the prepuce
with severe infiltrative growth, was treated by topical application of 5-fluorouracil. Biopsies
were taken before and after a treatment period of 2 months. As a control, preputial tissue from
a healthy horse was biopsied. Tissue sections were stained immunohistochemically for
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and Proliferation related factor - Ki67 (MIB1).
Using computerized quantitative image analysis of these sections, Mitotic index (PCNA),
Growth Fraction (Ki67) and total nuclear area percentage of the dermis were calculated. The
Mitotic index, growth fraction and total nuclear area percentage were significantly (P < 0.001)
reduced at the end of the treatment period compared to the initial biopsy tissue, bur they still
were significantly higher than the control values, due to a remnant inflammatory reaction to
the cytostatic drug. After treatment of the lesion, the pony fully recovered with no visible
residual lesions on the prepuce. On follow- up 6 months after treatment, the horse showed no
signs of recurrence. The success of the present treatment should encourage further clinical
trials in cases of malignant fibrous rumours of skin in horses. The quantitative analysis of cell
proliferation in biopsies can be used to evaluate treatment follow- up.","","0931184X","Blackwell
Wissenschafts-Verlag
Gmbh/Kurfurstendamm
57/D-10707
Berlin/Germany"
SCHUMACHER, J.; VARNER, .D.D; SCHMITZ, D.G.; BLANCHARD, T.L.
"Urethral defects in geldings with hematuria and stallions with hemospermia"
"Veterinary Surgery 24: 3 (MAY-JUN 1995) Page(s) 250-254"
"J. Schumacher, Texas Vet Med Ctr, Coll Vet Med, Dept Large Anim Med & Surg, College
Stn, TX USA"
"A urethral defect, presumed to communicate with the corpus spongiosum penis,
caused hematuria in seven geldings and hemospermia in three stallions. Hematuria in geldings
occurred at the end of urination. Hematuria was not observed in stallions with hemospermia.
A linear urethral defect was identified, by endoscopic examination, on the convex surface the
urethra at the level of the ischial arch of each horse. Cause of the defect was not determined.
Two stallions were successfully treated for hemospermia, one by temporary subischial
urethrostomy combined with sexual rest for 10 weeks, and the other by sexual rest alone for 6
months. The third stallion had hemospermia 6 weeks after urethrostomy. The geldings were
successfully treated for hematuria, six by temporary subischial urethrostomy, and one by a
subischial incision that extended into the corpus spongiosum penis but did not enter the lumen
of the urethra. Efficacy of subischial urethrostomy for treatment of hemospermia was difficult
to assess because of the small number of surgically treated stallions. In geldings, surgery
eliminated hematuria, presumably by reducing vascular pressure in the corpus spongiosum
penis during urination, thus allowing the urethral defect to heal. (C)Copyright 1995 by The
American College of Veterinary Surgeons."
SCHUMACHER, J.; VARNER, D.D.; CRABILL, M.R.; BLANCHARD, T.L.
"The effect of a surgically created shunt between the corpus cavernosum penis and
corpus spongiosum penis of stallions on erectile and ejaculatory function"
"Veterinary Surgery","1999","28","1","21-24"
"Schumacher J./Texas A&M Univ/Dept Large Anim Med & Surg/College Stn,TX 77843
USA"
"Objective-To evaluate the effect of a shunt created between the corpus cavernosum
penis (CCP) and corpus spongiosum penis (CSP) on erectile and ejaculatory function of
normal stallions and to verify persistence of the shunt. Study Design- The capability of
stallions to develop an erection and to ejaculate was evaluated before and after creation of a
84
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
corporeal shunt. Persistence of the shunt was determined by dye injection into the CCP at
necropsy. Animals-Six stallions. Methods-A CCP-CSP shunt was created in five stallions.
Semen was collected before and 4 to 14 weeks after surgery, before the horses were
euthanatized. Dye was injected into the CCP to determine persistence of the shunt. Dye was
also injected into the CCP of a control stallion. Results-All stallions had normal erectile and
ejaculatory function before and after surgery. Dye, injected into the CCP, entered the CSP in
three of five treated stallions, demonstrating persistence of the shunt, whereas in two stallions,
dye was found only in the CCP, indicating closure of the shunt. No dye was detected in the
CSP of the control stallion. Conclusions-Creation of a corporeal shunt does not interfere with
normal erection and ejaculation of stallions. Shunt closure is not necessary for stallions to
retain normal erectile and ejaculatory function. Clinical Relevance-Failure of a stallion
affected by priapism to achieve normal erection or to ejaculate after creation of a corporeal
shunt would likely be because of damage to corporeal tissue than from an effect of the shunt.
(C)Copyright 1999 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.","","0161-3499","W B
Saunders Co/Independence".
TOTH, J.; SCHEIDEMANN, W.
"Rarely observed alterations of testes in horses"
"Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja"," 1998","120","1","24-26"
"J. Toth/Aote/Sebeszeti & Szemeszeti Tanszek & Klin/Istvan U2/H-1078 Budapest, Hungary"
"Testicular tumours were observed in three horses. In a seven years old Lippizan
horse, the left testis was enlarged with a compact touching (Fig. 1). The supposed diagnosis
was melanosarcoma which was confirmed by the histological investigation. The right testis of
a cold-blooded stallion was swollen like a child's head, had a loose touch without pain. The
mass of the removed testis (Fig. 2) was 1460 g, the histological investigatino revealed
Leydig's cell tumour. The right testis of a two and a half years old stallion was removed
earlier. The rectal examination revealed a removable object hard to the touch under the spine
in far front. This object could only be removed after post unbilical median laparotomy. The
mass of the object was 1850 g and proved to be calcified teratoma (Figs 3 and 4).%Torsion of
spermatic cord (testis) was observed in a single case. The two years old stallion was operated
with the diagnosis of inguinal hernia. The testis was freed by an inguinal approach. The 360
degrees torsion (Fig. 5) was released and the testis removed (Figs 6 and 7). The animal
recovered a without any complication."
TOTH, J.; HOLLERRIDER, J.; SCHEIDEMANN, W.; KOVAC, M.
"Masculine (testicular) pseudohermaphroditism and concurrent cryptorchidism in a
horse"
"Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja","1998","120","10","579-581","Hungarian Article"
"Toth
J./Tierklin
Hochmoor/Von
Braumn
Str
10/D-48172
Gescher
Hochmoor/Nemetorszag/GERMANY"
"The authors examined and operated on a two-year-old Friesian horse with
pseudohermaphroditism in the Hochmoor Animal Clinic. Despite its stallion-like behaviour
the horse had in its anogenital region a sexual organ resembling a vulva with an organ
characteristic of a penis at the place of the clitoris. Hormone analysis showed a testosterone
value of 0.47 ng/ml whereas genetic analysis revealed XX chromosomes. The inguinal
cryptorchid testes were removed. Their histological examination showed hypoplastic, inactive
testicular tissue. Three months following surgery, hormone analysis of the horse showed
results typical of geldings. The authors point out the significance of hormone analysis and
genetic
examination
in
reliably
discerning
real
hermaphroditism
from
85
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
pseudohermaphroditism.","","0025-004X","Mezogazda
Budapest/Hungary"
Kiado
Kft/PO
Box
16/1631
WALDRIDGE, B.M.; GILLIS, J.P.
"Surgical treatment of redundant preputial tissue in a gelding"
"Equine Practice","APR 1996","18","4","12-14"
"B.M. Waldridge/Auburn Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Large Anim Surg & Med/Auburn, AL
36849 USA"
"This report describes a gelding with an apparent developmental anomaly of the
prepuce. A partial posthioplasty was performed to remove redundant preputial tissue and
restore the prepuce to its normal appearance. Penile and preputial abnormalities occur most
commonly from congenital or acquired conditions."
86
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
ANEXO III
"FISIOPATOLOGÍA de la REPRODUCCIÓN en CANINOS y FELINOS"
I – HEMBRA
ARBEITER, K.
"Some aspects in the theriogenology of the dog",
"Praktische Tierarzt","OCT 1 1995","76","10","927-930",
"K. Arbeiter/Linke Bahngasse 11/A-1030 Vienna, Austria",
"The first part of this paper discusses gynaecological disorders in the bitch, Prolonged
oestrus in pubertal bitches is considered as a developmental disturbance, Because it is a
transient disorders, it should not be treated by ovariohysterectomy, Oestrus without ovulations
exists in the dog and was observed in 1,8 percent of bitches presented for gynaecological
examination, The timing of breeding or insemination can be a problem in bitches, Strong
interindividual and day-to-day variations in the clinical symptoms of oestrus as well as in
plasma progesterone concentrations have to be taken into account, when the optimal time for
breeding has to be predicted. In the second part of this article malformations of the genital
organs in male and female dogs, associated clinical symptoms and possible treatments are
presented."
BASARABA, R.J.; KRAFT, S.L.; ANDREWS, G.A.; LEIPOLD, H.W.; SMALL, D.
"An ovarian teratoma in a cat"
"Veterinary Pathology","1998","35","2","141-144"
"Basaraba R.J./Kansas State Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Diagnost Med Pathobiol/1800 Denison
Ave/Manhattan,KS 66506 USA"
"A 5- month-old, intact female, domestic short-haired cat was presented for evaluation
of abdominal distension. Abdominal radiographs revealed a midabdominal mass that
contained multiple, irregular, mineralized opacities. The mass was surgically removed, and an
ovariohysterectomy performed. The mass was located at the tip of the left uterine horn and
was covered partially by haired skin. Histologically, the mass was diagnosed as a mature
ovarian teratoma based on the presence of well-differentiated somatic structures derived from
three primary embryonal germ-cell layers. Germ-cell tumor classification and feline ovarian
teratomas are reviewed.","","0300-9858","Amer Coll Vet Pathologist/810 East 10Th
Street/Lawrence/KS 66044/USA"
BELLENGER, C.R.
"Inguinal and scrotal herniation in 61 dogs"
"Australian Veterinary Practitioner","JUN 1996","26","2","58-59"
"C.R. Bellenger/Natl Univ Ireland Univ Coll Dublin/Dept Vet Surg/Dublin, Ireland"
"Inguinal and/or scrotal herniation was diagnosed in 45 female and 16 male dogs at the
Sydney University Veterinary Teaching Hospital over the period 1974-1993. The Chihuahua,
Dachshund, Pekingese, Terrier, Cocker Spaniel, Pomeranian, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel,
Maltese and Poodle breeds were all over-represented when compared with the general
hospital population. The mean bodyweight of females was significantly lighter than males.
The mean age of both sexes was greater than seven years. The left side was more commonly
affected than the right in females. The principal clinical sign was an inguinal mass or
87
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
swelling, although gastrointestinal signs were also present in six dogs. Surgical repair was
attempted in 36 female and 13 male dogs, and all recovered except one female."
DHALIWAL, G.K.; WRAY, C.; NOAKES, D.E.
"Uterine bacterial flora and uterine lesions in bitches with cystic endometrial
hyperplasia (Pyometra)"
"Veterinary Record","1998","143","24","659-661"
"Dhaliwal G.K./Univ London Royal Vet Coll/Dept Farm Anim & Equine Med &
Surg/Hatfield AL9 7TA/Herts/ENGLAND"
"Thirty-eight complete genital tracts mere obtained fresh from local veterinary
practices after bitches had been ovario-hysterectomised for the treatment of cystic endometrial
hyperplasia (pyometra), The aerobic and anaerobic culture of swabs obtained aseptically from
the uterine lumen demonstrated the presence of Escherichia coli in 28 of the 29 cases from
which bacteria were isolated and, from 25, a pure culture was obtained. Sixteen different
serotypes were identified from 24 genital tracts; 032K(+) CNF+ was isolated from four of 16
cases and 04K(-); from three of 16 cases. Cytotoxin necrotising factors (CNFs) mere
identified in seven of the 16 serotypes; they included 02, 04, 06, 022, 025, 045 and 075,
which except for 06 and 045 were haemolytic, Strains 04K(-) and 07K(+) completely
destroyed the integrity of the endometrial epithelium whereas 088K(+) and 088K(-) had the
least effect, The scores for the reduction in the integrity of the endometrial epithelium and the
degree of infiltration of inflammatory cells mere greater in the presence of CNF 1.","","00424900","British Veterinary Assoc/7 Mansfield St/London/England W1M 0at"
FRANSSON, B.; LAGERSTEDT, A.S.; HELLMEN, E.; JONSSON, P.
"Bacteriological findings, blood chemistry profile and plasma endotoxin levels in
bitches with pyometra or other uterine diseases"
"Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A - Zentralblatt Fur Veterinarmedizin Reihe A Physiology Pathology Clinical Medicine","SEP 1997","44","7","417-426"
"B. Fransson/Swedish Univ Agr Sci/Dept Small Anim Clin Sci/S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden"
"Uteri from 60 bitches with a clinical diagnosis of pyometra, or with an enlarged
uterus as revealed radiographically or ultrasonographically, underwent histopathological
examination, at which a diagnosis of pyometra was established in 48 of the 60 (80%) cases.
Escherichia coli was isolated from 43 (90%) of the 48 uteri with pyometra. In 8 of the 60
cases, other pathological uterine conditions, such as endometrial hyperplasia, adenomyosis,
mucometra or hydrometra, were diagnosed histopathologically. No bacterial growth was
observed in the uteri of these 8 cases. Four of the 60 bitches (6%) showed no pathological
changes in the uterus, and in 3 of these no bacteriological growth was seen in the uterus, while
in one case a sparse growth of mixed culture was found. Blood samples from bitches with
uterine infection caused by gram- negative bacteria showed marked hematological changes.
These included higher total WBC counts and a more masked left shift in the differential WBC
count than among the other bitches. Toxic degeneration of neutrophils was present among the
bitches with gram- negative uterine infection and the serum ALP level was slightly higher than
in the other groups of bitches. The plasma endotoxin concentration was determined in 53
bitches before surgery, in 28 bitches after surgery and in 11 control dogs. Only in 7 of the
samples was endotoxin detected.
88
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
GABOR, G.; SIVER, L.; SZENCI, O.
"Intravaginal prostaglandin F2 alpha for the treatment of metritis and pyometra in the
bitch"
"Acta Veterinaria Hungarica","1999","47","1","103-108"
"Gabor G./Res Inst Anim Breeding & Nutr/H-2053 Herceghalom/HUNGARY"
"The purpose of this study was to determine whether intravaginal prostaglandin F-2
alpha (PGF(2 alpha)) would be effective for the treatment of metritis or pyometra in the bitch.
Seventeen bitches with metritis or pyometra were treated with PGF(2 alpha). Prostaglandin F2 alpha (150 mu g/kg body weight) was administered once or twice daily by infusing 0.3 ml
per 10 kg body wt into the vaginal lumen. Bitches were also treated with amoxicillin (15
mg/kg body wt/48 h) and/or gentamicin (4 mg/kg body wt/day) administered as intramuscular
(i.m.) injections. Fifteen bitches were treated successfully with intravaginally administered
PGF(2 alpha) for 3 to 12 days and with intramuscularly administered antibiotics for 4 to 12
days. Success of treatment was judged by cessation of vaginal discharge, the absence of fluid
in the uterus as determined by ultrasonography, and the overall health status of the animal. As
two bitches with pyometra showed clinical deterioration in spite of medical treatment,
ovariohysterectomy was performed after the first and the second treatment, respectively. No
side effects (salivation, vomiting, diarrhoea, hyperpnoea, ataxia, urination, anxiety, pupillary
dilatation followed by contraction) were observed after PGF(2 alpha) treatment. The disease
did not recur during the subsequent oestrous cycles within 12 months after the initial
treatment. The results demonstrate that intravaginal administration of PGF(2 alpha) was
effective in 13 dogs (86.6%) with metritis or pyometra, and caused no side effects. Although
the study was based on a relatively small number of cases, it is concluded that prostaglandin
F-2 alpha can be a useful means of treating bitches with metritis or pyometra. However, in
severe cases of pyometra ovariohysterectomy is needed.","","0236-6290","Akademiai
Kiado/PO Box 245/H-1519 Budapest/Hungary"
INABA, T.; TANI, H.; GONDA, M.; NAKAGAWA, A.; OHMURA, M.; MORI, J.; TORII,
R.; TAMADA, H.; SAWADA, T.
"Induction of fertile estrus in bitches using a sustained-release formulation of a GnRH
agonist (leuprolide acetate)"
"Theriogenology","APR 1 1998","49","5","975-982"
"T. Inaba/Univ Osaka Prefecture/Coll Agr/Dept Anim Reprod/Sakai/Osaka 5998531, Japan"
"A single subcutaneous injection of a sustained-release formulation of a potent GnRH
agonist, leuprolide acetate (LA; [D-Leu(6), Pro(9)NEt]-GnRH), was evaluated as a method of
inducing fertile estrus in 12 mature anestrous and 6 prepubertal beagle bitches. The bitches
were treated with microencapsulated LA (100 mu g/kg, sc) at 120 or 150 d post partum, or at
1 yr of age, followed by a GnRH-analogue (fertirelin; [Pro(9)NEt]-GnRH, 3 mu g/kg, im) on
the first day of induced estrus. Signs of estrus were seen within 10.3 +/- 0.9 d after LA
administration in all bitches. The interestrous interval in 120- and 150-d postpartum bitches
was shortened (P<0.05) to 191 +/- 3 and 222 +/- 3 d, respectively, compared with 264 +/- 11 d
in control bitches. All LA treated dogs demonstrated behavioral estrus and mated. Three of 6
(50%) at 120 d post partum, 6 of 6 (100%) at 150 d post partum and 5 of 6 (83%) of
prepubertal (1-yr old) bitches then became pregnant and produced a mean litter size of 4.1 +/0.8 pups. A normal circulating estrogen and progesterone response pattern was observed in
mature anestrous bitches. A prepubertal bitch that failed to become pregnant had a similar
estrogen response pattern but an insufficient progesterone profile. The results suggest that
microencapsulated LA can be useful in inducing fertile estrus in the domestic dogs. (C) 1998
by Elsevier Science Inc."
89
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
LASCELLES, B.D.X.; CRIPPS, P.J.; JONES, A.; WATERMANPEARSON, A.E.
"Efficacy and kinetics of carprofen, administered preoperately or postoperatively, for
the prevention of pain in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy"
"Veterinary Surgery", "1998", 27, 6, 568-582"
"Lascelles B.D.X./Univ Cambridge/Queens Vet Sch Hosp/Dept Vet Clin Sci/Madingley
Rd/Cambridge CB3 OES/ENGLAND"
"Objective-To determine what effect the timing of carprofen administration has on the
severity of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy and to investigate the
pharmacokinetics of carprofen under these conditions. Study Design- A prospective,
randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. Animals-Sixty-two adult bitche s weighing between
10 and 25 kgs, undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy. Methods- Examinations were
performed for 20 hours postoperatively using subjective visual assessment scoring systems
(DIVAS) and objective mechanical nociceptive threshold measurements. Forty dogs were
assigned to one of three groups: (1) preoperative carprofen; (2) postoperative carprofen; and
(3) no analgesics (saline injections). The dose of carprofen was 4.0 mg/kg subcutaneously. In
another 22 bitches, the pharmacokinetics of carprofen given preoperatively or postoperatively
at the same dose were examined. Results-The dogs given carprofen preoperatively had lower
pain scores than the other groups, significantly so at 2 hours postextubation (P < .01 and P <
.05, Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Dunn's). Mechanical pain thresholds measured at the distal
tibia showed the development of hyperalgesia at 12 and 20 hours postextubation; this was
prevented by both the preoperative (P < .05 at 12 and 20 hours, Kruskal-Wallis) and
postoperative (P < .05 at 20 hours, Kruskal-Wallis) administration of carprofen. Mechanical
pain threshold testing at the wound showed a significant analgesic effect of carprofen. Plasma
concentrations of carprofen were not directly related to analgesia; maximum plasma
concentration, the area under the curve to the last data point, and area under the first moment
curve up to the last data point were all significantly higher in the dogs given carprofen
postoperatively (P (.05, Mann-Whitney). Conclusion-Preoperative administration of carprofen
has a greater analgesic effect than postoperative administration in the early postoperative
period in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Plasma levels of carprofen are not related to
the degree of analgesia achieved. Clinical Relevance-Carprofen provides effective analgesia
after canine ovariohysterectomy. The timing of analgesic administration is important to
optimize the control of postoperative pain. (C) Copyright 1998 by The American College of
Veterinary Surgeons.","","0161-3499","W B Saunders Co/Independence Square West/Curtis
Center, Ste 300/Philadelphia/PA 19106-3399"
NISKANEN, M.; THRUSFIELD, M.V.
"Associations between age, parity, hormonal therapy and breed, and pyometra in
Finnish dogs"
"Veterinary Record","1998","143","18","493-498"
"Thrusfield M.V./Univ Edinburgh/Royal Dick Sch Vet Studies/Easter Bush Vet Ctr/Dept Vet
Clin Studies/Roslin EH25 9RG/Midlothian/SCOTLAND"
"A case-control study of 953 dogs with pyometra and 10,660 unmatched control dogs
was used to investigate the relationships between age, parity, hormonal therapy and breed,
and pyometra in Finnish dogs. Cases were reported in animals between nine months and 18
years of age, with a median age at diagnosis of nine years. Nulliparous bitches had a
moderately higher risk of developing pyometra than primiparous and multiparous animals
(adjusted odds ratio point estimate, 6.63). The administration of oestrogen increased the risk
of pyometra in bitches up to four years of age (odds ratio point estimate >6), No significant
risk-enhancing effect of progestin treatment was detected and it is unlikely that such a risk, if
90
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
present, is high (likelihood of the odds ratio exceeding 2 <0.18). Seventeen breeds had an
increased risk, and the wire-haired dachshund and mongrels had a decreased risk of
developing the condition.","","0042-4900","British Veterinary Assoc/7 Mansfield St/London
W1M 0AT/England"
OKANO, S.; TAGAWA, M.; TAKASE, K.
"Relationship of the blood endotoxin concentration and prognosis in dogs with
pyometra"
"Journal of Veterinary Medical Science","1998","60","11","1265-1267"
"Okano S./Kitasato Univ/Sch Vet Med & Anim Sci/Dept Small Anim Med/Aomori
0348628/JAPAN"
"The blood concentrations of endotoxin in dogs with pyometra (n=45) were compared
with those in healthy dogs (n=17). The blood endotoxin concentrations in the healthy dogs
(n=17), in those with good prognosis (n=41) and those with poor prognosis (n=4) were 3.4 +/2.8 pg/ml, 9.5 +/- 11.3 pg/ml and 74.2 +/- 18.3 pg/ml, respectively. The concentrations in the
dogs with good prognosis and poor prognosis were significantly (p<0.01) higher than those in
the healthy dogs. The dogs with poor prognosis had significantly (p<0.01) higher endotoxin
concentrations than those with good prognosis. Blood endotoxin concentratio ns were
measured in 9 dogs after surgery, and were found to be decreased. These results suggest the
possible involvement of endotoxin in the pathophysiological changes due to pyometra in
dogs, and also that the blood endotoxin concentration could be used as a marker to determine
prognosis.","","0916-7250","Japan Soc Vet Sci/Univ Tokyo
1-1-1 Yayoi/ BunkyoKu/Tokyo/103, Japan"
PIENS, K.; DESCHEPPER, J.; DEPELSMAECKER, K.
"Bilirubinuria without hyperbilirubinaemia in bitches with pyometra"
"Vlaams Diergeneeskundig Tijdschrift","JAN-FEB 1996","65","1","31-33"
"K. Piens/State Univ Ghent/Fac Diergeneeskunde/Vakgrp Geneeskunde & Klin/Biol Klein
Huisdieren/B-9000 Ghent, Belgium"
"In a group of 54 bitches with pyometra, 31 per cent showed bilirubinuria.
Bilirubinuria was associated with higher values of white blood cells and serum haptoglobin,
higher serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and cholesterol and a higher serum aspartate
aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio, but not with a higher degree of anaemia
(similar PCV values). Bilirubinuria in bitches with pyometra is attributed to a higher degree
of cholestasis associated with a greater inflammatory reaction."
PIERSON, P.; MORAILLON, A.; REMOND, M.
"Herpesvirus infection in the dog: diagnosis and clinical aspects"
"Recueil de Medecine Veterinaire","MAR-APR 1998","174","3-4 Sp. Iss.","87-94"
"P. Pierson/Ecole Natl Vet Alfort/Unite Med Elevage & Sport/7 Ave GL de Gaulle/F-94704
Maisons Alfort, France"
"At the clinical level, canine herpesvirus infection is most often the cause in breeding
kennels of a period of infertility or very precious neonatal mortality which normally affects a
single breed and disappears before the nest reproductive cycle. The difficulties encountered in
diagnosis, treatment, prevent ion and detection are linked to the potential for latency and
reactivation of all the herpesviruses, as well as their poor immunogenic activity. These factors
make a lot of breeders accept with resignation that in the dog, as with numerous species, they
must learn to ''live with herpesvirus infection'' and that in dog breeding ''it is better to have the
herpesvirus infection behind them than in front of them''.
91
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
PRIGENT, S.
"A diagnostic method for female dog which regular cycles but suffers from infecundity"
"Recueil de Medecine Veterinaire","MAR-APR 1998","174","3-4 Sp. Iss.","61-69"
"S. Prigent/Clin Vet/F-95290 Lisle Adam, France"
"The author describes the method of diagnosis to be used by the veterinary surgeon
when faced with an infecund female dog which has normal cycles. He goes on to present all
the possible causes of this infecundity: unsuccesful mating and unsuccesful mating after a
normal, or a shorter or a longer cycle. In all cases a study of the case history and a careful and
complete clinical examination, will allow the choice, if necessary, of the complementary
examinations needed. This logical method is the only one which, in nearly all cases, results in
a diagnosis and a prognosis concerning the reproductive future of the female and in provides
advice on the action to take when faced with dog infertility. "
RUNGSIPIPAT, A.; TATEYAMA, S.; YAMAGUCHI, R.; UCHIDA, K.; MIYOSHI, N.;
HAYASHI, T.
"Immunohistochemical analysis of c-yes and c-erbB-2 oncogene products and p53 tumor
suppressor protein in canine mammary tumors "
"Journal of Veterinary Medical Science","1999","61","1","27-32"
"Rungsipipat A./Miyazaki Univ/Fac Agr/Dept Vet Pathol/Nishi 1-1/Miyazaki
8892192/JAPAN"
"In order to evaluate the involvement of c- yes and c-erbB-2 oncogene products, and
p53 tumor suppressor protein in canine mammary neoplastic lesions, sections of archived
paraffin-embedded samples of 79 mammary tumors were analyzed immunohistochemically
using antibodies against human c-yes p62 and c-erbB-2 products and p53. These 79 tumors
were divided into 2 groups: 32 benign (2 adenosis, 7 simple adenomas, 14 complex
adenomas, and 9 benign mixed mammary tumors) and 47 malignant tumors (26 simple
adenocarcinomas, 7 complex adenocarcinomas, 5 solid carcinomas, 2 sclerosing carcinomas,
6 malignant mixed mammary tumors, and 1 malignant myoepithelioma). As a result of
immunostaining, 40.6% (13/32) of the benign tumors and 21.3% (10/47) of the malignant
tumors expressed the c-Yes oncogene product, ErbB-2 expression was detected in 50%
(16/32) of the benign tumors and in 19.1% (9/47) of the malignant tumors. P53 expression
was detected in 16% (4/25) of the benign tumors and in 30.6% (11/36) of the malignant
tumors. Go-expression of c-Yes and ErbB-2, ErbB-2 and p53, and all 3 products was detected
in 6, 1 and 7 tumors, respectively.","","0916-7250","Japan Soc Vet Sci/Univ Tokyo 1-1-1
Yayoi/ Bunkyo-Ku/Tokyo/103, Japan"
SCHAFER, K.A.; KELLY, G.; SCHRADER, R.; GRIFFITH, W.C.; MUGGENBURG, B.A.;
TIERNEY, L.A.; LECHNER, J.E.; JANOVITZ, E.B.; HAHN, F.F.
"A canine model of familial mammary gland neoplasia"
"Veterinary Pathology","1998","35","3","168-177"
"Hahn F.F./Lovelace Resp Res Inst/Inhalat Toxicol Lab/POB 5890/Albuquerque,NM 87185
USA"
"Intact female Beagles from life-span studies in the Lovelace Respiratory Research
Institute colony were examined for mammary tumor incidence. The breeding colony, founded
in 1963, produced five generations from 28 founder females. After proportional hazards
analysis, two maternal families were shown to have markedly different phenotypes, one
susceptible and one resistant to mammary neoplasia, as compared with the entire colony.
When tumors were subdivided into benign and malignant based on local invasiveness,
familial differences in tumor incidence were preserved for each tumor type. Fifty-seven
92
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
females in the susceptible family developed 149 benign and 39 malignant tumors, and 95
females in the resistant family developed 70 benign and 20 malignant tumors. The ratio of
benign to malignant tumors of about 4:1 for both families was higher than expected. Using
Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses, the susceptible family had a 50% malignant tumor
incidence by age 13.6 years, whereas the resistant family did not have a 50% incidence until
17.0 years (P = 0.0065). Because of marked censoring, Kaplan-Meier analyses could not
provide an estimate of the 50% benign turner incidence; mean incidence age was calculated
instead. These estimates for benign tumors for susceptible and resistant families were 10.8
and 13.8 years (P = 0.0001), respectively. Using chi(2) tests, families had no differences in
the occurrence of the types of benign (P = 0.098) or malignant (P = 0.194) tumors or in the
ratio of benign to malignant tumors (P = 0.778). Immunohistochemical analysis of malignant
tumors from both families did not demonstrate differences in p53 mutation rate or p185(erbB2) expression. These results suggest that 1) genetic factors produce familial differences in the
age of onset of both benign and malignant mammary tumors; histologic types do not
segregate by family; 2) the ratio of benign to malignant tumors is greater than formerly
reported; and 3) neither p53 nor p185(erbB-2) alterations are the basis for the familial
predisposition.","","0300-9858","Amer
Coll
Vet
Pathologist/810
Ea st
10Th
Street/Lawrence/KS 66044/USA"
SCHANEN, H.; FEHR, M.
"Vaginal disorders in the dog - Differential diagnosis of vaginal discharge"
"Praktische Tierarzt","1998","79","10","924"
"Schanen H./Tierarztlichen Hsch Hannover/Klin Kleine Haustiere/Bischofsho ler Damm
15/D-30173 Hannover/GERMANY"
"Diseases of the vagina are very common in the dog and have a great importance for
its fertility. The main symptom is vaginal discharge. The etiology, the symptoms and the
therapy of the most common diseases of the vagina are presented.","","0032681X","Schlutersche Verlag Druckerei/Georgswall 4/W-3000 Hanover 1/Germany"
SCHULMAN, M.L.; BOLTON, L.A.
"Uterine horn aplasia with complications in two mixed-breed bitches"
"Journal of the South African Veterinary Association - Tydskrif Van Die Suid - Afrikaanse
Veterinere Vereniging","DEC 1997","68","4","150-153"
"M.L. Schulman/Med Univ S Africa/Fac Vet Sci/Dept Companion Anim Med & Surg/Box
160/ZA-0204 Medunsa, South Africa"
"Unilateral segmental uterine horn aplasia was found in 2 mixed-breed bitches. The Ist
bitch was presented with clinical signs of acute abdominal pain, and pyometra was suspected.
Pyometra was confirmed surgically with rupture of a blind-ending cranial portion of the
anomalous right uterine horn, which had resulted in peritonitis. The 2nd bitch was presented
for routine ovariohysterectomy. The right uterine horn was affected by segmental aplasia,
with mucometra of the cranial portion of the affected horn. Histopathology demonstrated both
uteri to have diffuse cystic endometrial hyperplasia. II is postulated that cystic endometrial
hyperplasia, together with the congenital anomaly, resulted in pyometra in one case and in
mucometra in the other case. This is believed to be the Ist report of uterine horn aplasia in the
bitch in association with clinical signs and lesions other than infertility."
93
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
TAINTURIER, D.; SILIART, B.; FIENI, F.; BRUYAS, J.F.; BATTUT, I."
"Study of anoestrus in the female dog"
"Recueil de Medecine Veterinaire","MAR-APR 1998","174","3-4 Sp. Iss.","71-76"
"D. Tainturier/Ecole Natl Vet Nantes/Lab Dosages Hormonaux/Atlanpole/La Chantrerie/BP
40706/F-44307 Nantes 03, France"
"The absence of puberty when not caused by a genetic disease which provokes genital
infantilism or hermaphrodism, can be the result of under-nutrition, parasitism or various
primary (hypothyroidism, hypocorticism or hyposomatotropism) or iatrogenic endocrine
disorders (the administration of steroids to a pregnant animal can provoke
pseudo- hermaphrodism in the offspring; stereoids can also, when administered during growth,
cause disorders of gonadal stereoidogenesis. Some antifungal agents can cause the same
effect). The absence of oestrus in old female dogs is eventually due to a luteal production,
during primary affection of the ovary. However it is more often the result of anoestrus
associated with an endocrine disorder (Cushing syndrome, hypothyroidism,
hyposomatotropism or acromegaly) which causes an adipo-genital syndrome. However, in old
female dogs, under-nutrition, parasitism, behavioural problems, poor maintenance or breeding
conditions can equally be responsible for ovarian dysfunction."
VALOCZKY, I.; CSICSAI, G.; MARACEK, I.
"Use of anamnesis and clinical signs in decision-making regarding treatment of bitches
with cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra complex"
"Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja","1998","120","8","474-478""Hungarian Article"
"Valoczky I./Univ Vet Med/Dept Gynaecol Obstet & Androl/Komenskeho 73/Kosice
04181/SLOVAKIA"
"The aim of the study was to investigate selected anamnestic and gynecological
parameters in bitches with cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra complex (CEHPC)
and to select markers that could facilitate decision- making in the treatment of this condition.
The results are based on monitoring two groups of bitches: one group which was successfully
treated medically while bitches in the other were subjected to ovariohysterectomy. Twenty
medium sized bitches with various stages of CEHPC were monitored. The age of the
surgically treated bitches ranged between 4 and 14 years with an average of 8.4 years, while
age range of the medically treated bitches was 1.5-4 years with an average of 2.6 years.
Seventy-nine percent of the surgically treated bitches showed clinical symptoms for longer
than 14 days, which indicated a more chronic process. Sixty-seven percent of the medically
created bitches had clinical symptoms shorter than 14 days. Polydipsia and polyuria were
observed in both groups with CEHPC. Inappetence was present mainly in bitches which had
to be treated surgically. Limping and pain in long bones were more frequent in the surgically
treated group. Emesis was found in 28.5% of the surgically treated bitches. Both groups had
vaginal discharge and prolonged estrus cycle noted in their ana mnesis. Fifty-seven percent of
the surgically treated and half of the medically treated bitches had received hormone therapy
previously. Palpation findings were more varied in the surgically treated animals.","","0025004X","Mezogazda Kiado Kft/PO Box 16/1631 Budapest/Hungary"
94
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
VERSTEGEN, J.P.; ONCLIN, K.; SILVA, L.D.M.; CONCANNON, P.W."
"Effect of stage of anestrus on the induction of estrus by the dopamine agonist
cabergoline in dogs "
"Theriogenology","1999","51","3","597-611"
"Verstegen J.P./Univ Liege/Coll Vet Med/Dept Small Reprod/B-4000 Liege/BELGIUM"
"Beagle bitches were administered the dopamine D-2 receptor agonist cabergoline in 3
groups of 5 animals each, starting on known days of the estrous cycle. Cabergoline treatment
was started in either early anestrus (Days 93 to 108), mid-anestrus (Days 123 to 156), or late
anestrus (Days 161 to 192) at doses of 5 ug/kg/d, per os, and was continued until the
confirmation of induced proestrus or for 40 d. Reproductive parameters were compared with
those in 5 control anestrous bitches (Days 90 to 150). In control bitches, the mean (+/- SEM)
interval to the next proestrus (73 +/- 11 d) resulted in an interestrus interval (192 +/- 9 d)
similar to that of the previous cycles (196 +/- 11 d). In 14 of the 15 cabergoline-treated
bitches, the next: proestrus occurred within 4 to 30 d, was premature in early and midanestrous bitches and developed with low variability within groups. The resulting intervals to
proestrus in bitches treated with cabergoline in early anestrus (20 +/- 2 d), mid-anestrus (14
+/- 3 d) and late anestrus (6 +/- 1 d) resulted in interestrus intervals in those groups of 131 +/5, 166 +/- 7 and 196 +/- 2 d, respectively. In response to treatment, interestrus intervals were
reduced (P less than 0.05) and more synchronous (P less than 0.05) in early and mid-anestrus
bitches, and were more synchronous (P less than 0.05) in late-anestrous bitches compared
with those of control bitches or those of the previous cycle. Periovulatory estradiol and
progesterone profiles of induced cycles in treated bitches were similar to those of spontaneous
cycles in control bitches. Four of 5 control bitches and 12 of the 14 responding cabergolinetreated bitches became pregnant and produced normal litters. Plasma prolactin concentrations
at Days 2 and 5 of treatment (0.3 +/- 0.1 ng/mL) and at the onset of proestrus shortly before
the end of treatment (0.4 +/- 0.1 ng/mL) were lower (P less than 0.05) than those present in
anestrus prior to treatment (1.7 +/- 0.6 ng/mL) or in control bitches. Prolactin was also low at
the onset of proestrus in control bitches (0.5 +/- 0.2 ng/mL). The results demonstrate that
prolactin- lowering doses of the dopamine agonist cabergoline can terminate the normal
obligate anestrus in dogs, and that the effect occurs more slowly in early anestrus than in mid
or late anestrus. (C) 1999 by Elsevier Science Inc.","","0093-691X","Elsevier Science Inc/655
Avenue of the Americas/New York/NY 10010/USA"
WATTS, J.R.; WRIGHT, P.J.; LEE, C.S.
"Endometrial cytology of the normal bitch throughout the reproductive cycle"
"Journal of Small Animal Practice","JAN 1998","39","1","2-9"
"J.R. Watts/Univ Melbourne/Dept Vet Sci/Princes Highway/Werribee/Vic 3030, Australia"
"Samples for endometrial cytology were collected both from live bitches using
transcervical uterine cannulation (n=48) and postmortem (n=10), The cells identified were
endometrial epithelial cells, leucocytes, erythrocytes, spermatozoa, bacteria and cervical or
vaginal cells, The endometrial epithelial cells varied morphologically throughout the
reproductive cycle and had signs of degeneration during late dioestrus and during early and
mid-anoestrus following dioestrus and postpartum. Neutrophils were the most common
leucocytes observed during pro-oestrus, oestrus, dioestrus and early pregnancy, and
lymphocytes during anoestrus, Macrophages were frequently seen during anoestrus,
Erythrocytes were found in variable numbers at all stages of the reproductive cycle,
Spermatozoa were detected in samples collected during oestrus and early pregnancy in bitches
which had their last mating one to three days previously, Bacteria were commonly observed
during pro-oestrus and oestrus, Cornified cervical or vaginal cells were present during
95
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
pro-oestrus and oestrus, This study demonstrated that the numbers, types, proportions and
morphology of cells in endometrial cytological samples from normal bitches varied
throughout the reproductive cycle."
I I – MACHO
BELL, F.W.; KLAUSNER, J.S.; HAYDEN, D.W.; LUND E.M.; LIEBENSTEIN, B.B.;
FEENEY, D.A.; JOHNSTON, S.D.; SHIVERS, J.L.; EWING, C.M.; ISAACS, W.B.
"Evaluation of serum and seminal plasma markers in the diagnosis of canine Prostatic
Disorders"
"Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 9: 3 (MAY-JUN 1995) Page(s) 149-153"
"F.W. Bell, Univ Minnesota, Coll Vet Med, Dept Small Anim Clin Sci, 1350 Boyd Ave, St
Paul, MN 55108 USA"
"Serum and seminal plasma concentrations or activities of acid phosphatase (AP),
prostate specific antigen (PSA), and canine prostate specific esterase (CPSE) were measured
in normal dogs, dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), dogs with bacterial prostatitis,
and dogs with prostatic carcinoma to determine if these assays would be of value in
differentiating dogs with prostatic carcinoma from normal dogs, and dogs with other prostatic
disorders. In addition, tissue sections of prostatic adenocarcinomas were stained with
antiprostatic AP, anti-CPSE, and anti-PSA antibodies to determine if these would be suitable
immunohistochemical markers of prostatic carcinoma. Prostate-specific antigen was not
detected in canine serum or seminal plasma, Serum and seminal AP activities did not differ
significantly between normal dogs and those with prostatic diseases, or among dogs with
different prostatic disorders, Serum CPSE activities were significantly higher in dogs with
BPH than in normal dogs. Mean serum CPSE activities in dogs with BPH, bacterial
prostatitis, and prostatic carcinoma were not significantly different from each other. Slight to
moderate immunohistochemical staining of canine prostatic adenocarcinomas was noted for
prostatic AP and PSA; most tumors did not stain for CPSE. These results show that proteins
of prostatic origin appear in the serum of dogs as a result of prostatic pathology, especially
BPH. Canine prostatic adenocarcinoma does not appear to be associated with significant
increases in CPSE or AP activities, possibly because of down-regulation of these enzymes by
prostatic carcinoma cells. It is also possible that failure to detect significant differences
resulted from limited statistical power for some groups and pairwise analyses because of the
small number of dogs evaluated. Copyright (C) 1995 by the American College of Veterinary
Internal medicine."
BILKEI, G.; BIRO, O.; TAKACS, T.; KOTAI, I.; SZENCI, O.; GOOS, T.
"Observations on the therapy of the ''prostate syndrome'' of older dogs"
"Berliner und Munchener Tierarztliche Wochenschrift","JUN 1997","110","6","220-222"
"G. Bilkei/Kurzbericht Praxis/CH-8600 Dubendorf, Switzerland"
"The treatment of the ''prostate syndrome'' is a great challenge for the practicing
veterinarian In the present paper the therapeutic approach of this syndrome will be evaluated.
58 older dogs showing this syndrome Here castrated and received thereafter oral antibiotic
therapy. For further additional treatment the dogs were assigned to two groups. The groups
were treated as follows:%Group one: 41 dogs were treated with retard Gestagen and
Flumethason infiltrated into the prostate gland tissue. Group two: 17 dogs were treated with a
single subcutaneously applied Gestagen injection.%The success of the therapy was judged by
96
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
decrease the size of the prostate gland to normal size. The first evaluation took place after 2
weeks and the second one after a year fo llowing castration and treatment.%At the time of the
first judgement 95.1% of the dogs in the group one and 70.6% in the group two showed
normal prostate gland size. At the time of the second examination, a year after the treatment
still 82.8% of the dogs in the group one and only 52.8% in the group two showed normal
prostate gland size.%These results suggest that the infiltration of the enlarged prostate gland
with retard acting Gestagen and Flumethason results in long lasting diminishing of size of the
diseased gland."
BILLER, B.J.; KITCHELL, B.E.; CADILE, C.D.
"Evaluation of an assay for detecting telomerase activity in neoplastic tissues of dogs"
"American Journal of Veterinary Research","1998","59","12","1526-1529"
"Biller B.J./Denver Vet Specialists/250 W Lehow/Englewood,CO 80110 USA"
"Objective-To determine feasibility of using the telomere repeat amplification protocol
(TRAP) assay to detect telomerase activity in tumors of dogs. Sample Population-Samples of
tumor or normal tissue were obtained from client-owned dogs that underwent surgical biopsy
during the period of January 1996 through December 1997. Procedure-The TRAP assay was
used to detect telomerase activity in malignant or benign tumors of dogs. Telomerase status
(positive or negative) was compared with results of histologic examination for each sample to
estimate specificity and sensitivity of this assay for the diagnosis of malignancy. Results-Of
26 malignant tumors, 24 were telomerase positive on TRAP assay, whereas 3 of 4 benign
tumors and 3 of 3 normal tissues were telomerase negative. Analysis of these results indicated
an estimated sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 86% for tumor analysis, using the TRAP
assay. Conclusion-The TRAP assay can be used to measure telomerase activity in malignant
tumors of dogs. Clinical Relevance-Because telomerase activation may be required for
indefinite longevity of cells, it may also serve as a tumor marker and therapeutic target. The
TRAP assay can be used to detect telomerase in samples of fluid as well as tissues obtained
from solid tumors. Therefore, it may have considerable clinical value in rapid and noninvasive
diagnosis of neoplasia in dogs. Additional studies must be completed to more accurately
determine sensitivity and specificity of the assay.","","0002-9645","Amer Veterinary Medical
Assoc/1931 N Meacham Rd Suite 100/Schaumburg/IL 60173-4360/USA"
BRAY, J.P.; WHITE, R.A.S.; WILLIAMS, J.M.
"Partial resection and omentalization: A new technique for management of prostatic
retention cysts in dogs"
"Veterinary Surgery","MAY-JUN 1997","26","3","202-209"
"J.P. Bray/Univ Cambridge/Dept Clin Vet Med/Madingley Rd/Cambridge CB3 0ES,
England"
"Objective- The purpose of this study was to determine the results of a new technique
for management of prostatic retention cysts in dogs.%Study Design- A retrospective clinical
study.%Animals- Eighteen client-owned dogs.%Methods- Dogs with prostatic retention cysts
were treated by celiotomy and drainage of the cysts. The majority of the cyst wall was
resected and residual cyst cavities were packed with omentum. All dogs were
castrated.%Results- Long-term resolution of clinical signs was achieved in all dogs, with
follow-up periods ranging from 6 to 42 months. Five dogs developed urinary incontinence
postoperatively. This persisted in two dogs, but was well controlled with
phenylpropanolamine. In the remaining dogs, the incontinence was transient and resolved
within 2 months of surgery.%Conclusions- Partial cyst resection combined with
omentalization and castration was a simple and effective means of managing prostatic
97
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
retention cysts. The incidence of serious complications, including postoperative urinary
incontinence, was low. (C) Copyright 1997 by The American College of Veterinary
Surgeons."
FOLEY, R.H.; COLLINS, K.S."
"Hypospadius in two male cats"
"Feline Practice","1999","27","1","18-19","English Article"
"Foley R.H./Upper Keys Vet Clin/87108 Overseas Highway/Islamorada,FL 33036 USA"
"Congenital defects of the external genitalia of two unrelated male cats manifested as
penile hypospadius, bifid scrotum and abnormal urorectal sepum covering. These anomalies
created in the more extremely affected cat an appearance resembling an avian cloaca. This
rarely reported defect of companion animals has been associated with,true hermaphroditism,
in utero exposure to androgen inhibitors or estrogenic compounds, and inadequate production
of androgens by fetal testes. These two cases with other possible etiologies are
discussed.","","1057-6614","Veterinary Practice Publ Co/3 Burroughsdr/Irvine/CA 926182804/USA"
FONTBONNE, A.; BUFF, S.; GUERIN, P.
"Clinical approach of infertility in the male dog"
"Recueil de Medecine Veterinaire","MAR-APR 1998","174","3-4 Sp. Iss.","39-60"
"A. Fontbonne/Ecole Natl Vet Lyon/Ctr Etud & Rech Reprod & Elevage Canins/BP
83/F-69280 Marcy Letoile, France"
"There have been few scientific publications concerning male fertility and infertility in
the dog, due to the fact that this area has been mainly explored in the past few years. The
collection of sperm has to take place in a quiet place, making the dog confident. It is often
achieved by manual masturbation, using a latex semen collection cone. The spermogramm
has the purpose of defining if sperm quality is good enough to insure normal fertility. A
normal dog sperm mill contain more than 100 to 150 x 106 normal sperm. It must not contain
over 20 to 30% abnormal sperm. Initial motility must be higher than 50 to 70%. Therefore,
the veterinarian has to check the volume, general aspect, motility, pH, counting and vitality.
He mill also check the percentage of normal sperm in the whole ejaculate. New ways of
performing these different steps coming from human medicine and new laboratory tests
(computer analysed motility, HOS test...) will probably improve the prediction of the fertility
that can be obtained by the spermogramm The quality of sperm may vary very much from one
collection to another, especially in sub-infertile males. Therefore, it is important to collect the
same dog 2 or 3 times before stating that the quality of sperm is low. The infertility of the
male dog can be due to several factors. Hormonal, genital, urinary or psychological factors
seem to be the most common ones, considering our own experience. In order to diagnose the
cause of infertility, the veterinarian mill have to perform a complete survey of the medical
background of the dog. He will complete an examination of the general state and the
reproductive tract. He will also be helped by complementary clinical exams, such as
spermoculture, echography, urinalysis and testicular biopsy."
KYLES, A.E.; STONE, E.A.; GOOKIN, J.; SPAULDING, K.; CLARY, E.M.; WYLIE, K.;
SPODNICK, G."
"Diagnosis and surgical management of obstructive ureteral calculi in cats: 11 cases
(1993-1996)"
"Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","1998","213","8","1150-1156"
98
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
"Stone EA/N Carolina State Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Compan Anim & Special Species
Med/Raleigh,NC 27606 USA"
"Objective-To evaluate diagnostic methods, surgical treatment, perioperative
management, and renal function of cats with obstructive calcium oxalate ureteroliths. DesignRetrospective case series. Animals-11 cats that underwent surgery for removal of calcium
oxalate ureteroliths. Procedure-Medical records were reviewed, and the following information
was recorded: signalment; results of physical examination, clinicopathologic analyses, and
abdominal imaging; surgical procedure; postoperative management; and results of ureterolith
quantitative analysis. Results-Ureteroliths in the proximal portion of the ureter were removed
from 5 cats (pyelotomy, 1 cat; unilateral ureterotomy, 2 cats; bilateral ureterotomies, 2 cats).
Calculi in the middle and distal part of the ureter were removed by partial ureterectomy and
ureteroneocystostomy (6 cats). Ten cats recovered from surgery and were discharged from the
hospital. One cat died from unknown causes 4 months after surgery and 1 car had a
nephrectomy elsewhere 5 weeks after ureterolith removal. Eight cats were evaluated 12 to 20
months after surgery. Of these, 2 cats that were markedly azotemic before surgery improved
after surgery, and 2 cats developed nephroliths after surgery. Also, of 5 cats that had
nephroliths that were not removed at the time of surgery, 4 still had visible nephroliths, One
cat had recurrent ureteral obstruction from a ureterolith and persistent urinary tract infection.
Ureteroliths or ultrasonographic evidence of ureteral obstruction were not detected in other
cats. Clinical Implications-A combination of microsurgical techniques and intensive
postoperative care is necessary to minimize morbidity of cats after removal of a ureterolith.
Renal function may improve or stabilize after removal of the ureteral obstruction.","","00031488","Amer Veterinary Medical Assoc/1931 N Meacham Rd/Suite 100/Schaumburg/IL
60173-4360"
LING, G.V.; FRANTI, C.E.; RUBY, A.L.; JOHNSON, D.L.; THURMOND, M.
"Urolithiasis in dogs I: Mineral prevalence and interrelations of mineral composition,
age, and sex"
"American Journal of Veterinary Research","1998","5 9","5","624-629"
"Ling G.V./Univ Calif Davis/Sch Vet Med/Urinary Stone Anal Lab/Davis,CA 95616 USA"
"Objective-To compile and statistically analyze selected data from a large number of
canine urinary calculi. Sample Population-11,000 specimens: 5,781 from female dogs, 5,215
from male dogs, and 4 from dogs of unrecorded sex. Procedure-Records were used to compile
information from all canine calculi analyzed between July 1981 and January 1994.
Interrelations of mineral composition, location of specimens within the urinary tract, age and
sex of affected dogs, and number of previous episodes of urolithiasis were determined.
Results-Approximately 70% of the specimens were from a first episode of urolithiasis.
Calculi were located in the urinary bladder of 93.1% of females and 79.0% of males, and in
the upper urinary tract of 4% of females and 2% of males. Calculi were found in multiple sites
in 23.1% of males and 5.2% of females. Significantly higher proportions of struvite, apatite,
and urate were found in uroliths from females; oxalate, cystine, silica, and brushite were
significantly more prevalent in males. Sixty-one percent of specimens from males and 29%
from females were composed of a single mineral substance. The most common mineral
combination of 2 or more minerals included struvite and apatite. An additional 67 specimens
from male dogs and 49 from female dogs contained other mineral combinations. In 48% of
specimens from males and nearly 62% of specimens from females, the minerals formed
several distinct layers of differing composition. Conclusions-Male and female dogs form
urinary calculi composed of 1 or more of several distinct minerals. Prevalence of canine
uroliths differs between ages and between the sexes. Many specimens contain complex
99
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
layering of minerals; most specimens were found in the urinary bladder. Clinical RelevanceSex and age of dogs, mineral types of likely calculi in males versus females, and their
anatomic location are important considerations for clinicians when evaluating risk in dogs
with urolithiasis.","","0002-9645","Amer Veterinary Medical Assoc/1931 N Meacham
Rd/Suite 100/Schaumburg/IL 60173-4360"
LING, G.V.; FRANTI, C.E.; RUBY, A.L.; JOHNSON, D.L.
"Urolithiasis in dogs II: Breed prevalence, and interrelations of breed, sex, age , and
mineral composition"
"American Journal of Veterinary Research","1998","59","5","630-642"
"Ling G.V./Univ Calif Davis/Sch Vet Med/Urinary Stone Anal Lab/Dept Med &
Epidemiol/Davis,CA 95616 USA"
"Objective-To analyze selected breed-related data for canine urinary calculi. Sample
Population-11,000 specimens: 5,781 from female dogs, 5,215 from males, and 4 from dogs of
unrecorded sex. Procedure- information was compiled for all canine urinary calculi submitted
between July 1981 and January 1994. Results fo r a mixed-breed group and 26 of the most
common breeds of stone- forming dogs were analyzed. Interrelations of breed, sex, and age of
affected dogs and mineral composition of the specimens were determined. Results-Prevalence
of 5 specific mineral types was significantly correlated between the sexes of 27 common
breed groups: struvite, calcium phosphate (apatite), calcium oxalate, brushite, and urate.
Struvite-containing calculi were seen in high proportions in both sexes of 7 breeds, and in low
proportions in both sexes of 7 other breeds. Male and female Lhasa Apsos, Cairn Terriers, and
5 other breeds had high proportions of oxalate-containing calculi; values in males were
substantially higher. Low numbers of oxalate-containing calculi were seen in both sexes of 7
breeds; Dalmatians had the lowest numbers. Males and females of 6 breeds had high numbers
of urate-containing calculi, Dalmatians and English Bulldogs had the highest numbers. Low
amounts of urate were found in calculi from males and females of 6 breeds, Samoyeds had the
lowest numbers. Highest proportions of cystine-containing calculi were seen in male
Dachshund, English Bulldogs, and Chihuahuas. Males of 8 breeds had no specimens that
contained cystine; only 2 such specimens were obtained from females. ConclusionsPrevalence of uroliths differs among breed, age, and sex of affected dogs. Clinical RelevanceBreed, sex, and age of dogs; mineral types of calculi in males versus females; and their
anatomic location within the tract are important considerations for clinicians when evaluating
risk in dogs with urolithiasis and in identifying areas that need further in-depth applied or
clinical investigation, or both.","","0002-9645","Amer Veterinary Medical Assoc/1931 N
Meacham Rd/Suite 100/Schaumburg/IL 60173-4360"
LING, G.V.; FRANTI, C.E.; JOHNSON, D.L.; RUBY, A.L.
"Urolithiasis in dogs III: Prevalence of urinary tract infection and interrelations of
infection, age, sex, and mineral composition"
"American Journal of Veterinary Research","1998","59","5","643-649"
"Ling G.V./Univ Calif Davis/Sch Vet Med/Urinary Stone Anal Lab/Dept Med &
Epidemiol/Davis,CA 95616 USA"
"Objective-To compile and statistically analyze selected data from a large number of
canine urinary calculus specimens that were subjected to quantitative, layer-by- layer mineral
analysis. Sample Population-11,000 canine urinary calculus specimens: 5,781 from female
dogs, 5,215 from male dogs, and 4 from dogs of unrecorded sex. Procedure-Records of the
Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California
were used to compile information regarding all canine urinary calculus specimens submitted
100
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
for analysis between July 1981 and January 1994. Interrelations of sex and age of the affected
dogs, mineral compositio n of the specimens, and associated urinary tract infections were
analyzed statistically. Results-Urolithiasis was associated with growth of bacteria isolated
from urine or calculi, or both, in 65% of females and nearly 44% of males. Staphylococcus
intermedius was isolated most often from either sex (54% for females, 30% for males). In
addition to staphylococci, 22 other bacterial species were isolated from specimens from
females, and 17 other bacterial species and 1 species of yeast were isolated from males. A
single bacterial species was isolated from 87.6% of cultures from females and from nearly
90% of cultures from males. Among females, nearly 98% of pure cultures of staphylococci
were associated with calculi that contained struvite; this was true for 80% of pure cultures of
staphylococci from males. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-There are wide sex
differences in prevalence of urolithiasis- and specific mineral-associated bacterial infections.
In several instances, bacterial infections were significantly related to urinary calculus location.
These variables should be considered in any evaluation of canine patients that have
uroliths.","","0002-9645","Amer Veterinary Medical Assoc/1931 N Meacham Rd/Suite
100/Schaumburg/IL 60173-4360"
LING, G.V.; FRANTI, C.E.; JOHNSON, D.L.; RUBY, A.L.
"Urolithiasis in dogs IV: Survey of interrelations among breed, mineral composition,
and anatomic location of calculi, and presence of urinary tract infection"
"American Journal of Veterinary Research","1998","59","5","650-660"
"Ling G.V./Univ Calif Davis/Sch Vet Med/Urinary Stone Anal Lab/Dept Med &
Epidemiol/Davis,CA 95616 USA"
"Objective-To compile and analyze selected data from a large number of canine
urinary calculus specimens that were subjected to quantitative, layer-by-layer mineral
analysis. Sample Population-11,000 canine urinary calculus specimens: 5,781 from female
dogs, 5,215 from male dogs, and 4 from dogs of unrecorded sex. Procedure-Records of the
Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California
were used to compile information regarding urinary calculus specimens from dogs. Records
surveyed were of all canine calculi submitted for analysis between July 1981 and January
1994. Results analyzed included those of a mixed-breed group and 26 common breeds of
stone-forming dogs. Interrelations of breed, sex, and age of the affected dogs, mineral
composition of the specimens, and associated urinary tract infections were analyzed
statistically. Results-Proportions of culture-positive specimens were significantly correlated
between the sexes (r = 0.494, P = 0.008). Staphylococcus intermedius was isolated most often
from either sex, ranging from 36.1% (Basset Hounds) to 67.9% (Pekingese) of cultured
specimens from females and 8.7% (Chihuahuas) to 71.4% (Scottish Terriers) of specimens
from males. The second most frequently isolated bacterial species, Escherichia coli, ranged
from 0% in males of 2 breeds and females of 4 breeds to 25% in Cairn Terrier males and
19.4% in Basset Hound females. Streptococcus spp were the third most frequently isolated
bacterial species. Significant correlations between the sexes were found for percentages of
calculi located in the urinary bladder (r = 0.490, P = 0.008), and for calculi voided in the urine
(r = 0.503, P = 0.006). Conclusions-Breed and sex differences in prevalence of urolithiasisand mineral-associated bacterial infections are numerous. Staphylococcus intermedius was the
most common isolate from specimens from all but 3 of 54 breed/sex groupings. For either
sex, streptococcal infections were significantly related to proportions of calculi passed in the
urine.","","0002-9645","Amer Veterinary Medical Assoc/1931 N Meacham Rd/Suite
100/Schaumburg/IL 60173-4360"
101
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
METCALFE, S.S.; OSBORNE, D. A.; MACFARLANE, R.A.
"Canine transmissible venereal tumour"
"Australian Veterinary Practitioner","DEC 1997","27","4","186"
"S.S. Metcalfe/Monash Med Ctr/Inst Reprod & Dev/Level 5/246 Clayton Rd/Clayton/Vic
3168, Australia"
"Six cases of canine transmissible venereal tumour were diagnosed by cytology or
histopathology. These cases were in a range of dog breeds, gender and age. Euthanasia was
performed in one case. The remaining five cases were successfully treated with vincristine
chemotherapy with or without surgery."
ONCLIN, K.; LDM SILVA, J VERSTEGEN
"Physiology and pathology of prostate gland in domestic carnivores .1."
"Annales de Medecine Veterinaire 138: 8 (DEC 1994) Page(s) 529-535"
"K. Onclin, Fac Med Vet, Ulg Serv Obstet & Troubles Reprod, B44, Bld Colonster, B-4000
Liege, Belgium"
"The prostate is the only major accessory sex gland in the dog. it accounts for
numerous disorders in old intact male dogs. Diagnosis is often difficult because of the variety
of clinical signs. However, the development of investigation techniques allows a better
approach of the different pathologies.
This article reviews the methods available for diagnosing the various disorders of the canine
prostate gland. The prostate pathologies and their therapy are reviewed and discussed.
ONCLIN, K.; LDM SILVA, J VERSTEGEN
"Physiology and pathology of prostate gland in domestic carnivores .2."
"Annales de Medecine Veterinaire 138: 8 (DEC 1994) Page(s) 537-549"
"K. Onclin, Fac Med Vet, Serv Obstet & Troubles Reprod, B44, Bld Colonster, B-4000
Liege, Belgium"
"In this second part, the prostate pathologies will be reviewed. These include benign or
hystic hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, acute and chronic prostatitis, abscessation, cysts and
neoplasia. The different treatments fo r each pathology are discussed, with their advantages
and disadvantages. indeed, because of the rapid evolution in medicine, new therapeutic
alternatives are proposed acid our therapeutic choice becomes larger and larger.
RAWLINGS, C.A.; MAHAFFEY, M.B.; BARSANTI, J.A.; QUANDT, J.E.; OLIVER, J.E.;
CROWELL, W.A.; DOWNS, M.O.; STAMPLEY, A.R.; ALLEN, S.W.
"Use of partial prostatectomy for treatment of prostatic abscesses and cysts in dogs"
"Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association","OCT 1 1997","211","7","868"
"C.A. Rawlings/Univ Georgia/Coll Vet Med/Dept Small Anim Med/Athens, GA 30602 USA"
"Objective - To determine whether dogs had prostatic disease, urinary incontinence, or
urinary tract infection 1 year after partial prostatectomy to treat prostatic abscesses and
cysts.%Design - Prospective study.%Animals - 20 male dogs with prostatic abscesses or
cysts. Fifteen dogs had evidence of urinary tract infection. Only 8 dogs urinated normally; the
remainder dribbled, had obstructions, or required medical treatment.%Procedure - Partial
prostatectomy was performed on each dog. Sexually intact dogs (n = 12) also were
castrated.%Results - None of the dogs had return of prostatic cystic enlargement or clinical
signs of prostatic disease during the first year after surgery. Two dogs were euthanatized
within 1 year after surgery, with 1 dog having prostatic enlargement and adenocarcinoma and
1 dog having unrelated lymphosarcoma. Fifteen dogs were continent. The remaining 5 dogs
urinated normally but had intermittent and minor incontinence. Eleven dogs had no signs of
102
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
infection 1 year after surgery, 5 had pyuria or positive urine bacteriologic culture results, 2 did
not have urinalysis performed, and 2 were euthanatized.%Clinical Implications - Dogs with
severe prostatic abscesses or cysts and infections can be successfully treated by partial
prostatectomy with an ultrasonic surgical aspirator and castration, resulting in long-term
disease resolution. Although most dogs with severe prostatic disease do not urinate normally
before surgery, nearly all dogs resume normal micturition after partial prostatectomy.
Postoperative results of partial prostatectomy appear to be better than those of previous
drainage techniques for treatment of prostatic cavitary disease."
RINCK, J.; RINCK, R.; RINCK, M.; SABOCANEC, R.; CULJAK, K.; NJARI, B.;
HADIOSMANOVIC, A.; VUCEMILO, M.
"Prostate diseases in the dog"
"Acta Veterinaria Brno","MAR 1998","67","1","59"
"J. Rinck/Ludwigsbrunnen 26/D-61184 Karben, Germany"
"A retrospective study is presented of prostatic diseases diagnosed in 32 dogs over a
period of 26 years in a private veterinary practice. Of the 32 diseased dogs, 19 patients were
aged 6-10 years, 11 dogs were 11-15 years of age, and 2 animals were younger than 5 years.
An unusual case of prostate carcinoma in a 2-year-old Dobermann is documented.%Based on
clinical, radiographic and ultrasonographic examination completed by bacteriological and
laboratory tests, prostatitis was diagnosed in 6 animals. In 26 dogs prostatic hyperplasia was
found by rectal examination, and elevated serum acid phosphatase concentration indicated
neoplasms. Hormone therapy (Cyproteronacetate, Diethylstilbestrol) was used in 21 dogs with
hyperplastic prostate for 4 weeks. However, four months later all dogs were castrated as
hyperplasia reoccurred. Castration resulted in a permanent improvement in ca 40 % of
patients. Hyperplasia tended to diminish after castration, and in material collected 6 months
later by fine- needle transurethral biopsy, carcinoma was still diagnosed in 3 dogs.%Our
findings confirm more frequent prostastic diseased in aged dogs. Occurrence and frequency of
prostatic rumours in dogs can be ascribed to hormonal dysbalance. Hormone therapy cannot
cure the malignancies but may bring relief. Castration is the method of choice."
ROGERS, K.S.; WALKER, M.A.; DILLON, H.B.
"Transmissible venereal tumor: A retrospective study of 29 cases"
"Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association","1998","34","6","463-470"
"Rogers K.S./Texas A&M Univ/Coll Vet Med/Dept Small Anim Med & Surg/College Stn,TX
77843 USA"
"Twenty- nine cases of naturally occurring, transmissible venereal tumor were studied
retrospectively. The external genitalia was the primary site of tumor involvement in 27 dogs,
with the remaining two dogs having primary intranasal involvement. Extragenital tumor
involvement was identified in six cases, including five cases with metastatic disease. Fifteen
cases were treated effectively with radiation therapy alone. Radiation therapy also was
effective in four cases that were resistant to chemotherapy. Four of five cases treated with at
least four doses of vincristine as a solitary agent also achieved complete remissions.
Transmissible venereal tumor remains a unique canine tumor that often is curable despite the
development of extragenital primary lesions or metastasis.","","0587-2871","Amer Animal
Hospital Assoc/PO Box 150899/Lakewood/CO 80215-0899"
103
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
SASSNAU, R.
"Hypospadia penis and other malformations in a tomcat"
"Praktische Tierarzt","1999","80","4","276+","German Article"
"Sassnau R./Sudstern 2/D-10961 Berlin/GERMANY"
"The lower disjunction of the ureter, hypospadia is an uncommon malformation in
animals. This paper describes hypospadia in a tomcat. Besides hypospadia other
malformations are seen in this patient. Embryology, pathogenesis as well as etiology of
hypospadia are described and compared with the incidence in other species and
man.","","0032-681X","Schlutersche Verlag Druckerei/Georgswall 4/W-3000 Hanover
1/Germany"
104
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
INDICE
Páginas
PARTE I
CAPÍTULO I
INFERTILIDAD - INFECUNDIDAD - ESTERILIDAD
02-45
02-05
CAPÍTULO I I
05-11
TRASTORNOS FUNCIONALES de INFERTILIDAD o de ESTERILIDAD en la HEMBRA
CAPÍTULO I I I
AFECCIONES de las VIAS GENITALES de la HEMBRA
11-16
CAPÍTULO I V
FACTORES GENÉTICOS de ESTERILIDAD o de INFERTILIDAD
16-18
CAPÍTULO V
ENFERMEDADES QUE AFECTAN LA REPRODUCCIÓN
18-39
CAPITULO V I
NUTRICIÓN e INFERTILIDAD
39-42
CAPITULO V I I
INFERTILIDAD y ESTERILIDAD del MACHO
42-44
CAPITULO V I I I
44-45
ENFOQUE CLÍNICO de la INFERTILIDAD y de la ESTERILIDAD del MACHO
PARTE I I
46-104
ANEXO I
ACTUALIZACIÓN BIBLIOGRÁFICA COMPLEMENTARIA
46-69
ANEXO I I
FISIOPATOLOGÍA de la REPRODUCCIÓN en EQUINOS
I.- INFERTILIDAD y ESTERILIDAD en YEGUAS
II.- INFERTILIDAD y ESTERILIDAD en PADRILLOS
70-86
ANEXO I I I
FISIOPATOLOGÍA de la REPRODUCCIÓN en CANINOS y FELINOS
I.- HEMBRA
I I.- MACHO
87-104
70-80
80-86
87-96
96-104
105
Resúmenes bibliográficos - Libro de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción y Anexo
Área de Fisiopatología de la Reproducción - F.C.V. - U.N.C.P.B.A.
`