PLEASE NOTE: - Michigan Association of Health Plans

ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
ABSTRACTS OF THE 23rd ANNUAL
MEETING OF THE ITALIAN SOCIETY
OF URO-ONCOLOGY (SIUrO)
9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
Palazzo degli Affari, Piazza Adua, 1, Florence, Italy
Chair: Alberto Lapini
Honorary Chair: Marco Carini
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Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO)
President: Giario Conti, Como, Italy
Board
PRESIDENT: Giario Conti
VICE PRESIDENT: Alberto Lapini
PAST PRESIDENT: Giuseppe Martorana
SECRETARY GENERAL & TREASURER: Alessandro Bertaccini
INCOMING PRESIDENT: Riccardo Valdagni
Advisors
Vincenzo Altieri
Enrico Bollito
Sergio Bracarda
Renzo Colombo
Massimo Maffezzini
Cinzia Ortega
Roberto Sanseverino
Gigliola Sica
Elected Scientific Committee
PRESIDENTS: Giuseppe Martorana, Gigliola Sica
Members
Giovanni Pappagallo
Vittorio Vavassori
Scientific Secretariat
Società Italiana di Urologia Oncologica (SIUrO)
Via Dante 17 – 40126 Bologna
Tel: +39 051 349224 – Fax: +39 051 349224
e-mail: [email protected] – web: www.siuro.it
Organizing Secretariat
Over group
Via Pagliari, 4 – 26100 Cremona
Tel: +39 037 223310 – Fax: +39 037 2569605
e-mail: [email protected]
Palazzo degli Affari, Piazza Adua, 1 – 50123 Florence
http://www.firenzefiera.it/
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
Referees of Abstracts
V. ALTIERI, Napoli, Italy
C.S. BALBI, Genova, Italy
P. BARBORO, Genova, Italy
L. BELLARDITA, Milano, Italy
A. BERTACCINI, Bologna, Italy
E. BOLLITO, Orbassano, Italy
R. CECCARELLI, Bologna, Italy
R. COLOMBO, Milano, Italy
A. FANDELLA, Treviso, Italy
G. FELLIN, Trento, Italy
D. FONTANA, Torino, Italy
M. GIAMPAOLI, Bologna, Italy
B. JERECZEK, Milano, Italy
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D. MARCHIORI, Bologna, Italy
F. MASSARI, Verona, Italy
C. ORTEGA, Torino, Italy
G.L. PAPPAGALLO, Mirano, Italy
C. PATRIARCA, Milano, Italy
P. PAVLICA, Bologna, Italy
V. SCATTONI, Milano, Italy
G. SICA, Roma, Italy
C. STERNBERG, Roma, Italy
R. VALDAGNI, Milano, Italy
V. VAVASSORI, Bergamo, Italy
S. VILLA, Milano, Italy
A. VOLPE, Novara, Italy
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
1
RELEVANCE OF PERIANASTOMOTIC
SATURATION BIOPSY SCHEME IN THE
DIAGNOSIS OF LOCAL RECURRENCE
AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY
Lucio Dell’ Atti, Gian Rosario Russo
Urologia, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Arcispedale S.
Anna, Ferrara, Italy
Introduction: The perianastomotic biopsy is indicated in
patients with clinical suspicion of local recurrence, that of
course cannot be diagnosed only by serum PSA, digital rectal
examination or imaging techniques. This study evaluated the
optimization of the detection rate in a standardized manner
using a scheme perianastomotic biopsy transrectal ultrasound
with 8 biopsies for the diagnosis of local recurrence in patients
with prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy
(RP), compared to 4 or 6 conventional biopsies. Patients and
Methods: Between July 2007 and May 2012 we evaluated 62
patients (range 56-76 years) who underwent consecutive RP
(48 with the open technique and 14 with the laparoscopic
technique) with recovery of biochemical disease (PSA >0.2
ng/ml). The pathologic stages of patients were: 27pT2, 33pT3
and 2pT4 respectively. All patients had negative lymph nodes
and only one pT4 had positive surgical margins. All patients
with suspected local recurrence were subjected to rectal
examination and transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy
perianastomotic (BTP) using an “end-fire” multi-frequency
convex probe under local anesthesia with lidocaine spray
(10g/100ml). Results: Patients were divided into two groups.
Group A: 33 patients with mean PSA 2.3 ng / ml, subjected to
BTP: 14/33 (42%) and 19/33 (57%) respectively four and six
biopsies. Group B: 29 patients with mean PSA 1.4 ng / ml
underwent a standard eight biopsies. Among patients in the
latter group, three had already undergone four biopsies. One
patient belonging to group B did not complete the entire biopsy
procedure because of discomfort. In the first group signs of
local recurrence were observed in 11/33 (33%), while in 22/33
(66%) residual benign prostate tissue was found in six biopsies
and fibrous tissue and scar in sixteen. In Group B: 22/29 (76%)
were found with prostate cancer relapsed, whereas 7/29 (24%):
prostate tissue residue was found in two biopsies fibrous tissue
and scar in five biopsies. Discussion and Conclusion: The
present study raises the possibility that residual and benign
tissue, resulting from unintentional disruption of the prostatic
capsule during surgery, may be responsible for a detectable
postoperative PSA. The clinical significance of prostatic
residual tissue in follow-up is most important since it can be
responsible for biochemical failure and can increase in size,
simulating in this way a local recurrence. Although there was
no evidence of a significant correlation between PSA levels to
local recurrence, Gleason score and positive biopsy, the BTP
0250-7005/2013 $2.00+.40
conducted in a standardized manner with 8 biopsies in patients
with biochemical recurrence of disease has enabled us to
increase the detection rate of local recurrence of 43% and
certainly avoid radiation therapies for prostate bed in cases of
detection of benign prostatic residual tissue.
1 Carroll P, Coley C, Mc Leood D et al: Prostate-specific
antigen best practice policy. Part II. Prostate cancer staging
and post-treatment follow-up. Urology 57: 225-229, 2001.
2 Minardi D, Galosi AB, Dell’Atti L et al: Detectable serum
PSA after radical prostatectomy. Clinical and pathological
relevance of perianastomotic biopsies. Anticancer Res
24(2C): 1179-85, 2004.
3 Sella T, Schwartz LH, Swindle PW et al: Suspected local
recurrence after radical prostatectomy: endorectal coil MR
imaging. Radiology 231(2): 379-85, 2004.
2
ROLE OF HIGH GRADE INTRAEPITHELIAL
NEOPLASIA AS A RISK FACTOR
FOR PROSTATIC CANCER
Lucio Dell’ Atti, Gian Rosario Russo
Urologia, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Arcispedale S.
Anna, Ferrara, Italy
Introduction: High grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia
(HGPIN) is traditionally considered as a precancerous
conditions. The majority of patients with diagnosed HGPIN are
expected to develop prostate cancer (PC) within 10 years (1).
The degree of association between HGPIN and PC in different
sources of literature ranges between 22% and 80% (2, 3).There
is a controversy regarding the role of HGPIN as a risk factor
for PC. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of
HGPIN in prediction of adverse pathology in patients
undergoing a radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients and
Methods: We retrospectively analysed 210 patients who
underwent a RP (open or laparoscopic) between July 2007 and
December 2010 at a single referral center. Exclusion criteria
were any preoperative treatment protocol, active surveillance,
hormone therapy and radiotherapy. The relationship between
HGPIN and the presence of positive surgical margins (PSM),
extracapsular disease (ECD), seminal vesicle invasion (SVI)
and lymph node invasion (LNI) was analysed. Patients were
stratified into low (PSA <10 ng/ml, cT1, biopsy Gleason sum
≤6), high (cT3 or biopsy Gleason 8-10 or PSA >20 ng/ml) and
intermediate risk (all the remaining patients). The prognostic
value of HGPIN was estimated in each risk group separately.
Results: The median age was 66.7 years (range 48-77) and
median PSA was 8.5 ng/ml (range 2.5-16). Based on the
preoperative clinical staging, 139 (66%) patients were T1c,
51(24%) T2a, 17(8%) T2b and 3(1.5%)T2c. HGPIN was found
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
in 41(19.5%) speciments. PSM were identified in 64(30.5%),
ECD in 23(11%) and SVI in 14(6.6%) patients. A pelvic lymph
node dissection was conducted in 186 patients and from those
a malignant invasion was found in 22 (10.4%)
patients.Concerning the preoperative risk stratification:
72(34.2%) patients were considered low risk, 113(53.8%)
medium risk and 25(11.9%) high risk. A statistically significant
correlation was found between HGPIN and preoperative PSA
(p=0.025) and patients’age (p=0.030). No significant
differences were found, regarding the presence of adverse
pathological findings, between the patients with or without
HGPIN, irrespective of the preoperative risk stratification.
Conclusion: The results of our study showed that patients with
HGPIN were younger and they had lower levels of preoperative
PSA. However, there was no significant difference in the tumor
grade and pathological stage between groups. HGPIN did not
reach significance for the prediction of PSM, ECD, SVI and
LNI. Similar findings were shown when patients were divided
into risk categories regarding Gleason score. Based on our
results, we suggest that there is no benefit by the application
of HGPIN as predictor of worse pathological and clinical
outcome following radical prostatectomy.
1 Bostwick DG, Liu L, Brawer MK, Qian J: High grade
prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Rev Urol 6: 171-179,
2004.
2 Lopez JI: Prostate adenocarcinoma detected after high
grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia or atypical small
acinar proliferation. BJU Int 100: 1272-1276, 2007.
3 Pierorazio PM, Lambert SM, Matsukhami M et al: High
grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.is an indipendent
predictor of outcome after radical prostatectomy. BJU Int
100: 1066-1070, 2007.
3
MIR-501 DEPLETION INDUCES CELL
CYCLE INHIBITION BY MTOR AND P53
MODULATION IN RENAL CARCINOMA
Alessandra Mangolini1, Lucio Dell’atti1, Anna Bonon2,
Giovanni Lanza3, Gian Rosario Russo1, Gianluca Aguiari2
1Urologia,
Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria
Arcispedale S. Anna, Ferrara;
2Biologia Molecolare, Dip. Scienze Biomediche e
Chirurgiche Specialistiche Università Ferrara;
3Anatomia Patologica, Dip. Scienze Morfologiche e
Medicina Sperimentale, Università Ferrara, Italy
Introduction: MicroRNAs (miRs) are small noncoding RNAs
that regulate gene expression at post-transcriptional level.
The abnormal expression and mutation of miRs has been
observed in most urologic cancers including renal cancer,
2250
thus they may contribute to development and progression of
kidney carcinoma. In fact, their impaired function could
trigger a series of altered signalling resulting in abnormal
differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. In the last years,
the necessity to use miRs as biological biomarkers is
emerging in order to improve diagnosis, prognosis and
therapy response in renal carcinomas. Furthermore, miRNAs
might be potential targets for novel therapeutic strategies,
especially in patients with tumour subtypes that do not
respond to currently available therapies (1, 2). Here, we have
focalized our study on the role of miR501-5p in kidney
carcinomas because it has been found differently expressed
in kidney cancer tissues compared with the normal kidney of
the same patients. Materials and Methods: Analysis of
miR501-5p expression was performed by real time RT-PCR.
Depletion or enrichment of this miR was conducted by
specific antagomiRs and plasmid expressing miR-501-5p
specific sequences, respectively. Protein activity was
analyzed by immunological and cell imaging techniques.
Apoptosis was studied through caspase-3 activity and cell
cycle analysis was performed by propidium iodide staining.
Results: We have analyzed the expression of miR501-5p in
36 clear cell (ccRCC) and 11 papillary (pRCC) kidney
carcinomas. The expression of miR501-5p was higher in
ccRCC (3.72 fold) and lower (3.76 fold) in pRCC tissues
compared with normal kidneys derived from the same
subjects, respectively. However, the distribution of miR5015p expression values in ccRCC was found strongly variable.
Follow up data of 25 ccRCC and 5 pRCC patients suggest
that subjects who showed lower expression of miR-501 in
cancer tissues with respect to control (normal kidney),
exhibited a good prognosis compared with patients with
unchanged or high levels of this small RNA. In order to
evaluate the role of miR501-5p in renal cancer, we have
depleted it by a specific antagomiR in KJ29 kidney cancer
cell line (3). KJ29 cells expressed higher levels of miR5015p than normal immortalized tubular kidney cells. The
transfection of KJ29 cells with antagomiR caused a 50%
reduction of miR501-5p expression compared with
untransfected cells. Furthermore, the reduction of miR5015p induced an increase in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle and a
decrease of mTOR activity in KJ29 cells. In addition, the
treatment with antagomiR caused an increase in caspase-3
activity, suggesting that this miR may regulate apoptosis.
Moreover, miR-501-5p depletion enhanced the expression of
p53, data also observed in kidney cancer tissues expressing
lower levels of this miR than controls. The activation of p53
was also observed by its nuclear translocation in KJ29
treated with antagomiR. KJ29 cells were also transfected
with a plasmid expressing miR-501-5p sequences and these
cells showed an increased level of miR-501 compared with
untranfected cells. Conclusion: Our findings show that
miR501-5p was differentially expressed in ccRCC. High or
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
unchanged levels of miR501-5p do not seem to be related
with grading and metastasis in ccRCC; however, when it is
downregulated it could promote a good prognosis. Data
reported suggest an anti apoptotic role for miR501-5p,
making it a likely risk factor for a poor prognosis in renal
carcinoma. Therefore, the expression of miR501-5p could be
considered as a potential biomarker for the prognosis of clear
cell kidney carcinoma.
1 Schaefer A, Stephan C, Busch J, Yousef GM and Jung K:
Diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic implications of
microRNAs in urologic tumors. Nat Rev Urol 7(5): 286297, 2010.
2 Cairns P: Renal cell carcinoma. Cancer Biomark 9(1-6):
461-473, 2010.
3 Del Senno et al: Cell Biology International Reports 10:
195, 1986.
4
THE PATIENT’S AGE MAY INFLUENCE THE
DECISION OF AN ANESTHETIC TECHNIQUE
DURING TRANSRECTAL PROSTATE BIOPSY
Lucio Dell’Atti1, Deidania Medici2, Carmelo Ippolito1,
Giovanni Pietro Daniele1, Gianni Ughi1,
Gian Rosario Russo1
1Urologia,
Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Arcispedale
S. Anna, Ferrara;
2Clinica Neurologica, Università Politecnica delle Marche,
Italy
Introduction: In literature there are numerous studies that
compare various local and general anesthetic techniques for
transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TBP), analyzing
different variables of discomfort in patients undergoing this
procedure. (1) None has so far considered the effect of aging
on the perception of acute pain. Acute pain of recent onset
decreases with age while increasing the chronic and chronic
pain syndrome (clinical condition that involves the mind and
behavior by influencing the experience of illness and quality
of life). The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the age
factor might influence the tolerance biopsy examination, and
then choose the modality of a local or general anesthetic
technique. Patients and Methods: 362 consecutive patients,
between November 2008 and December 2011, underwent
TBP. Patients were excluded if they had a history of previous
prostate biopsy, had chronic pelvic pain syndrome, anal
surgery, or any other medical condition that could potentially
interfere with pain assessment. All procedures were performed
to empty the bladder, since we believe that even the state of
bladder repletion may be an element of discomfort during the
performance of TBP. Each patient was treated under local
anesthesia with lidocaine spray (10gr/100ml)(2). Patients were
divided into two groups according to age: Group A) 175
patients with age range ≤65 years, Group B) 187 patients with
age range > 65 years. Our first aim was to obtain a schedule of
14 biopsy samples in both groups. After the procedure each
patient was given a verbal numeric pain scale (VNS), which
was designed with 0 representing absence of pain and 10 the
maximum pain they perceived in life. Results: Only four
patients were not able to undergo the procedure with the
introduction of the probe: in four the reason was the presence
of anal stenosis and in two because of the presence of a severe
hemorrhoidal prolapse. The average age of patients in Group
A was 59 years (44-64), the average value of total PSA was
8.7 (3.4-15.3), while average total volume of the gland was
54ml (28-79). In Group B the average age was 72 years (6577), the average PSA was 9.4 (3.2-18.3), while the total
glandular volume was 64ml (34-115). The number of biopsies
performed in the first group was 9.7 (4-14), while in the
second group 13.1 (7-17). The average pain assessed with
VNS was around 4.5 (2- 8) and 2.6 (0-6) for the patients in
Group A and Grioup B, respectively . The two groups appear
to be homogeneous in terms of pain perception regarding PSA
value and gland volume, and appeared to have different pain
scores with regard to age. Discussion and Conclusion: Age
dependent differences in pain perception are probably not the
expression of a receptor damage, or abnormal stimulation of
accommodation, but are the consequence of a more complex
process involving the pathways of transmission, the
representations and cognitive evaluations, social status and the
history of pain, a mutual integration between cognitive and
affective component, behavioral anatomical areas with the
participation of cortical somatosensory prefrontal and limbic
system and hypothalamic pituitary mediation of the autonomic
nervous system (3). In conclusion, we can say that since the
reliability of multiple prostate biopsy is directly proportional
to the number of needle biopsies, a local anesthetic in clinical
practice in the course of TBP is more sensitive if performed
in a person aged 65 years, for the reasons listed above, while
in a young adult to perform the examination in sedation would
result in better compliance by the patient, increasing the
detection rate.
1 Rodriguez A, Kyriakou G, Leray E et al: Prospective study
comparing two methods of anesthesia for prostate biopsies:
apex periprostatic nerve block versus intrarectal lidocaine
gel: review of literature. Eur Urol 44(2): 195-200, 2003.
2 Dell’Atti L and Daniele C: Lidocaine spray administration
during transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy modified
the discomfort and pain of procedure: Results of a randomized
clinical trial. Arch Ital Urol 82(1): 125-127, 2010.
3 Giron GP and Ceccherelli F: Il dolore nell’anziano. In: G.
Crepaldi, ed. Trattato di Gerontologia e Geriatria. Torino:
UTET pp. 1161-1167, 1993.
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5
GATA3 AND P63 IMMUNOSTAINING ANALYSIS
IN HIGH GRADE BLADDER CARCINOMA
Carlo Patriarca, Alessandra Cavallero
Anatomia Patologica, Azienda Ospedaliera Sant’Anna,
Como, Italy
p63 immunostaining, in conjunction with high molecular
weight cytokeratins and PSA, belongs to a widely applied
panel that is often specific enough in supporting the differential
diagnosis between bladder urothelial carcinoma and high grade
prostate adenocarcinoma (1). However, in metastatic poorly
differentiated carcinoma of unknown primary site, more
immunostaining are frequently necessary to identify a bladder
carcinoma origin. GATA3 regulator of T-cell development is a
nuclear antigen specific for breast and bladder carcinoma (2).
Hence, in case of unknown metastasis, it represents a useful
candidate in supporting the identification of a possible bladder
origin, together with p63, high molecular weight cytokeratin,
cytokeratin 20, thrombomodulin, S100P and uroplakin III (3).
Nevertheless, a few data are available concerning the sensibility
of GATA3 immunostaining in comparison with p63 particularly
when dealing with high grade poorly differentiated carcinoma
(4). We selected 14 high grade urothelial carcinomas and 1
small cell bladder carcinoma. Step sections underwent
immunohistochemical staining with p63 mouse MoAb (clone
4A4) and GATA3 mouse MoAb (clone L50-823). The range of
nuclear immunostaning was subdivided as + (> 10% <50%
positive cells), ++ (>50% < 75% positive cells) and +++ (>75%
positive cells). 13 out of 14 cases were GATA3 positive (92.8
%: 10 cases +++ and 3 cases ++ ), while 12/14 cases were p63
immunoreactive (85.7 %: 10 cases +++, 1 case ++ and 1 case
+). The two p63 negative cases were GATA3 (+++)
immunoreactive, while the only GATA3 negative case showed
wide squamous differentiation and was p63 (+++)
immunoreactive. Finally both GATA3 and p63 were negative
in the small cell bladder carcinoma. Accordingly, both antigens
are useful in an ideal panel.
1 Kunju LP, Mehra R, Snyder M and Shah RB: PSA,
HMWCK and/or p63: an optimal panel to distinguish
poorly differentiated prostate adenocarcinoma from
urothelial carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol 125: 675-81, 2006.
2 Higgins JP, Kaygusuz G, Wang L et al. S100P e GATA3:
markers for transitional epithelium and urothelial
carcinoma discovered by complementary DNA microarray.
Am J Surg Pathol 31: 673-80, 2007.
3 Cheng L, Lopez-Beltran A and Bostwick D: Bladder
Pathology. Wiley 2012.
4 Tacha D, Bremer R, Yu C and Cheng L: GATA3, p63 and
S100P. An IHC comparison analysis in bladder cancer- Abs
1023. USCAP 2012.
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6
IMAGE GUIDED (IGRT) HYPOFRACTIONATED
INTENSITY-MODULATED SIMULTANEOUS
INTEGRATED BOOST (IMRT-SIB) RADIOTHERAPY
IN HIGH-RISK PROSTATE CANCER PATIENTS:
PRELIMINARY REPORT
Maurizio Valeriani, Alessia Carnevale, Mattia Falchetto
Osti, Vitaliana De Sanctis, Linda Agolli, Stefano Bracci,
Riccardo Maurizi Enrici
Department of Radiation Oncology, “La Sapienza”
University, Sant’Andrea Hospital of Rome, Italy
Background: Hypofractionated “dose escalation” intensitymodulated radiotherapy (IMRT) might be able to improve
locoregional control in prostate cancer without an increase in
OAR toxicity. Image guidance is a widely accepted approach to
increase the therapeutic ratio in external radiotherapy (IGRT). If
IGRT and IMRT are combined it is even possible to use SIB
approach in order to reduce the number of fractions and therefore
the treatment time length. Materials and Methods: Between
December 2009 and January 2012 in our institution we treated
61 patients with high risk prostate carcinoma (≥T3 or Gleason
score ≥ 8or PSA ≥ 20 ng/ml). The median age was 73 years
(range 61–88). All patients underwent a neoadjuvant,
concomitant and adjuvant hormonal therapy with antiandrogen
(bicalutamide 150 mg) in 19 patients (31.1%) and LHRH
analogous in the other 42 patients (68.9%) for a total of 2 years
overall starting 3 months before radiotherapy. Stage was cT1c in
3 patients (4.9%), cT2a in 5 patients (8.2%), cT2b in 10 patients
(16.4%), and cT2c in 6 patients (9.8%), cT3a in 17 patients
(27.9%), cT3b in 18 patients (29.5%) and cT4 in 2 patients
(3.3%). Gleason score was 5 in 3 patients (4.9%), Gleason 6 in
15 patients (24.6%), Gleason 7 in 19 patients (31.1%), Gleason
8 in 17 patients (27.9%) and Gleason score 9 in 7 cases (11.5%).
All patients performed a simulation CT scan with 2.5 mm slice
thickness to execute 3D conformal planning IMRT (intensitymodulated radiation therapy) developed with Eclipse System.
Patients were immobilized with a footlocker in supine position.
All patients underwent proper rectal and bladder preparation.
MR imaging was fused with planning CT to help clinical target
volume (CTV) delineation. The CTV1 included the pelvis,
CTV2 included the seminal vesicles and CTV 3 only the
prostate. The margins for the planning target volume (PTV) were
5 mm in all directions. The total dose to PTV1 was 45 Gy in 25
fractions (1.8 Gy each fraction), the total dose to PTV2 was 55
Gy (2.2 Gy each fraction) and the total dose to PTV3 was 68.75
Gy in 25 fractions (2.75 Gy each fraction), 5 days per week.
Patients were controlled during treatment with Cone-Beam
(ChiloVoltage) CT. Follow-up evaluations were performed at 1,
3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment, and every 6 months
thereafter. Acute side effects were evaluated according to the
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
RTOG/EORTC late morbidity Scoring Scale. Results: Median
follow-up was 14 months (range 2-29 months).The acute
toxicities during the treatment were: grade 1-2 gastrointestinal
(GI) toxicity in 7 patients (11.5%), grade 1-2 genitourinary (GU)
toxicity in 15 patients (24.6%); grade 3 GU toxicity in 1 patient
(1.7%). The toxicities, 1 month after the end of the treatment,
were grade 1-2 GI in 1 patient (1.7%), grade 1-2 GU in 10
patients (16.4%). The toxicities, 3 months after the end of the
treatment, were grade 1-2 GI in 1 patient (1.7%), grade 1-2 GU
in 4 patients (6.6%). The median PSA at diagnosis was 10.1
(range 2.92-45.4) and that at the last follow-up was 0.06 ng/ml
(range 0-1.1 ng/ml). Conclusion: Technological progress enables
the implementation of new technologies such as intensitymodulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and image guided
radiotherapy (IGRT). IMRT allows to minimize the volume of
irradiated normal tissue and reduce acute toxicity in all patients.
1 Pervez N, Small C, MacKenzie M, Yee D, Parliament M,
Ghosh S, Mihai A, Amanie J, Murtha A, Field C, Murray
D, Fallone G, Pearcey R. Acute tixicity in high-risk
prostate cancer patients with androgen suppression and
hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Int J
Radiation Oncology Biol Phys 76: 57–64, 2010.
2 Pollack A, Hanlon AL, Horwitz EM et al. Dosimetry and preliminary acute toxicity in the first 100 men treated for prostate
cancer on a randomized hypofractionation dose escalation
trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 64: 518–526, 2006.
3 Lim TS, Cheung PC, Loblaw DA et al. Hypofractionated
accel- erated radiotherapy using concomitant intensitymodulated ra- diotherapy boost technique for localized
high-risk prostate cancer: Acute toxicity results. Int J
Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 72: 85–92, 2008.
7
IMAGE GUIDED (IGRT) HYPOFRACTIONATED
RADIOTHERAPY IN LOW-RISK
PROSTATE CANCER PATIENTS:
RESULTS OF ACUTE TOXICITY
Maurizio Valeriani, Alessia Carnevale, Giuseppe Minniti,
Mattia Falchetto Osti, Enrico Clarke, Claudia Scaringi,
Giovanna Scalabrino, Vitaliana De Sanctis, Teresa Falco,
Riccardo Maurizi Enrici
Radioterapia, Universita` "La Sapienza" Roma Az. Osp. S.
Andrea; Roma, Italy
Introduction: Hypofractionation presents crescent interest in the
treatment of prostate cancer. We have evaluated the acute toxicity
in patients with low-risk prostate cancer treated with
hypofractioneted IGRT in our institution. Materials and Patients.
Between March 2007 and April 2012 we have treated 45 patients
with low- risk prostate cancer (T1-T2 and Gleason score ≤6 and
PSA ≤ 10 ng/ml)). The median age was 71 (range 58–82). All
patients underwent prostate biopsy. Stage was cT1c in 18 patients
(40%); cT2a in 14 patients (31,1%) ; cT2b in 10 patients
(22.2%); cT2c in 3 patients (6.7%). Gleason score was 6(3+3) in
all patients. All patients performed a simulation CT scan with 2.5
mm slice thickness to execute 3D conformal planning. They were
immobilized in supine position with a footlocker. 28 patients
(66.7%) were treated with a total dose of 45Gy on the first 1.5
cm of seminal vescicles and 60 Gy on prostate; 3 Gy for fraction
5 times a week and a total time of 4 weeks. 14 patients (33.3 %)
were treated with a total dose of 46.5 Gy on the first 1.5 cm of
seminal vesicles and 62 Gy on prostate; 3.1 Gy for fraction 5
times a week and a total time of 4 weeks. Margin from CTV to
PTV was 5 mm in all directions. The external beam radiation
therapy was performed with image guided technique (IGRT),
with daily cone-beam TC. Follow-up evaluations were performed
at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after treatment, and every 6 months
thereafter. Acute side effects were evaluated according to the
RTOG/EORTC late morbidity Scoring Scale. Results: Median
follow-up was 20 months (range 3-62 months). The acute
toxicities during the treatment were: grade 1-2 gastrointestinal
(GI) toxicity in 7 patients (15.6%), grade 1-2 genitourinary (GU)
toxicity in 19 patients (42.2%)%; grade 3 GU toxicity in 1 patient
(2.2%). The toxicities 3 month after the end of the treatment were
grade 1-2 GI in 4 patients (8.9%), grade 1-2 GU in 12 patients
(26.7%). The toxicities 6 months after the end of the treatment
were grade 1-2 GI in 2 patient (4.4%), grade 1-2 GU in 6 patients
(13.3%). The median PSA before the start of radiotherapy was 5
(range 1.74-8.43) and at the last follow-up was 0.83 ng/ml (range
0-5.05 ng/ml). Conclusion: This study showed that the
hypofractionated radiation therapy was well tolerated with a low
grade of toxicity, but it needed a longer follow-up to determine
possible late toxicity and local control.
8
DETECTION OF NODAL MICRO-METASTASES
WITH SERIAL SECTION, IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY AND REAL TIME POLYMERASE
CHAIN REACTION IN INTERMEDIATE AND HIGH
RISK PROSTATE CANCER PATIENTS SUBMITTED
TO RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY WITH
EXTENDED PELVIC LYMPH NODE DISSECTION:
A PERSPECTIVE STUDY
R. Schiavina1, G. Passaretti1, D. Romagnoli1,
A. Bertaccini1, E. Brunocilla1, F. Manferrari1,
M. Garofalo1, V. Vagnoni1, G.C. Rocca1, M. Cevenini2,
F. Chessa1, L. Bianchi1, M. Borghesi1,
M. Fiorentino2, G. Martorana1
1University
2University
of Bologna, Dept. of Urology, Bologna, Italy;
of Bologna, Dept. of Pathology, Bologna, Italy
2253
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
Introduction & Objectives: A consistent rate of patients who are
classified as “node-negative” after radical prostatectomy and
pelvic lymph-node dissection (PLND) experience a nodal disease
relapse. Routine pathological examination can miss micrometastatic tumor foci in the lymph nodes (LN) of patients with
prostate cancer (PCa), resulting in confused tumor staging and
clinical decision-making. The aim of the present perspective
study was to evaluate the impact of micro-metastasis assessed by
serial section (SS), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real timePolymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) in patient submitted to
radical prostatectomy with extended PLND. Patients and
Methods: Fifty-two consecutive patients submitted to radical
prostatectomy with extended PLND for intermediate (clinical
T1c-T2 and PSA: 10-20 ng/mL and clinical Gleason Score=7) or
high (clinical stage T3 or PSA>20 or clinical Gleason Score=810) grade PCa were enrolled. The average probability of nodal
invasion with the Briganti pre-operative nomogram of the whole
population was 26.9% (SD=13.4). Extended PLND included
obturator, internal/external and distal 2 cm common iliac lymphnodes (LN). The nodes were processed by one uro-pathologist
both according to the routine pathological examination (analysis
of the central section for 4 mm nodes or every 2 mm for LN>4
mm, which served as comparative method, both according to SS,
IHC with antibodies against PSA and spectrum-cytokeratins
(BSCK) and quantitative RTPCR targeting PSA, PSMA (PS
Membrane Antigen) and Glucuronidase-S-Beta (GUSB) mRNA,
that are over-expressed in prostatic cancer cells. Results: A total
of 1041 LN were analyzed, with a mean number of LN removed
of 20 (SD=7.7). Applying the routine pathological examination,
11 (21.2%) patients and 28 (2.7%) LN resulted positive for
nodal involvement, with mean positive LN of 2.5 (SD=1.8).
After applying the SS and the molecular method of analysis
(IHC and RT-PCR), micro-metastases were found in 16 LN (SS
showed micro-metastases in 9 of them, IHC in 14 of them and
RTPCR in 16 of them) and a total of 5 (9.6%) node negative
patients at routine pathological examination showed micrometastasis (3 patients with RTPCR , 1 with IHC and 1 with SS).
Conclusion: Molecular analysis of the LN can detect a not
negligible percentage of patient who harbor micro-metastatic
PCa missed at routine pathological examination and can enhance
the accuracy of lymphadenectomy as a staging method. Costeffective analysis is needed. The significance of the micrometastasis in PCa and the potential therapeutic role of PLND is
not yet clarified but the removal of micro-metastases can reduce
the rate of nodal disease relapse.
9
HYPOFRACTIONATED RADIOTHERAPY IN
INTERMEDIATE PROSTATE CANCER
Stefano Bracci, Maurizio Valeriani, Vitaliana De Sanctis,
Giuseppe Minniti, Mattia Falchetto Osti, Linda Agolli,
Teresa Falco, Riccardo Maurizi Enrici
2254
Radioterapia, Universita` "La Sapienza" Roma, Az. Osp. S.
Andrea, Roma, Italy
Aim: To evaluate the tolerance and the clinical efficacy of
hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients affected by
intermediate risk prostate cancer. Patients and Methods:
Between March 2007 and November 2011, 106 patients with
intermediate risk prostate cancer were treated with 3-dimension
conformal hypofractionated radiotherapy. Intermediate risk was
defined as clinical stage T1–T2 and pre-radiotherapy PSA
between 10 and 20 ng/mL, and Gleason Score equal to <7 or
clinical stage T1–T2 and pre-radiotherapy PSA between ≤20
ng/mL, and Gleason Score equal to 7. Prostate biopsy was
performed to all patients to confirm the diagnosis. A total dose
of 43.8 Gy was delivered to seminal vesicles and 54.75 Gy to
the prostate, 3.65 Gy per fraction, three times a week for a total
of 5 weeks. All patients underwent neoadjuvant, concomitant
and adjuvant hormonal therapy (OT) for a total duration of 9
months. Acute and late toxicities were evaluated according to
RTOG scale. The nadir PSA after radiotherapy plus 2 ng/mL
was used for defining biochemical relapse (Phoenix criteria).
Results: Median follow-up was 25 months (range 4-55
months). Five patients (4.7%) developed biochemical failure:
of these patients were found to have metastasis to regional
lymphnode, while two patients developed bone metastasis. Six
patients (5.9%) died from causes different from prostate cancer
without biochemical failure, while patients died due to disease
progression. Acute toxicities (within 3 months from the end of
RT) were as follow: Grade 1 Genitourinary (GU) toxicities
were 43.2%, while 10% presented Grade 2 toxicities; Grade 1
Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities were 9.6 %, Grade 2 GI
toxicities were 10.8%. Late GU and GI toxicities ≥ Grade 2
recorded at the last follow-up were 3.3% and 4.6%
respectively. No patient developed grade 4 toxicity. 2-year BFS
and 4-year BFS were 94.4% and 92%, respectively.
Conclusion: The hypofractionated schedule used was well
tolerated with a low rate of acute and late grade ≥2
gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicities. Hypofractionation
is useful to obtain high rate of tumor control also if longer
follow-up is needed.
10
BIOPSY AND RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY
PATHOLOGICAL PATTERNS INFLUENCE
PROSTATE CANCER GENE 3 (PCA3)
Stefano De Luca1, Roberto Passera2, Enrico Bollito3,
Angela Milillo4, Roberto Mario Scarpa5, Mauro Papotti6,
Renato Coda7, Donato Franco Randone1
1Divisione
2Medicina
Torino;
di Urologia, Ospedale Gradenigo di Torino;
Nucleare 2, Ospedale Molinette E Universita’ di
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
3Servizio
di Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale San Luigi di
Orbassano;
4Laboratorio Analisi, Ospedale Gradenigo di Torino;
5Divisione di Urologia, Ospedale San Luigi di Orbassano E
Universita’ di Torino;
6Servizio di Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale San Luigi di
Orbassano E Universita’ di Torino;
7Servizio di Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale Gradenigo di
Torino, Italy
Background: The assumption that higher PCA3 scores are
associated with more aggressive cancer is based on the
hypothesis that with increasing dedifferentiation, neoplastic
cells become more invasive and could therefore more easily
be shed into the ductal system of the prostatic gland after
DRE or that larger tumours simply have more surface area
over which to shed PCA3. The aim of this study was to
evaluate the relationship between PCA3 score and prostate
cancer as assessed by Gleason’s Score (GS) and pathological
stage in a series of Italian patients, with elevated PSA
undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients and
Methods: 222 patients underwent RP for clinically localized
prostate cancer; total PSA, free-PSA (%fPSA) and PCA3
score were collected and the possible associations among
PCA3 and histological grade/pathological stage at biopsy and
RP were investigated. Results: median PCA3 scores by GS at
radical prostatectomy were 51 vs. 67 (GS <7 vs. GS ≥7,
p=0.007) while at the biopsy 56 vs. 67 (GS <7 vs. GS ≥7,
p=0.007), and in pT2 vs. pT3 patients 54 vs. 80 (p=0.001).
Positive digital rectal examination (OR 5.47, p=0.026), pT3
pathological stage (OR 3.68, p=0.006) and PCA3≥35 (OR
2.04, p=0.030) were the main risk factors for the presence
of an aggressive disease (GS≥7 at RP). Conclusion: PCA3
might not only be helpful for diagnostic purposes, but also
for prognostic estimation for its possible capability to predict
cancer aggressiveness. Unfortunately, focusing on the latter
topics, the results are still conflicting. Some studies revealed
a clear association between PCA3 and GS, while others
didn’t. In our experience PCA3 could play an interesting role
to predict significant disease: we observed that a unit
increase of PCA3 score would enhance the risk of aggressive
cancer by 0.7%.
1 van Poppel H, Haese A, Graefen M, de la Taille A, Irani J,
de Reitke T, Remzi M and Marberger M: The relationship
between Prostate CAncer gene 3 (PCA3) and prostate
cancer significance. BJU Int 109(3): 360-366, 2012.
2 Durand X, Xylinas E, Radulescu C, Haus-Cheymol R,
Moutereau S, Plossard G, Forgues A, Robert G, Vacherot F,
Loric S, Allory Y, Ruffion A and de la Taille A: The value
of urinary prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) scores in
predicting pathological features at radical prostatectomy.
BJU Int 110(1): 43-49, 2012.
3 Crawford ED, Rove KO, Trabulsi EJ, Qian J, Drewnowska
KP, Kaminetsky JC, Huisman TK, Bilowus ML, Freedman
SJ, Glover WL Jr. and Bostwick DG: Diagnostic
performance of PCA3 to detect prostate cancer in men
with increased prostate specific antigen: a prospective
study of 1,962 cases. J Urol 188(5): 1726-1731, 2012.
11
CHRONIC PROSTATITIS AND HIGH-GRADE
PROSTATE INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA (HGPIN) DO NOT INFLUENCE URINARY PCA3 SCORE
Stefano De Luca1, Roberto Passera2, Angela Milillo3,
Renato Coda4, Maria Sara Squeo4,
Donato Franco Randone1
1Divisione
2Medicina
di Urologia, Ospedale Gradenigo di Torino;
Nucleare 2, Ospedale Molinette e Universita’ di
Torino;
3Laboratorio Analisi, Ospedale Gradenigo di Torino;
4Servizio di Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale Gradenigo di
Torino, Italy
Aim: To evaluate if histological chronic prostatitis and HGPIN influence PCA3 score in patients with elevated PSA and
negative digital rectal examination (DRE) undergoing a first
or repeat prostate biopsy. Patients and Methods: Urinary
PCA3 test was prospectively performed in 432 consecutive
patients admitted in Gradenigo Hospital of Turin between
January and December 2011 and scheduled for first and
repeat prostate biopsy because of elevated PSA and negative
DRE. Comparison of PCA3 score and patients with negative
biopsy (normal parenchyma, benign prostatic hyperplasia,
chronic prostatitis, HG-PIN) and positive biopsy was
performed. Results: PCA3 median scores varied significantly
(p<0.001) in men with a negative versus positive biopsy, 33
(range 2-212) and 66 (range 5-324) respectively. On the
contrary men with chronic prostatitis and HG-PIN had no
significant difference in PCA3 score with other negative
biopsy patients. No correlation was found between the
number of positive cores for chronic prostatitis, HG-PIN and
PCA3 value. Twenty percent (23/114) of all patients with a
positive biopsy had a PCA3 score ≤35. Forty percent (79/197)
of men with a negative biopsy had normal parenchyma and
PCA 3 score superior to 35. Conclusion: at this early stage
of clinical evaluation, cancer specificity of the urinary PCA3
test in Italian patients with elevated PSA and negative DRE
undergoing a first or repeat prostate biopsy, seems to be
maintained in the face of the major cause of noncancerous
PSA elevations: chronic prostatitis and also in the face of
HG-PIN, the only accepted precursor of prostatic
adenocarcinoma. References: 1. Benign prostatic hyperplasia
BPH), 37.5% (24/64) of men with chronic prostatitis and
2255
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
39.6% (19/48) of HG-PIN had PCA3 score Ploussard G,
Durand X, Xylinas E et al. Prostate cancer antigen 3 score
accurately predicts tumour volume and might help in
selecting prostate cancer patients for active surveillance.
1 Eur Urol 59: 422-429, 2011.
2 The Prostate 72: 549-554, 2012.
3 Clin Chim Acta 413: 1274-1278, 2012.
13
THERMOABLATION OF SMALL RENAL TUMORS.
OUR EXPERIENCE WITH RADIOFREQUENCY
AND MICROWAVES
Alessandro Della Melina1, Stefano Nerozzi1,
Giuseppe Canovaro1, Enrico Trinci1,
Luca Carmignani2, Alfredo Trippitelli1
1U.O.
Urologia, AUSL N˚3 Pistoia;
2U.O. Radiologia Diagnostica ed Interventistica, AUSL N˚3
Pistoia, Italy
Aim: The gold standard for treatment of small renal tumors
(<4 cm), confined to the kidney, remains the enucleation or
enucleoresection (laparoscopic or open) of the neoplasm.
Nevertheless thermoablation is a possible therapeutic option
in selected cases. The aim of the study is to describe our
experience in using of Radio Frequency (RF) and Microwave
(MW) in the treatment of this group of tumors. Materials and
Methods From January 2006 to December 2012 56 ablation
procedures (40 RF, 16 MW) were performed on many renal
neoplasms. The average age of the 54 patients (32 men, 22
women) was 72.3 years (range: 49-87). 36 nodules were
exophytic and 20 were intraparenchymal with a maximum
diameter between 13 and 37 mm. The histological
examination, performed on needle biopsy, showed 49 RCC,
2 leiomyosarcomas and 1Kaposi’s sarcoma. In 4 cases the
histology was not conclusive. No benign neoplasm were
detected. In 18 patients the surgical treatment was excluded
for comorbidities, in 10 for advanced age, in 8 cases for poor
performance status, in 4 for a solitary kidney, in 3 cases for
bilaterality and in 10 cases for patient refusal. 51 procedures
(91,1%) were performed percutaneously (ultrasound guided
in 35 cases and CT guided in 16 cases) using local
anesthesia, analgesia and sedation (discharge after 24 hours).
In two cases the approach was laparoscopic. In another case
it was mixed: percutaneous and open for bilaterality. All
patients were evaluated by CT with contrast at 1, 3, 6 and 12
months, then once a year. Complete necrosis was defined as
a lack of contrast enhancement in the treated area. Results
The mean follow-up is 45,3 months (range 1-83). Two
patients (3,7%) had a partial enhancement to the first control
and underwent a second ablation. No major complications
2256
were observed. 2 cases of perirenal hematoma (1 immediate
and 1 after 1 month) required only observation. In 22
patients treated with RF (55,0%) and 3 with MW (18,7%)
arose transient abdominal pain with moderate discomfort.
Discussion The thermal ablation with MW is more indicated
in the treatment of large/exophytic lesions while the use of
RF is preferable in small/intraparenchymal lesions. In any
case, for masses with diameter <4 cm, the percentage of
incomplete treatment is negligible with both methods. A
significant lower incidence of post ablation syndrome is
observed with the use of microwaves. Conclusions Although
there are no long-term prospective studies, the thermal
ablation of small renal tumors, in selected patients, turns out
to be a minimally invasive treatment, safe and effective with
low costs.
14
CRM1-SELECTIVE INHIBITORS OF NUCLEAR
EXPORT (SINE) REDUCE THE INCIDENCE
OF TUMOR SPREADING AND IMPROVE
OVERALL SURVIVAL IN PRECLINICAL
MODELS OF PROSTATE CANCER
Giovanni Luca Gravina1, Monica Tortoreto2,
Andrea Mancini3, Paola Muzi4, Luca Ventura5,
Alessandro Addis6, Yosef Landesman7,
Dilara Mccaluey7, Michael Kauffman8,
Sharon Sacham9, Nadia Zaffaroni2, Claudio Festuccia10
1Dipartimento
Si Scienze Cliniche ed Applicate E
Biotecnologiche, Università Dell’Aquila;
2Department of Experimental Oncology and Molecular
Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori,
Milano;
3Biochimica, Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Applicate e
Biotecnologiche;
4Immunoistochimica, Medicina Clinica, Sanità Pubblica,
Scienze Della Vita E Dell’Ambiente;
5Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale San Salvatore L’Aquila;
6Veterianaria, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale
Tumori, Milano, Italy;
7Preclinical Development, Karyopharm Therapeutics,
Natick, MA, USA;
8Chief Executive Officer and Director, Karyopharm
Therapeutics, Natick, MA, USA;
9Chief Scientific Officer and President of R&d,
Karyopharm Therapeutics, Natick, MA, USA;
10Preclinical Studies, Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche
Applicate E Biotecnologiche, Università Dell’Aquila, Italy
Background: The human nuclear export protein, chromosomal
region maintenance/exportin 1/Xpo1 (CRM1) is the sole
exportin mediating transport of many multiple tumor
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
suppressor proteins (TSP) including p53, pRb, FOXO, APC
and p21 out of the nucleus, abrogating their function. Aims
and Methods: To verify the hypothesis that CRM1 inhibition
could be beneficial for the treatment of prostate cancer
metastases, we tested the effects of the orally available, potent
and selective, clinical stage SINE compound, KPT 330. Male
SCID mice were subjected to ortho-topic intra-prostatic
inoculation of the high aggressive DU145 prostate cancer
cells, known to produce highly metastatic tumors with
visceral metastases. In parallel, male CD1-nu/nu mice were
subjected to intra-cardiac and intratibial injection of the high
aggressive/bone-derived prostate cancer cells PC3, known to
produce prominent osteolytic bone lesions. Animals were
treated with KPT-330 administered by oral gavage. The
effects of treatment with KPT330 on metastatic spreading, in
terms of visceral and bone secondary incidence, were
compared with another SINE inhibitor, the KPT251. Results:
We previously demonstrated that SINE CRM1 antagonists
have antitumor effects on prostate cancer cell lines at
submicromolar range with KPT330 and KPT251 showing a
profound antitumor effect in in vivo models. Here, we
demonstrate that KPT330 reduces intra-prostatic DU145
tumor burden as well as the incidence of macroscopic
metastases to lymph nodes, liver and lung, in a dosedependent manner. The DU145 tumor burden was reduced by
41% with KPT-330 (4 mg/Kg qd/5 days) and 61% (10 mg/Kg
q 3-4 d x 7) when compared to controls. The incidence of
PC3derived bone metastases were significantly reduced upon
KPT330 treatment when this inhibitor was administered at 10
mg/Kg (q 2d x 3 weeks). At 50 days after cell injection, 80%
(8/10) of controls and 0% (0/10) of the KPT330-treated
animals developed X-Ray evidence of bone lesions (p<0.05).
The burden of bone metastasis, measured by lytic bone area,
was significantly higher in controls than in KPT330-treated
animals. Similarly, after intra-tibial injection, the lytic areas
were higher in controls than in the KPT330 group (p<0.05).
Analogously, the amount of osteoclast markers, measured in
the serum and including TRAP and type I collagen fragment
(CTX), was significantly higher in controls than in KPT330treated animals. The comparison with a second CRM1
inhibitor, KPT251 (administered at 100 mg/Kg q 2d x 3
weeks), confirmed the reduction in incidence of bone
metastasis after CRM1 inhibition (2/10 animals showed lytic
lesions on X-ray in KPT251-treated animals, p<0.05).
Importantly, the overall survival probability, evaluated at 170
days after tumor injection, was significantly higher in
KPT330- and KPT251-treated animals when compared to
controls (p<0.0001). Similar results were obtained also when
disease-free probability was considered as endpoint
(p<0.0001). The in vitro analyses performed on PC3 and
DU145 cells revealed that the secretion of proteolytic
enzymes (MMP-9, MMP-2 and uPA) was significantly
reduced after KPT330 treatment, which, in turn, decreased
the ability of tumor cells to migrate and invade matrigel.
Impairment of secretion of pro-angiogenic (VEGF, IL6, IL8)
or pro-osteolytic (RANKL , IL6) cytokines was also
observed. Together these findings suggest that CRM1 is a key
modulator of the metastatic process, inhibiting both tumor
cell seeding and neo-angiogenetic events. Conclusion: These
data show that selective blockade of CRM1-dependent
nuclear export represents a completely novel, tumor
metastasis-selective approach for the treatment of advanced/
metastatic prostate cancers. KPT-330 is now in Phase 1
clinical trials in patients with advanced solid tumors
(clinicaltrailas.gov: NCT01607905).
15
BELINOSTAT POTENTIATES HORMONAL
THERAPY AND PREVENTS THE ONSET OF
CASTRATION-RESISTANT PHENOTYPE
MODULATING ANDROGEN RECEPTOR,
HSP90 AND CRM1 IN PRECLINICAL
MODELS OF PROSTATE CANCER
Giovanni Luca Gravina1, Francesco Marampon2
1Dipartimento
di Scienze Cliniche Ed Applicate E
Biotecnologiche, Università Dell’Aquila;
2Radioterapia, Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Applicate
E Biotecnologiche, Università Dell’Aquila, Italy
Aims: Aberrant activation or "reactivation" of androgen
receptor in the course of androgen-ablation therapy shows a
potential cause for the development of castration-resistant
prostate cancer. This study tested the hypothesis that
Belinostat (PXD101), a potent pan histone deacetylase
inhibitor, may potentiate hormonal therapy and prevent onset
of castration resistant phenotype. Materials and Methods: A
panel of human prostate cancer (PCa) cells with graded
castration resistant phenotype and in vivo models were used
to verify this hypothesis. Results: We demonstrated that
hormonal manipulation favors the onset of castration
resistant phenotype by the increase of HDAC expression and
activity as well as by the increased expression and activity
of AR, EGFR, HER2 and Akt. Consistent with these
observations, the functional knockdown of HDACs by
Belinostat prevented the onset of castration resistant
phenotype with a significant down-regulation of AR, EGFR,
HER2 and Akt expression/activity. The deregulation of
functional cooperation between HDAC-6 with hsp90, on one
hand, and between GSK-3β with CRM1, on the other hand,
may explain the biological effects of Belinostat. In this
regard, the HDAC-6 silencing or the functional knockdown
of hsp90 by 17AAG resulted in the selective down-regulation
of AR, EGFR, HER2 and Akt expression/activity, while the
decreased phosphorylation of GSK-3β mediated by
2257
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
Belinostat increased the nuclear expression of CRM1 which
in turn modified the AR and survivin recycling with
increased caspase-3 activity. Conclusion: HDAC inhibitors
retain the ability to prevent the onset of castration resistant
phenotype and, therefore, merit clinical investigation in this
setting. However, further information is necessary to develop
clinical treatment strategies for this disease.
18
SOLITARY FIBROUS TUMOR OF THE KIDNEY:
A CASE REPORT
Melina1,
Silvestri2,
Giuseppe
Alessandro Della
Lodovico Viganò2, Francesco Muzzillo2,
Stefano Nerozzi2, Silvia Tozzini3, Alfredo Trippitelli2
1U.o.
Urologia, AUSL3 Pistoia;
Urologia, AUSL N˚3 Pistoia;
3U.o. Anatomia Patologica, AUSL N˚3 Pistoia, Italy
2U.o.
Introduction: The solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare
mesenchymal spindle cell neoplasm. Most frequently it is
found arising from the pleura but it has also been described in
extrapleural sites. Its retroperitoneal localization is unusual and
only 39 cases of renal or perirenal localization have been
described. The neoplasm tends to be slow-growing and is most
often diagnosed in middle aged adults. In a low percentage of
cases it is associated with hypoglycemia because of the
overproduction of insuline-like growth factor. Patients and
Methods: We describe a case of SFT in the left kidney of a 59years-old female. The patient performed CT for left low back
pain. A tumor localized in the upper part of the front lip of the
kidney with contrast enhancement and colliquative areas. An
abnormal hilar lymph node was detected . A transperitoneal
nephrectomy with enlarged lymphectomy was performed.
Gross examination revealed a solid mass at the hilum of the
kidney, measuring 9x8x8.5 cm. No nodal involvement was
detected. The tumor was gray-brownish in colour, including
some cystic space of different size, had pushing edges and it
appeared to displace the renal pelvis and medullary without
infiltrating them. A well defined fibrous capsule was not
observed. Histological sections showed a hypercellular
proliferation of spindle/ovoid cells, which were placed around
numerous dilated and branching vesels in a typical
hemangiopericytoma-like
pattern.
Moderate
nuclear
pleomorphism was detected, as well as scattered foci of tumor
necrosis, while the mitotic rate was low (2 mitosis/10 HPF).
Immunohistochemical stains were performed: the tumour was
strongly and diffusely positive for Vimentin, CD34 and Bcl-2,
weakly positive for Actin and it was negative for CK AE1/AE3,
CD10, EMA, S100, HMB45 and Desmin. According with
these data the diagnosis of extra-pleural SFT with atypical
features was done. The follow up at 6 month after surgery
2258
showed no recurrence or distant metastasis. Discussion: The
literature show that the clinical behavior of the pleural or
extrapleural SFT is unpredictable. In all sides some factors are
associated with an aggressive clinical behavior even though
they are not predictive. They are hypercellularity, cellular
atypia, mitotic rate > 4/10 HPF and tumor necrosis. The SFT
can give local recurrence or metastasis even after 5 years from
surgery regardless the presence of these factors so that a long
accurate follow-up, is necessary.
20
SALVAGE RADIOTHERAPY WITH VOLUMETRIC
MODULATION ARC THERAPY AND
HYPOFRACTIONATION FOR RECURRENT
PROSTATE CANCER AFTER HIFU FAILURE
Filippo Alongi, Rocco Luca Emanuele Liardo,
Cristina Iftode, Tiziana Comito, Angelo Tozzi,
Pierina Navarria, Pietro Mancosu,
Stefano Tomatis, Marta Scorsetti
Radioterapia e Radiochirurgia, Μanzoni Istituto Clinico
Humanitas, Milano, Italy
Background: In the controversial management of low risk
prostate cancer, high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) has
been used usually in salvage therapy for recurrence after
external beam radiotherapy or as optional primary treatment.
Conversely, but less frequently, radiotherapy is a therapeutic
option for recurrences after HIFU treatment. Objectives: Our
aim was to evaluate tolerance, feasibility and acute and
addictional toxicity in patients undergoing salvage radiotherapy
after HIFU failure. Patients and Methods: Fifteen patients were
treated with HIFU as primary radical treatment from 2005 to
2011. Six out of 15 were treated twice. Between September
2011 and February 2013, all patients, presenting biochemical
relapse after HIFU, underwent salvage EBRT with moderate
Hypofractionation schedule in 28 fractions. Treatments have
been performed with V-MAT technique (RapidArc®
Technology). Genito-urinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI)
toxicity were scored using the Common Terminology Criteria
for Adverse Events (CTCAE V.4) scale before and after the
treatment. Biochemical response was assessed by ASTRO
Phoenix criteria (+2 from Nadir of PSA during follow-up).
Results: The median age of the patients was 67,5 years (range:
53-85). The median Gleason Score was 7 (range: 6-9). The
mean prostate specific antigen (PSA) before radiotherapy was
4.59 ng/mL (range: 0.18-64.2). Six out of 15 patients received
adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). The treatment
was well tolerated and completed by all patients with a median
dose of 71.4 Gy (range: 71.4-74.2 Gy) in 28 fractions and
without radiation related major gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity. For GU, acute grade 1 and grade 2 toxicities
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
were 6/15 and 4/15; for GI acute grade 1 and grade 2 toxicities
were 4/15 and 3/15 respectively. No grade 3 or greater toxicities
were found. Biochemical control was assessed in 12/15 patients.
Three out of 15 patients, with biochemical relapse, showed
lymph-nodal recurrence and were treated with salvage hormonal
therapy and radiotherapy on local lymph nodal recurrence
(included in a protocol of study for oligometastatic patients).
Conclusion: Our early clinical results and biochemical data
confirm the feasibility and show a good tolerance of the salvage
radiation therapy after HIFU failure. The findings of low acute
toxicity is encouraging, but longer follow-up is needed to assess
late toxicity and definitive outcomes.
21
FIVE FRACTIONS LINAC BASED SBRT FOR LOW –
INTERMEDIATE RISK PROSTATE CANCER:
PRELIMINARY REPORT OF A PHASE II
STUDY WITH FLATTENING FILTER
FREE DELIVERY AND SPACE OAR
Filippo Alongi1, Cristina Iftode1, Stefano Arcangeli1,
Rocco Luca Emanuele Liardo1, Rodolfo Hurle2,
Tiziana Comito1, Elisa Villa1, Angelo Tozzi1,
Pierina Navarria1, Pietro Mancosu1, Stefano Tomatis1,
Gianluigi Taverna1, Pierpaolo Graziotti1, Marta Scorsetti1
1Radioterapia
E Radiochirurgia, Istituto Clinico Humanitas,
Milano;
2U.o. Urologia, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milano, Italy
End point of the present study is to evaluate the technical
feasibility and early side effects of a short course
hypofractionated high dose LINAC based SBRT delivered with
Flattened Filter Free (FFF) beams, and SpaceOAR as a spacer
between rectum and prostate. Patients and Methods: This is a
prospective phase-I-II pilot feasibility study, started on
February 2012. Inclusion criteria were: age ≤ 80 years, WHO
PS ≤2 PSA ≤20 ng/ml, histologically proven prostate
adenocarcinoma(risk of microscopic nodal involvement ≤15%),
T1-T2 stage, no distant metastases, no previous prostate
surgery other than TURP, no malignant tumours in the previous
5 years, IPSS 0-7. The schedule was 5×7 Gy=35 Gy, delivered
in 5 alternative days(NTD2 between 70 and 85 Gy for an α/β
between 3 and 1.5 Gy, respectively). SBRT was delivered using
the volumetric modulated arc technique by RapidArc, with
photon beam energy of 10 MV FFF(Filter Flattening Free) and
maximum dose rate of 2400 MU/min. Physical examinations
and toxicity assessments were performed during and after
SBRT according to CTCAE v4.0 toxicity scale. EPIC
questionnaires were used for Quality of Life assessing. Tumour
response was evaluated on ASTRO PHOENIX definition (+2
from Nadir of PSA). Neo-adjuvant/concomitant hormonal
therapy was prescribed based on the risk according to NCCN
classification. SpaceOAR was implanted by intraperineal
injection as a spacer to enlarge the minimum distance between
prostate and anterior rectal wall. The SpaceOAR implant was
optional and based on clinician decision for each case. Results:
With a median follow-up of 6 months (1-9), 40 patients were
treated with this schedule and were evaluable for the current
analysis. 34/40 patients were officially recruited in the protocol
and met perfectly all inclusion criteria. Other 6/40 ‘out of trial’
were treated with the same protocol. In the trial, according to
NCCN criteria, 21/34 patients were low-risk and 12/34 were
intermediate risk. Median Age was 69.6(56-80), median initial
PSA was 6.33 ng/ml (range: 0.50-12 ng/ml). Median Gleason
score was 6.33 (6-7). Median treatment duration was 11.8 days
(9-22). All patients completed the treatment as programmed.
Acute toxicities were as follow: Rectum G0 in 21/34 cases
(62%), G1 in 11/34 (33%); G2 in 2/34 (5%). Genito-urinary
G0 in 15/34 cases (45%), G1 in 7/34 (20%), G2 in 12/34
(35%). In two G2 urinary retention cases, the placement of
intermittent catheter was needed (in both cases prostate
dimension was superior than100cc). No acute G3-5 was found
in the trial and ‘out of trial’patients. Median treatment time was
126 seconds (120-136). SpaceOAR was implanted in 9 patients
with a single case of rectal fascia infection resolved with
antibiotics. During Follow-up, PSA reduction was documented
in all treated patients. Conclusion: Our early findings suggest
that LINAC based SBRT FFF treatment for prostate cancer in
5 fractions is feasible, fast and well tolerated in acute setting
for the first 40 treated patients. Longer follow-up is needed for
definitive assessment of late toxicity and clinical outcome.
22
COMPARISON OF ACUTE TOXICITY
BETWEEN MODERATE HYPOFRACTIONATION
WITH VOLUMETRIC MODULATION
ARC THERAPY AND CONVENTIONAL
FRACTIONATION WITH THREE DIMENSIONAL
CONFORMAL RADIATION THERAPY IN POSTOPERATIVE PROSTATE CANCER PATIENTS
Filippo Alongi1, Cristina Iftode1, Tiziana Comito1,
Elisa Villa1, Rocco Luca Emanuele Liardo1, Angelo Tozzi1,
Pietro Mancosu1, Stefano Tomatis1, Antonella Fogliata2,
Luca Cozzi2, Gianluigi Taverna3, Pierpaolo Graziotti3,
Marta Scorsetti1
1Radioterapia
e Radiochirurgia, Istituto Clinico Humanitas,
Milano, Italy;
2Fisica Medica, IOSI, Bellinzona, Switzerland;
3U.o. Urologia, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Milano, Italy
Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate and compare the
incidence of acute genito-urinary(GU), upper gastrointestinal
(uGI) and rectal (lGI) injuries of hypofractionation by
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
volumetric modulation arc therapy (Hypo-RapidArc group) and
conventional fractionation by three dimensional conformal
radiotherapy(3DCRT group) in patients with localized prostate
cancer treated with prostatic bed irradiation, after radical
prostatectomy. Patients and Methods: Between 2007 and 2012,
84 consecutive patients with clinically localized prostate,
submitted to radical prostatectomy, were also irradiated to
prostate bed in our Institute. of the 84 patients 41 had undergone
3DCRT and 43 patients were treated with RapidArc (after its
clinical use for prostate bed in 2009/2010). The median age was
67 and 68.5 years for 3DCRT and HypoRapidArc group
respectively. The median dose to the prostatic bed was 70 Gy
(70-76) with 2 Gy per fraction in 3DCRT group and 70 Gy (7072.4) with 2.5Gy (2.5-2.55) per fraction in the Hypo-RapidArc
group. After radical prostatectomy, the median time to RT was
15 and 16 months respectively in 3DCRT and Hypo-RapidArc
group. Acute GU, uGI e lGI toxicities after radiation treatment
were evaluated using Radiation Therapy and Oncology
Group/European Onganization for Research and Treatment of
Cancer (RTOG/EORTC) medical scoring system. Results:
Acute GU G2 was recorded in 17% of cases in 3DRCT group
and in 12% in Hypo-RapidArc group. No acute G2 uGI
toxicities were found in 3DCRT versus 7% in Hypo-RapidArc
group. Regarding lGI G2 toxicities were 7% in 3DCRT versus
18% in Hypo-RapidArc group. No G3 or greater toxicities was
found in both groups. In both groups the PTV coverage was
suitable: PTV mean dose was 99.4±1.0% and 99.8±0.9% and
V95% 96.3±3.6% and 95.7±8.9 for 3DRCT and RA group
respectively. For 3DRTC group the rectum received a mean
dose of 42.1±9.4 Gy (with V65Gy equal to 26.9±10.0%) and
the bladder received 69.3±17.2 Gy in mean (with the V65Gy
equal to 45.0±19.5%); and for RA group the dose decreased to
37.2±5.2 Gy (V65Gy 9.6±5.1%) and 39.2±13.4 (V65Gy
25.2±14.4%) for rectum and bladder. Conclusion: The results
of our study of 84 patients have shown that acute G2 GU are
reduced using hypofractionation by RapidArc compared to
conventional fractionation by 3DCRT, while acute G2 GI
toxicities remain better for the last one. Remarkable is the
absence of G3 using hypofractionation by RapidArc as well as
recorded previously with conventional fractionation by 3DCRT.
Longer term data are awaited for late toxicity profiles and
clinical efficacy in HypoRapidArc group of patients.
23
PROGNOSTIC FACTORS AND RISK GROUPS IN
T1G3 PATIENTS INITIALLY TREATED WITH BCG:
RESULTS OF A MULTICENTER RETROSPECTIVE
SERIES IN 1743 PATIENTS
P. Gontero1, R. Sylvester2, F. Pisano1, S. Joniau3,
Kathy Vander Eeckt3, V. Serretta4, S. Larre’5,
S. di Stasi6, B. Van Rhijn7, A. Witjes8, A. Grotenhuis8,
2260
R. Colombo9, A. Briganti9, M. Babjuk10, V. Soukup10,
P.U. Malmstrom11, J. Irani12, N. Malats13, J Baniel14,
R. Mano14, T. Cai15, E. Cha16, P Ardelt17, J. Vakarakis18,
R. Bartoletti19, M Sphan20, G. Dalbagni21,
S.F. Shariat16, J karnes22, J Palou23
1Dept
of Urology, MolinetteHospital, University of Turin,
Italy;
2EORTC Data Center, Bruxelles;
3Oncologic and Reconstructive Urology ,Dept of Urology.
University Hospitals Leuven, Belgium;
4Dept of Urology, Paolo Giaccone General Hospital,
Palermo, Italy;
5Dept of Surgical Science, John Radcliffe Hospital,
University of Oxford, UK;
6Policlinico Tor Vergata-University of Rome, Italy;
7Dept f Urology, Netherland Cancer Institute, Amsterdam;
8Dept of Urology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical
Centre, The Netherlands;
9Dipartimento di Urologia, Università Vita-Salute,
Ospedale S. Raffaele, Rome, Italy;
10Dept of Urology, Motol Hospital, University of Praha,
Chech Rep.;
11Dept of Urology, Academic Hospital, Uppsala University,
Sweden;
12Dept of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire La
Milétrie,University of Poitiers, France;
13Dept of Urology, Spanish National Cancer Research
Centre-Madrid, Spain;
14Dept of Urology, Rabin Medical Centre,Tel Aviv, Israel;
15Department of Urology, Santa Chiara Hospital, Trento,
Italy;
16DeptOf Urology, Weill Medical College of Cornell
University in New York City, USA;
17Facharzt fur Urologie, Abteilung fur Urologie,
Chirurgische Universitats klinik. Freiburg, Germany;
18Dept of Urology, Sismanoglio Hospital, University of
Athens, Greece;
19Dept of Urology Unit S.Maria Annunziata Hospital,
University of Florence, Italy;
20Dept of Urology, University Hospital of Wurtzburg,
Germany;
21Dept of Urology, Memorial Sloan Kettering, New York,
NY, USA;
22Dept of Urology, Maio Clinic, Houston, TX, USA;
23Dept of Urology, Fundacio Puigvert, University of
Barcelona, Spain
Introduction and Objectives: The impact of prognostic factors
in T1G3 patients (pts) is critical for proper treatment decision
making, however most available data are from small series of
pts. The aim of the current study is to assess prognostic factors
in a large group of pts who received BCG as initial treatment
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
of T1G3 tumours and identify a subgroup of high risk pts who
should be considered for early cystectomy. Patients and
Methods: Individual pt data were collected for 1743 ptsfrom
20 centers who received induction or maintenance BCG
between 1990 and 2008. Using Cox regression analysis, the
prognostic importance of the following variables were
assessed for time to recurrence, progression to muscle invasive
disease and overall survival:age (<70 vs. >70yrs), gender,
primary T1G3 vs. recurrent T1G3 after previous non T1G3
tumour, tumour size (<3 vs. >3 cm), multiplicity (single vs.
multiple), concomitant CIS (no/yes), and maintenance BCG
(no/yes). Results: Median age was 68yrs, 84% were male,
89% were primary T1G3, 50% had multifocal disease, 67%
had tumours less than 3 cm, 24% had concomitant CIS, 30%
had a restaging TUR, 52% received some sort of maintenance
BCG. With a follow up out to 15 years, 801 pts (46%)
recurred, 326 (19%) progressed, 291 underwent cystectomy
(17%) and 409 (23%) died, 151 (9%) due to bladder cancer. In
multivariate analyses, the most important prognostic factors
(p<0.05) for recurrence were: tumour size and multiplicity;
for progression: age, size and concomitant CIS; for overall
survival: age and size. Maintenance BCG had a positive
impact on recurrence (p<0.001), progression (p=0.059) and
survival (p=0.01). Patients were divided into 4 risk groups
according to the number of bad factors for progression among
age >70, size >3 cm and presence of CIS. Progression free
rates at 10 yrs were 84%, 75%, 66% and 28% for patients
with 0, 1, 2 and 3 bad factors while the corresponding overall
survival rates were 78%, 56%, 45% and 6%, respectively.
Conclusion: T1G3 patients treated with BCG have a
heterogeneous prognosis, with overall survival at 10 yrs
ranging from 78% to 6%. Although maintenance BCG
improves outcome as compared to induction alone, fit pts over
70 yrs of age with tumours greater than 3 cm and concomitant
CIS should be considered for an early cystectomy.
24
BLUE LIGHT (PDD) IN THE ENDOSCOPIC
RESECTION OF NMIBC: PRELIMINARY
RESULTS OF FIRST 200 CASES
Tommaso Brancato1, Francesca Suriano2, Gianni Paulis3,
Pietro Nupieri3, Roberto D’ascenzo3, Giuseppe Orsolini3,
Rosaria Alvaro4
1UOC
Urologia- Dipartimento Chirurgia, Ospedale Regina
Apostolorum;
2U.o. Urologia, Rome American Hospital;
3U.o. Urologia, Ospedale Regina Apostolorum;
4Dip. Igiene, Università di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy
Introduction: Each year 260,000 new cases of bladder cancer
in men and 75,000 in women are approximately estimated
overall (1). In Italy, diagnosis of bladder cancer concerns
almost 14,000 men and 3,000 women, probably due to greater
exposure to smoke cigarettes and professional contact
involving certain chemicals. (2) Endoscopic resection of
bladder (TURBT) is gold standard therapy for NMIBC
cancer. High grade superficial tumor (Ta-T1), needs a second
look 4-6 weeks after TURBT. This seems to be associated to
understaging, and it may reach 40% in this group of patients
(3).
Photodynamic
cystoscopy
(PDD)
with
hexaminolevulinate (HAL) is a diagnosis technique, which
effectively aims to improve the accuracy of white light
cystoscopy (WLC) in the diagnosis of superficial bladder
tumors, especially of flat urothelial lesions (dysplasia and
Cis) (4). Patients and Methods: Aims of this Open Label
study was to evaluate five years long term results of Safety/
Efficacy/Disease free/relapse data in bladder cancer patients,
previously treated with HAL instillation, and WL/PDD
endoscopic resection of the bladder. From May 2011 to
nowadays all patients with superficial bladder cancer (first
presentation or recurrence) were treated with WLC/PDD
TURB. Preliminary diagnostic procedures, urine cytology,
ultrasound, Uro-Tc, were assessed in all patients.
Demographics, medical history, risk factors, previous
intravesical therapy and the date of the last instillation were
recorded. Instillation of HAL was performed in all patients, 1
hour before surgery. Prior white light cystoscopy was done to
identify any macroscopic lesion. Later, cystoscopy with PDD
was needed to describe the invisible lesions to WL
cystoscopy. TURBT was carried out on all visible lesions to
PDD vision. Any lesion was collected separately for
histological examination and categorized according to the
usual cystoscopy bladder scheme. Patients were followed up
with the normal crowd-expected superficial bladder cancers
(periodic urine cytology, cystoscopy, intravesical instillations)
reporting any given follow-up examination and the date of
any recurrence. Data were collected in a database; Fisher’s
test and a multivariate statistical analysis with SPSS (IBM
SPSS Data Collection) were used for statistical analysis.
Results: Since May 2011 to December 2012, 216 patients
(163 males and 53 females) were treated with WLC/PDD
TURB for NMIBC, by five trained urologist. Mean age was
68,8 years. Median followup was 9,1 months. Bladder cancer
was single lesion in 74 patients (Table I), in 103 patients
multifocality was observed and 39 patients were negative at
WLC. of these, 32 were positive at PDD and 3 (+7.6%)
positive for bladder cancer.
Table I
WLC
PDD
Sensitivity
74.7
84.0
Specificity
91.4
98.3
PPV
84.8
96.9
PNV
84.9
90.6
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
CIS was detected in 13 of 216 patients (28%): 7 with PDD
alone (53.8%, p<0.01), 3 (23%) with WL/PDD and 3 (23%)
with WL alone. Conclusion: In our preliminary experience
adding PDD to conventional cystoscopy-bladder resection is
useful and requires little training. Additional costs can be
reduced by the delay of recurrence rate (5) and the
improvement of diagnosis of Ta, T1 and carcinoma in situ.
1 Parkin et al: Global cancer statistics in the year 2000.
Lancet Oncol 2(10): 596, 2001.
2 Negri E et al: Cancer mortality in Italy, 1997: quantifying
the fall in rates in women and men. Tumori 87(5): 290298, 2001.
3 Jaks G et al: A second-look TUR in T1 transitional cell
carcinoma: why? Eur Urol 45(5): 539-546, 2004.
4 De Lisa et al: Fluorescence cystoscopy with
hexaminolevulinate: our preliminary experience of 184
procedures. Urologia 78(3): 187-189, 2011.
5 Grossman HB: et Al Long-term decrease in bladder Cancer
recurrence with hexaminolevulinate enabled fluorescence
cystoscopy. J Urol 188: 58-62, 2012.
25
OLIGOMETASTATIC PROSTATE CANCER
AND RADIOTHERAPY ON PRIMARY
SITE AND BONE PELVIC RECURRENCE
Filippo De Renzi1, Tiziana Iannone1, Marco Micucci1,
Sergio Bissoli2, Alessandro Testolin1
1Radioterapia,
2Medicina
Ospedale S Martino Belluno;
Nucleare, Ospedale Castelfranco Veneto, Italy
Introduction: In 2012, three patients affected by prostate
cancer with bone pelvic recurrence were treated with three
dimensional conformal radiotherapy not only for metastasis
but contouring Planning Target Volume (PTV) for primary
tumor and recurrence. Patients and Methods: First patient
(A) was a 72-year-old man, treated with urinary
dysobstruction therapy. Diagnosis: Prostate-specific Antigen
(PSA) 83 ng/ml, Gleason score 3 plus 3, clinical stage T2c
N0 M1b, with a right bone pubic lesion (asymptomatic)
identified to 11C-Acetate PET/CT. He was treated with
Androgenic Deprivation Therapy (bicalutamide and LHRH
analogue), with a good biochemical response (PSA 0.18
ng/ml). After 8 months he started radiotherapy for primary
tumor site (prostate and seminal vescicles, 66 Gy in 33
fractions (fr), 2 Gy/fr) and bone lesion (36 Gy in 18 fr,
2Gy/fr). Radiotherapy was stopped on August 2012. Now he
is continuing hormonal therapy only with three-monthly
LHRH analogue. Second patient (B) was a 75-year-old man,
treated with a radical prostatectomy and pelvic bilateral
lymph node dissection. Pathologic classification was
2262
adenocarcinoma, Gleason score 4 plus 4, pT3a pN0. After 5
years, he was presented to radiotherapist for a biochemical
relapse (PSA 0.72 ng/ml). A 11C-Acetate PET/CT identified
a relapse in prostatic bed and left pubic bone
(asymptomatic). He was treated with radiotherapy for
prostatic bed (66 Gy in 33 fr, 2 Gy/fr) and bone lesion (36
Gy in 18 fr, 2Gy/fr). Treatment finished on July 2012.
Hormonal therapy (LHRH analogue) was given only for six
months. Third patient (C) was a 78 year-old man. He had
two previous partial excisions of prostate gland in 1998 and
1999 (with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma). Urologists had
chosen hormonal therapy with monthly LHRH analogue. He
was presented to radiotherapist at a biochemical progression
(PSA level before radiotherapy 79.6 ng/ml). A 11C-Acetate
PET/CT identified a relapse in prostatic bed, right pubic
bone and sacrum (asymptomatic recurrences). He was treated
with radiotherapy for prostatic bed (66 Gy in 33 fr, 2 Gy/fr)
and two bone lesions (36 Gy in 18 fr, 2Gy/fr). Treatment
finished on May 2012. Now he is continuing therapy with
three-monthly LHRH analogue and monthly bisphosphonate.
Results: Patient A had a four months follow up: PSA 0,05
ng/ml; IPSS 2; no pain referred. Patient B had a five months
follow up: PSA 0.05 ng/ml; IPSS 2; no pain. Patient C had a
seven months follow up: PSA 44 ng/ml; no pain;
asymptomatic for urinary problems. Conclusion: In these
three cases, clinical and biochemical results seem to confirm
that selected patients with oligometastatic prostate cancer can
receive more than only palliative radiotherapy. Three
dimensional radiotherapy on primary site and bone pelvic
recurrence seems to be a satisfactory therapeutic choice.
26
HYPOFRACTIONATION WITH TOMOTHERAPY
FOR PROSTATE CANCER: TOXICITIES
AND OUTCOMES IN 82 PATIENTS
TREATED IN MODENA
Alessio Bruni, Ercole Mazzeo, Bruno Meduri,
Elisa D’angelo, Biancaluisa Lanfranchi,
Paola Barbieri, Cristina Tata,
Laroussi Mohammed Lamin, Filippo Bertoni
UO Radioterapia Oncologica, AOU Policlinico di Modena,
Italy
Aim: Curative treatment of patients with prostate cancer (PC)
comprises surgery and/or radiotherapy (RT) with or without
hormonotherapy (OT). Dose escalation using external beam
RT seems to improve clinical outcomes and several studies
provide strong evidence for a dose-response relation of local
tumor control, biochemical progression free survival and
progression free survival. It is commonly known that dose
escalation can also be achieved by increasing the dose per
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
fraction above 2 Gy (as in our study) and many different
studies showed that prostate cancer cells may be strongly
susceptible to this regimen (due to their low alfa/beta ratio).
On the other hand, dose escalation and hypofractionation
may hypothetically increase acute and late toxicities (such as
genitourinary and gastrointestinal) but the introduction in
recent years of IMRT and IGRT (such as Tomotherapy®)
may allow us to deliver higher doses to targets without
increasing side effects. Patients and Methods: From February
2008 to December 2012 a total of 82 patients with prostate
cancer histologically proven underwent radical RT.
Hypofractionated regimen with or without concomitant OT
was used for all patients who were treated using image
guided RT with Tomotherapy®. Median age was 72 years
(range 51-80 years). About clinical stage, all patients
underwent rectal ultrasonography, biopsy, abdominal CT
scan and pelvis RMN. At the end of staging protocol five of
82 patients (4.5%) had very low risk prostate cancer, 5 pts
(4.5%) had low risk, 26 pts (32%) intermediate risk, 27 pts
high risk (33%) and 14 pts (17%) very high risk prostate
cancer due to NCCN 2013 recurrence risk stratification;
abdominal lymphadenopathy were found in only 5 pts
(metastatic stage for NCCN classification). Forty-one
patients (50%) received neoadjuvant/concomitant and
adjuvant OT while 4 pts (5%) just neoadjuvant/concomitant
OT. No OT was planned for 28 patients due to their stage
and/or comorbidities. Gleason Score was less than 7 in 31
pts, equal to 7 in 26 pts and superior in the other 24 patients;
median Gleason score was 7. Radiotherapy was delivered to
a median dose of 70 Gy (range: 45-76 Gy). Clinical target
volume included prostate +/– seminal vescicles in 41 patients
(50%), while in 41 patients (50%) pelvic abdominal
radiotherapy was performed: in 36 pts with prophylactic
intent due to high risk of lymphatic extension (based on
Roach algorithm) while in 5 patients due to radiologically
proven lymphatic involvement (cN1 stage). Regarding
clinical outcomes only 71 pts were analyzed: overall survival
(OS), disease metastases and biochemical free survival
(DMFS and BFS) were investigated. Results: Regarding
clinical outcomes, after a median follow up of 24 months 63
patients of 71 are still free from disease (89%), five pts (7%)
are alive with locoregional disease and 2 pts (3%) developed
metastatic disease; only 1 pt died due to the disease. All
patients with loco-regional or systemic disease were
submitted to first line hormonotherapy with LH-RH. Both
1yr and 4-yrs OS were 98% (±1.7SE), 1-yr and 4-yrs DMFS
were 98.3% (±1.7SE) and 90.1% (±8.00SE) respectively.
BFS was 93% (±3.5SE), 91% (±4.00SE), 83.7% (±6.00SE)
and 75.3% (±9.6SE). Radiotherapy treatment was well
tolerated with only 4 patients complaining for acute severe
urinary toxicity while 1 pt developed grade 3 acute rectal
side-effect. Late grade 3 rectal toxicity was reported in 7
patients (7.5%) while grade 2 urinary toxicity was observed
in 4 pts; no grade 3 urinary late toxicity was found. No
treatment related deaths were encountered in our population.
Conclusion: Hypofractionated dose escalated radiation
treatment using IG-IMRT with Tomotherapy seems to be
feasible and safe being able to achieve optimal outcomes
reducing total treatment time without increasing locoregional side effects. Hypofractionation and dose escalation
in radical or concomitant (hormonotherapy) setting should
be considered in the management of non-surgical prostate
cancer.
27
SINGLE-DOSE ORAL CIPROFLOXACIN
COMPARED WITH PLACEBO FOR
PROPHYLAXIS DURING TRANSURETHRAL
RESECTION OF BLADDER
Lucio Dell’ Atti, Giovanni Daniele, Stefano Papa,
Gianni Ughi, Gian Rosario Russo
Urologia, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Arcispedale S.
Anna, Ferrara, Italy
Introduction: Transurethral resection of bladder tumour
(TURB) is the treatment of choice for low-grade, low-stage
bladder tumours and the routine procedure for biopsy and
staging of higher-stage, higher-grade bladder tumours. In the
absence of antimicrobial prophylaxis, patients with previously
sterile urine commonly develop bacteriuria, usually due to
Gram-negative bacilli (1, 2). The use of prophylactic
antimicrobial agents for these procedures remains controversial,
especially in patients whose urine is sterile pre-operatively (3).
This study summarizes data from a single clinical trial that
compared the efficacy of a single pre-operative dose of oral
ciprofloxacin with placebo in the prevention of post-operative
bacteriuria in patients requiring TURB. Patients and Methods:
This prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study was
conducted at a single center of Urology. A total of 158 patients,
male or female >40 years of age, between November 2010 and
December 2012 were enrolled in this study and underwent
TURB. Patients were excluded based on any of the following
criteria: history of hypersensitivity to quinolones; valvular heart
disease requiring prophylaxis for bacterial endocarditis;
significant gastrointestinal disease or inability to tolerate oral
medication; presence of bacteriuria (>104 cfu/mL) at preprocedure urine culture; history of endoscopic manipulation of
the urinary tract within 7 days of study enrolment. One group
received 500 mg of ciprofloxacin orally, the second group
placebo. Patients were evaluated for adverse events at the time
of each post-surgical visit. Repeat urine cultures and urinalysis
were obtained between 5 and 20 days following the surgical
procedure, usually at the time of catheter removal. Results: The
158 patients enrolled in the study were divided: Group A, 89
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
patients treated with a single dose of ciprofloxacin as
prophylaxis; while Group B, 69 patients received no treatment
(placebo) during TURB. Nine patients (Group A) were
excluded from the efficacy and safety analyses because of
failure to receive study medication. There was no statistically
significant difference among the treatment groups with respect
to age, sex race, health status, accompanying diseases, type of
resection, time of dosing to start of surgery and antimicrobial
use before study entry.The mean age was 67.9 and 69.6 years
in A and B groups, respectively. Mean duration of surgery,
urinary bladder catheterization and post-surgical length of
hospitalization were not significantly different among the two
treatment groups. Observed rates of post-operative bacteriuria
in the efficacy-valid population were 17.5% (14/80) for
ciprofloxacin-treated patients compared with 24.6% (17/69) for
those receiving placebo. The difference in post-operative
bacteriuria rates between ciprofloxacin and placebo was
estimated at 7.1%, demonstrating that the two treatments were
not equivalent. Organisms responsible for post-operative
bacteriuria
included
Enterococcus
faecalis
(n:3),
Staphylococcus (n:4), Enterococcus faecalis (n:7) for
ciprofloxacin; Candida albicans (n:3), Escherichia coli (n:9),
Enterobacter (n:3), Staphylococcus (n:2) for placebo. No
patient in the ciprofloxacin group compared with 4 in the
placebo group (5.8%) valid for efficacy required hospitalization
for urosepsis. Three of the 4 patients in the placebo group were
categorized as having severe urosepsis; all 4 patients developed
urosepsis within 3 days of the TURB. Two of the 4 placebotreated patients had E. coli isolated from the blood; all 4
patients had more than 105 CFU/mL of E. coli cultured from
the urine. All four episodes resolved or improved without
serious sequelae after institution of appropriate antimicrobial
therapy. Conclusion: Despite the lack of statistical significance,
the observed rates of post TURB bacteriuria in this study were
lower following a single 500 mg dose of ciprofloxacin than
they were with placebo. This study, although unable to show
that antimicrobial prophylaxis was superior to placebo,
demonstrated that single-dose oral ciprofloxacin (500mg) was
an efficacious and cost-effective alternative to placebo for
antimicrobial prophylaxis during transurethral resection
surgery, even if the rates of prolonged hospitalization for
urosepsis reported are low.
1 Childs S: Current diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract
infections. Urology (1992). 40: 295-299.
2 Savoca G, Raber M, Lissiani A, Plaino F, Ciampalini S,
Buttazzi L and Belgrano E: Comparison of single
preoperative oral rufloxacin versus erioperative
ciprofloxacin as prophylactic agents in transurethral
surgery. Arch Ital Urol Androl 72(1): 15-20, 2000.
3 Gasser TC, Wisard M and Frei R: Oral fleroxacin
prophylaxis in transurethral surgery J Urol 156(1): 146148, 1996.
2264
28
INVESTIGATING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
TYPE OF SURGERY AND SURVIVAL IN PATIENTS
WITH LOCALLY-INVASIVE SQUAMOUS CELL
CARCINOMA OF THE PENIS
Andrea Guttilla1, Giovanni Lughezzani2, Mario Catanzaro3,
Tullio Torelli3, Silvia Stagni3, Davide Biasoni3,
Nicola Nicolai3, Luigi Piva3, Andrea Necchi3,
Patrizia Giannatempo3, Daniele Raggi3, Roberto Salvioni3
1Urology
Clinic, Department of Surgical Oncological and
Gastroenterological Sciences, University of Padua;
2Department of Urology, Vita-Salute San Raffaele
University;
3Urology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale
Tumori, Milano, Italy
Introduction: We evaluated whether type of surgery has an
impact on the survival outcomes in a population of patients
with penile squamous cell carcinoma surgically treated at our
Institution between 1980 and 2012. Methods: The study
population consisted of 275 patients treated with partial
penectomy (PP), total penectomy (TP) or emasculation for
locally-invasive penile cancer. We determined the
pathological characteristics of the disease and the
oncological outcomes of these individuals. The KaplanMeier method was used to depict cancer-specific survival
(CSS) rates. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression
models were fitted to test the predictors of CSS. Results:
Overall, 202 (73.5%), 53 (19.3%) and 20 (7.3%) patients
were treated with PP, TP and emasculation, respectively.
Tumor stage (p<0.001) and grade (p=0.024) were
significantly higher in patients subjected to TP or
emasculation relative to individuals treated with PP. For
example, 9 (45.0%) and 12 (22.6%) patients subjected to
emasculation and TP had pT3-4 disease compared to 21
(10.4%) patients who underwent PP. The 5-and 10year CSS
rate were 76.1% and 72.0%, respectively. In univariable Cox
regression models, pT stage, pN stage, tumor grade and type
of surgery emerged as significant predictors of CSS (all
p<0.001). Specifically, patients who underwent a TP or
emasculation had a 1.78- (95% CI: 0.98-3.25) and a 3.79(95% CI 1.86-7.74) fold higher risk of dying of their disease
relative to patients subjected to PP. However, in multivariable
Cox regression models, after adjustment for pT stage, pN
stage and grade, type of surgery did not emerge as an
independent predictor of CSS (p=0.542). Conversely, both
pT stage (p=0.05) and pN stage (p<0.001) achieved the
independent predictor status. Conclusion: Different surgical
approaches may be adopted for the treatment of locally
invasive penile cancer. The most appropriate approach should
be chosen after careful evaluation of the disease
characteristics and expectations of each patient.
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
29
PREDICTORS OF LOCAL FAILURE
AFTER PARTIAL PENECTOMY FOR
LOCALLY-INVASIVE PENILE CANCER:
A SINGLE-INSTITUTIONAL CASE SERIES
30
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LYMPH-NODE
DENSITY AND CANCER-SPECIFIC SURVIVAL
IN PATIENTS WITH PENILE CANCER:
A SINGLE-INSTITUTIONAL EXPERIENCE
Mario Catanzaro1, Giovanni Lughezzani2, Andrea Guttilla3,
Tullio Torelli4, Silvia Stagni4, Davide Biasoni4,
Nicola Nicolai4, Luigi Piva4, Andrea Necchi4,
Patrizia Giannatempo4, Daniele Raggi4, Roberto Salvioni4
Mario Catanzaro1, Giovanni Lughezzani2, Andrea Guttilla3,
Tullio Torelli1, Silvia Stagni1, Davide Biasoni1, Nicola
Nicolai1, Luigi Piva1, Andrea Necchi1, Patrizia
Giannatempo1, Daniele Raggi1, Roberto Salvioni1
Introduction: Partial penectomy (PP) is an organ-sparing
alternative to total penectomy (TP) in the treatment of locallyinvasive penile cancer. In the current study, we investigated the
predictors of local failure in a single-institutional population of
patients treated with PP. Methods: Data from 210 patients
treated with PP for penile cancer between January 1980 and
June 2012 were retrieved from our institutional database. Local
failure was defined as the presence of residual disease (positive
surgical margin; R1) or local disease recurrence requiring
further surgical intervention. Cox regression models were fitted
to test the predictors of local failure. Results: Mean patient age
was 59.2 years (range 21-92). Positive surgical margins were
detected in 13 (6.1%) patients. Seven (25%) out of 21 patients
with pT3 disease had positive surgical margins, as compared to
6 (5.3%) out of 108 patients with pT2 disease and 0 (0%) out of
81 patients with pT1 disease. All of these patients were
subjected to TP. Overall, 18 (8.6%) patients developed local
recurrence at a median follow-up time of 24.8 months (range: 447) and required further surgical intervention. At univariable
Cox regression analyses, pathological T stage and grade
emerged as significant predictors of local failure (all p≤0.001).
Specifically, patients with pT2 and pT3 disease had respectively
a 14.17- (95% CI:1.88106.66) and a 42.2-fold (95% CI 5.32334.8) higher probability of developing local recurrence relative
to patients with pT1 disease. Similarly, patients with G2 and G3
disease had respectively a 2.40 (95% CI:0.93-6.94) and a 6.65
(95% CI 2.28-19.45) -fold higher probability of developing
local recurrence relative to patients with low grade disease. At
multivariable Cox regression analysis, only pT stage emerged
as an independent predictor of local failure (p=0.005).
Conversely, tumor grade did not achieve the independent
predictor status (p=0.150). Conclusion: Partial penectomy
represents an oncologically safe option for the treatment of
patients with pT1-2 penile cancer. Conversely, patients with pT3
disease are at high-risk of local failure after PP.
Introduction: Lymph node density (LND; ratio of positive
lymph nodes to the total number removed) emerged as a
potential significant predictor of survival in several
malignancies. In the current study, we evaluated the
association between LND and cancer-specific survival (CSS)
in a population of patients with penile cancer and
pathologically-determined lymph node metastases. Methods:
We retrieved data from 90 patients with pathologicallydetermined lymph node metastases who were surgically
treated at our Institution between 1985 and 2012. LND was
considered both as a continuously-coded and as a
categorically-coded variable. The Mazumdar-Glassman
method was used to determine the most significant LND cutoff value. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to determine
CSS rates. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression
models were fitted to test the predictors of CSS. Results:
Overall, 28 (31.1%), 36 (40.0%) and 26 (28.9%) patients
were respectively diagnosed with pN1, pN2 and pN3 disease
and 45 (50.0%) patients had extranodal extension (ENE) of
the disease. The median number of positive and removed
lymph nodes were 2 (IQR: 1-4) and 22 (IQR: 13-31),
respectively. Median LND was 10.6 (IQR: 6.4-17.0). Median
follow-up was 27 months (Interquartile range; IQR: 16-61).
Estimated five-year CSS rate was 52.5%. In univariable Cox
regression models, both continously-coded (HR: 1.02, 95%
CI: 1.01-1.03; p=0.002) and categorically-coded LND (HR:
4.63; 95% CI: 2.34-9.14; p<0.001) were significant
predictors of CSS, where the most significant cut-off value
of LND was 22. After stratification, 5-year CSS was 65.0 vs.
8.4% in patients with LND< vs. ≥22, respectively (p<0.001).
At multivariable Cox regression models, after adjusting for
several established prognostic factors, categorically-coded
LND emerged as the only independent predictor of CSS
(HR: 3.84; 95% CI: 1.64-8.96; p=0.002). Conclusion:
Lymph node density is a powerful predictor of CSS in
patients with penile cancer and pathologically-determined
1Urology
Unit, IRCSS Istituto Nazionale Dei Tumori;
of Urology, Vita-Salute San Raffaele
University;
3Urology Clinic, Department of Surgical, Oncological and
Gastroenterological Sciences, University of Padua;
4Urology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale
Tumori, Milano, Italy
2Department
1Urology
Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale
Tumori, Milano;
2Department of Urology, Vita-Salute San Raffaele
University, Milano;
3Urology Clinic, Department of Surgical, Oncological and
Gastroenterological Sciences, University of Padua, Italy
2265
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
lymph node metastases. Although further investigations are
needed to evaluate the relationship between tumour burden
and treatment intensity, LND may be of immediate use in
clinical practice to better stratify the prognosis of these
patients and for further therapy.
31
ULTRACONSERVED REGION (UCRS)
ENCODING NCRNAS INVOLVEMENT IN
BLADDER CANCER TUMORIGENESIS:
A NEW(P)LAYER IN THE "DARK MATTER"
Matteo Ferro1, Vincenzo Altieri2, Vittorino Montanaro2,
Chiara Scafuro2, Marco De Sio3, Michele Olivieri4,
Montano Durso4, Jens Hansen5, Felix K.-h Chun5, Sisto
Perdona6, Umberto Greco7, Daniela Terracciano8, Amelia
Cimmino4
1Urologia,
Università degli Studi Federico II, Napoli;
of Urology, University of Salerno;
3Department of Urology, Second University of Naples;
4Institute of Genetics and Biophysics, A. Buzzati Traverso"
CNR, Naples;
5Department of Urology, University Medical Center
Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany;
6Department of Urology, IRCCS Fondazione G. Pascale,
Napoli;
7Department of Urology, OO.RR. S.Giovanni di Dio E
Ruggi D’Aragona, Salerno;
8Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University
of Naples “Federico II”, Italy
2Department
Introduction: Urothelial carcinoma (UCC) is the most common
form of cancer in the bladder and can be divided into two
groups defined by their distinct behaviors and different
molecular profiles. These groups are characterized as low-grade
tumors, which are always papillary and usually superficial, and
high-grade tumors, which can be either papillary or non
papillary and often invasive. In the last few years it has been
clearly documented, that an important role in human
cancerogenesis is also played by non-codingRNAs (ncRNAs).
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ncRNAs of 19-25 nucleotides in
length that regulate gene expression. Initially discovered as
regulators of mechanisms involved in cell proliferation and
development, miRNAs have been shown to be altered in several
human malignancies. MiRNAs (influenced by deregulation or
single nucleotide polymorphism) contribute substantially to
tumor development and provide an effective biomarker for
stratification of bladder tumors. Specific signatures of miRNAs
are pathognomonic of specific types of cancers, and sometimes
harbor prognostic implications. More recently, we have
demonstrated that another class of ncRNAs, called transcribed
ultraconserved regions (T-UCRs), is consistently de-regulated
2266
in several human tumors. Background: The role of T-UCRs in
bladder cancer is completely unknown, but we hypothesize that
similarly to miRNAs, T-UCRs are de-regulated in bladder
cancer and this suggests the existence of an extensive regulatory
network on the basis of RNA signaling associated with cancer
progression. Moreover, similarly to what has been demonstrated
for miRNAs, it is likely that T-UCR transcripts might be
detected in the blood and urine of patients, therefore acting as
tumor biomarkers, with diagnostic and prognostic
implications. Finally, by studying the function of the
deregulated T-UCRs in non-invasive and invasive bladder
carcinoma cell lines, we will disclose the role of these
ncRNAs in bladder carcinogenesis, therefore identifying new
biological targets for bladder cancer treatment. Aim: To assess
whether T-UCRs can be detected and are differentially
expressed in noninvasive (RT122 ) and invasive (J82) bladder
cell lines. Methods: Total RNA was extracted from each
sample, and hybridized with version 4.0 of Dr. Croce’s ncRNA
microarray, that includes probes which are able to detect
TUCR transcripts both in sense, and antisense (A) orientation
(1, 2). Results: We obtained specific signatures of de-regulated
T-UCRs. In Table I the lists of the 3 most up-regulated and the
3 most down-regulated T-UCRs in the non-invasive cell line
RT112 versus the invasive counterpart J82 cell line.
Table I.
Down in RT112/J82
uc355A
uc393
uc.397
Fold
change
0.009
0.016
0.012
Up in
RT112/J82
uc.388
uc.354
uc.263
Fold
change
2.52
2.419
2.393
Conclusion: Given the possible existence of signatures of deregulated T-UCRs specific for non invasive and invasive cell
lines it is possibile to hypothesize that: a) specific signatures
of de-regulated T-UCRs identify sub-types of bladder
carcinoma with different prognosis; b) these de-regulated TUCRs have functional implications in bladder
carcinogenesis.
1 Calin GA, Liu CG, Ferracin M, Hyslop T, Spizzo R,
Sevignani C, Fabbri M, Cimmino A, Lee EJ, Wojcik SE,
Shimizu M, Tili E, Rossi S, Taccioli C, Pichiorri F, Liu X,
Zupo S, Herlea V, Gramantieri L, Lanza G, Alder H,
Rassenti L, Volinia S, Schmittgen TD, Kipps TJ, Negrini
M and Croce CM: Ultraconserved regions encoding
ncRNAs are altered in human leukemias and carcinomas.
Cancer Cell 12: 215229, 2007.
2 Schmittgen TD, Jiang J, Liu Q and Yang L: A highthroughput method to monitor the expression of microRNA
precursors. Nucleic Acids Res 32: e43, 2004.
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
32
DIFFUSION-WEIGHTED MAGNETIC RESONANCE
DIAGNOSIS OF LOCAL RECURRENCES
OF PROSTATE CANCER AFTER RADICAL
PROSTATECTOMY. PRELIMINARY
EVALUATION ON TWENTY-SEVEN CASES
Salvatore Francesco Carbone1, Luigi Pirtoli2,
Veronica Ricci1, Tommaso Carfagno2, Paolo Tini2,
Augusto La Penna1, Eleonora Cacchiarelli1,
Alice Carboni1, Luca Volterrani1
1Diagnostica
per Immagini, Dipartimento di Scienze
Radiologiche, Università di Siena;
2Radioterapia, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche,
Università di Siena, Italy
Objective: To assess the diagnostic performance of
Diffusion-Weighted MR imaging (DWI) in patients affected
by Prostatic Fossa (PF) relapse after Radical Prostatectomy
(RP) for Prostatic Carcinoma (PC). Patients and Methods:
Twenty-seven patients showing a nodular lesion in the PF at
T2-weighted MRI after RP, with diagnosis of PC relapse
established by biopsy or PSA determinations, were
investigated by DWI. Two readers evaluated the DWI results
in consensus (hyperintensity absent/present), and the
Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) of the nodules
separately; a mean value was obtained (ADCm). Results:
Relapses did not significantly differ in size in respect of
post-surgical alterations. The DWI qualitative evaluation
showed sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, ppv, npv values
respectively of 83.3%, 88.9%, 85.2%, 93.7% and 72.7%
(100%, 87.5%, 95.6%, 93.7% and 100%, for nodules >6
mm). The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for ADC
evaluation between the two readers was 0.852 (95% CI
0.661-0.935; p=0.0001). The ADCm values for relapses and
benign nodules were respectively 0.98±0.21×10–3 mm2/sec
and 1.24±0.32×10–3 mm2/sec (p=0.006). Sensitivity,
specificity, accuracy, ppv and npv of ADCm were
respectively 77.8%, 88.9%, 81.8%, 93.3%, 66.7% (93.3%,
87.5%, 85.4%, 93.3%, 87.5% for nodules >6 mm).
Conclusion: Diffusion-weighted MR imaging is a promising
tool, among MRI multi-parametric techniques, in
establishing whether a hyper-intense nodule detected by T2weighted sequences is or not a relapse of PC after RP. This
might have a relevant importance in contouring radiotherapy
treatment volumes.
1 Cirillo S, Petracchini M, Scotti L, Gallo T, Macera A,
Bona MC, Ortega C, Gabriele P and Regge D: Endorectal
magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 Tesla to assess local
recurrence following radical prostatectomy using T2weighted and contrast-enhanced imaging. Eur Radiol
19(3): 761-769, 2009.
2 Giannarini G, Nguyen DP, Thalmann GN and Thoeny HC:
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging detects
local recurrence after radical prostatectomy: initial
experience. Eur Urol 61(3): 616-620, 2012.
3 Somford DM, Fütterer JJ, Hambrock T and Barentsz JO:
Diffusion and perfusion MR imaging of the prostate.
Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am 16(4): 685-695, 2008.
33
OUTCOME AFTER SALVAGE RADIOTHERAPY
FOR PATIENTS WITH PSA RELAPSE
FOLLOWING RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY
(RP) FOR PROSTATIC CANCER (PC):
A SINGLE-CENTER EXPERIENCE
Tommaso Carfagno1, Paolo Tini2,
Salvatore Francesco Carbone3, Noemi Palla2,
Veronica Ricci3, Daniela Grassi4, Luigi Pirtoli2
1UOC
Radioterapia, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche,
Università di Siena;
2Radioterapia, Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche,
Università di Siena;
3Diagnostica per Immagini, Dipartimento di Scienze
Radiologiche, Università di Siena;
4Oncologia Territoriale, Dipartimento di Oncologia, ASL 7,
Siena, Italy
Background and Aim: Local failure of PC, consisting of
biochemical relapse with or without clinical and imaging
evidence, occurs in 10- 53% of the patients undergoing RP
within 5 years. Early post-operative radiotherapy is the best
choice in presence of local recurrence (LR) risk factors, but
in clinical practice many patients are treated with
radiotherapy (Salvage Radiotherapy) only at the PSA relapse.
The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic
factors and the efficacy of salvage radiotherapy for PSA
relapse after radical prostatectomy in our Unit. Patients and
Methods: Sixty-five relapsing patients treated with Salvage
Radiotherapy from June ‘99 to October ‘09 in our
Radiotherapy Unit were analyzed. Salvage Radiotherapy
(SR) was undertaken at biochemical recurrence (without or
with imaging evidence of local relapse) defined as 2
consecutive PSA values ≥0.2 ng/ml. Salvage radiotherapy
was delivered to the prostatic bed with a conformal technique
and with a total dose between 60 and 75 Gy. We analyzed:
correlation between biochemical Disease-Free Survival
(bDFS) after SR and age at surgery, Gleason Score,
pathologic stage, status of surgical margins, pre-radiotherapy
PSA level, prescribed total dose, time from RP to
biochemical failure. Minimum follow-up time was 36
months after SR. Results: The median biochemical diseasefree survival after SR was 57.5 months. The median PSA
2267
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
value at the start of radiotherapy was 2.9 ng/ml (range 0.120.9). Multivariate analysis (Cox regression model) showed
some significant prognostic factors associated with worse
bDFS outcome after SR: high PSA level pre-RT (cut off
value < vs. >2.5 ng/ml), RT total dose (< vs. >70 Gy), high
Gleason score (≤ vs. >7), pathological stage (< vs. >T3a or
N+). Among these factors, PSA level pre-RT was the
strongest predictor (Hazard ratio 11,56; 95% confidence
interval 2.53-33.46 p=0.004). Status of the surgical margins
was correlated to pathological stage and time from RP to
biochemical failure to PSA pre-RT level. Discussion and
Conclusion: The most important prognostic factor is PSA
level pre-RT in predicting outcome after SR. Patients with
lower values at the beginning of RT had a better outcome in
terms of local control. The biological factors related to the
tumor (Gleason Score and Pathological Stage) impacted on
disease relapse with a lower significance compared to the
previous point. Beginning RT at early relapse of PSA seems
to improve response to treatment. Increasing the number of
patients, maybe through multicentric studies, could confirm
the validity of these results.
1 Taylor N, Kelly JF, Kuban DA, Babaian RJ, Pisters LL and
Pollack A: Adjuvant and salvage radiotherapy after radical
prostatectomy for prostate cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol
Phys 56(3): 755-63, 2003.
2 Choo R: Salvage radiotherapy for patients with PSA
relapse following radical prostatectomy: issues and
challenges. Cancer Res Treat 42(1): 1-11, 2010.
3 Stephenson AJ, Shariat SF, Zelefsky MJ, Kattan MW,
Butler EB, Teh BS, Klein EA, Kupelian PA, Roehrborn
CG, Pistenmaa DA, Pacholke HD, Liauw SL, Katz MS,
Leibel SA, Scardino PT and Slawin KM: Salvage
radiotherapy for recurrent prostate cancer after radical
prostatectomy. JAMA. 291(11): 132532, 2004.
34
CORRELATION BETWEEN BMI AND
THE PATHOLOGICAL FEATURES
OF PROSTATE CANCER AT BIOPSY
Salvatore Scurria, Giovanni Caruana, Enrica Napoli,
Salvatore Romeo, Francesco Sommatino,
Dario Passalacqua, Carlo Pavone, Vincenzo Serretta
U.O.C. di Urologia, Dipartimento di Discipline Chirurgiche
ed Oncologiche, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Italy
Introduction/Aim: Numerous clinical trials investigated the
association between obesity and prostate cancer, but they
yielded inconsistent results (1). Obesity has been found to be
related to prostatic tumors at more advanced stages and
higher Gleason grade when compared with normal
2268
population (2). An increased number of biopsy cores has
been advocated by some Authors in obese and overweight
men due to an increased difficulty and delay in cancer
detection (3). The main aim of our research was to correlate
Body Mass Index (BMI) with the pathological characteristics
of prostate cancer at biopsy. Patients and Methods: Patients
with positive prostate biopsy performed for palpable prostate
nodule and/or elevated PSA levels were considered in the
present study. A transrectal prostate biopsy procedure, not
less than 12 cores, was performed. The number of specimens
was increased in case of re-biopsy (18-24 cores or more).
After informed consent, a database has been created,
including clinical and pathological data: demographics, PSA,
digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound and prostate
cancer features at biopsy. Patients were divided into four
categories according to their BMI as follows: 16-19,9
(underweight), 20.0-24.9 (normal weight), 25.0-29.9
(overweight) and ≥30.0 (obese). The statistical analysis was
conducted with Fisher’s exact test for Gleason pattern 4 (<4
or ≥4) and BMI for single weight class and the Pearson’s
Chisquared test with Yates’ continuity correction for
aggregate BMI classes. Results: Out of 149 patients
diagnosed with prostate cancer, the Gleason score was
available for 121 (81.2%), ASAP or PIN were found in 5
more patients (3.4%). Twenty-seven (21.4%) patients had a
previous negative biopsy. The median age was 71 years
(range 45-86). The median BMI was 26.7 kg/m2 (range 17.537.4). Two patients (1.3%) were underweight, 43 (28,6%)
patients had normal weight (median BMI 23), 70 (47%) were
overweight (median BMI 26.8) and 34 (22.8%) were obese
(median BMI 35.3). Median PSA was 9.5 ng/ml (range 0,411339). A prostate nodule was palpable in 45 (30.2%)
patients. The median prostate volume was 44.5 cc. A
Gleason pattern of 4 or more was evident in 49 (40.5%)
patients, while it was not detected in the remaining 72
(59.5%) patients. The presence of Gleason pattern 4 did not
result in relation to the class of BMI (p-value=0.9814),
neither combining different classes: normal weight and
overweight men versus obese ones (p-value=0.7696); normal
weight versus overweight and obese men (p-value=0.9678).
Discussion and Conclusion: Our study, in contrast with some
evidence in literature, did not show any significant
correlation between BMI and the presence of Gleason pattern
4. However, the small number of patients did not allow to
include in our analysis important factors, such as biological,
hormonal, environmental and life-style factors, involved in
the pathogenesis of prostate cancer. A larger, prospective,
multicenter investigation is on going.
1 Howlader N, Krapcho M, Neyman N et al: SEER Cancer
statistics review, 1975-2008. National Cancer Institute,
Bethesda, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2008/, based on
November 2010 SEER data submission.
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
2 Nunzio CD, Freedland S, Miano L, Agrò EF, Bañez L and
Tubaro A: The uncertain relationship between obesity and
prostate cancer: an Italian biopsy cohort analysis. European
Journal of Surgical Oncology 37(12): 1025-1029, 2011.
3 Wallner LP, Morgenstern H, McGree ME et al: The effects
of body mass index on changes in prostate-specific antigen
levels and prostate volume over 15 years of follow-up:
implications for prostate cancer detection. Cancer
Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 20(3): 501-508, 2011. Doi:
10.1158/1055-9965. EPI-10-1006. Epub 2011 Jan 17. 3.
35
HISTOLOGICAL CHRONIC PROSTATITIS AT THE
FIRST BIOPSY IS NOT ASSOCIATED WITH A
LOWER RISK OF PROSTATE CANCER (PCA) AT
REPEATED EXTENDED BIOPSY
Stefano De Luca, Paolo Caccia, Andrea Cavallini,
Nicola Faraone, Ernesto Giargia, Massimo Pasquale,
Maria Sara Squeo, Donato Franco Randone
Divisione di Urologia, Ospedale Gradenigo di Torino, Italy
Introduction: A present, up to two thirds of patients who
undergo a prostate biopsy, will have a negative histology since
the reason of biopsy is based on serum PSA assessment, a
sensitive but unspecific test. Mild or moderate inflammation
may be sufficient to alter cellular integrity and cause leakage
of PSA into serum. The aim of this study was to evaluate if
histological chronic prostatitis at primary biopsy is associated
with a lower risk for cancer in men undergone repeated
extended biopsy. Methods: Through a retrospective search of
our prostate biopsy database from January 2009 to January
2013, 289 patients, after a negative primary biopsy (median 12
cores), underwent repeated saturation biopsy by transperineal
approach (median 22 cores). 151 (52.2%) patients had a normal
parenchyma and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and 72
(24.9%) had chronic prostatitis pattern (only 2 patients, 2.7%,
had history of chronic prostatitis: pelvic and/or perineal pain
or discomfort, dysuria, urinary frequency, ejaculatory
symptoms at the time of biopsy). Median PSA and abnormal
digital rectal examination were equal to 7.1 ng/ml and 1.9%
for normal parenchyma/BPH versus 7.7 ng/ml and 2.7% for
inflammatory pattern. Results: PCa detection rate was 21.7%
(63/289 pts). of the 63 pts with PCa, 24 pts (38.1%) and 39 pts
(61.9%; p=0.008) had a histological diagnosis of normal
parenchyma/BPH and chronic prostatitis at the first biopsy,
respectively. Conclusion: Along with direct trauma (e.g. biopsy,
cystoscopy), chronic prostatitis is the most common cause
(about 10% of all men suffer from the symptoms of prostatitis
syndrome) of sudden, marked elevation in serum PSA levels;
nevertheless an inflammatory pattern at the first biopsy is not
associated with a decrease in PCa incidence at repeated
extended biopsy. Accurate clinical evaluation including more
parameters (e.g. PCA3) could hopefully select men who will
really benefit from rebiopsy in the presence of a PSA rising
and suspicion of cancer.
1 Faydaci G, Eryildirim B, Tarhan F, Goktas C, Tosun C and
Kuyumcuoglu U: Does antibiotherapy prevent unnecessary
prostate biopsies in patients with high PSA values? Actas
Urol Esp 36: 234-238, 2012.
2 Pepe P and Aragona F: Does an inflammatory pattern at
primary biopsy suggest a lower risk for prostate cancer at
repeated saturation prostate biopsy. Urol Int 87: 171-174,
2011.
3 Sfanos K and De Marzo AM: Prostate cancer and
inflammation: the evidence. Histopathology 60: 199-215, 2011.
36
PRELIMINARY DATA ON PSA CHANGES
DURING INTRAVESICAL THERAPY FOR
NON-MUSCLE INVASIVE BLADDER CANCER
Cristina Scalici Gesolfo1, Vincenza Alonge2,
Gaetano Chiapparrone2, Antonio Solazzo2, Enrica Napoli2,
Francesco Sommatino2, Marco Vella2, Vincenzo Serretta2
1Sezione
di Urologia, Dipartimento di Scienze Chirurgiche
ed Oncologiche, Università degli Studi di Palermo;
2U.o.c. di Urologia, Dipartimento di Discipline Chirurgiche
ed Oncologiche, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Italy
Introduction/Aim: Many factors can cause an increase of PSA
independently from the presence of prostate cancer . The
objective was to evaluate the fluctuation of the serum levels of
PSA during adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy or
immunotherapy. An increase of PSA due to intravesical BCG
and up to 3 months later has been reported (1). Patients and
Methods: Patients treated with intravesical chemotherapy or
immunotherapy for non- muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) were entered in the study. Serum samples were collected
before starting intravesical therapy, during therapy (within 3rd
and 6th instillation) and 30 days after the end of the 6-week
induction regimen and during maintenance regimen when
given. Patients with urinary tract infections, history of chronic
prostatitis, elevated PSA before starting intravesical therapy,
palpable prostate nodule or prostate cancer were not included.
Results: Forty-five patients were studied, 34 receiving
chemotherapy and 11 BCG. Thirty-three patients completed the
induction regimen and in 12 more patients the research is
ongoing. Out of the 33 evaluable patients, 23 received
chemotherapy (mitomycin or epirubicin), while 10
immunotherapy (BCG Connaught). The pre-induction PSA
mean level was 2.9 ng/ml. We observed a median PSA increase
of 33,5% (p<0.0001) during therapy, in 18 (54.5%) patients.
2269
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
Twelve patients (36.3%) showed a median PSA decrease of
31.4% (p=0.3638). In two patients only (6%) PSA remained
unchanged. We also observed a median increase of serum PSA
levels of 87.4% at one month after the end of induction
regimen. No significant difference between serum PSA level
fluctuations induced by chemotherapy or BCG was detected:
median increases during therapy and 30 days after the end were
91.7% and 149, 7% and 91.7% and 133% respectively
(p<0.001). Discussion and Conclusion: Our preliminary study
shows a clinically relevant increase of serum PSA levels in men
undergoing both adjuvant intravesical BCG or chemotherapy.
We confirm the results of the few studies reporting the increase
of PSA during intravesical therapy with BCG or chemotherapy
(2). The above mentioned variations should be considered
when selecting patients undergoing prostate biopsy.
1 Beltrami P et al: Are prostate biopsies mandatory in
patients with prostate-specific antigen increase during
intravesical immuno- or chemotherapy for superficial
bladder cancer? Prostate 68(11): 1241-1247, 2008.
2 Blah M et al: Elevation of total PSA after intravesical BCG
instillations: granulomatous prostatitis or prostatic
adenocarcinoma? Prog Urol 18(2): 108-113, 2008.
37
LEPTIN PLASMA LEVELS IN PATIENTS
UNDERGOING PROSTATE BIOPSY. A
PRELIMINARY STUDY IN 50 PATIENTS
Salvatore Scurria1, Giovanni Caruana1, Nino Dispensa1,
Carlo Pavone1, Giuseppe Cicero2, Stefano Caruso2,
Antonio Russo2, Vincenzo Serretta1
1U.O.C.
di Urologia,
di Oncologia Medica, Dipartimento di Discipline
Chirurgiche ed Oncologiche, Università degli Studi di
Palermo, Italy
2U.o.
Introduction/Aim: To reduce the number of negative prostate
biopsies and to detect clinical significant prostate tumors in
patients with elevated serum PSA represent major
challenges in urological oncology. Prostate tumors
diagnosed in patients with elevated Body Mass Index (BMI)
show higher Gleason score and more aggressive biological
behavior than those diagnosed in normal population (1).
Elevated plasma levels of leptin and other adipose tissue
derived factors (adipokines), are evident in obese men (2).
Many studies have investigated the role of leptin as a
putative molecular mediator between obesity and prostate
cancer with contradictory results. Also in normal or
overweight (BMI <30) men, leptin might represent a marker
of tumor aggressiveness (3) and a useful tool in selecting
patients undergoing prostate biopsy. Patients and Methods:
2270
Unselected patients undergoing prostate biopsy for palpable
prostate nodule and/or elevated PSA levels were entered in
the study. A cut-off PSA level of 4 ng/ml was adopted. The
plasma levels of leptin were measured by BioPlex
immunoassay in 50 patients undergoing prostate biopsy. A
12-core transrectal biopsy was planned. The serum leptin
levels were related with the results of the biopsy and the
PSA levels. ROC curve analysis was exploited to test the
diagnostic accuracy of leptin and PSA by AUC calculation.
A potential cut-off level was computed. Results: Leptin was
evaluated in 50 patients, 15 (30%) after a previous negative
biopsy. The median PSA was 6.8 ng/ml. A prostate nodule
was palpable in 18 (36%) patients. The median prostate
volume was 45 cc. The median number of biopsy cores was
12. Prostate cancer was detected in 25 (50%) and ASAP and
PIN in 2 (4%) more patients respectively. At a cut-off value
of 2.16 ng/ml, leptin demonstrates a sensitivity of 74% and
a specificity of 75%. Sixteen patients (32%) had negative
leptin and negative prostate biopsy in spite of elevated PSA
and/or palpable nodule. Discussion and Conclusion: Leptin
in our preliminary experience shows promising diagnostic
accuracy for the selection of patients candidate to prostate
biopsy. Further and larger studies are needed to confirm our
results. Adiponectin should be considered in further
research.
1 Discacciati A, Orsini N and Wolk A: Body mass index and
incidence of localized and advanced prostate cancer – a
dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Ann
Oncol 23: 1665-1671, 2012.
2 Adamczak M and Wiecek A: The adipose tissue as an
endocrine organ. Semin Nephrol 33(1): 2-13, 2013.
3 López Fontana CM, Maselli ME, Pérez Elizalde RF, di
Milta Mónaco NA, Uvilla Recupero AL and López Laur
JD: Leptin increases prostate cancer aggressiveness. J
Physiol Biochem 67(4): 531-538, 2011.
38
SOLITARY EXTRAMEDULLARY PLASMACYTOMA
IN RETROPERITONEUM: A CASE REPORT
AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Stefano De Luca1, Flavia Botto Micca2, Renato Parente2,
Paolo Caccia1, Nicola Faraone1, Maria Sara Squeo1,
Renato Coda2, Donato Franco Randone1
1Divisione
di Urologia, Ospedale Gradenigo di Torino;
di Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale Gradenigo di
Torino, Italy
2Servizio
Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EPM), accounting for
approximately 3% of all plasma cell neoplasms with a
worldwide annual incidence of 3 per 100000 populations,
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
results from uncontrolled plasma cell proliferation and
consists of monoclonal plasmacytic infiltration without bone
marrow involvement. EMP is three times more common in
male and the median age is 55 years which is around ten
years younger than the patients with multiple myeloma. EMP
occurs most commonly in the head and neck region, followed
by gastrointestinal tract, central nervous system, thyroid,
breast, parotid gland, testis and lymph nodes. Solitary EMP
rarely occurs in the retroperitoneum and lacks distinctive
clinical manifestations. Preoperative CT scanning does not
contribute to its differential diagnosis from other tumors.
Serum electrophoresis can help its diagnosis by finding the
M band. However, in the most of cases, the mass is
considered as a common type of tumors, such as sarcoma or
schwannoma, before operation. We report a 76-year-old man
with a solitary asymptomatic EMP in the retroperitoneum and
discuss its clinical features, diagnosis and treatment.
1 Hong W, Yu XM, Jiang MQ, Chen B, Wang XB, Yang LT
and Zhang YP: Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma in
retroperitoneum: a case report and review of the literature.
World Gastroenterol 15(19): 2425-2427, 2009.
2 Monill J, Pernas J, Montserrat E, Pérez C, Clavero J,
Martinez Noguera A, Guerrero R and Torrubia S: CT
features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms. Eur Radiol
15(8): 1705-1712, 2005.
3 Khayyata S, Bentley G, Fregene TA and Al-Abbadi M:
Retroperitoneal extramedullary anaplastic plasmacytoma
masquerading as sarcoma: Report of a case with an
unusual presentation and imprint smears. Acta Cytol 51(3):
4346, 2007.
39
BIOMARKERS OF UROTHELIAL DAMAGE
IN PATIENTS TREATED BY ADJUVANT
INTRAVESICAL THERAPY
Gaetano Chiapparrone1, Vincenza Alonge1,
Stefano Caruso2, Daniele Fanale2, Antonio Russo2,
Rosa Maria Giaimo1, Francesco Sommatino1,
Vincenzo Serretta1
1U.O.C.
di Urologia,
di Oncologia Medica, Dipartimento di Discipline
Chirurgiche ed Oncologiche, Università degli Studi di
Palermo, Italy
2U.o.
Introduction/Aim: Chemotherapy or BCG given intravesically
to prevent recurrence after transurethral resection (TUR) of
non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMI-BC) cause
frequent, sometime severe, local toxicity. As a consequence,
many patients do not complete the planned treatment (1). A
major challenge for the urologists is to identify an early
biomarker of urothelial damage to recognize and prevent local
toxicity improving patient’s compliance. The purpose of our
research was to investigate the relation between urothelial
injury by intravesical treatment and the expression of
potential biomarkers in urine and/or in barbotage solution.
The urinary HB-EGF expression in interstitial cystitis has
been analyzed by a few studies (2, 3). As a preliminary step,
the variations of Fibronectin (FN), Epidermal Growth FactorReceptor (EGF-R) and Heparin-binding Epidermal Growth
Factor-like Growth Factor (HB-EGF) during intravesical
therapy and after the administration of a solution with the
potential role of urothelial repairing (hyaluronic acid and
chondroitin sulphate) were investigated. Patients and
Methods: the toxicity of intravesical therapy with mitomycin,
epirubicin or BCG was classified in 3 grades (absent,
moderate, severe). Urine and bladder washing solution during
intravesical therapy in 55 patients after NMI-BC TUR and in
10 healthy controls for a total of 200 samples were collected.
Total cellular RNA was isolated from the cell pellet using
miRNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen®). FN and EGF-R gene
expression by Real Time quantitative PCR were analyzed.
The expression of HB-EGF was measured in urine samples
by ELISA (Abcam®). Results: In barbotage samples the FN
gene expression and the EGF-R levels in our patients were
respectively increased a median of 4.7 fold and decreased of
0.9 fold compared to controls. Before intravesical therapy and
in absence of local toxicity, gene expression increased 1.9
fold for FN and 1.1 fold for EGF-R. In contrast, in patients
with local toxicity due to intravesical therapy, the FN gene
expression levels increased to a median of 5.82 fold, while
EGF-R remained unchanged. The administration of
hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulphate solution decreased
the mean FN gene expression from 3 to 0.6 fold, with
concomitant symptomatic relief. HB-EGF protein median
urine levels were 25.7 pg/ml in 13 patients before intravesical
therapy and 18.9 pg/ml in 5 healthy controls. No significant
variations in relation to the local toxicity. During therapy
median HB-EGF protein levels in urine varied from 21.6
pg/ml in absence of toxicity to 25.7 pg/ml in case of severe
toxicity to 18.5 pg/ml after hyaluronic acid and chondroitin
sulphate solution. Preliminarily, the observed variations of
HB-EGF, increasing no more than 1.2 fold compared to
healthy controls, do not seem possible marker of urothelial
damage. Discussion and Conclusion: EGF-R gene and HBEGF expressions do not seem to vary significantly in relation
to local toxicity due to intravesical therapy. FN gene is
overexpressed in presence of urothelial damage significantly
reduced by intravesical hyaluronic acid and chondroitin
sulphate solution administration, according with symptoms
relief.
Acknowledgements to IBSA for unrestricted grant and GSTU for
statistical and technical support.
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
1 Serretta V: Management, and prevention, of intravesical
therapy complications. Urologia 76: 19-28, 2009.
2 Zhang CO, et al: APF, HB-EGF, and EGF biomarkers in
patients with ulcerative vs. nonulcerative interstitial
cystitis. BMC Urol 29: 5-7, 2005.
3 Erickson DR et al: Urine markers do not predict biopsy
findings or presence of bladder ulcers in interstitial
cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. J Urol 179: 1850, 2008.
40
CULTURAL ADAPTATION OF THE MEMORIAL
ANXIETY SCALE FOR PROSTATE CANCER:
PRELIMINARY RESULTS
Lara Bellardita1, Maria Francesca Alvisi1,
Tiziana Magnani1, Tiziana Rancati1, Cristina Marenghi1,
Silvia Villa1, Sergio Villa2, Roberto Salvioni3,
Riccardo Valdagni1,2
1Programma
Prostata,
Oncologica 1,
3Urologia, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei
Tumori, Milano, Italy
2Radioterapia
Purpose, Objective: The diagnosis and treatment of prostate
cancer (PCa) may be associated with psychological distress.
Several questionnaires that can be used to assess PCa-related
quality of life are available; nonetheless, a PCa- specific
anxiety evaluation tool validated for the Italian population is
lacking. The Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer
(MAX-PC) is a self-report questionnaire developed to assess
PCa-related anxiety in English-speaking population (1). MAXPC has proven to be a valid and reliable tool which can be
translated and adapted for use in non-English speaking
populations (2). The aim of this study was to present the
procedures for cultural adaptation to the Italian population,
together with the preliminary results of its psychometric
properties, based on study group of patients on Active
Surveillance (AS). Patients and Methods: Patients with
localized PCa who met inclusion criteria for Prostate Cancer
Research International: Active Surveillance protocol were
recruited. Patients filled out MAX-PC at the time of enrolment
in the AS protocol. The questionnaire consisted of 18 items
Table I. MAX-PC total and subscales scores and distribution (N=118).
MAX-PC total
Prostate cancer Anxiety
PSA anxiety
Fear of recurrence
2272
Mean
SD
Median
12.9
8.8
0.7
3.4
9.1
6.3
1.4
2.5
11.5
8
0
3
25th-75th
percentile
6-20
4-14
0-1
1-5
divided into 3 subscales measuring general “PCa anxiety” (“I
felt kind of numb when I thought about prostate cancer”),
“anxiety related to prostate specific antigen (PSA)” (“I have
been so anxious about my PSA test that I have thought about
delaying it”), and “fear of recurrence” (“Because cancer is
unpredictable, I feel I cannot plan for the future”). The
translation of the original English version into Italian followed
standard forward-backward procedure: it was translated into
Italian by two independent researchers; the two translations
were then pooled into a common version. This interim version
underwent the backward translation by two native Englishspeaking independent translators. Back translations were
finally discussed in a consensus meeting to obtain a definitive
Italian version. Psychometric properties were assessed to
obtain reliability indexes. Specifically, a) descriptive analyses
were performed to detect floor/ceiling effect, b) Cronbach’s
alpha coefficients were calculated to estimate the internal
consistency of the total MAX-PC and the three subscales, c)
item to total correlation analyses were conducted to assess
subscales internal consistency and identify items to be deleted.
Results: One hundred and eighteen patients on AS completed
all 18 MAX-PC items. Table I reports descriptive scores and
distribution. No floor/ceiling effect (defined as more than 15%
of respondents having respectively the lowest/highest score)
was found except for the “PSA anxiety” subscale (floor effect,
71% of respondents). The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were
high for total score (α=0.75, 0.70 is generally considered
good internal consistency), as well as for “PCa anxiety”
(α=0.80), “fear of recurrence” (α=0.83) and “PSA anxiety”
(α=0.95) subscales. The means of item to total correlation
coefficients were as follows: “PCa anxiety”=0.66 (range 0.510.76), “PSA anxiety”=0.75 (range 0.46-0.90), “fear of
recurrence”=0.78 (range 0.75-0.80) (scores below 0.75
suggest deleting the item). Conclusion: Strong internal
consistency and reliability were found for MAX-PC total
score as well as for the specific subscales evaluating PCA,
PSA and recurrence-related anxiety which means that all the
items contribute to measure the facets of anxiety related to
having PCa. Further analyses will include reliability of the
questionnaire over time (test re-test correlations), factor
analyses and test validation to discriminate PCa specific
related anxiety in an Italian population. The validation of the
Italian version of MAX-PC could be of interest for physicians
Possible
score range
0-54
0-33
0-9
0-12
Observed
score range
0-41
0-27
0-7
0-11
% Minimum
score
4
10
71
13
% Maximum
score
0
0
0
0
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
with different background treating PCa. In particular, MAXPC can be extremely useful in the case of AS, as it
specifically measures anxiety related to PCa, to undergoing
PSA test (which is repeatedly required to patients in the AS
protocols) and to PCa recurrence/progression.
Acknowledgements to Foundations I. Monzino and ProADAMO
Onlus.
1 Roth A, Nelson CJ, Rosenfeld B et al: Assessing anxiety
in men with prostate cancer: further data on the reliability
and validity of the Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate
Cancer (MAXPC). Psychosomatics 47: 340-347, 2006.
2 van den Bergh RC, Korfage IJ, Borsboom GJ, Steyerberg
EW and Essink-Bot ML: Prostate cancer-specific anxiety
in Dutch patients on active surveillance: validation of the
memorial anxiety scale for prostate cancer. Qual Life Res
18(8): 1061-1066, 2009.
41
HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE AND
COPING IN PATIENTS ON ACTIVE
SURVEILLANCE: TWO YEARS FOLLOW-UP
Lara Bellardita1, Maria Francesca Alvisi1, Tiziana Rancati1,
Cristina Marenghi1, Barbara Avuzzi2, Sara Morlino2,
Sergio Villa2, Davide Biasoni3, Roberto Salvioni3,
Tiziana Magnani1, Riccardo Valdagni1,2
Validated self-report questionnaires assessing QoL were
administered, including: a) Functional Assessment of Cancer
Therapy – Prostate Version (FACT-P), measuring HRQoL in
terms of: physical wellbeing (PWB), social wellbeing (SWB),
emotional wellbeing (EWB), functional wellbeing (FWB),
and wellbeing related to prostate cancer symptoms (PCS); b)
Mini Mental Adjustment to Cancer (Mini-MAC), evaluating
the strategies of coping with cancer: fighting spirit (FS),
helplessness/hopelessness (HH), fatalism (FAT), anxious
preoccupation (AP) and avoidance (AV). Descriptive analyses
were performed. Repeated measure analyses of variance were
performed to test changes over time and Bonferroni
correction was used for pair time comparisons. Results: The
mean age of study population at T0 was 66.2 years (median
66, range 42-79). Descriptive normalized scores for FACT-P
and Mini-MAC are reported in Table I.
Table I.
PWB
SWB
EWB
FWB
PCS
Mean
3.9
2.9
3.1
2.6
3.3
T0
SD
0.3
0.7
0.6
0.7
0.4
Mean
3.9
2.8
3.3
2.7
3.2
T2
SD
0.2
0.6
0.5
0.6
0.4
Mean
3.9
2.7
3.3
2.7
3.2
T3
SD
0.2
0.8
0.4
0.7
0.4
1Programma
Table II. Descriptive analyses for FACT-P normalized scores (range
0-4) and Mini-MAC normalized score (range 1-4).
Introduction/Aim: Active Surveillance (AS) is receiving
increasing consensus as a viable alternative to radical
treatment for low risk prostate cancer (PCa) (1). AS aims at
reducing overtreatment and the impairment in patients’
quality of life (QoL), which may derive from the adverse side
effects of radical therapies (commonly, erectile, urinary and
bowel dysfunctions). Recent studies highlighted that men on
AS reported high levels of health-related changes in QoL
(HRQoL) and adjustment to cancer (2). Nonetheless, longer
term follow-up is needed as the possibility of decrease in the
levels of QoL was highlighted. The aim of this study was to
investigate the changes in HRQoL and adjustment to cancer
over the first two years on AS. Patients and Methods:
Between November 2007 and January 2013, 208 patients
were included in PRIAS-QoL study and completed
questionnaires at enrolment in the AS protocol (T0).
Evaluations after 10 months (T1) from diagnostic biopsy, 12
months (after the first re-biopsy- T2) and 24 months (T3)
were completed by 156, 109 and 62 patients, respectively.
Repeated measure analyses of variance showed the following
significant changes over time (Figure 1): SWB decreased
from T0 to T3 (p=0.001); PCS decreased between T0 and T3
(p=0.014); EWB increased between both T0 and T2
(p=0.016) as well as T0 and T3 (p=0.001). As far as MiniMAC scores, both AP and AV significantly decreased from
T0 and T2 (p=0.0001 and p=0.035, respectively).
Conclusion: Patients on AS reported high levels of physical
and psychological wellbeing throughout the first two years.
QoL was not impaired by the idea of living with an untreated
cancer. It is particularly interesting that anxious
preoccupation, i.e. worry about disease progression,
decreased over the first year on AS and then remained stable.
The decrease in the perception of social wellbeing could be
related to the fact that support from family/friends is likely to
be higher in the period immediately following the diagnosis.
Prostata,
2Radioterapia Oncologica 1,
3Divisione di Urologia, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto
Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano, Italy
FS
HH
FAT
AP
AV
2.8
1.4
2.4
1.9
2.3
0.6
0.5
0.7
0.6
0.8
2.7
1.3
2.3
1.7
2.2
0.6
0.4
0.7
0.5
0.8
2.7
1.4
2.2
1.8
2.1
0.6
0.4
0.6
0.6
0.8
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
The increase of PCa-related symptoms is unexpected and
needs to be further detailed. Our results are consistent with
those of North European and North American studies, thus
confirming that the acceptance of AS is highly possible in
the Mediterranean culture (3).
Acknowledgements to Foundations I. Monzino and ProADAMO
Onlus.
Figure 1. Changes over the first two years on AS of FACT-P (HealthRelated Quality of Life) and Mini-MAC (adjustment to cancer).
1 Bangma CH, Bul M, van der Kwast TH, Pickles T, Korfage
IJ, Hoeks CM et al: Active surveillance for low-risk
prostate cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2012 Aug 6.
2 Van den Bergh RC, Korfage IJ and Bangma CH:
Psychological aspects of active surveillance. Curr Opin
Urol 22: 237-242, 2012.
3 Bellardita L, Rancati T, Alvisi MF, Villani D, Magnani T,
Marenghi C et al: Predictors of health-related quality of
life and adjustment to prostate cancer during active
surveillance. Eur Urol 2013 Jan 21.
2274
42
EFFECTIVENESS OF PROSTATE CANCER
CRYOTHERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH CHARLSON
COMOBIDITY INDEX AGE ADJUSTED >6:
OUR EXPERIENCE
S. Ricciardulli1, D. Del Biondo2, A. Celia2
1Clinica
2S.C
Italy
Urologica G. D’Annunzio University Chieti;
Urologia, San Bassiano Hospital, Bassano del Grappa,
Introduction: Cryotherapy has today credited as one of the
true alternative therapeutic treatment of localized forms of
cancer of the prostate. In 2008, the AUC released its best
practices statement on cryosurgery for the treatment of
localized prostate cancer. Cryotherapy may be used as a
valid alternative for patients with high comorbidity index.
The aim of this study is to present a preliminary experience
with cryotherapy in patients with prostate cancer and high
comorbity index (Charlson Score [CS] >6). Patients and
Methods: From September 2009 to January 2011, a total of
13 patiens with mean age 76.31 years (Interquartile Range
IQR 73.5-78) were treated at our Institute with cryotherapy
for prostate cancer. All patients had a CHARLSON
COMORBIDITY INDEX AGE ADJUSTED >6 (IQR 6-7).
The median Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) level was 7,32
ng/ml (IQR 4.05-8.75). 15 % of those patients had a pretreatment clinical stage T1a, 15% had T1b, 8% had T1c ans
62% had T2a. Gleason score was 2+2 for 23% of patients,
3+3 for the 39%, 3+4 for the 23% and 4+3 for the 15%. All
13 patients underwent transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) to
evaluate prostate volume. The median prostate volume was
32.8 cc (IQR 26.9-39.3). Cryotherapy was performed with
the Galil Medicals Presice. Trans perineal approach was
used for the treatment, patients under general anesthesia
and in lithotomy position. From 6 to 8 cryoablation needles
were inserted (type Iceseed or Icerod) with “free hands”
technical TRUS guided, 3 thermal sensor and a warming
catheter. Patients were evaluated at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months
after the cryotherapy. Results: No intraoperative
complications were observed. All patients were discharged
24 hours after cryotherapy with a Foley catheter. The
catheter was removed 7 days post-treatment. In the early
complications (in the first month after cryotherapy) we
observed hematuria (1/13), urge incontinence (1/13) and
edema of penis and scrotum (1/13). After 12 months 80%
of patients had erectile dysfunction, but this pathology was
present at the time of diagnosis due to diabetes and
cardiovascular disease. After treatment, the median PSA at
3, 6, 9 and 12 months was 0.59, 0.95, 1.46 and 1.36 ng/ml
(IQR 0.07-1.4, 0.3-1.8, 0.5-2.4, 0.3-3). During the follow
up 1 patient had metastases. Discussion: Cryotherapy is a
valid therapeutic alternative for treatment of prostate
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
cancer, specially for patients with high CS. During the
follow up, PSA levels remained consistently low in line
with the literature. DE is the main complication releted to
cryotherapy. However, in patients with pre treatment DE,
cryotherapy does not influence the quality of life and is
better tolerated than other treatments. Cryotherapy can be
used as a first therapeutic approach for those patients who
are not suitable for surgery, get a good control of disease
and a low impact on quality of life.
1 Barret E, Ahallal Y, Sanchez-Salas R, Galiano M, Cosset
JM, Validire P, Macek P, Durand M, Prapotnich D, Rozet F
and Cathelineau X: Morbidity of focal therapy in the
treatment of localized prostate cancer. Eur Urol 2012 Dec
13.
2 Ward JF and Jones JS: Focal cryotherapy for localized
prostate cancer: a report from the national Cryo On-Line
Database (COLD) Registry. BJU Int 109(11): 1648-1654,
2012.
3 Bahn D, de Castro Abreu AL, Gill IS, Hung AJ, Silverman
P, Gross ME, Lieskovsky G and Ukimura O: Focal
cryotherapy for clinically unilateral, low-intermediate risk
prostate cancer in 73 men with a median follow-up of 3.7
years. Eur Urol 62(1): 55-63, 2012.
43
A CASE REPORT OF INCIDENTAL PROSTATIC
STROMAL TUMOR OF UNCERTAIN MALIGNANT
POTENTIAL (STUMP) IN A YOUNG MAN
Matteo Ferro1, Antonio D’antonio2, Umberto Greco3,
Isabella Greco3, Anna Rega3, Gianmarco Silvestre3,
Angelo Colucci3, Chiara Scafuro3, Luigi Brindisi3,
Francesco Maiorino3, Vittorino Montanaro3,
Vincenzo Altieri4
1Urologia,
Università degli Studi Federico II, Napoli;
of Pathologic Anatomy and Oncology,
3Unit of Urology, AO San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi D
Aragona, Via S Leonardo, Salerno;
4Unit of Urology, University of Salerno, Italy
2Unit
Introduction: Primary sarcoma tumours of the prostate are
classified, according to their histology, as stromal tumours
of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) and stromal
prostatic sarcoma (1). Malignant proliferations of the
specific prostatic stroma are rare tumors, with about 40
documented cases (2, 3). Its clinical behavior and its
histological features have been described first by Gaudin
et al. in 1998 (2). We report a case of a 14 years old boy
with a stromal prostatic sarcoma treated by a trans-uretral
resection. Patients and Methods: A 14 year old boy,
suffering from congenital intellectual deficit and hip
dysplasia, came to our attention. Anamnesis revealed that
the patient had been catheterized following a hip
orthopedic surgery and a few days after removal of the
catheter had developed dysuria. Symptoms worsened in a
few weeks and patient developed urinary retention.
Bladder ultrasonography revealed a protruding lesion on
the inferior portion of bladder. Patient was catheterized to
immediately treat urinary retention, and next day
underwent a transurethral resection of the lesion. Results:
The morphological and immunophenotypic characteristics
were those of a sarcoma not rabdo of high degree and
allowed diagnosis of a sarcoma of the specialized stroma
of the prostate. The immunohistochemical investigations
showed the following profile: Desmin, Smooth Muscle
Actin, Caldesmon, CD34. Progesterone receptor: positive
in 40% of the cells. Discussion and Conclusion: The
etiology and pathogenesis of STUMP are unknown and no
risk factors have been associated with this proliferation.
Combination with adenocarcinoma of the prostate has been
reported in just a small percentage of cases. Literature data
report that 46% of patients with STUMP will develop local
recurrence and 5% will progress to PSS. Since there is no
definitive treatment guideline for STUMP, further research
is required to provide an optimal therapy.
1 Tavora F, Kryvenko ON and Epstein JI: Mesenchymal
tumours of the bladder and prostate: an update. Pathology
45(2): 104-115, 2013.
2 Gaudin PB, Rosai J and Epstein JI: Sarcomas and related
proliferative lesions of specialized prostatic stroma: a
clinicopathologic study of 22 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 22:
148-162, 1998.
3 Bostwick DG, Hossain D, Qian J et al: Phyllodes tumor of
the prostate: long-term followup study of 23 cases. J Urol
172: 894-899, 2004.
44
INCREASING PROSTATE CANCER DETECTION BY
A MODEL INCLUDING PROSTATE HEALTH INDEX
(PHI) AND PROSTATE CANCER ANTIGEN 3 (PCA3)
Matteo Ferro1, Ada Marino2, Liberato Gargiulo2,
Vincenzo Cosimato2, Claudia Mazzarella2,
Giuseppe Perruolo2, Dario Bruzzese3, Daniela Terracciano2,
Amelia Cimmino4, Chiara Scafuro5, Federica Mastella5,
Vittorino Montanaro5, Vincenzo Altieri6, Sisto Perdonà7
1Urologia,
Università degli Studi Federico II, Napoli;
of Translational Medical Sciences, University
of Naples “Federico II”;
3Department of Public Health, University of Naples
“Federico II”;
4Institute of Genetics and Biophysics, CNR, Naples, Italy;
2Department
2275
5Department
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
of Urology, AO San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi
D Aragona Via S Leonardo, Salerno, Italy;
6Department of Urology, University of Salerno, Italy;
7Department of Urology, Urology Section, Istituto
Nazionale Tumori, Fondazione G. Pascale, Naples, Italy
Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of
prostate health index (phi) and prostate cancer antigen 3
(PCA3) in addition to a model including currently used
variables in men undergoing first prostate biopsy for
suspicion of PCa. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and
ninety male subjects were referred to a major oncologic
center to undergo their first prostate biopsy. They provided
informed consent and were screened to be enrolled in this
prospective observational study. One hundred and sixty
patients met inclusion criteria: age over 50 years, no prior
prostate surgery and biopsy, no bacterial acute or chronic
prostatitis, no use of 5-α reductase inhibitors in the
previous six months, PSA values between 2 and 20 ng/ml,
negative digital rectal examination (DRE), availability of
serum and urine samples and corresponding clinical data.
PSA molecular forms, phi index (Beckman coulter
immunoassay), PCA3 score (Progensa PCA3 assay) and
other established biomarkers (tPSA, fPSA and %fPSA)
were assessed before patients underwent a 18-core prostate
biopsy. The discriminating ability between PCa-negative
and PCa-positive biopsies of Beckman Coulter phi
[(p2PSA/fPSA)x √tPSA] and PCA3 score [(PCA3
mRNA/PSA mRNA)x 1000] and other established
biomarkers were determined. Results: Multivariate logistic
regression analysis showed that a model including patient
age, tPSA, prostate volume and %fPSA along with phi
index and PCA3 assays improved the discriminatory
abilities of each assay in predicting PCa. Decision curve
analysis (DCA) showed that the model-based diagnostic
scores may offer a net benefit in the clinical management
of patients. Conclusion: The ability of currently used
variables such as patient age, tPSA, prostate volume and
%fPSA to detect a PCa in men undergoing their first
prostate biopsy is improved by adding phi and PCA3.
1 Day JR, Jost M, Reynolds MA, Groskopf J and
Rittenhouse H: PCA3: From basic molecular science to the
clinical lab. Cancer Lett 301(1): 1-6, 2011.
2 Ferro M, Bruzzese D, Perdona S, Mazzarella C, Marino
A,Sorrentino A, di Carlo A, Autorino R, di Lorenzo G,
BuonerbaC, Altieri V, Mariano A, Macchia V and Terracciano
D: Predicting prostate biopsy outcome: Prostate health index
(phi) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) are useful
biomarkers. Clin Chim Acta 413(15-16): 1274-1278, 2012.
3 Jansen FH, van Schaik RH, Kurstjens J, Horninger W,
Klocker H, Bektic J, Wildhagen MF, Roobol MJ, Bangma
CH and Bartsch G: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
2276
isoform p2PSA in combination with total PSA and free
PSA improves diagnostic accuracy in prostate cancer
detection. Eur Urol 57(6): 921-927, 2010.
45
uCyt+/ImmunoCyt™ AND CYTOLOGY IN THE
DETECTION OF UROTHELIAL CARCINOMA:
AN UPDATE ON 7,422 ANALYSES
Evi Comploj1, Christine Mian2, Andrea Ambrosini-Spaltro2,
Christopher Dechet1,3, Salvatore Palermo1, Emanuela Trenti1,
Michele Lodde1, Wolfgang Horninger4, Armin Pycha1
1Reparto
di Urologia,
di Istopatologia, Ospedale Centrale Bolzano;
Bolzano, Italy;
3Division of Urology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City,
Utah, USA;
4Reparto di Urologia, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck,
Austria
2Reparto
Aim: To report the results of 7,422 uCyt+/ImmunoCyt and
cytology analyses, performed over 9 years at our
institution for the evaluation and follow-up for patients
with urothelial carcinoma. Methods: From January 2002
until March 2011, 2,217 patients (mean age, 69.5 years;
range 15-99 years) were enrolled in this study. All patients
seen in our department for the follow-up of bladder and/or
upper tract urothelial cancer as well as a history suspicious
for bladder cancer were recruited. In all patients, a voided
urinary cytology and uCyt+/ImmunoCyt test was
performed. Patients underwent routine cystoscopy as well
as cystoscopy when cytology and/or uCyt+/ImmunoCyt
test yielded positive results. Cystoscopically discovered
lesions were biopsied and removed transurethrally.
Altogether, 7,422 uCyt+/ ImmunoCyt and cytology
analyses
were
performed.
Results:
of
7,422
uCyt+/ImmunoCyt tests and cytologies, 7,075 (95.3%)
were considered adequate. A total of 578 patients (with
1,156 analyses) underwent biopsy and 728 (63%) samples
had a histologically proven urothelial carcinoma. Overall
sensitivity was 34.5% for cytology, 68.1% for
uCyt+/ImmunoCyt and 72.8% for the two tests combined.
Overall specificity was 97.9% for cytology, 72.3% for
uCyt+/ImmunoCyt, and 71.9% combined. Cytology and
uCyt+/ImmunoCyt test together had an overall sensitivity
of 72.8%, with 59% for G1, 77% for G2, and 90% for G3
tumors. Conclusion: On the basis of our 9 year experience
we confirm the value of the uCyt+/ImmunoCyt and
cytology in the follow-up of non muscle invasive urothelial
cancer. This could potentially reduce the number and cost
of routine cystoscopic examinations in patients followedup for bladder carcinoma.
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
46
BLADDER INFLAMMATORY MYOFIBROBLASTIC
TUMOR IN A YOUNG GIRL: A CASE REPORT
Matteo Ferro1, Federica Mastella2, Angelo Colucci2,
Francesco Maiorino2, Chiara Scafuro2, Luigi Brindisi2,
Anna Rega2, Gaetano Savoia2, Vincenzo Altieri3,
Isabella Greco2, Umberto Greco2
1Urologia,
Università degli Studi Federico II, Napoli;
of Urology, AO San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi
D Aragona, Via S Leonardo, Salerno;
3Department of Urology, University of Salerno, Italy
2Department
Introduction: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMTs)
is a rare spindle tumor that appears preferentially in the
visceral tissues of children and adolescents. There are not
currently evidences about the malignant potential of these
tumors, which appear to show a preference for local
recurrence, with a lower risk of distant metastases (1). We
report a case of a 19 years old girl with an IMT of the
bladder treated by a bladder preserving approach. Patients
and Methods: A 19-year-old girl presented to our hospital
with painless macrohematuria and anemia. The girl
executed bladder ultrasonography and abdominal and pelvis
computer tomography which revealed an about 8-cm
protruding sessile lesion on the front portion of superior
bladder wall. The patient had a transurethral resection of
the lesion. Results: Histopatological examination revealed
inflammatory
myofibroblastic
tumor.
Following
scintigraphy was negative. Intraoperative evaluation of the
malignancy extension has highlighted the possibility of a
conservative approach, according to the encouraging results
reported in the literature (2). Patient underwent a partial
cystectomy. Discussion and Conclusion: Considering the
short duration of follow-up available in the literature we
cannot know the medium and long term prognosis.
Moreover, the expression of anaplastic lymphoma kinase
(ALK) seems to be a marker of malignant potential a clinic
control for evaluation of local and distant recurrences was
planned (2, 3).
1 Gleason BC and Hornick JL: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumours: where are we now?. J Clin Pathol 61: 428437, 2008.
2 Houben CH, Chan A, Lee KH, Tam YH, To KF, Cheng W
and Yeung CK: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the
bladder in children: what can be expected?. Pediatr Surg
Int 23: 815-819, 2007.
3 Mergan F, Jaubert F, Sauvat F et al: Inflammatory
myofibroblastic tumor in children: clinical review with
anaplastic lymphoma kinase, Epstein-Barr virus, and
human herpesvirus 8 detection analysis. J Pediatr Surg 40:
1581-1586.
47
COMPARISON OF PROSTATE HEALTH
INDEX, URINARY PCA3 ASSAY AND %
FREE PSA IN PREDICTING PROSTATE
CANCER AT FIRST BIOPSY
Stefano De Luca1, Adele Parziale2, Paolo Caccia1,
Andrea Cavallini1, Nicola Faraone1, Ernesto Giargia1,
Massimo Pasquale1, Maria Sara Squeo1, Angela Milillo2,
Donato Franco Randone1
1Divisione
di Urologia,
Analisi, Ospedale Gradenigo di Torino, Italy
2Laboratorio
Introduction: New biomarkers are required in order to avoid
unnecessary prostatic biopsies. Prostate Health Index (PHI)
and Prostate Cancer gene3 (PCA3) have been shown to
improve the prediction of prostate cancer (PCa) in men
undergoing first and/or repeat prostate biopsy (PBx). The aim
of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PCA3,
PHI and %fPSA in a cohort of patients candidates to initial
PBx. Materials and Methods: the performance characteristics
of Beckman-Coulter PHI, using the formula (p2PSA/free
PSA) x √total PSA) and Progensa PCA3, calculated as PCA3
mRNA/PSA mRNA x 1000, were evaluated in a prospective
cohort of 107 consecutive men undergoing first PBx between
October 2011 and December 2012. Patients underwent
ambulatory transperineal ultrasound guided PBx according to
a standardized institutional scheme, which consisted of at least
12-16 biopsy cores taken from prostate gland. Specimens were
processed and evaluated by a single experienced genitourinary
pathologist. Univariable logistic regression analysis tested the
ability of the three biomarkers in predicting PCa in the initial
setting and their accuracy was identified using the Area Under
the Curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis.
Results: 33 of 107 biopsies (30.8%) were positive for cancer.
Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value
(PPV and NPV), AUC of PHI, PCA3 and %fPSA are reported
in the Table I.
Table I.
Sensitivity (%)
Specificity (%)
VPP (%)
VPN (%)
AUC
PHI
69.7
55.7
77.2
46
0.675
PCA3
56.6
46.4
36.1
66.6
0.565
%fPSA
64
21.2
30.1
52.6
0.661
Overall, PHI accuracy in predicting PCa was significantly
higher (67.5%) than PCA3% and free PSA. PHI was the only
statistically significant predictor of PCa at univariate analysis
(OR 2.90, p 0.020). Conclusion: Recent studies have shown
that p2PSA and its derivatives, namely, percentage of p2PSA
2277
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
to free PSA (%p2PSA) and PHI improve the accuracy of
total PSA and %fPSA in predicting the presence of PCa. On
the other hand, PCA3 has proven to be superior to PSA and
%fPSA in the early detection of PCa. In our experience PHI
seems to be the strongest parameter to predict PBx outcome
in the initial PBx setting.
1 de la Taille A, Irani J, Graefen M, Chun F, de Reijke T, Kil
P, Gontero P, Mottaz A and Haese A: Clinical evaluation
of the PCA3 assay in guiding initial biopsy decisions. J
Urol 185: 2119-2125, 2011.
2 Chun FK, Epstein JI, Ficarra V, Freedland SJ, Montironi R,
Montorsi F, Shariat SF, Schröder FH and Scattoni V:
Optimizing performance and interpretation of prostate biopsy:
a critical analysis of the literature. Eur Urol 58: 851, 2010.
3 Bollito E, De Luca S, Cicilano M, Passera R, Grande S,
Maccagnano C, Cappia S, Milillo A, Montorsi F, Scarpa RM,
Papotti M and Randone DF: Prostate cancer gene 3 urine
assay cutoff in diagnosis of prostate cancer: a validation
study on an Italian patient population undergoing first and
repeat biopsy. Anal Quant Cytol Histol 34(2): 96-104, 2012.
49
ROLE OF “REPEAT SATURATION BIOPSY" IN
MANAGEMENT OF HIGH-RISK PROSTATE
CANCER. WHO IS THE RIGHT PATIENT?
Giandavide Cova, Francesco Beniamin,
Claudio Lamon, Luigino Maccatrozzo
Divisione di Urologia, Ospedale Ca’Foncello Treviso, Italy
Introduction: The management of patients with persistent
clinical suspicion of prostate cancer after repeat prostate
biopsies still remains a dilemma. The purpose of this study is to
evaluate data from patients who underwent a second saturation
biopsy in order to find reliable predictors able to define the
“right patient” suitable for a further diagnostic invasive
deepening and to minimize unnecessary and uncomfortable
biopsies. Patients and Methods: We collected retrospectively
the clinical and pathological records of 119 consecutive men
with persistent high degree of suspicion of prostate cancer
(from DRE, PSA or suspicious pathologic findings at previous
prostatic biopsies) who underwent a second saturation biopsy
at our Institution from December 2005 to December 2011.
Each patient underwent a 8 or 10 core initial biopsy template
and a first saturation biopsy (24 cores). We performed
ultrasound-guided transrectal needle biopsies with periprostatic
nerve block. We considered, for each patient, the following
parameters: age, familiarity, DRE, prostate volume on TRUS,
PSA values, histological findings of every biopsy set and
timing. According to histological findings of the last biopsy,
patients were divided into two groups: presence or absence of
2278
prostatic cancer. Wilcoxon test was performed to compare
variables. A logistic regression model was used for the
multivariate analisys. Results: Prostate cancer was found in 28
patients (24%). All cancers were clinically significant
according to Epstein criteria. 24 patients underwent retropubic
radical prostatectomy (pathological stage was T0 in 1 patient,
T2 Gleason score 7 in 16 patients and T3 Gleason score 7 in 7
patients). Univariate analysis showed that only the presence of
ASAP in any set differed significantly between the prostate
cancer and non-cancer groups (p=0.037). Multivariate analysis
found no useful data due to limited number of patients
examined; there seems to be an interesting correlation between
prostate volume > 50 cc and decreased risk of presence of
prostate cancer. Discussion and Conclusion: The management
of patients at risk for prostate cancer is still controversial and
the possibility of overdiagnosis and consequent overtreatment
is high. At this time there is no answer to the question “who is
the right patient?”. Previous ASAP is an important risk factor
but other studies are necessary to confirm this data. The only
conclusion we could take is that a single negative sat- uration
biopsy does not exclude the possibility of harbouring prostate
cancer in high risk patient. The introduction in clinical practice
of assay like PCA-3 test could identify patients in which repeat
saturation biopsy may be useful and the use of MRI, MR/US
fusion technique or multiparametric TRUS could facilitate
more precise sampling of suspicious prostatic areas.
1 Maccagnano C, Gallina A, Roscigno M et al: Prostate
saturation biopsy following a first negative biopsy: state of
the art. Urol Int 89(2): 126-135, 2012.
2 Novara G, Boscolo-Berto R, Lamon C et al: Detection rate and
factors predictive the presence of prostate cancer in patients
undergoing ultrasonography-guided transperineal saturation
biopsies of the prostate. BJU Int 105(9): 1242-1246, 2010.
3 Zaytoun OM, Stephenson AJ, Fareed K et al: When serial
prostate biopsy is recommended: most cancers detected are
clinically insignificant. BJU Int 110(7): 987-992, 2012.
50
SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION OF ANDROGEN
RECEPTOR AND HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEAR
RIBONUCLEOPROTEIN K IN RESPONSE TO
DIFFERENT ANTI-ANDROGENS
Paola Barboro, Luana Borzì, Cecilia Balbi
S.s. Traslazionale Urologica, IRCCS Azienda Ospedaliera,
Universitaria San Martino, IST-Istituto Nazionale per la
Ricerca sul Cancro, Genova, Italy
Introduction: The androgen receptor (AR) plays a central role
in development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa) and
anti-androgen therapy, in combination with surgical or
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
medical castration, is the treatment routinely employed. Two
structurally distinct anti-androgens are in common use:
steroidal and non-steroidal. In both cases, initially androgen
deprivation leads to remission of tumor but after a few years
of treatment the majority of patients progress developing
androgen independent PCa, a lethal form because there are
no therapies against. Little is known about how androgens
exert their effects and the mechanisms responsible for
emergence of the androgen independent phenotype. AR drive
gene transcription recruiting a large number of coactivator/corepressor complexes and it has recently been demonstrated
that the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP
K) directly interacts with and regulates the AR translational
apparatus (1, 2). Besides, an increase in the phosphorylation
state of hnRNP K into the nuclear matrix (NM) is strongly
associated with a worse prognosis (3). In this study we have
examined the distribution into different subcellular
compartments of AR and hnRNP K in the response to
treatment of LNCaP cells with anti-androgens. The
elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the repression of
AR may provide a basis to understand the conversion of an
initially androgen-dependent to androgen independent cancer.
Materials and Methods: LNCaP cells were cultured in
monolayer in the presence of 0.1 nM 5-αdihydrosterone and
incubated for 48 or 72 h with steroidal anti-androgen
cyproterone acetate (CPA) or non-steroidal bicalutamide
(BIC). Modulation and compartmentalization of AR and
hnRNP K were studied in cytoplasm, nucleus and NM by
Western blot analysis. The NM localization of the two
proteins was also evaluated by confocal laser scanning
microscopy. Phosphate-affinity two-dimensional gel
electrophoresis was employed to examine how anti-androgens
modify the different phosphorylated forms of hnRNP K.
Results: 10-6M CPA stimulated significantly (p<0.01)
LNCaP proliferation whereas for 10-4M CPA or 10-5M BIC
only the 75% of cells were vital indicating that at these
concentrations the two drugs have the same antagonistic
effect. After anti-androgen treatments, AR was always
remarkably repressed within both the cytoplasm and the
nucleus but when CPA had agonist activity (10–6M) the AR
associated with the NM was increased of about 2.5 times with
respect to control cells. This increase was synchronous with a
higher intracellular PSA expression level, indicating that the
NM-associated AR may represent the active complex. After
BIC treatment the expression of the hnRNP K was
significantly lower within the NM (from 1.14 to 0.73,
p<0.05) in agreement with our previous results (2), whereas
no effect was detectable at 10–6M CPA. In the cells treated
with 10–4M CPA a strong decrease of the protein expression
in all cellular compartments was observed. Images obtained
by confocal microscopy were in complete agreement with the
Western blot results. The phosphorylation of hnRNP K is
believed to play a pivotal role both in signal transduction and
in PCa progression (3), therefore, its isoforms may be
modulated by the different treatments. 10–6M CPA
determined an increase of the phosphorylation of the protein,
in particular the isoforms 2 and 3 whereas after treatment
with 10–5M BIC a dephosphorylation of the isoforms 1 and 2
occurred. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that, at
least in vitro, whereas there is no relationship between AR
content and cellular growth, there is a strong relationship
between NM-associated AR and both cell vitality and PSA
level indicating that AR transcriptional activity is critically
dependent on its subnuclear localization. Moreover, the
agonistic/antagonistic activity of antiandrogens is associated
with modifications in the phosphorylation status of hnRNP K
suggesting an involvement of this protein in the development
of the androgen independent phenotype.
1 Mukhopadhyay NK et al: Cancer Res 69: 2210-2218.
2009.
2 Barboro P et al: Prostate 71: 1466-1479, 2011.
3 Barboro P et al: Anticancer Res 25: 3999-4004, 2005.
51
COMPLIANCE WITH ONE YEAR MAINTENANCE
INTRAVESICAL BCG IN PATIENTS AFFECTED BY
T1G3 BLADDER CANCER
Gaetano Chiapparrone, Cristina Scalici Gesolfo,
Antonio Solazzo, Francesco D’amato, Rosa Maria Giaimo,
Giuseppe Mastrocinque, Salvatore Scurria,
Vincenzo Serretta
U.O.C. di Urologia, Dipartimento di Discipline Chirurgiche
ed Oncologiche, Università degli Studi di Palermo, Italy
Introduction: BCG maintenance for at least one year is the
best regimen for prevention of recurrence and progression in
high risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC),
undergoing conservative approach. Noteworthy, a relevant
number of patients do not complete the planned treatment
interruption. Study aim was to analyze retrospectively the
reasons of treatment. Patients and Methods: Consecutive
patients affected by T1G3 BC, undergoing BCG maintenance
for one year, according to the SWOG schedule (3 weekly
instillations at 3, 6, 12 months) were included in this study.
Connaught BCG (81 mg/50 ml) was given starting 1430 days
after TUR. If toxicity occurred, treatment was postponed up
to two weeks. No dose reduction was considered. The
patients’ compliance with the treatment was analyzed. Results:
Out of 160 patients, 148 (92.5%) completed the induction
cycle. In 10 (6.3%) more patients a recurrence was detected.
In 15 (9.4%) patients induction only was planned due to
personal difficulties. In 123 patients (76.8%) maintenance for
one year was planned. However, 8 patients never started and
2279
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
67 (54.4%) completed only one year maintenance: 6 (4.8%)
interrupted for toxicity and 9 (7,3%) for recurrence.
Compliance decreased from 84.5% at 3 to 57,7% at 12
months, 56 (45.6%) patients not completing one-year. In
particular 109 patients (83.8%) completed the maintenance at
3 and 88 (67.2%) at 6 months. Noteworthy, mild grade I BCG
toxicity, not requiring therapy on urologists’ opinion, was
recorded in 91 (74%) out of 123 patients in whom
maintenance was planned. Main limit was the retrospective
nature of the study. Conclusion: Maintenance interruption was
due to moderate-severe toxicity in only 5% of the patients.
The poor patient’s compliance was probably multifactorial,
partially related to grade I toxicity, not taken into appropriate
account by the urologists. A correct and periodical counselling
with the patients undergoing BCG maintenance regimen could
ameliorate the compliance to BCG (1, 2, 3).
1 Serretta V: Management, and prevention, of intravesical
therapy complications. Urologia 76(1): 19-28, 2009, 2009.
2 Lamm DL, Blumenstein BA, Crissman JD et al:
Maintenance Bacillus Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy for
recurrent Ta, T1 and carcinoma in situ transitional cell
carcinoma of the bladder: a randomized Southwest
Oncology Group Study. J Urol 163(4): 1124-1129, 2000.
3 van der Meijden APM, Sylvester R, Oosterlinck W et al:
Maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guerin for Ta T1 bladder
cancer is not associated with increased toxicity. Results
from an EORTC Genito-Urinary Group phase III trial. Eur
Urol Suppl 2: 190 Abstr 751 3, 2003.
52
SERUM LEVELS OF 17-β-ESTRADIOL ARE NOT
PREDICTIVE OF PROSTATE CANCER DIAGNOSIS
AND AGGRESSIVENESS
Cosimo De Nunzio1, Riccardo Lombardo2,
Fabiana Cancrini2, Costantino Leonardo3, Mauro Gacci4,
Giorgio Franco3, Fabrizio Presicce2, Matteo Bonetto2,
Andrea Tubaro2
1U.O.C
Urologia, Ospedale Sant Andrea, Roma;
of Urology, Ospedale Sant’Andrea Roma;
3Department of Urology, Policlinico Umberto Primo Roma;
4Department of Urology, Ospedale Careggi Firenze, Italy
2Department
Introduction: The use and identification of new prostate
cancer (PCa) biomarkers would help urologists in decision
making and in the development of normograms with the aim
of better identifying patients at risk of PCa and particularly
high grade PCa, therefore overcoming the well known
limitation of PSA. The aim of our study was to evaluate the
relationship between serum levels of 17-beta-estradiol(17BE)
and prostate cancer in a group of patients undergoing
2280
transrectal prostate biopsies in order to identify a possible
relationship. Patients and Methods: After an Internal Review
Board approval, between 2006 and 2012, a consecutive series
of patients with no known history of PCa were referred to
our department to undergo initial prostate biopsy because of
an abnormal finding on digital rectal examination (DRE)
and/or an elevation of serum levels of PSA (>4 ng/ml).
Patients with uncontrolled diabetes, thyroid disease,
hyperprolactinemia, hypoalbuminemia or liver disease were
excluded from our cohort. Before biopsy, general data from
the patient, digital rectal examination (DRE) and Body Mass
Index (BMI) were recorded. Blood samples were collected
before biopsy and tested for total PSA levels and 17-BE. The
risk of detecting cancer and high grade cancer was assessed
as a function of 17BE using crude and adjusted logistic
regressions. Results: Overall 894 patients were prospectively
enrolled, median age was 67 (IQR: 62/73) years, median
BMI was 27 (IQR: 25/29.4) kg/m2; median PSA was 6.2
(IQR: 4.4/9.3) ng/ml, median 17BE serum level was 24
(IQR: 18/31) pg/ml. Overall 216/894 (24%) patients
presented a positive DRE. Overall 355/894 (39.7%) patients
presented PCa on biopsy and out of them 184/355 (51%)
presented high grade PCa (Gleason score≥7). Patients with
PCa were significantly older (p=0.001) and presented a
higher PSA (p=0.000) when compared to patients with a
negative biopsy. No significant differences were observed in
terms of BMI and 17BE levels. Age (OR 1.046; 95% CI
1.025-1.068 p=0.000), PSA( OR 1.069; 95% CI 1.041-1.097
p=0.000) and DRE( OR 2.811; 95% CI 1.97-3.99 p=0.000)
were found to be independent predictors of prostate cancer
risk. Patients with high grade disease when compared to
patients with low grade disease were significantly older
(p=0.001), presented a higher PSA (p=0.000) and higher
BMI (p=0.010) while no difference was found in terms of
17BE levels (p=0.353). Age (OR 1.047; 95% CI 1.013-1.083
p=0.007), PSA (OR 1.075; 95% CI 1.034-1.118 p=0.000),
DRE (OR 3.041; 95% CI 1.789-4.293 p=0.000) and BMI
(OR 1.070; 95% CI 1.010-1.149 p=0.040) were found to be
independent predictors of high grade disease. Conclusion: In
our cohort of patients, serum levels of 17BE were not
predictive of PCa or high grade disease. In patients with
PCa, 17-β-estradiol should not be considered as reliable
marker to predict poorly differentiated PCa in the setting of
initial prostate biopsy.
1 Salonia A, Gallina A, Briganti A et al: Circulating
estradiol, but not testosterone, is a significant predictor of
high-grade prostate cancer in patients undergoing radical
prostatectomy. Cancer 117: 5029-5038, 2011.
2 Salonia A, Abdollah F, Capitanio U et al: Preoperative sex
steroids are significant predictors of early biochemical
recurrence after radical prostatectomy. World J Urol 18:
3648-57, 2012.
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
53
THE USE OF HORMONAL THERAPY IN LOW-RISK
PROSTATE CANCER: OUR EXPERIENCE
Girolamo Spagnoletti, Maria Enfasi, Giorgia Cocco, Grazia
Nardella, Vincenzo Oriolo, Angela Pia Solazzo, Ramon
Gimenez De Lorenzo, Rita Marchese, Giuseppe Bove
Struttura Complessa di Radioterapia, Azienda Ospedalierouniversitaria Ospedali Riuniti Foggia, Italy;
Background: Treatment of low-risk prostate adenocarcinomas
remains a challenge for both urologists and radiation
oncologists.The current main modalities are radical
prostatectomy, radiation therapy (RT) and active surveillance.
Hormonal therapy (HT), which had mainly been indicated for
treatment of patients with distant metastases, has been added
to RT to improve the efficacy of treatment. However, the role
of HT remains unclear in this subset of patients. Although the
majority of guidelines and published studies do not suggest the
use of HT in low-risk patients, several studies have shown
better outcome following combined RT and HT in patients
with low and intermediate risk. No randomized trial has been
designed specifically for low-risk disease to compare HT plus
RT with RT alone in these patients. Therefore, there are still
doubts about the use of HT in the daily clinical practice. This
analysis evaluates our experience in the clinical use of HT
combined with RT in low-risk prostate cancer. Patients and
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 95 patients with low-risk
prostate cancer (cT1T2a, PSA <10 ng/ml and Gleason score
≤6) treated with radical RT with or without HT from October
2006 to February 2012. Median age was 74 years (range: 5483). All patients underwent biopsy with histologically proven
prostate adenocarcinomas and they all were treated with a
median dose of 76 Gy (2 Gy/die). When prescribed, HT started
between one and three months before RT, continued during the
entire RT course and it was interrupted between three and
eighteen months after the end of RT. Results: Median and
minimum follow-up were 47 months and 12 months,
respectively. Median pretreatment PSA was 6.7 ng/mL (range:
4.2-10) and median Gleason score was 6 (range: 3-6). HT was
prescribed for 67.4% of patients of whom 31 patients (48.4%)
received total androgen deprivation, 25 patients (39.1%)
received bicalutamide alone (150 mg/die) and 8 patients
(12.5%) received LH-RH analogue alone. Most patients
reported at least one of the following side effects: sexual
dysfunction, gynecomastia, anemia, fatigue, muscular pain and
hot flashes. Discussion and Conclusion: Interest has been
increasing in the use of HT combined with RT in the
management of localized prostate cancer. Preclinical studies
have provided some rationale for the use of this combination.
As regards low-risk disease, RT alone should be considered the
treatment of choice. Nevertheless, there are still many
inconsistencies in the daily clinical practice regarding the use,
the type and the duration of HT in this subgroup of patients.
In United States the number of patients with favourable lowrisk disease receiving HT is growing. Our analysis confirms
that many patients with low-risk prostate cancer receive HT
also in Italian daily practice. Overall, low-risk patients are
characterized by excellent long-term outcomes regardless of
treatment option and the association of RT and HT could be an
overtreatment. Side-effects should be taken into account as
well. On the other hand, the combined approach could lead to
a therapeutic advantage even in low-risk disease because of
cytoreduction. The results of randomized trials will hopefully
provide more definitive answers.
1 Cooperberg MR et al: The contemporary management of
prostate cancer in the United States: lessons from the
Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research
Endeavor (CaPSURE), a national disease registry. J Urol
171(4): 1393-1401, 2004.
2 McGowan D et al: Short-term endocrine therapy prior to
and during radiation therapy improves overall survival in
patients with T1b–T2b adenocarcinoma of the prostate and
PSA ≤20: initial results of RTOG 94-08. Int J Radiat Oncol
Biol Phys 77: 1, 2010.
3 Dal Pra A et al. Combining radiation therapy and androgen
deprivation for localized prostate cancer – a critical review.
Curr Oncol 17(5): 28-38, 2010.
54
SERUM LEVELS OF SEX-HORMONE BINDING
GLOBULIN ARE NOT PREDICTIVE OF PROSTATE
CANCER DIAGNOSIS AND AGGRESSIVENESS
Cosimo De Nunzio1, Riccardo Lombardo2,
Fabiana Cancrini2, Fabrizio Presicce2, Mirco Leo2,
Aldo Brassetti2, Michela Cerasini3, Andrea Tubaro2
1U.O.C
Urologia,
of Urology,
3Clinica Urologica, Ospedale Sant’Andrea, Roma, Italy
2Department
Introduction: Prostate cancer diagnosis remains imperfect,
limited by over detection of indolent tumors and under detection
of clinically relevant cancers. The aim of our study was to
explore the association between serum levels of Sex Hormone
Binding Globulin and the risk of developing prostate cancer
(PCa) as well as high grade disease in men undergoing prostate
biopsy. Patients and Methods: After an Internal Review Board
approval, between 2008 and 2012, a consecutive series of
patients with no known history of PCa were referred to our
department to undergo initial prostate biopsy because of an
abnormal finding on digital rectal examination (DRE) and/or an
elevation of serum levels of PSA (>4 ng/ml). Patients with
uncontrolled diabetes, thyroid disease, hyperprolactinemia,
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
hypoalbuminemia or liver disease were excluded from our
cohort. Before biopsy, general data from the patient, digital
rectal examination (DRE) and BMI were recorded. Blood
samples were collected before biopsy and tested for total PSA
levels and SHBG. The risk of detecting cancer and high grade
cancer was assessed as a function of SHBG using crude and
adjusted logistic regressions. Results: Overall 740 patients were
prospectively enrolled, median age was 70 (IQR: 64/75) years,
median BMI was 27.3 (IQR:24.9/29.8) kg/m2; median PSA was
6.2 (IQR: 4.8/12.3) ng/ml, median SHBG level was 38.6 (IQR:
29.5/49.5) pg/ml .Overall 275/740 (37.2%) presented PCa on
biopsy and out of them 120/275 (44%) presented high grade
PCa (Gleason score≥7). Patients with PCa were significantly
older (p=0.000), presented a higher PSA (p=0.000) when
compared to patients with a negative biopsy. No significant
differences were observed in terms of BMI and SHBG levels.
Age (OR 1.028; p=0.022), PSA(OR 1.076; p=0.000) and DRE
(OR 3.321; p=0.000) were found to be independent predictors
of prostate cancer risk. Patients with high grade disease were
significantly older (p=0.000), presented a higher PSA
(p=0.035) and higher BMI (p=0.021) while no difference was
found in terms of SHBG levels. Age (OR 1.051; p=0.014),
PSA(OR 1.067; p=0.000), DRE (OR 2.435; p=0.000) and BMI
(OR 1.051; p=0.025) were found to be independent predictors
of high grade disease. Conclusion: In our cohort of patients,
serum levels of SHBG were not predictive of PCa or high grade
disease. SHBG should not be considered as a biomarker for PCa
diagnosis neither as a marker for high grade disease.
1 Sawada N, Iwasaki M, Inoue M, Sasazuki S, Yamaji T,
Shimazu T, Tsugane S; Japan Public Health Center-based
Prospective Study Group. Cancer Sci. Plasma testosterone
and sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations and the
risk of prostate cancer among Japanese men: a nested casecontrol study. 101(12): 2652-2657, 2010. doi: 10.1111/
j.13497006.2010.01721.
2 Salonia A, Gallina A, Briganti A et al: Sex hormonebinding globulin is a significant predictor of extracapsular
extension in men undergoing radical prostatectomy. BJU
Int 107: 1243-1249, 2011.
55
THE INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
ON PROSTATE CANCER DIAGNOSIS:
A BIOPSY COHORT
Cosimo De Nunzio1, Riccardo Lombardo2, Luca Cindolo3,
Fabiana Cancrini2, Costantino Leonardo4,
Silvia Massimiani4, Lorenzo Marini4, Giovanni Giordano4,
Federica Puccini2, Francesco Pellegrini3,
Ana Ludy Lopes Mendez2, Andrea Tubaro2
1U.O.C
2282
Urologia,
2Department
3Department
Vasto;
4Clinica
of Urology, Ospedale Sant’Andrea, Roma;
of Urology, Ospedale Padre Pio da Pietralcina
Urologica, Ospedale Sant’Andrea, Roma, Italy
Introduction: A possible relationship between prostate cancer
and physical activity has been proposed. The Physical Activity
Scale for Elderly (PASE) questionnaire has been recently
proposed to evaluate the association between physical activity
and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Aim of our study was to
evaluate the association between physical activity and prostate
cancer (PCa) risk in a consecutive series of men undergoing
prostate biopsy. Patients and Methods: From 2011 onwards, a
consecutive series of patients undergoing 12-core prostate
biopsy were enrolled into a prospective database. Indications for
a prostatic biopsy were a PSA value ≥4 ng/ml and/or a positive
digital rectal examination (DRE). Body mass index (BMI) and
waist circumferences were measured before the biopsy. Blood
samples were collected before biopsy and tested for total PSA,
glycemia, HDL and trygliceridemia levels. Blood pressure was
recorded. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined according to
the Adult Treatment panel III. PASE questionnaire was collected
before the biopsy. Statistical analysis was made using the
Pearson correlation coefficient and logistic regression for
multivariate analysis. Results: 296 patients were enrolled with a
median age and PSA of 67 (IQR 61/73) years and 6.9 ng/ml
(IQR 5/9.6) respectively. Median BMI was 26.5 kg/m2 (IQR:
24.7/28.7); median waist circumference was 100 cm (IQR:
100/108). Overall 60 pts (20%) presented a Metabolic
syndrome. One-hundred and eight patients (36.5%) had prostate
cancer on biopsy. Patients with PCa presented a higher PSA
(7.6 ng/ml, IQR: 5.3/14 vs. 6.5 ng/ml, IQR4.8/8; p=0.001) and
a lower PASE score (103, IQR: 68/165 vs. 131, IQR 93/201;
p=0.001). No association between PCa and MetS was observed
(p=0.337). PASE score inversely correlated with waist
circumference (σ: –0.179; p=0.0172) and Age (σ: –0.213;
p=0.001). On multivariate analysis PASE (OR: 0.996 per unit,
95%CI: 0.992-0.999; p=0.003) and PSA (1.073 per unit
95%CI: 1.023-1.123, p=0.04) were respectively an inverse and
direct independent risk factor for prostate cancer diagnosis.
Conclusion: In our single center study, an increased physical
activity evaluated by the PASE questionnaire was associated
with a reduced risk of prostate cancer on biopsy, however, these
results should be confirmed in a larger multicenter study. Even
though the molecular pathways are yet to be understood, it is
assumable that a decreased physical activity and the associated
metabolic abnormalities should be considered as possible
factors involved in prostate cancer pathogenesis.
1 De Nunzio C, Albisinni S, Freedland JF et al: Abdominal
obesity as a risk factor for prostate cancer diagnosis and
high grade disease: A prospective multicenter Italian cohort
study. Urol Onc 2011; doi:10.1016/j.urolonc.2011.
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
2 De Nunzio C, Freedland SJ, Miano R et al: The uncertain
relationship between obesity and prostate cancer: An
Italian biopsy cohort analysis. Urol Onc 37: 1025-1029,
2011.
56
MRI/TRUS FUSION AGAINST MD ANDERSON
PROTOCOL AGAINST TRANSPERINEAL SECTOR
PROSTATE BIOPSIES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY
Riccardo Lombardo, Andrea Cantiani,
Francesco Esperto, Christof Kastner
Department of Urology, Addenbrooke S Hospital
Cambridge, UK
Objectives: Biopsy detection of prostate cancer remains
imperfect, limited by over-detection of indolent tumors and
under-detection of clinically relevant cancers. The aim of this
study was to compare differences in terms of detection rate
and efficacy between TP biopsies, MDA biopsies and
TRUS/FUSION biopsies in patients with previous biopsies
still at risk of prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: A
consecutive series of patients with previous negative biopsies
were analysed. Patients needed rebiopsy either because of
rising PSA, suspicious changes in the previous biopsy,
abnormal DRE or combination of these. Patients underwent
either transperineal sector biopsies, MD Anderson prostate
biopsies or MRI/TRUS fusion biopsies. The MD Anderson
(MDA) protocol biopsy which involves transrectal sampling
of both peripheral and transitional zones, zonal transperineal
template (TPT) biopsy which offers the advantage of more
comprehensive access to the prostate. Patients that underwent
TRUS/fusion transperineal targeted biopsies, underwent a 3T
MRI prior to the biopsy, lesions on the MRI were contoured
and the image was fused to a live transrectal ultrasound
image in order to biopsy the lesions. In addition, standard
sector biopsies were taken. Low grade disease was defined
as Gleason 7 (3+4) or lower and high grade disease was
defined as Gleason score 7 (4+3) or higher. Statistical
analysis was made using SPSS 16 software with chi-square
correlation test for univariate analysis and binary logistic
regression for multivariate analysis. Results: 738 patients
were recorded retrospectively in 2 centers. 188 patients
underwent transperineal (TPT) sector biopsies, 349
underwent MDA protocol biopsies and 201 underwent
MRI/TRUS fusion biopsies. Mean age was 65±7 years, mean
PSA was 12.21±10.6 and mean volume was 58±29. No
differences between groups were found in these terms.
Detection rate of cancer in the TPT group was 79/188 (42%),
in the MDA group was 106/243 (30%) and in the
TRUS/FUSION group was 107/201 (53%) (p=0.000).
Detection rate of high grade disease was found to be
respectively 20/79 (25%) in the MDA group, 22/106 (21%)
and 40/107 (37%) in the TRUS/FUSION group (p=0.031).
Conclusion: From our experience MRI/TRUS fusion should
be preferred to MDA or TPT in order to improve not only
detection rate of tumours but also of high grade disease.
Cost/effectiveness studies are required to validate other
aspects of MRI/TRUS fusion biopsies.
1 Campos-Fernandes JL, Bastien L, Nicolaiew N et al:
Prostate cancer detection rate in patients with repeated
extended 21-sample needle biopsy. Eur Urol 55: 600, 2009.
2 Fiard G, Descotes JL, Rambeaud JJ, Hohn N, Troccaz J
and Long JA: MRI-guided targeted prostate biopsies in the
diagnosis of prostate cancer: a systematic literature review.
Prog Urol 22(15): 903-912, 2012.
3 Yerram NK, Volkin D and Turkbey B: Low suspicion
lesions on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging
predict for the absence of high-risk prostate cancer. BJU
Int doi: 10.1111/j.1464-410X, 2012.
57
THE IMPACT OF SERUM LEPTIN AS
BIOMARKER OF PROSTATE CANCER
INCREASES WITH AGEING
Adriano Angelucci1, Patrizia Sanità1,
Simona Delle Monache1, Carlo Vicentini2, Mauro Bologna2
1Dipartimento
di Scienze Cliniche Applicate e
Biotecnologiche,
2Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica, Sanità Pubblica,
Scienze Della Vita e dell’ambiente, Università degli Studi
dell’Aquila, Italy
Introduction: Obesity prevalence is growing progressively
worldwide in the entire population and also in aged subjects:
this phenomenon will have an ever growing impact on the
future health management. Obesity and ageing are
independent risk factors for chronic diseases, including
cardiovascular illnesses and several types of cancer. Visceral
fat accumulation and ageing have in common the
deregulation of adipose tissue homeostasis, resulting in proinflammatory status and excessive release of adipokines.
These aspects are currently investigated for their causal role
in cancer progression. Epidemiologic and preclinical data
suggest that leptin, an adipokine produced prevalently by
adipose tissue, is associated with prostate cancer (PCa) and it
can directly modulate PCa cell behavior. Patients and
Methods: In an observational study we evaluated the role of
leptin as cancer biomarker in cohorts represented by PCa
patients and patients with urologic non-tumoral diseases,
considering as covariables age and anthropometric measures
of adiposity. Results: Our data confirmed the association of
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
leptin with PCa, and in absence of significant differences in
body mass index (BMI) classification PCa patients had
higher leptin values with respect to control patients. Leptin
levels were correlated to BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR)
values in both cohorts and also correlated to age in PCa
patients. Further analysis revealed a stronger predictive value
of serum leptin in older PCa subjects, as demonstrated by a
better ROC curve. These data could be explained by the fact
that in elderly patients visceral obesity measured by WHR
correlated with serum leptin with better respect to BMI
measurements and appeared to be a more adequate indicator
for obesity. The expression of leptin receptor mainly
observed in invasive prostate carcinoma tissue and in
aggressive prostate cancer cell lines suggests a possible
molecular link between persistently high leptin levels, seen
in aged obese subjects, and PCa progression. Conclusion:
Our data may contribute to elucidating some aspects that
have so far been underestimated in epidemiologic studies.
Visceral adiposity appeared a more appropriate measure of
obesity in elderly subjects with respect to BMI categories,
and may explain the elevated leptin values seen in elderly
PCa subjects with higher WHR. Further validation and
description of this phenomenon may eventually indicate
leptin as a new important prognostic marker of PCa in
elderly patients.
This work was supported by Italian Association for Cancer Research
(AIRC, grant MFAG 6194).
58
MRI TRUS/FUSION BIOPSIES: IS MRI
ACCURATE IN PREDICTING HIGH
GRADE PROSTATE CANCER?
Riccardo Lombardo, Andrea Cantiani, Francesco Esperto,
Christof Kastner
Department of Urology, Addenbrooke S Hospital
Cambridge, UK
Introduction: Biopsy detection of prostate cancer remains
imperfect, limited by over detection of indolent tumors and
under detection of clinically relevant cancers. The aim of our
study was to determine the accuracy of MRI in detecting
significant cancer in MRI/TRUS fusion prostate biopsies in
patients with previous negative biopsies at increased risk of
prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: A consecutive series
of patients underwent transperineal targeted prostate biopsies
using MRI/TRUS Fusion technology after previous negative
biopsies. Each patient underwent pelvic 3 T MRI (T1, T2,
DWI and ADC map) before biopsy and lesions on the MRI
were characterized as non suspicious, suspicious or very
suspicious. If lesions were present on MRI, they were
2284
contoured and fused to a live transrectal ultrasound image in
order to target the suspected lesions. In addition to these
targeted biopsies, additional sector biopsies were taken. If no
lesions were identified, standard sector biopsies were taken.
Age, PSA, DRE, prostate volume, number of cores and
Gleason score on histological analysis were recorded. The
prostate was divided in 12 sectors and each sector was
analyzed to see correlation between MRI and Histology. Low
grade disease was defined as Gleason 7 (3+4) or lower and
high grade was defined as Gleason 7 (4+3) or higher.
Statistical analysis was made using SPSS 16 with chi-square
correlation test for univariate analysis for nominal variables,
Mann-Whitney for continuous variable and binary logistic
regression for multivariate analysis. Results: 108 patients
were analyzed retrospectively in one center. At the time of
biopsy, median age was 64 (IQR=58/68) years, median PSA
was 9.6 (IQR=6.6/13.2)ng/ml, median prostate volume was
55 (IQR=39/82)ml and the median number of cores for each
biopsy was 30 (IQR=27/33). Overall 5/108 (5%)
complications were recorded, out of them 4 were acute
urinary retentions and 1 bleeding that didn’t require
intervention. A total of 1082 sectors were analyzed and out
of them 172/1082(15%) were positive on MRI. Positive
sectors were: 30/172 (17%) score 3, 53/172 (31%) score 4
and 89/172 (52%) score 5 while no score 2 was given. Out of
all 161/1082 (15%) had cancer and 99/161 (61%) had low
grade disease while 62/161(39%) had high grade disease. In
the analysis per sector, MRI reached a negative predictive
value of 89%, a positive predictive value of 36% and an
accuracy of 79%. On univariate analysis, age (p=0.000), PSA
(p=0.000) and score (p=0.000) correlated with the presence
of cancer. Moreover on univariate analysis, Age (p=0.000),
PSA (p=0.000) and score (0.0020) correlated with high grade
disease. On multivariate analysis Age, PSA and Score reached
the level of independent predictors of cancer. Age was found
to increase by 6.1% per unit the risk of having cancer, PSA
increased it by 3.1% and score on MRI by 6.2%. Only PSA
and Age reached the level of independent predictors for high
grade disease. Risk of high grade disease was increased by
8.6% per unit of age and by 7.5% per unit of PSA.
Conclusion: The use of MRI/TRUS fusion biopsy is a very
good option for patients with previous negative biopsies and
ongoing suspicion of cancer. The high negative predictive
value could avoid unnecessary biopsies or decrease number
of biopsies with lower morbidity rates. Moreover, MRI score
could be included in normograms in order to improve
detection of significant cancer. However, improving and
standardization in prostate MRI reading is still necessary.
1 Fiard G, Descotes JL, Rambeaud JJ, Hohn N, Troccaz J
and Long JA: MRI-guided targeted prostate biopsies in the
diagnosis of prostate cancer: a systematic literature review.
Prog Urol 22(15): 903-912, 2012.
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
2 Yerram NK, Volkin D and Turkbey B: Low suspicion
lesions on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging
predict for the absence of high-risk prostate cancer. BJU
Int doi 10.1111/j.1464-410X, 2012.
3 Sonn GA, Natarajan S, Margolis DJ et al: Targeted biopsy
in the detection of prostate cancer using an office based
magnetic resonanceultrasound fusion device. J Urol
189(1): 8692, 2013.
59
SMOKING CESSATION AND OUTCOME OF
PATIENTS AFFECTED BY NON MUSCLE
INVASIVE BLADDER CANCER (NMI-BC)
Cristina Scalici Gesolfo1, Francesco D’amato2,
Davide Castrianni2, Giuseppe Mastrocinque2,
Dario Passalacqua2, Marco Vella2,
Carlo Pavone2, Vincenzo Serretta2
1U.O.C.
di Urologia, Dipartimento di Discipline
Chirurgiche ed Oncologiche,
2Department of Urology, Dipartimento di Discipline
Chirurgiche ed Oncologiche, Università degli Studi di
Palermo, Italy
Introduction: Does a correlation exist between smoking
cessation and recurrence of non muscle invasive bladder
carcinoma (NMI-BC) after TUR and adjuvant intravescical
chemotherapy? Up today just few retrospective studies tried
to answer this question. There is evidence that quitting
decreases the risk of recurrence but nowadays it is still
controversial how and how long it takes from quitting to
reduce the risk (1-3). The aim of the present study is to
compare the recurrence rate in smokers, non smokers and
former smokers and in particular to evaluate if and how the
decision of quitting at diagnosis could change the patients’
outcome. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed
the outcome in term of recurrence in patients affected by
primary NMI-BC. Our population consisted of 373 patients,
mean age of 66 (range 30-95) years. We considered as
smokers the patients still smoking at the time of the diagnosis
of primary NMI-BC, former smokers all the patients who
quitted before diagnosis and never smokers all other patients.
The smokers were divided into in current smokers continuing
to smoke after diagnosis and ex smokers quitting only at
diagnosis. The duration of smoking, the number of cigarettes
per day and the clinical and pathological characteristic of the
patients, were related to the recurrence rate. Results: Out of
the 373 patients, 190 (50.9%) were smokers, 99 (26.5%)
former smokers and 84 (22.5%) never smokers. Sixtyfive
(17.4%) out of 190 smokers quitted at diagnosis. At 3 years
185 (49.6%) patients recurred. During follow up the
recurrence rate increased from 11,3% at 3 months to 49.6% at
36 months. The recurrence rates at 3 and 6 months were
higher in former smokers, 17.2% and 24.2% respectively, than
in never smokers, 9.5% and 19% and smokers 9% and 21%.
At one year, 75 (39.5%) smokers, 35 (35.3%) former smokers
and 29 (34.5%) never smokers recurred. Among smokers at 3
months 5 (7.7%) ex smokers and 12 (9.6%) current smokers,
(p=0.79) recurred; and at 6 months 13 (20%) and 27 (21.4%)
recurred respectively (p=0.85). Similar results were observed
at one year, with 23 (35%) ex smokers and 51 (40%) current
smokers recurring (p=0.87) while at 3 years 29 (44.6%) ex
smokers and 68 (54%) smokers (p=0.22) recurred. A
progressive increase in recurrence rate, particularly in current
smokers was observed, not reaching statistical significance due
to the small numbers of our preliminary study. Discussion and
Conclusion: In patients with non muscle invasive bladder
cancer former smokers and smokers have similar recurrence
rates. However to stop smoking at diagnosis reduces the risk
of recurrence compared to patients continuing to smoke. The
benefit however appears after 12 months only.
1 Aveyard P, Adab P, Cheng KK et al: Does smoking status
influence the prgnosis of bladder cancer? A systematic
review. BJU Int 90: 228-239, 2002.
2 Serretta V, Morgia G, Altieri V et al: A 1-year maintenance
after early adjuvant intravescical chemotherapy has a
limited efficacy in preventing recurrence of intermediate
risk non- muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Brit J Urol Int
106: 212-217, 2010.
3 Chen CH, Shun CT, Huang KH et al. Stopping smoking
might reduce tumour recurrence in non muscle-invasive
bladder cancer. BJU Int 100(2): 281-286, 2007.
60
ENERGY METABOLISM OF PROSTATE
CANCER CAN BE SUPPORTED
BY REVERSE WARBURG EFFECT
Patrizia Sanità1, Mattia Capulli1, Anna Teti1,
Carlo Vicentini2, Paola Chiarugi3,
Mauro Bologna2, Adriano Angelucci1
1Dipartimento
di Scienze Cliniche Applicate e
Biotecnologiche, Università degli Studi dell’Aquila;
2Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica, Sanità Pubblica,
Scienze della Vita e dell’ambiente, Università degli Studi
dell’Aquila;
3Dipartimento di Scienze Biochimiche, Università di
Firenze, Italy
Introduction: Tumors have long been known to exhibit altered
metabolic profiles and increased energy requirements. High rate
in cancer growth requires metabolic reprogramming sustaining
the continuous proliferation of cancer cells in oxygen- and
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
nutrient-deprived environment. In consequence of these
metabolic adaptations, tumor microenvironment may aberrantly
accumulate monocarboxylic acids whose trafficking through cell
membrane is regulated by monocarboxylate transporters
(MCTs). MCT1 and MCT4 are the best characterized MCTs
permitting, respectively, the import and the export of different
monocarboxylic acids, including lactic acid. Materials and
Methods: The mitogenic role of MCTs was investigated in vitro
and in vivo using transformed prostate epithelial cells and
carcinoma cell lines. Prostate tissues from carcinoma and
benign hypertrophy cases were analyzed for individualizing
clinical-pathological significance of MCT1 and MCT4
expression. Results: MCT1 and MCT4 were detected in prostate
carcinoma (PCa) and transformed prostate epithelial cell lines
with MCT4 expression that correlated with aerobic glycolytic
metabolism. Exogenous lactate sustained cell growth in low
glucose culture environment and blockade of MCT1 function
performed by silencing via siRNA determined an appreciable
antiproliferative effect when lactate was utilized as energetic
fuel. MCT1 silencing determined also the reduction of tumor
growth in a xenograft model with co-injection of PCa cells
together with high glycolytic human fibroblasts. In nonneoplastic prostate, MCTs demonstrated a specific distribution,
with MCT1 expressed in epithelial cells and MCT4 localized in
stromal cells. In PCa tissue we observed a significant
upregulation of MCT4 in tumoral tissue with respect to
hypertrophic tissue, with a positive correlation between stromal
MCT4 and tumor MCT1 staining. Conclusion: Our data
demonstrated that PCa progression may benefit MCT1
expression in the presence of high lactate and low glucose
concentration. A collaborative interaction between PCa cells and
prostate stromal cells may exist based upon lactate shuttle, a
phenomenon known as reverse Warburg effect. Therefore,
MCTs may represent a promising therapeutic target in early
phases of neoplastic transformation according to a strategy aimed
at interfering with the energy metabolic adaptation of PCa cells.
This work was supported by Italian Association for Cancer Research
(AIRC, grant MFAG 6194).
61
MRI TRANSPERINEAL PROSTATE BIOPSIES- ARE
THERE ANY BENEFITS IN MRI/TRUS FUSION
TARGETING OVER COGNITIVE DETECTION?
Riccardo Lombardo, Andrea Cantiani, Christof Kastner
Department of Urology, Addenbrooke S Hospital
Cambridge, UK
Introduction: Recently the improvements in diagnostics for
prostate cancer have accelerated due to a significant
development in MRI technology. Existing biopsy techniques,
2286
transrectal or transperineal, may be enhanced by the support
of MRI images. We compare targeting accuracy and detection
rate of MRI/TRUS fusion technique over cognitive direction
during transperineal prostate biopsies in patients with
persistent suspicion of cancer after initial negative standard
biopsy from three European centres. Patients and Methods:
Records of patients from three centres with persistent
suspicion of carrying prostate cancer after previous negative
biopsy were reviewed. 407 patients having undergone
MRI/TRUS fusion transperineal prostate biopsies (MTTP) or
cognitive MRI directed transperineal prostate (cognTP)
biopsies were selected forming two cohorts of patients. 263
patients underwent MTTP and 144 underwent cognTP. All
patients had multiparametric MRI prior to biopsy. The MRI
was reported and lesions were highlighted on the images. For
MTTP biopsies the image was fused to a live transrectal
ultrasound image for guidance of lesion biopsies. During the
cognTP biopsies the surgeon had MRI images available on a
separate screen in theatre. In addition sector biopsies were
taken preferentially from the peripheral zone dividing the
prostate into six sectors for guidance. If MRI was negative,
normal TP biopsies were taken in both groups. Age, PSA,
Prostate Volume, number of previous biopsies and number of
cores were recorded. Correlation between lesion location on
MRI and biopsy core location in the histological report was
recorded only for the positive MRI patients. Low grade
disease was defined as Gleason 7 (3+4) or lower and high
grade disease was defined as Gleason score 7 (4+3) or higher.
Statistical analysis was made using SPSS 16 software with
chi-square correlation test for categorical variables and MannWhitney for continuous variables. Results: Mean age for the
MTTP group was 64±7 years and for cognTP 64±7 years,
respectively mean PSA was 10.9±7.5 ng/ml and 9.7±6.5; mean
prostate volume was 56±27 ml and 60±31 ml; mean number
of previous biopsies was 1.7±1 and 1.1±0.7 and mean number
of cores was 26±5 and 28±13 cores. No differences beside for
the number of cores (p=0.000) was found in these terms.
Detection rate of cancer in the MTTP group was 122/263
(46%) and in the cognitive group 67/144 (46%) (p=1.000).
High risk disease was found in 46/122 (38%) and 19/67 (28%)
patients (p=0.203) respectively. In the MTTP group 192/263
(73%) had a lesion on MRI and 137/144 (95%) in the cognTP.
Correlation of MRI lesion and positive biopsy core location
was found to be 92/192(48%) in the MTTP group and 40/137
(29%) in the cognTP group with a statistically significant
difference(p=0.001). Conclusion: Our data shows how
MRI/TRUS fusion technology compared to cognitive MRI
direction offers the advantage of a more precise sampling of
lesions found on MRI during transperineal biopsies in patients
with previous negative biopsies still at risk of prostate cancer.
This leads to a higher detection rate of significant cancer with
less cores needed. However, accuracy in terms of MRI reading
still needs improvement.
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
1 Vourganti S, Ratsinehad A and Yerran NK: Multiparametric
Magnetic Resonance Imaging and ultrasound fusion biopsy
detect prostate cancer in patients with prior negative
transrectal ultrasound biopsies. The J of Urol 188: 21522157, 2012.
2 Abdollah F, Novara G, Briganti A et al: Transrectalversus
trans-perineal saturation rebiopsy ofthe prostate: is there a
difference in cancer detectionrate? Urology 77: 921, 2011.
3 Pinto PA, Chung PH, Rastinehead AR et al: Magnetic
resonance imaging/ultrasound fusion giuded biopsy
improves cancer detection following transrectal ultrasound
biopsy and correlates with multiparametric magnetic
resonance imaging. J Urol 186: 1281, 2011.
62
LEPTIN SUSTAINS PROSTATE CANCER
CELL SURVIVAL IN GLUCOSERESTRICTED ENVIRONMENT
Patrizia Sanità, Simona Delle Monache, Adriano Angelucci
Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Applicate e
Biotecnologiche, Università degli Studi dell’Aquila, Italy
Introduction: Leptin is an adipokine produced by adipose
tissue in response to food intake and its serum levels are
chronically high in obese subjects. In prostate carcinoma
(PCa) obesity and high serum leptin levels are risk factors
for advanced tumor stage and poor prognosis. It has been
proposed that adipose tissue, through the release of leptin,
can regulate whole-body energy homeostasis. The detection
of leptin receptor and downstream signaling in PCa tissue
and cell lines has suggested to investigate the direct action
of leptin in modulating energetic pathways of cancer cells.
Materials and Methods: We investigated the involvement of
leptin signaling in maintaining cell fitness through nutrientlimited culture conditions and performing coculture with
cancer-conditioned fibroblasts. Results: Recombinant leptin
stimulated cancer cell survival and proliferation in LNCaP
and PC3 cells but these effects were statistically appreciable
in glucose-restricted culture conditions. Exogenous leptin in
conjuction with low glucose determined, with respect to
untreated control cells, an increase in mitochondrial
respiration and in utilization of energetic sources alternative
to glucose, including acetate and lactate. The lactate import
was allowed by upregulation of monocarboxylate transporter
MCT1. Metabolic switch induced by leptin in PCa cells was
associated with upregulation of sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) and
activation of AMPK. In co-culture experiments using PCa
cells and cancer-conditioned fibroblasts the addition of leptin
determined a significant increment in PCa cell growth
mainly in glucose-restricted conditions. Conclusion: Leptin
through the stimulation of cancer survival in nutrient-
restricted environments may explain, at least partially, the
association between obesity and progression of PCa. The
proposed mechanism, involving targetable intermediates of
the energy metabolism, offers new opportunities in both
diagnostic stratification and targeted treatment for PCa
patients with high serum leptin levels. Acknowledgements:
This work was supported by Italian Association for Cancer
Research (AIRC, grant MFAG 6194).
63
PLASMACYTOID UROTHELIAL
CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY
BLADDER IN A 59-YEAR-OLD WOMAN
Luca Ventura1, Giovanni Luca Gravina2,
Claudio Festuccia3, Luigi Zugaro4, Cinzia Mercurio1,
Luigi di Clemente5, Fabrizio Liberati6
1Unità
Operativa di Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale San
Salvatore, L’Aquila;
2Divisione di Radioterapia, Dipartimento di Scienze
Cliniche Applicate e Biotecnologiche, Università, L’Aquila;
3Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Applicate e
Biotecnologiche, Università, L’Aquila;
4Unità Operativa di Radiologia, Ospedale San Salvatore,
L’Aquila;
5Unità Operativa di Urologia, Ospedale San Salvatore,
L’Aquila;
6Unità Operativa di Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale San
Camillo de’ Lellis, Rieti, Italy
Introduction: Urothelial carcinoma is well known for its
divergent differentiation and in recent years its
morphologic spectrum has been expanded to include
several new variants (1). Plasmacytoid variant of urothelial
cacinoma is an unusual and aggressive neoplasm
characterized by a poor prognosis, with male predilection
and presentation at an elderly age (1-3). We report a case
of plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma of the urinary
bladder observed in a 59-year-old female patient. Patients
and Methods: A 59-year-old woman presented to our
observation with gross hematuria and lower abdominal
pain. Her past medical history was free of significant
diseases. A computed tomography scanning showed diffuse
thickening of the bladder, with adhesions to the
surrounding organs. Cystoscopy revealed edema,
ulcerations and a diffusely thickened bladder mucosa with
a slightly stenotic left ureteral orifice. The patient
underwent bladder trans-urethral resection with
histological diagnosis of plasmacytoid urothelial
carcinoma and was followed by radical cystectomy,
hysterectomy with bilateral annessectomy and vaginal
resection. Results: Surgical specimen consisted of the
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
bladder measuring 10×8 cm with a maximum parietal
thickness of 1.4 cm, the uterus measuring 5×4.5×4 cm, and
both adnexa. Histological examination of the formalinfixed specimen highlighted a poorly differentiated tumor
with discohesive cells in a loose stroma, showing plasma
cell appearance. These features allowed the diagnosis of
plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, extended
to perivescical tissue and infiltrating uterus, vagina, both
ovaries and left salpynx, with metastasis to regional lymph
nodes. Diffuse angiolymphatic invasion was observed in
the bladder wall. Neoplastic cells were diffusely
immunoreactive for cytokeratin 8-18, EMA, CD138, and
E-cadherin; focally positive for cytokeratin 20, and
cytokeratin 34βE12; negative for cytokeratin 7, CD45,
CD20, kappa and lambda chains, CD79α, HMB-45, CA199, and β-HCG. Six months after the diagnosis the patient is
alive and free of disease. Discussion and Conclusion:
Plasmacytoid carcinoma is a rare variant of urothelial
carcinoma with distinctive clinical and pathological
features (1-3). Since the original description, there have
been approximately 70 cases reported in literature, with a
mean age at the initial diagnosis of 69 years and a male
predominance (M:F=9:1) (3). Immunohistochemistry plays
a pivotal role in the diagnosis. The coexpression of plasma
cell and epithelial cell markers (CD138, EMA,
cytokeratins) is important in the differential diagnosis from
plasma cell myeloma and signet ring adenocarcinoma (1,
3). E-cadherin expression is probably associated with the
discohesive phenotype and the increased cellular
invasiveness of this neoplasm, which result in tumor
aggressiveness and recurrence (3). The importance of this
variant lies on the prognostic and therapeutic
considerations resulting from such a peculiar diagnosis (1).
The prognosis of this tumor is uniformly poor, with most
patients discovered in an advanced stage at presentation or
with metastatic disease (1, 2), and requiring aggressive
treatment (3). The recognition of the distinctive
clinicopathological and immunophenotypical features of
this rare variant is extremely relevant, especially when
chancing upon atypical patients, as in our case of a
relatively young female.
1 Nigwekar P and Amin MB: The many faces of urothelial
carcinoma. An update with an emphasis on recently
described variants. Adv Anat Pathol 15: 218-233, 2008.
2 Lopez-Beltran A, Requena MJ, Cheng L and Montironi R:
Pathological variants of invasive bladder cancer according
to their suggested clinical significance. BJU Int 101: 275281, 2007.
3 Wang Z, Lu T, Du L, Hu Z, Zhuang Q, Li Y, Wang C-Y,
Zhu H and Ye Z: Plasmacytoid urothelial carcinoma of the
urinary bladder: a clinical pathological study and literature
review. Int J Clin Exp Pathol 5: 601-608, 2012.
2288
64
LAPAROSCOPIC POST-CHEMOTHERAPY
RETROPERITONEAL LYMPH-NODE DISSECTION
(L-PC-RPLND) IN RESIDUAL MASS FROM
NON-SEMINOMATOUS GERM-CELL TUMOURS
OF THE TESTIS (NSGCTT): EARLY EVALUATION
AND COMPARISON WITH OPEN COUNTERPART
Nicola Nicolai1, Silvia Stagni1, Davide Biasoni1,
Mario Catanzaro1, Tullio Torelli1, Luigi Piva1,
Andrea Necchi1, Patrizia Giannatempo1, Daniele Raggi1,
Giovanni Lughezzani2, Andrea Guttilla3,
Maurizio Colecchia4, Roberto Salvioni1
1Urology
Unit. Testis Surgery Unit., Fondazione IRCCS
Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori;
2Department of Urology, Vita-Salute San Raffaele
University;
3Urology Clinic, Department of Surgical, Oncological and
Gastroenterological Sciences, University of Padua;
4Pathology Department, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto
Nazionale dei Tumori, Italy
Objective: Patients with NSGCTT who had residual
retroperitoneal
masses
following
completion
of
chemotherapy need PC-RPLND. We report an early
observation of LPC-RPLND compared with Open (O-) PCRPLND in patients with comparable disease features at our
Institution. Methods and Results: Eighteeen consecutive LRPLNDs performed following first line chemotherapy (3 to 4
PEB) between Feb 2011 and Feb 2012 for residual mass
from NSGCTT, were compared with 10 open postchemotherapy RPLNDs having comparable features
performed between Jun 2009 and Apr 2012 at our Institution.
All patients had unilateral disease (from one side of the
aorta) since the beginning, and none had undergone previous
retroperitoneal surgery. Initial stage was II A to II C in both
groups except a stage III in laparoscopic group. Prognostic
allocation according to IGCCCG was of good prognosis in
all cases except one intermediate in open group and one poor
in laparoscopic group. All patients had normal markers prior
to surgery. Size of residual masses was comprehended
between 10 and 70 mm (p=0.18 at Mann-Withney test).
Patients were evaluated for: complications, hospital stay,
histology, postoperative pain control (resting and dynamic
VAS), recurrence rate. Median operation time was 150 min
(range 101 to 189) in O-PC-RPLND and 210 (range 131 to
278) in L-PC-RPLND (p<0.0046 at Mann Withney test).
Intraoperative bleeding was negligible in all cases, but 1 LPC-RPLND (100 cc) and 1 O-PC-RPLND (150 cc).
Histology according to procedure (O Vs L) was one of
mature teratoma in 6 Vs 10 patients, immature teratoma in 1
Vs 6 and fibro- necrotic tissue in 3 Vs 2 patient. One L-PCRPLND patient underwent postoperative blood transfusion
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
(2 units). Postoperative lymphatic leakage lasting more than
5 days, which spontaneously resolved, occurred in 2 patients
following O-PC-RPLN and in 1 following L-PC-RPLND.
Dynamic VAS was inferior in L-PC-RPLND both in 1st and
in 2nd postoperative days (1st day: L-PC-RPLND: 2 to 8; OPC-RPLND: 4 to 8. 2nd day: L-PC-RPLND: 0 to 7; O-PCRPLND 5 to 7). Median postoperative hospital stay was 8
days (6 to 14) in O-PC-RPLND Vs 3 days (2 to 6) in L-PCRPLND (p<0.0001 at Mann-Withney test). Following a
median follow up of 15.5 months (1-37), all the patients but
one are currently alive and disease free, with one patient in
L-PC-RPLND group suffering a recurrence of iliac teratoma
(<1 cm), which occurred 12 months after surgery. No
significant difference was recorded in terms of resting VAS
at the 1st and 2nd postoperative days in both groups.
Discussion: L-PC-RPLND is an alternative to O-PC-RPLND
in selected patients with NSGCTT. This procedure needs
usual longer operative times, does not differ for complication
rate, was better tolerated and permits an earlier discharge.
No difference in oncologic outcome was observed up to now.
1 Heidenreich A and Pfister D: Retroperitoneal
lymphadenectomy and resection for testicular cancer: an
update on best practice. Ther Adv Urol 4: 187-205, 2012.
2 Maldonado-Valadez R, Schilling D et al: Postchemotherapy laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph-node
dissection in testis cancer patients. J Endourol 21(2012):
1501-1504, 2007.
3 Rassweiler JJ, Scheitlin W, Heidenreich A, Laguna MP and
Janetschek G: Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node
dissection: does it still have a role in the management of
clinical stage I nonseminomatous testis cancer? A
European perspective. Eur Urol 54: 1004-1019, 2008.
4 Busch J, Magheli A, Erber B, Friedersdorff F, Hoffmann I,
Kempkensteffen C, Weikert S, Miller K, Schrader M and
Hinz S: Laparoscopic and open postchemotherapy
retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in patients with
advanced testicular cancer – a single center analysis – BMC
Urol 12: 15, 2012.
65
COMPLETE PATHOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO
MULTIMODAL TREATMENT IN A PATIENT
WITH METASTATIC RENAL CANCER
Elisa Biasco1, Azzurra Farnesi1, Lisa Derosa1,
Riccardo Marconcini1, Luca Galli1, Andrea Antonuzzo2,
Claudia Cianci1, Sergio Ricci2, Alfredo Falcone1
1Uo
Oncologia Medica 2 Universitaria, Azienda
Ospedaliera Universitaria Pisana;
2Uo Oncologia Medica 1, Azienda Ospedaliera
Universitaria Pisana, Italy
Background: In recent years, targeted agents have replaced
cytokine therapy as the standard of care for patients with
mRCC. Targeted agents have substantially improved patient
outcomes, but despite great improvements in the
management of metastatic clear cell renal carcinoma,
complete responses with antiangiogenic therapies are (1)
infrequent Sunitinib is a multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor
whose activity has been demonstrated in phase III and (2)
expanded-access studies. In the present paper, we report the
complete pathological response of multiple metastasis (3)
from a clear cell renal carcinoma after surgery, sunitinib and
radiotherapy. Case Report: A 41-year-old female patient with
no significant comorbidities presented with a 2 months
history of cervicobrachialgia and weakness of the upper right
limb, that led to diagnosis of pathological fracture of 6
cervical vertebra. She was hospitalized in the Department of
Neurosurgery and during the hospitalization, the patient
underwent a CT scan that showed a right kidney neoplasm
of 6 cm and synchronous multiple metastases localized in
left adrenal gland, pancreas, bladder, lymph nodes and bone.
Patient was in ECOG PS 3, and she underwent corpectomy
of 6 vertebra, positioning and fixing of protheses with plaque
on 5th and 7 cervical vertebra. Pathological examination
showed metastasis of clear cell carcinoma. In November
2010, she underwent right radical nephrosurrenalectomy and
transurethral resection of bladder metastasis. Pathological
examination showed clear cell carcinoma, G2,
pT4NxM1(bladder and adrenal gland metastasis). In
December 2010, the patient was referred to our Hospital. She
was in ECOG PS 3, referring difficulties in deambulation,
and motor deficit of the lower and upper right th th limbs.
On January 2011, she underwent radiation therapy of the 5
and 7 cervical vertebra (TD 20Gy). At blood chemistry
assay, anemia was not present; LDH and calcium were in the
normal range. After cardiological assessment with ECG and
echocardiography, in February 2011, she was placed on 50
mg sunitinib daily in a six weeks cycle according to a 4/6
schedule (4 weeks on treatment: 2 weeks off treatment).
After 3 cycles, a CT scan showed complete response of
pancreatic and lymph node metastasis. The patient was in
ECOG PS 0 and asymptomatic, referring mild asthenia. On
May 2012, a CT scan showed bone metastases on left
proximal femoral epiphysis. She underwent resection of
metastasis and placement of left hip endoprothesis. Patient
continued treatment with Sunitinib. On October 2012, patient
referred grade 2 mucositis, mild asthenia, grade 2 Hand-Foot
Syndrome, and she was placed on 50 mg sunitinib daily in a
three weeks cycle according to a 2/3 schedule (2 weeks on
treatment: 1 week off treatment). A CT scan performed on
January 2013, showed complete pathological response.
Actually, the patient is still continuing Sunitinib according
to a 2/3 schedule. Conclusion: This case is an example of
how the multimodal treatment with surgery, radiotherapy and
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
sunitinib can lead to a prolonged and complete pathological
response with a significant improvement of quality of life.
1 Laurence Albiges et al: Complete remission with tyrosine
kinase inhibitors in renal cell carcinoma. J Clinical Oncol
30(5), 2012.
2 Rini BI et al: Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma
with long-term disease-free survival after treatment with
sunitinib and resection of residual metastases. Clin
Genitourin Cancer 5(3): 232-234, 2006.
3 Karellas ME, Jang TL, Kagiwada MA, Kinnaman MD,
Jarnagin WR and Russo P: Advanced-stage renal cell
carcinoma treated by radical nephrectomy and adjacent
organ or structure resection. BJU Int 103(2): 160-164,
2009.
66
INVESTIGATING THE ROLE OF FDG-PET/CT FOR
PREOPERATIVE LYMPH-NODE STAGING OF
BLADDER CANCER: OUR PRELIMINARY
EXPERIENCE
Andrea Buffardi1, Antonella Parente2, Paolo Destefanis1,
Marilena Bellò2, Andrea Bosio1, Ettore Dalmasso1,
Eugenio Alessandria1, Paolo Gontero1,
Gianni Bisi2, Bruno Frea1
1Clinica
Urologica, Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute
e della Scienza, Sede Molinette, Torino;
2S.c. Medicina Nucleare 2, Azienda Ospedaliera Città della
Salute e Della Scienza, Sede Molinette, Torino, Italy
Introduction: In patients with nonmetastatic invasive bladder
cancer (T2 or higher, M0) or recurrent high-risk non-muscle
invasive disease (T1G3 with or without Tis, M0), locoregional
lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor. The
standard imaging modalities for staging (computed
tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) have
an accuracy range of 70-90% for lymph-node staging.
Fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission
tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) has been
approved for imaging in many malignancies but not for
bladder cancer. This study investigated the value of FDGPET/CT for preoperative lymph-node staging of patients with
MIBC. We present our preliminary results. Patients and
Methods: Between September 2012 and February 2013, 10
patients (8 male, 2 female) with bladder cancer underwent
FDG-PET/CT and a thoraco-abdominal CT scan. Four patients
were found to be recurrent T1G3 at TUR-B, five T2G3 and
one T2G2. Independently from the results for lymphnode
status at FDG-PET/CT or at abdominal CT scan, all patients
underwent radical cystectomy and lymphadenectomy. Results
of FDG-PET/CT and CT for N-staging were compared to
2290
histopathology findings. Complete data are available for 8
patients. Results: Among the 8 patients, 3 patients had
metastatically involved locoregional lymph nodes, diagnosed
on histopathology. In all these patients, the lymph-nodes
demonstrated increased FDG uptake on PET/CT; the same
nodes were not considered as metastatic at abdominal CT
scan. Five patients had lymph-nodes with a normal FDG
uptake on PET/CT: these nodes were found nonmetastatic at
histopathology. Only 1 patient had nodes suspected for
metastases at CT scan but not at FDGPET/CT: these lymphnodes were found nonmetastatic at histopathology. The
accordance between histopathology and FDG-PET/CT
findings was 100%. Discussion and Conclusion: Our
preliminary data show that FDG-PET/CT may provide better
accuracy in N-staging of bladder cancer; our study is still
ongoing because a larger sample (at least 50-75 patients) is
needed. According to our results and to data in the Literature,
larger prospective studies are needed to elucidate the effective
role of FDG-PET/CT in N-staging of bladder cancer.
1 Lu YY, Chen JH, Liang JA, Wang HY, Lin CC, Lin WY
and Kao CH: Clinical value of FDG-PET or PET/CT in
urinary bladder cancer: a systemic review and metaanalysis. Eur J Radiol Sep 5, 2011.
2 Swinnen G, Maes A, Pottel H, Vanneste A, Billiet I,
Lessage K and Werbrouck P: FDG-PET/CT for the
preoperative lymph node staging of invasive bladder
cancer. Eur Urol 57: 641-647, 2010.
3 Lodde M, Lacombe L, Friede J, Morin F, Saourine A and
Fradet Y: Evaluation of fluorodeoxyglucose positronemission tomography with computed tomography for staging
of urothelial carcinoma. BJU Int 106: 658-663, 2010.
67
DECISION AIDS: HOW TO HELP THE
PATIENTS CHOOSE THE “BEST” OPTION
FOR LOCALIZED PROSTATE CANCER
Silvia Villa1, Lara Bellardita1, Tiziana Magnani1,
Daniela Villani1, Silvia Stagni2, Davide Biasoni2,
Sara Morlino3, Sergio Villa3, Riccardo Valdagni4
1Programma
2Urologia,
Prostata,
3Radioterapia
Oncologica 1,
Prostata, Radioterapia Oncologica 1,
Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano,
Italy
4Programma
According to international guidelines, patients diagnosed
with prostate cancer (PCa) should be informed of the
different but equally effective therapeutic/observational
options. PCa strategies also differ in terms of risks and
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
benefits and adverse physical effects impacting on quality of
life. To date, it is not completely clear how side-effects may
affect patients’ choice of the therapeutic/observational path
and what the core landmarks of patients’ decision-making
process are. To overcome patients’ uncertainty and facilitate
shared decision-making, decision aids (DAs) seem helpful
tools (1, 2). The aim of our study was to explore prostate
cancer treatment decisional process when using a DA.
Patients and Methods: A qualitative study was conducted
between February and May 2012; 10 patients (mean age
64.8) with low or intermediate risk PCa accessing a
multidisciplinary visit (MDV) at our Prostate Cancer
Program were recruited. The Ottawa Personal Decision
Guide (3), a structured DA grid, was administered by a
psychologist after the MDV. The DA structure focused on
three main areas: a) to clarify the decision; b) to identify
patients’ decision making needs and c) to explore those
needs. A further set of questions was added in order to
explore patients’ emotions. Interviews were audio-recorded
and verbatim transcriptions were made. Content analysis was
performed by using a text analysis software (T-LAB).
Results: Text analysis showed the following results in
relation to the explored dimensions: a) all patients reported
to have been properly informed of the available options;
three of them were prone toward a particular treatment
option and felt disoriented due to the complexity of the
decision-making process; six patients wanted to reach a final
decision in a short time; b) 9/10 patients had enough support
and advice from their family and did not feel pressure toward
a particular option; 8/10 patients did not clearly and fully
understand the details of the possible strategies, the benefits
and the risks of each option; all of them were aware of their
personal priorities; c) patients varied in their subjective
evaluation of side-effects associated with the therapeutic
options; a substantial variance also emerged in their
willingness to be actively involved in the decision-making
process and all the patients considered physician’s
recommendations as a crucial factor for the choice; 8/10
patients felt the need to clarify a few doubts about unclear
or contradictory medical information and to expand their
knowledge as a necessary step to make a choice. As far as
the emotional aspect, 7/10 patients did not report feelings of
overwhelming anxiety and/or distress, but all of them
mentioned specific cancer-related fear and concern about the
invasiveness of medical procedures and the impact of side
effects on their quality of life. Discussion and Conclusion:
The DA was helpful to highlight the fact that PCa patients
perceived the decisional process as a complicate experience
involving the evaluation of medical information as well as
psycho-social factors. DAs are a valid support for clinicianpatient shared decision making in Pca management; further
research should focus on how the use of DAs is associated
to specific outcomes such as decisional regret, long-term
satisfaction about therapeutic/observational treatment and
quality of life. Acknowledgements to Prostate Cancer
Program Multidisciplinary Clinic Team; Foundations I.
Monzino and ProADAMO Onlus.
1 Legare F, Turcotte S, Stacey D, Ratte S, Kryworuchko J
and Graham ID: Patients’ perceptions of sharing in
decisions: a systematic review of interventions to enhance
shared decision making in routine clinical practice. Patient
5(1): 1-19, 2012.
2 Hoffman RM: Improving the communication of benefits
and harms of treatment strategies: decision aids for
localized prostate cancer treatment decisions. J Natl Cancer
Inst Monogr 2012(45): 197-201, 2012.
3 O’Connor AM, Bennett CL, Stacey D, Barry M, Col NF,
Eden KB et al: Decision aids for people facing health
treatment or screening decisions. Cochrane Database
Systematic Reviews 2009 (3).
68
NEED FOR MORE ACCURATE BIOPSY SAMPLING:
CORRELATION BETWEEN CORES TAKEN
AND INSIGNIFICANT PROSTATE
CANCER AT RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY
Vincenzo Scattoni, Luca Villa, Nazareno Suardi,
Umberto Capitanio, Marco Bianchi1, Alessandro Nini,
Marco Moschini, Paolo Capogrosso, Nicola Fossati,
Valerio di Girolamo, Alberto Briganti,
Francesco Montorsi
Urology, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
Introduction: The role of the number of cores taken at
prostate biopsy in patients suitable for active surveillance
(AS) is controversial. We tested the role of the number of
cores in confirming the presence of pathologically confirmed
insignificant prostate cancer (pIPCa) in patients eligible for
AS. Patients and Methods: of 3349 patients diagnosed with
PCa at prostate biopsy and subsequently treated with RP at
our institution between 2002 and 2012, we selected 272
patients who were eligible for AS according to PRIAS
criteria (PSA ≤10 ng/mL, PSAD <0.2 ng/mL/cc, number of
positive cores <2, T1c-T2 clinical stage). Patients were
divided according to the number of cores taken at biopsy
(≤12 vs. 13-18 vs. ≥19 cores). At pathology, pIPCa was
defined according to Epstein’s criteria (Gleason score ≤6,
tumor volume ≤0.5 ml and organ-confined disease). We
relied on Chi-square test to depict the rate of pIPCa
according to the number of cores. The effect of PSA, PSA
density, number of positive cores, number of cores, prostate
volume and clinical stage in predicting the presence of pIPCa
was addressed using univariable and multivariable logistic
2291
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
regression analyses. Results: At pathology, 49 (18%) patients
had pIPCa. The rate of pIPCa in patients submitted to ≤12
cores, 13-18 cores and ≥19 cores were 11.7% (13 of 111
pts), 25% (20 of 80 pts) and 20.6 % (16 of 81 pts),
respectively (p=0.05). At unviariable logistic regression
analyses, prostate volume and number of cores were the only
significant predictors of pIPCa (OR=1.01, p=0.05 and
OR=2.5, p=0.02). After adjusting for the effect of other
available features, the number of cores taken remained the
only parameter significantly associated with the presence of
pIPCa. Indeed at multivariable analyses, although the
probability of having pIPCa in patients with ≥19 cores is not
significantly higher than patients with ≤12 cores; patients
submitted to 13-18 cores had 2.4-fold higher probability of
having pIPCa compared with patients submitted to ≤12 cores
(p=0.03). Discussion and Conclusion: The number of cores
taken is a major predictor of pIPCa in patients suitable for
AS. In this patient group, 13-18 cores seems to be an
adequate sampling to safely rely on favorable pre-operative
features in addressing patients to conservative treatment.
Although there are no recommendation about the sampling
bioptic extent when identifying patients for AS, the number
of cores taken at prostate biopsy should be carefully
considered in decision making.
69
NUMBER OF POSITIVE SPOTS AT PET-CT
SCAN PREDICTS CANCER SPECIFIC AND
OVERALL SURVIVAL IN PATIENTS
TREATED WITH SALVAGE LYMPH NODE
DISSECTION FOR RECURRENCE
AFTER RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY
Vincenzo Scattoni1, Manuela Tutolo1, Nazareno Suardi1,
Nicola Fossati1, Firas Abdollah1, Umberto Capitanio1,
Giorgio Guazzoni1, Maria Picchio2, Luigi Gianolli2,
Giampiero Giovacchini2, Cristina Messa2, Andrea Salonia1,
Alberto Briganti1, Francesco Montorsi1
1Urology,
2Nuclear
Medicine, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University,
Milan, Italy
Introduction: Salvage lymph node dissection (SLND) may
be considered in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) and
nodal recurrence at [11C]Choline PET-CT scan (PET/CT)
after radical prostatectomy (RP).The aim of our study was to
identify clinical and pathological predictors of cancer
specific (CSS) and overall survival (OS) in men treated with
SLND for patients with nodal recurrence at PET/CT after
RP. Methods: We identified 94 patients treated with SLND
(pelvic and/or retroperitoneal) between January 2002 and
July 2011 at a single tertiary care centre for PCa nodal
2292
recurrence after RP. Clinical nodal recurrence was defined as
at least one positive spot at [11C]Choline PET/CT. All
patients underwent pelvic and/or retroperitoneal SLND. The
Kaplan-Meier methodology was used to assess the 5-year
CSS and OS rates after SLND. Univariable (UVA) and
multivariable (MVA) Cox-regression analyses were used to
predict CSS and OS. Covariates consisted of age and PSA at
SLND, adjuvant or salvage treatment administration between
RP and nodal recurrence, time from RP to BCR and number
of positive spots at PET/CT (stratified according to the most
informative cut-off). Results: Overall, 23 (24.5%) patients
underwent pelvic SLND and 71 (65.5%) patients received
both pelvic and retroperitoneal SLND. Mean PSA at SLND
was 6.46 ng/ml (median 2.36 ng/ml). Most individuals had
a single positive spot at PETCT (77; 81.4%). Overall, 8
(8.6%), and 12 (12.9%) patients experienced CSS and OS
after SLND at a mean follow-up of 54 months. At 5 years,
the overall CSS and OS rates were 87.8 and 86.1%,
respectively. After stratification according to number of
positive spots, the 5 year CSS and OS were 95.1 and 29.6
%, 88.1 and 29.6% for patients with ≤2 and 3 or more
positive spots at PET/CT, respectively (all p<0.001). At
MVA, number of positive spots at PET/CT emerged as the
only independent predictor of CSS (HR=11.4, p<0.001) and
OS (4.9, p=0.04). Specifically, after accounting for possible
confounders, patients with 3 or more positive sites at
PET/CT were at 11- and 5-fold higher risk of succumbing to
cancer specific and overall mortality, as compared to patients
with 2 or less positive spots, respectively (all p ≤0.04).
Conclusion: The number of positive spots at PET/CT
represents the only independent predictor of CSS and OS in
patients treated with SLND for lymph node recurrence after
RP for PCa. These results should be taken into account for
the selection of the best candidate for salvage surgery.
70
CHANGING AND UNCHANGING FACE OF HIGH
RISK PROSTATE CANCER. RESULTS FROM A
15-YEAR, SINGLE INSTITUTION SERIES
Vincenzo Scattoni, Umberto Capitanio, Nazareno Suardi,
Andrea Gallina, Nicola Fossati, Marco Bianchi,
Renzo Colombo, Giorgio Guazzoni, Fabio Castiglione,
Andrea Salonia, Patrizio Rigatti, Alberto Briganti,
Francesco Montorsi
Urology, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy
Introduction: Several studies have shown that the outcome of
high risk prostate cancer (PCa) is not invariably poor.
However, such favorable outcomes might be due to a change
into clinical presentation of high risk PCa towards less
aggressive variants over time. The aim of this study was to
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
describe changes in clinical and pathological characteristics of
high risk PCa patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP)
over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 1154
patients with pre-operative high risk PCa (defined according
to the NCCN criteria as the presence of at least one of the
following adverse characteristics: PSA>20 ng/ml and/or cT3
and/or biopsy Gleason 8-10) treated with RP and extended
pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) at a single tertiary
referral center between 1997 and 2012. Preoperative data as
well as post-operative pathological information (pathological
stage, nodal status and Gleason sum) were available for all
patients. Patients were stratified into tertiles according to the
year of surgery (1997-2004 vs. 2004-2008 vs. 2008-2012).
Anova and chi-square trend tests were used to report the
clinical and pathological characteristics of the cohort over
time. Results: When considering clinical characteristics,
patient age (66.8 vs. 66.0 vs. 66.3 years, p=0.3) and clinical
T3 cases (47.1 vs. 54.9 vs. 53.6%, p=0.2) resulted steady over
the three tertiles. Mean PSA decreased (33.1 vs. 32.5 vs. 19.7
ng/ml, p=0.02) and the prevalence of biopsy Gleason sum 810 increased (35.1 vs. 46.4 vs. 52.3%, p<0.001) over time.
Although pathological Gleason sum 8-10 rates increased (32.5
vs. 46.6 vs. 43.3%, p=0.002), all the other pathological
characteristics remained stable. Specifically, extracapsular
extension, seminal vesicle and lymph node invasion rates were
20 vs. 22.3 vs. 26% (p=0.2), 38.6 vs. 32.8 vs. 37.5% (p=0.2)
and 30.7 vs. 29.4 vs. 37.4% (p=0.06) in the three tertiles,
respectively. The prevalence of patients defined as high risk
according to a single criterion (PSA>20 ng/ml or cT3 or
biopsy Gleason 8-10) was 72.0 vs. 71.1 vs. 73.3% in the three
tertiles, respectively (p=0.2). Similarly, the prevalence of
patients defined as high risk for the simultaneous presence of
two or three criteria remained stable (all p>0.2). Conclusion:
Despite the trend towards early diagnosis, characteristics of
high risk PCa patients did not change over time. Particularly,
pathological characteristics and presence of more aggressive
PCa variants remained virtually identical over the last 15
years. Increase of higher Gleason grade might be due to
improved pathological PCa staging
71
COMPARISON BETWEEN PCA3 AND PHI
SPECIFICTY AND SENSITIVITY IN
PREDICTING THE PRESENCE OF
CANCER AT INITIAL OR REPEAT BIOPSY
Scattoni1,
Lazzeri1,
Massimo
Vincenzo
Giovanni Lughezzani1, Stefano De Luca2,
Roberto Passera2, Enrico Bollito2, Donato Randone2,
Firas Abdollah1, Umberto Capitanio1, Alessandro Larcher1,
Giuliana Lista1, Giulio Maria Gadda1, Vittorio Bini3,
Alberto Briganti1, Giorgio Guazzoni1, Francesco Montorsi1
1Urology,
Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan;
Ospedale Gradenigo di Torino;
3Internal Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy
2Urology,
Purpose: Prostate Health Index (PHI) and Prostate Cancer
Antigen 3 (PCA3) have been shown to predict prostate cancer
(PCa). We performed a head-to-head comparison between the
two markers in the same cohort of patients. Patients and
Methods: The performance characteristics of PHI and PCA3
were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 211 patients
undergoing first (n=116) or repeat prostate biopsy (PBx)
(n=95). Multivariable logistic regression analyses tested the
accuracy (AUC) of PHI and PCA3 in predicting PCa in the
overall population and in both settings . Decision curve
analyses (DCA) were used to compare the clinical benefit of
the different models. Results: In the overall population, PHI
had the highest AUC values (0.70). This was significantly
higher if compared to PCA3 (AUC: 0.59; p=0.043), tPSA
(AUC: 0.56; p=0.002) and %fPSA (0.60; p=0.037). PHI
resulted more accurate relative to PCA3 in predicting PCa
both in the initial setting (AUC:0.69 vs. 0.57) and in the repeat
setting (AUC:0.72 vs. 0.63), even if no statistically significant
difference was found. The inclusion of PCA3 in the baseline
multivariable model (BMM:PSA + %fPSA + prostate volume)
did not increase the predictive accuracy in both settings.
(AUC:0.79 vs. 0.80 and 0.75 vs. 0.76, respectively).
Conversely, the inclusion of PHI to BMM improved the
predictive accuracy of the model by a 5% extent in the initial
setting (AUC:0.79 to 0.84), and by a 6% in the repeat setting
(AUC:0.75 to 0.81). At DCA, the highest net-benefit was
observed when PHI was added to the BMM. Conclusion: Both
PHI and PCA3 offer a statistically significant increase in
sensitivity and specificity compared to all other examined
markers and may therefore be useful in guiding prostate
biopsy decisions. If PHI is assessed, PCA3 does not increase
the accuracy in predicting the presence of PCa.
73
REPAIR OF RECTO-URETHRAL FISTULA
WITH PERINEAL APPROACH AND
INTERPOSITION OF GRACILIS MUSCLE
Roberto Sanseverino1, Giorgio Napodano2, Oliver Intilla2,
Umberto di Mauro2, Giovanni Molisso2,
Tommaso Realfonso2
1UOC-Urologia,
2Divisione
di Urologia, Ospedale Umberto I, Nocera
Inferiore - ASL Salerno, Italy
Introduction: Recto-urinary fistula formation is a very
important complication of surgery for prostatic disease.
Spontaneous closure is rarely successful and reconstructive
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
procedures are usually performed. Although several surgical
approaches have been proposed in the literature, successful
repair is often difficult. We report a case of a 64 years old
male with recto-urinary fistula developing after radical
prostatectomy. We performed a fistula repair with a perineal
approach with interposition of gracilis muscle. Methods: A
wide rectourinary fistula was diagnosed by cystoscopy and
coloscopy. A perineal approach was performed with skin
incision and dissection of central tendon of perineum,
mobilization of uretra. Fistula was isolated and excised.
Anterior rectal wall and uretra were sutured, with skin
incision on medial surface of leg was and isolation of gracilis
muscle. Distal tendon was disconnected with transobturator
tunnellization of gracilis flap. Injection of Tissucol®
preceded positioning of Gracilis flap. Results: Operative time
and blood loss were 150 minutes and 200 ml, respectively.
No complications were registered. A 3 months postoperative
cystography confirmed fistula healing. Conclusion: The use
of perineal approach with gracilis muscle flap is an effective
option to repair iatrogenic rectourethral fistula.
74
PREDICTOR FACTORS OF PROSTATE CANCER
ON PROSTATIC BIOPSY: OUR EXPERIENCE
Giorgio Napodano, Renato Angrisani, Salvatore Acerra,
Antonio Campitelli, Tommaso Realfonso,
Roberto Sanseverino
Dept of Urology, Umberto I Hospital, Nocera Inferiore (SA),
Salerno, Italy
Aim: To analyze prostate biopsy outcomes and to investigate
predictor factors of prostate cancer in our experience.
Patients and Methods: Patients with suspected prostate
cancer [abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) and/or
elevated PSA values and/or previous HPIN/ASAP]
underwent a US guided tranrectal prostatic biopsy (PB).
From 2003 to 2012, 3240 patients underwent a prostatic
biopsy; prostate cancer was found in 1124 patients (35%).
We analyzed data from 701 patients who underwent a first
biopsy for abnormal digital rectal examination (DRE) and/or
elevated PSA values. Procedure was performed using a 18G
trucut needle with periprostatic anesthaesia. We evaluated
predictor factors of PCa: age, BMI, indication for biopsy,
DRE, PSA, prostate volume, PSA density, number of cores.
RESULTS From 2010 to 2012, 701 patients underwent
transrectal PB. Table I shows population characteristics.
Indication for biopsy is listed in Table II. Prostate cancer was
found in 292 of 688 patients (42%). At univariate analysis,
predictor factors of PCa were: age, indication for biopsy,
positive DRE, PSA, prostate volume, PSA density, number
of cores, but not BMI (p<0.49). At multivariate analysis age
2294
(p<0.003; OR 1.1), PSA (p<0.001; OR 1.1), DRE (p<0.001;
OR 3.6), prostate volume (p<0.001; OR 0.9) were predictor
factors of PCa. Conclusion: In our experience, age, PSA,
prostate volume and positive DRE were predictor factors of
prostate cancer in patients undergone a first 12 core prostatic
biopsy.
Table I. Population.
Age (y)
PSA (ng/ml)
BMI
Prostate vol (ml)
PSA density
DRE + (%)
Cores (n)
Table II. Indication for biopsy (%).
PSA
PSA + ER
PSA + TRUS
ER
TRUS
Mean (DS)
69.8 (7.9)
19.6 (81.7)
27.1 (3.5)
64.6 (32.9)
0.34 (1.6)
41
12.3 (2.0)
80.9
16
0.4
2.4
0.3
75
SIMULTANEOUS BILATERAL NEPHRECTOMY
FOR RENAL CANCER: CASE REPORT
Roberto Sanseverino1, Giorgio Napodano2, Oliver Intilla2,
Umberto di Mauro2, Giovanni Molisso2,
Tommaso Realfonso2
1UOC-Urologia-Umberto
I Nocera Inferiore,
di Urologia, Ospedale Umberto I, Nocera
Inferiore, ASL Salerno, Italy
2Divisione
Introduction: We report a case of a patient affected by
bilateral synchronous renal cancer who underwent a radical
left nephrectomy and partial right nephrectomy. Methods:
The patient complained of macroscopic haematuria. TC
revealed left renal neoplasm (13 cm) with vena cava invasion
and a right renal neoplasm (4.7 cm). We planned an open
right radical and left partial nephrectomy. Subcostal incision
sec. Chevron. Radical right nephrectomy with regional
lymphadenectomy was realized. Resection of left lower pole
without renal vessels clamping. Renal parenchyma was
repaired with Vycril suture. Results: Age, BMI, and ASA
score were 64 years, 31 and 3, respectively. Operation time
was 4 hours. Creatinine value rised to 1.9 mg/dl (day 3) and
then decreased. Histological evaluation revealed renal cell
carcinoma (pT3bN0G3 in left kidney and pT1bG3 in right
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
kidney). Surgical margins were negative. After 9 months
patient was free of disease and presented normal kidney
function. Conclusion: In selected cases, simultaneous
bilateral nephrectomy (radical and partial) is a feasible and
safe procedure.
76
INCREASED RADIOSENSITIVITY AFTER
ANDROGENIC MANIPULATION IN
PROSTATE CANCER CELL MODELS
Claudio Festuccia1, Giovanni Luca Gravina2,
Andrea Mancini1, Francesco Marampon2, Leda Biordi1,
Francesca Vittorini3, Andrea Lenzi4, Emmanuela Jannini5
1Dipartimento
di Scienze Cliniche Applicate e
Biotecnologiche, Università degli Studi dell’Aquila;
2Divisione di Radioterapia, Dipartimento di Scienze
Cliniche Applicate e Biotecnologiche, Università degli
Studi dell’Aquila;
3Divisione di Radioterapia, Ospedale San Salvatore
L’Aquila;
4Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical
Pathophysiology, Food Science and Endocrinology,
Università La Sapienza Roma;
5Course of Endocrinology and Medical Sexology,
Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Applicate e
Biotecnologiche, Università di L’Aquila, Italy
Background: There is debate about the optimal management of
intermediate and high risk localized prostate cancer. It has been
demonstrated that short- and long-term hormonal manipulation
improves oncological outcomes in patients with intermediate- or
high risk PCa. Although hormonal manipulation in combination
with RT is used to improve local tumor control in men suffering
from Pca, the optimal therapy as well as the underlying
mechanisms is not well understood. Aim: To evaluate the
differential effect of castration, bicalutamide or the combination
of castration and bicalutamide in terms of radiosesitizing effects.
Methods: In vitro and in vivo models were used to test our study
hypothesis. Pca tumor cells, the 22rv1 model, were used as
preclinical models. Castrated nude mice were purchased from
Charles River Laboratories and Bicalutamide was administered
at the concentration of 50 mg/kg per os. Fractionated radiation
therapy (5 daily fractions of 2 Gy each) was delivered by a 6
MeV linear accelerator (LINAC) Results: In mice bearing
xenograft derived from 22rv1 RT resulted in 30.4% decrease of
tumor mass (tumor weight 0.797±0.166 gr) vs. controls (tumor
weight 1,145±0.348 gr). The treatment with bicalutamide alone
reduced tumor mass by 26% (0.838±0.184 gr) vs. control and
when associated with RT resulted in 62% decrease (tumor
weight 0.433±0.161 gr) with a Combination index (CI) of 0.90
(sub-additive effect). In order to verify the effects of the total
androgenic blockade, the combinational treatment of castration
with bicalutamide was associated with RT. Castration slightly
decreased (15% tumor weight of 0.978±0.255 gr) the tumor
growth of 22rv1 tumors xenografted in nude mice vs. controls.
When bicalutamide and castration were associated to RT a
synergistic reduction (CI=0.76) of tumor mass [67.5%
(0.317±0.098 gr)] was observed. In vitro experience
demonstrated that androgen deprivation therapies reduce the
levels of Akt and GSK3β activities as well as the expression
levels of HIF-1α, cyclin D1, Bcl2. Conclusion: These data
suggest that the combinational treatment of castration with
bicalutamide synergistically potentiate the radioresponse of
preclinical models of aggressive Pca.
77
HORMONE TREATMENT PROMOTES
CASTRATION-RESISTANT PHENOTYPE
BY INCREASING PI3K/AKT ACTIVITY IN
PROSTATE CANCER MODELS.
PRECLINICAL DATA ON COMBINED
PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL-3-KINASE/
MTOR INHIBITION WITH ENDOCRINE
THERAPY FOR ANDROGEN RECEPTORPOSITIVE PROSTATE CANCER CELLS
Festuccia Claudio1, Giovanni Luca Gravina2,
Andrea Mancini1, Francesco Marampon2, Leda Biordi1,
Margherita Piccolella3, Marcella Motta3, David Sherris4,
Andrea Lenzi5, Emmanuele Jannini6
1Dipartimento
di Scienze Cliniche Applicate e
Biotecnologiche, Università Degli Studi dell’Aquila;
2Divisione di Radioterapia, Dipartimento di Scienze
Cliniche Applicate e Biotecnologiche, Università di
L’Aquila;
3Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari,
Università di Milano;
4Chief Executive Officer and Director, Paloma
Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, USA;
5Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Medical
Pathophysiology, Food Science and Endocrinology,
Università La Sapienza, Roma, Italy;
6Course of Endocrinology and Medical Sexology,
Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Applicate e
Biotecnologiche, Università degli Studi dell’Aquila, Italy
Background: Castration is the standard therapy for advanced
prostate cancer (PC). Although this treatment is initially
effective, tumors invariably relapse as incurable, castrationresistant PC (CRPC). Adaptation of androgen-dependent PC
cells to an androgen-depleted environment or selection of
preexisting, CRPC cells have been proposed as mechanisms
of CRPC development. Aim: This study was carried out to
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
determine the mechanisms associated with loss of androgen
dependency and disease progression in prostate cancer. We
hypothesized that hormone therapy favors the increase of
PI3K/Akt/mTOR activity. Thus we investigated the
relationship between the androgen receptor (AR) and
PI3K/mTOR pathways and the impact of inhibiting both
pathways in androgen-dependent and castration-resistant PCa
models. Methods: To test this hypothesis the androgen
receptor (AR) inhibitor, Casodex (Bicalutamide, BCLT), was
administered in vitro to AR positive human prostate cancer
cell lines and in vivo to 22rv1 CRPC cells. Results: We
demonstrated that androgen-independent cells had higher Akt
activity than androgen-dependent cells and that p-Akt
expression and TORC1/TORC2 activity also paralleled the
development of the CR phenotype and resulted in an increased
tumorigenicity of 22Rv1-BCLT-R cells. Short term androgen
stimulation with 10–12 M DHT significantly increased Akt
activity in androgen sensitive PCa cells when compared with
hormone therapy. Long term androgen stimulation, however,
reduced sensitively Akt activity in 22rv1 cells whereas BCLT
was able to increase the activity of this enzyme. The use of
the pan PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, XL-765, greatly reduced the
development of the CR phenotype induced by long-term
BCLT treatment and this finding correlated with reduced Akt
activity. XL-765 restored bicalutamide efficacy both in
BCLTR strains and in cell derivatives originated from LnCaP
after androgen ablation in vitro. Low doses of XL-765
additively increased the anti-tumor effects of BCLT. The sole
PI3K inhibition by using XL147 also amplified the response to
BCLT whereas lower effects were obtained with RAD001
(TORC1 inhibitor). Dual TORC1/TORC2 inhibitor P529
possessed a similar activity as XL765 through the similar and
complete mTOR-mediated signaling inhibition. BCLT
additively increased the antiproliferative effects of XL-765 or
P529, by reducing the IC50 for these agents. These superadditive effects can be explained considering that the
activation of PI3K can mediate the androgen-independent AR
transactivation and treatment with XL765 resulted in a reduced
protein expression and activation of the AR. Conversely,
inhibition of the androgen receptor resulted in increased
expression of IGFR1β, pHER2, pmTOR, and pAkt. The
addition of P529 to bicalutamide treatment of resistant
tumours significantly reduced tumour growth rates and tumour
volumes. Anti-androgen treatment also increased protein
expression of multiple signal transduction pathways earlier
than vehicle-treated control xenografts. Our data provide
evidence that compensatory cross-talk between the androgen
receptor and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways may account for
decreased sensitivity to androgen receptor antagonists and the
progression to hormone-resistant prostate cancer. Conclusion:
This study suggests that dual inhibition of AR and mTOR in
castration-resistant xenograft models can restore sensitivity of
tumours to anti-androgen therapy.
2296
78
RARE CANCERS OF THE UROGENITAL
TRACT IN ITALY
Annalisa Trama1, Gemma Gatta1,
Sandra Mallone2, Nicola Nicolai3
1Unità
di Epidemiologia Valutativa, Dipartimento di
Epidemiologia Preventiva e Predittiva, Fondazione IRCCS
Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano;
2Centro di Epidemiologia, Istituto Superiore di Sanità;
3Unità Urologia, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei
Tumori, Milano, Italy
Background/Aim: Epidemiological information on Rare
Cancers of the urogenital tract is scarce. The project
Surveillance of rare cancers in Italy (RITA) provides
estimates of the incidence, prevalence and survival of rare
cancers in Italy (1), based on a new list of these diseases
defined in collaboration with the project Surveillance of Rare
Cancer in Europe (RARECARE). This abstract describes the
epidemiology of rare urogenital cancers in Italy, as defined
by these projects (2). Materials and Methods: Rare cancers
were defined as those with an incidence rate <6 per
100,000/year. RITA analyzed population-based cancer
registry (CR) data of Italian patients diagnosed from 1988 to
2002, with vital status information available up to December
31, 2003 (latest date for which most CRs had verified data).
Cancer incidence and survival rates for 1995-2002, and
prevalence at January 1, 2003 were estimated. Rare urogenital
cancers described in this abstract include penis, urethra, renal
pelvis and the ureter and testis. Rare entities within common
cancer site, such as prostate and bladder, will be also
described. Results: The annual number of new cases of penile
cancer in Italy is estimated at 380, which is equivalent to an
incidence rate of 6 per million in the population. The 5-year
relative survival was 71%, while squamous cell carcinoma
was the predominant morphological entity. Each year around
100 persons in Italy develop cancer of the urethra and 1.100
develop cancer of the renal pelvis or ureter (RPU). The
incidence rate for cancer of the urethra and RPU was 1.7
(males 2.5; females 0.9) and 17 (males 25; females 10) per
million, respectively. The 5-year relative survival for cancer
of the urethra and RPU was 62% and 60%, respectively.
Transitional cell carcinoma was the predominant
morphological entity of cancer of the urethra and RPU.
Finally, 1.500 new cases of testicular cancers are expected in
Italy every year which correspond to an incidence rate of 25
per million in the population. The 5-year relative survival for
testicular cancers was 95%. The complete prevalence for
penis, urethra/renal pelvis ureter and testis was 6, 15 and 65
per 100.000, respectively. In the prostate the squamous, the
infiltrating, and the transitional cell carcinoma were the main
rare histologic sub-type. All together represented the 6% of
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
all prostate cancers. In the bladder, there were the squamous
and the adenocarcinomas which together summed up to only
the 2% of all bladder cancers. Five year relative survival for
rare cancers was worse than for common cancers in both,
prostate and bladder. Discussion and Conclusion: In view of
the low number of cases and of the fact that more than one
third patients with penis, urethra, renal pelvis and ureter
cancer die of their disease, centralisation of treatment of these
rare tumours to a select number of centers of expertise should
be promoted. In some countries centers of expertise and
networks of these centers have been established. In Italy, the
“Rete Tumori Rari” was established in 1997. In France, the
National Cancer Institute launched three calls for proposals
(2009-2011), aimed at organizing the provision of care for
adult patients with a rare cancer combining expertise
available. In the field of genitourinary cancers, national and
international agencies have been promoted by pool of experts,
for pursuing common strategies of care to standardise
treatment and improve clinical outcome. CRs databases, such
as the one established for this study, demonstrated to be a
valid and unique source of data to assess frequency and
outcome of rare cancers. The RITA project is undertaking
patterns of care study for a selected group of rare cancers,
including testicular cancers.
1 Trama A, Mallone S, Ferretti S, Meduri F, Capocaccia R,
Gatta G; RITA working group. The burden of rare cancers
in Italy: the surveillance of rare cancers in Italy (RITA)
project. Tumori 98(5): 550-558, 2012.
2 Gatta G, van der Zwan JM, Casali PG, Siesling S, Dei Tos
AP, Kunkler I, Otter R, Licitra L, Mallone S, Tavilla A,
Trama A, Capocaccia R; RARECARE working group.
Rare cancers are not so rare: the rare cancer burden in
Europe. Eur J Cancer 47(17): 2493-2511, 2011.
79
SURVIVAL OF PROSTATIC CANCER PATIENTS BY
PROGNOSTIC RISK AND THERAPY
Roberto Foschi1, Riccardo Valdagni2, Silvia Francisci3,
Giovanna Tagliabue4, Marina Vercelli5, Paolo Contiero4,
Nicola Nicolai6, Alberto Quaglia7, Gemma Gatta2
1Unità
di Epidemiologia Valutativa - Dipartimento di
Epidemiologia Preventiva E Predittiva, Fondazione IRCCS
Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano;
2Programma Prostata, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto
Nazionale dei Tumori;
3Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Istituto Superiore di Sanità;
4Registro Tumori ed Epidemiologia Ambientale,
Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori;
5Epidemiologia Descrittiva: Registro Tumori, Istituto
Nazionale per la Ricerca Sul Cancro - Genova;
6Chirurgia
del Testicolo, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto
Nazionale dei Tumori;
7Epidemiologia Descrittiva, Registro Tumori Istituto
Nazionale per la Ricerca Sul Cancro, Genova, Italy
Background/Aim: For a correct choice of therapy, the
knowledge of prognostic risk of patients is needed. The
introduction of prostate cancer screening may lead to
different kinds of bias, among which lead time bias and the
diagnosis of clinically insignificant tumors. The use of cure
mixture models is useful to understand if the survival
increases are due to these biases or to a real improvement of
survival and allow a comparison among different regions.
This study shows the 10-years survival for prostatic cancer
patients in two Italian provinces (Genova and Varese) by age,
risk category and therapy, shows the risks of death, the
proportion of cured patients and the mean survival time of
fatal cases. Patients and Methods: Prostatic cancer cases
from the period 1996-1997, resident in the Varese (602
cases) and Genova (509 cases) provinces were included. The
risk category was defined as a combination of TNM and
Gleason. The radical therapy (prostatectomy and
radiotherapy) was applied in the first 12 months from
diagnosis, patients with distant metastasis were excluded.
Age was divided in two groups: 15-74 years and 75-99 years.
Relative survival was estimated using the EDERER2
methods stratifying by age, registry, risk category and
treatment. The relative risks of death (RER) were estimated
using a Poisson regression model. The proportion of cured
patients (P) and the mean survival time of fatal cases (T)
were estimated using the cured mixture models. Results:
Patients younger than 75 years were 44% for Genova and
35% for Varese. At Genova there was a stronger attitude to
carry out a radical radiotherapy compared to Varese (14% vs.
3%); at Varese there was a stronger attitude towards radical
prostatectomy (35% vs. 25%). The distribution by risk
category was similar between the two registries. Relative
survival was similar between the two registries, with values
at 10-years of 70% for Genova and 73% for Varese. Survival
was lower for elderly compared to young people (55% vs.
80%). The survivals stratified by age were similar for young
people, whereas were different for the elderly (60% Genova
vs. 50% Varese). Relative survival was 100% for
prostatectomized subjects, 68% for patients with radical
radiotherapy and were lower for non radical treatments. The
estimates of RER was significantly higher for Varese (40%)
compared to Genova. Radical prostatectomy had the lowest
RER (0.1) for prostatectomy and low (0.7) for radiotherapy
compared to non-radical treatments. Patients in the high risk
category (any T, M1or N1 and high Gleason) had a
significant RER of 19.3 compared to lower risk patients
(T1T2, N0NX, M0MX and low Gleason). For the elderly the
proportion of cured was significantly higher at Genova
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
compared to Varese, whereas the mean survival time of fatal
cases was similar in the two registries. Discussion and
Conclusion: The main prognostic factors of prostate cancer
are age, risk category, therapy and the place of residence.
Survival was similar between the registries for 15-74 aged
patients, however the elderly survival and % of cured showed
a significantly higher risk at Varese compared to Genova.
The strong protective effect of prostatectomy should be
considered with caution because of the selection of subjects
that undertake the treatment. The use of cured models ensure
that the observed survival in the two areas are not due to the
cited potential biases.
80
SIURO-PRIAS-ITA PROJECT: THREE-YEAR
EXPERIENCE ON ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE
Maria Francesca Alvisi1, Tiziana Magnani1,
Tiziana Rancati1, Giario Conti2, Michele Gallucci3,
Rocco Papalia3, Giuseppe Martorana4, Davide Diazzi4,
Roberto Sanseverino5, Giorgio Napodano5,
Pierpaolo Graziotti6, Gianluigi Taverna6, Silvia Proietti6,
Marco Tanello7, Ezio Fregio7, Andrea Turci8,
Giacomo Cicchetti8, Enrico Bollito9,
Maurizio Colecchia10, Michelangelo Fiorentino11,
Rodolfo Montironi12, Carlo Patriarca13,
Steno Sentinelli14, Riccardo Valdagni15
1Programma
Prostata, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto
Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano;
2Dipartimento di Chirurgia, Ospedale Sant’Anna, Como;
3Divisione di Urologia, Istituto Regina Elena, Roma;
4Divisione di Urologia, Policlinico Sant’Orsola Malpighi,
Bologna;
5Divisione di Urologia, Ospedale Umberto I, Nocera
Inferiore;
6Divisione di Urologia, Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Rozzano;
7Divisione di Urologia, Ospedale Civile, Desenzano;
8Divisione di Urologia, Ospedale M. Bufalini, Cesena;
9Servizio di Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale San Luigi
Gonzaga, Orbassano;
10S. C. Anatomia Patologica, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto
Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano;
11Servizio di Anatomia Patologica, Policlinico Sant’Orsola
Malpighi, Bologna;
12Servizio di Anatomia Patologica, Ospedali Riuniti,
Torrette di Ancona;
13Servizio di Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale Sant’Anna,
Como;
14Servizio di Anatomia Patologica, Istituto Regina Elena,
Roma;
15S.c. Radioterapia Oncologica 1, Fondazione IRCCS
Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano, Italy
2298
Aim: We here report on the three year PRIAS-SIUrO-ITA
experience on Active Surveillance (AS). Special focus is
given on possible correlations between Active Treatment
Free Survival (ATFS) and patient’s characteristics at
diagnosis, with the aim of investigating the ability to predict
disease reclassification. Patients and Methods: In December
2009 the SIUrO-PRIAS-ITA project started enrolment in
PRIAS (Prostate cancer Research International: Active
Surveillance), the international study on observational
setting for low risk prostate cancer (PC) patients,
coordinated by Erasmus University Medical Center in
Rotterdam. Eligibility criteria were: iPSA ≤10 ng/ml,
Gleason Score ≤6 or Gleason 3+4 in over 69 year men with
<10% positive cores, T1c or T2, PSA density ≤0.2 ng/ml/cc,
max 2 positive cores (<10% positive cores in case of
saturation biopsy), biopsy samples according to prostate
volume (8 cores for 0-40 ml, 10 for 40-60 ml and 12 for
>60 ml), pathologic review of diagnostic biopsy. Actuarial
ATFS was assessed using Kaplan–Meier analysis.
Correlation between ATFS and clinical risk factors was
determined using the log rank test and Cox Proportional
Hazards Model. Age, DRE at diagnosis, iPSA, PSA density,
number of positive cores, number of negative cores,
percentage of positive cores, maximum core length
containing cancer and prostate volume were considered as
factors potentially influencing ATFS. Results: Between
December 2009 and January 2013, 310 Italian patients were
enrolled in SIUrO-PRIAS-ITA. Median age at inclusion was
65 years (range 46-80 years), median iPSA was 5.4 ng/ml
(range 0.15-10 ng/ml). Two hundred and forty-eight/310
patients (80%) are still on AS with a median follow-up of
42 months (range 0.13-58.8 months), median time in AS is
14 months (range 0.13-58.8 months). Forty-two patients
(13.5%) dropped out from AS because of disease
progression/reclassification: 3 due to PSADT, 39 due to
upgrading and/or upsizing at re-biopsy (9/39 at first rebiopsy). Twenty patients dropped out due to offprotocol
reasons. Patients who dropped out were addressed to active
treatment on the basis of the current guidelines and patient’s
choice. Biopsy-driven ATFS (Figure 1) resulted to be
correlated to PSA density ≤0.12 ng/ml/cc (p=0.01, ATFS at
27 months 91% vs. 75%), prostate volume ≤40cc (p=0.009,
ATFS at 27 months 75% vs. 82%) and number of total cores
at diagnostic biopsy ≤12 (p=0.015, ATFS at 27 months 75%
vs. 90%). Best fit multivariable model for biopsy-driven
ATFS resulted in a three-variable model (overall p=0.0023,
AUC=0.70), including number of total core sampled in
diagnostic biopsy ≤12 (risk factor, p=0.023, HR=2.13),
prostate volume ≤40cc (risk factor, p=0.09, HR=1.79) and
PSA density ≥0.12ng/ml/cc (risk factor, p=0.116, HR=1.73).
Figure 2 shows survival probabilities predicted by Cox
Proportional Hazard Model at 18 months from enrolment
together with observed drop out events. The Hosmer and
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
Figure 1. Kaplan–Meier curves for Active Treatment Free Survival
(biopsy related causes). a) as a function of prostate volume, b) as a
function of PSA density and c) as a function of number of total
cores at diagnostic biopsy.
Figure 1. Active Treatment Free Survival at 18 months form active surveillance enrollment as predicted by Cox Proportional Hazard model
together with observed drop out events.
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
Lameshow test confirmed good calibration of the Cox
model (i.e. no significant differences between observed and
predicted drop out events, p=0.99). Figure 1: Kaplan-Meier
curves for Active Treatment Free Survival (biopsy related
causes): a) as a function of prostate volume, b) as a function
of PSA density and c) as a function of number of total cores
at diagnostic biopsy. 1 Predicted drop out events 6/58, 90%
12/47, 74% 8/38, 79% 1/22, 95% 1/27, 96% 0.9 4/84, 95%
0.8 0.7 7/33, 79% Survival Probability 0.6 0.5 Observed
drop out events 0.4 Drop out due to rebiopsy Still in AS 0.3
0.2 0.1 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Patients Figure 2:
Active Treatment Free Survival at 18 months from active
surveillance enrollment as predicted by Cox Proportional
Hazard model together with observed drop out event.
Conclusion: AS is proving an acceptable alternative to
radical treatment for patients with low or very low risk PC,
which might harbor an indolent disease, thus sparing them
overtreatment
and
treatment
induced
toxicities.
Unfortunately, at present, there are no means to identify
indolent PC at diagnosis and disease reclassification occurs
in 20% patients after a short period on AS. In the SIUrOPRIAS-ITA population ATFS is correlated to PSA density
(risk factor related to the disease) and to prostate volume
and number of bioptic cores at diagnosis, indicating an
enhanced risk of disease reclassification in patients with a
“suboptimal” diagnostic biopsy. Acknowledgment to
Foundations Monzino for financial supports.
81
DOSIMETRIC AND CLINICAL PREDICTORS
OF ACUTE URINARY SYMPTOMS AFTER
RADIOTHERAPY FOR PROSTATE CANCER
Cesare Cozzarini1, Viviana Carillo2, Tiziana Rancati3,
Sergio Villa4, Pierfrancesco Franco5,
Claudio Degli Esposti6, Franco Girelli7,
Vittorio Vavassori8, Riccardo Valdagni9, Claudio Fiorino10
1Radioterapia,
2Fisica
Medica, Istituto Scientifico San Raffaele, Milano;
Prostata, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto
Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano;
4Divisione di Radioterapia 1, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto
Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano;
5Divisione di Radioterapia, Ospedale di Aosta;
6Divisione di Radioterapia, Ospedale di Bellaria, Bologna;
7Divisione di Radioterapia, Ospedale di Ivrea;
8Divisione di Radioterapia, Humanitas Gavazzeni,
Bergamo;
9Divisione di Radioterapia 1 e Programma Prostata,
Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Dei Tumori, Milano;
10Divisione di Fisica Medica, Istituto Scientifico San
Raffaele, Milano, Italy
3Programma
2300
Background and Purpose: In April 2010 a prospective
cohort study (DUE-01) was activated with the aim to
develop predictive models of genito-urinary (GU) toxicity
and erectile dysfunction after high dose radiotherapy (RT)
for prostate cancer; patients (pts) treated with conventional
(1.8-2Gy/fr, CONV) or moderate hypofractionation (2.52.7Gy/fr HYPO) were included. The aim of this ad-interim
analysis was to find correlation between pollakiuria
(POLL), dysuria (DYS) and nicturia (NICT) as measured
by IPSS at RT end and clinical/dosimetric risk factors.
Materials and Methods: IPSS questionnaire at the start and
at the end of RT were prospectively collected; Planning
data were recovered and analyzed with a dedicated program
(Vodca, MSS GmbH, Zurich), including absolute (cc/cm2)
and % bladder dose-volume/surface (DVH/DSH)
parameters referred to both the whole treatment and to the
weekly delivered dose (DVHw/DSHw). Relevant clinical
factors were prospectively collected including T stage,
concomitant morbidities and drugs, use of hormonal
therapy (HT), previous surgery, smoking, age, BMI and
prostate volume. In IPSS, each item ranges from 0 to 5 with
increasing score indicating increasing toxicity severity: for
each question, a score≥4 at the end of the therapy was
considered as the end point. Logistic uni- and backward
multi-variate (MVA) analyses were performed including
weekly DVHw/DSHw and clinical variables. Best
DVHw/DSHw parameters were selected by statistical
comparison of the differences between patients
with/without the sum score of the seven questions. Results:
At the time of this analysis (January 2013), 339 pts have
been enrolled 9 Institutes. Clinical data of 212/339 pts were
available (93 CONV and 119 HYPO). of 172/212 pts both
baseline and end-RT IPSS were collected. For 179/212 pts
also DVH/DSH were available. Questions POLL, DYS and
NICT (respectively 2, 3 and 7) showed the larger increase
of the fraction of pts with scores ≥4 between basal and end
questionnaire; consequently, the analysis focused on these
symptoms; the number of patients with scores≥4 increased
from 8 to 30 for POLL, from 5 to 20 for DYS and from 12
to 34 for NICT. At MVA (overall p<0.0001), the main
independent predictors of acute POLL were: smoke
(OR:2.74, p=0.04) and S8.5w (OR:1.01, p=0.10);
AUC=0.66. The model was confirmed also after the
exclusion of pts with baseline IPSS-POLL ≥4 (AUC=0.69).
Main independent predictors of acute DYS were: HT
(OR:4.61, p=0.02), S8.5w (OR:1.01, p=0.16) and S12.5w
(OR:1.04, p=0.08), AUC=0.74. Finally independent
predictors of acute NICT were: baseline IPSSNICT
(OR:13.5, p=0.001), and S12.5w (OR:1.05, p=0.012),
AUC=0.69. Conclusion: First results of DUE01 show that
bladder DSHw predicts the risk of severe acute POLL, DYS
and NICT together with the baseline scores, smoke (POLL)
and HT (DYS).
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
82
THE PROGNOSTIC ROLE OF MOLECULAR
TESTING IN PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE
CANCER: A PRELIMINARY STUDY
Enrico Bollito1, Matteo Manfredi2, Eleonora Duregon1,
Massimo Freschi3, Vincenzo Scattoni4, Mauro Papotti1,
Francesco Porpiglia2
1Dept.
of Pathology and 2Urology, University of Turin at
San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano, Turin;
3Dept. of Pathology and 4Urology, University Vita-Salute,
San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy
Background: The availability of new bio-markers useful to
predict prostate cancer (PC) aggressiveness is a basic need in
PC pathology. The distinction between indolent tumors and
potentially lethal PC is currently based on serum PSA and
Gleason Score evaluations. These data, especially when
incorporated into nomograms have proven very useful, but often
insufficient for a proper prognostic assessment. Ki67
proliferation index determination and, in special cases, the
search for neuroendocrine cells gave promising results, but none
of these markers permitted to obtain conclusive data. More
recently, some studies aimed at identifying PC aggressiveness
were focused on molecular analysis, in particular using geneprofiling methods. For this reason, different panels of genes are
currently provided by companies and offered for in vitro
analysis of tumor tissue, mainly based on RNA analysis in both
diagnostic and prognostic settings. Moreover, the availability of
methods that allow to use paraffin embedded material for RNA
analysis is further increasing the horizon of biological
parameters evaluation. Study Design: Among the genes studied
so far, we focused our interest on a group of cell-cycle
progression (CCP) related genes incorporated in a multi-gene
assay named Prolaris®, developed and marketed by Myriad
Genetics Laboratories (Salt Lake City, USA). With the aim to
provide a more accurate risk stratification in PC affected men,
46 genes (31 cell-cycle related and 15 housekeeping genes)
were selected. Total RNA was extracted and converted into
cDNA before amplification with quantitative real-time PCR. To
generate a CCP score, expression of the cell-cycle genes was
normalized by subtracting the average of housekeeping genes.
CCP score was calculated as a ratio of normal to abnormal
genes. The CCP group actually assessed by Prolaris® has been
previously validated retrospectively in specimens following
radical prostatectomy or transurethral prostate resection (1) and,
more recently, on prostate biopsy specimens (1). In these
studies, the Prolaris Score™ was shown to predict the
biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy and PC specific
mortality. In this preliminary study, we will assess the
prognostic value of the cell cycle progression (CCP) - Prolaris
Score™ in an Italian case series, evaluating the distribution of
the Score compared with previous cohorts and correlating it
with other prognostic factors (Gleason Score, PSA, age, TNM
Tumor Stage). An open-label, observational study was started
at our Institutions, after receiving the ethic committee approval.
Patients presenting with localized PC (T1-3, N0-x, M0-x)
confirmed by biopsy, with WHO Performance Index <2, were
enrolled. The Prolaris test was performed measuring the
expression of 31 genes involved in CCP with quantitative RTPCR on RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded
tumor samples on prostate biopsy. All tests were carried out at
Myriad Genetic Laboratories and a CCP score, derived from the
ratio between normal and abnormal genes, was calculated for
each case. Scores ranging between –3.0 and +7.0 were expected
by this assay. Finally we calculated CAPRA scores (3) to create
a combined analysis, incorporating Prolaris and CAPRA, based
on the Cox Proportional Hazards model validated previously. In
the previously published paper (2), univariate analysis on 349
samples showed a hazard ratio (HR) for death from prostate
cancer of 2.02 (95% CI (1.62, 2.53), p<10–9) for one-unit
increase in Prolaris Score™. In multivariate analysis, compared
to standard prognostic factors, Prolaris Score™ appeared
superior (HR for one-unit increase=1.65, 95% CI (1.31, 2.09),
p=3×10–5), when compared to Gleason score (p=5×10–4) and
PSA (p=0.017), providing significant additional contributions.
Based on the literature, CCP gene assay seems to be predictive
of clinical outcome. Moreover, it seems to add useful
information when compared to standard prognostic factors.
1 Cuzick J, Swanson GP, Fisher G et al: Prognostic value of
an RNA expression signature derived from cell cycle
proliferation genes in patients with prostate cancer: a
retrospective study. Lancet Oncol 12(3): 245-255, 2011.
2 Cuzick J, Berney DM, Fisher G et al: Prognostic value of
a cell cycle progression signature for prostate cancer death
in a conservatively managed needle biopsy cohort. Br J
Cancer 106(6): 1095-1099, 2012.
3 Zhao KH, Hernandez DJ, Han M, Humphreys EB, Mangold
LA and Partin AW: External validation of University of
California, San Francisco, Cancer of the Prostate Risk
Assessment score. Urology 72(2): 396-400, 2008.
83
STAGE I SEMINOMA: THE ROLE OF
LYMPHOVASCULAR INVASION IN
DECISION-MAKING BETWEEN
RADIOTHERAPY AND SURVEILLANCE
Girolamo Spagnoletti, Angela Pia Solazzo,
Grazia Nardella, Maria Piserchia, Raffella Rignanese,
Giovanni Plotino, Anna Mazza, Anna Maria Leo,
Giuseppe Bove
Struttura Complessa di Radioterapia, Azienda OspedalieroUniversitaria Ospedali Riuniti, Foggia, Italy
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
Introduction: Surgery is the most important therapy for
testicular cancer. For stage I seminoma, the standard
adjuvant treatment options include surveillance, radiation
therapy or chemotherapy with 1 or 2 cycles of carboplatin.
With surgery and postoperative options, the present
management of testicular seminoma can achieve excellent
survival rates, in the order of 99%. A number of prospective
nonrandomized studies of surveillance have been conducted.
According to them, the presence/absence of risk factors
could be a guide in identifying a patient-tailored strategy.
Other authors discourage risk-adapted management for stage
I seminoma. Our retrospective work aims at evaluating the
role of lymphovascular invasion in order to identify a
favourable group of patients for whom surveillance is a safe
option and adjuvant therapies are unnecessary. Patients and
Methods: Between January 2007 and December 2010, 44
patients underwent orchidectomy with a histological
diagnosis of pure seminoma. Median age was 35 years
(range between 25 and 55 years). Thirty-four patients
presented with a tumour limited to the testis and epididymis
without lymphovascular invasion (pT1); the remaining 10
patients had a vascular/lymphatic invasion (pT2). Eighteen
patients with pT1 disease were treated with para-aortic
lymph node irradiation. A similar group of 16 pT1 patients
received no adjuvant treatment. Patients with pT2 disease
were all treated with radiotherapy. Radiation therapy was
administered 4-6 weeks after surgery with a median total
dose of 21 Gy (range between 20 and 25.2 Gy) with 1.5, 1.8
or 2 Gy per fraction. No patient received chemotherapy.
Relapse rate, metastasis rate, Disease Free Survival (DFS)
and Overall Survival (OS) were calculated. Results:
Respectively, median and minimum follow-up were 48
months and 26 months, long enough if we consider that the
risk of recurrence is highest in the first 2 years and decreases
after that. Follow-up for patients on surveillance included a
clinical examination with serum tumour markers (AFP,
betaHCG and LDH) every 3 months, an abdominal-pelvic
CT every 6 months and a chest CT annually. Follow-up of
patients treated with radiotherapy included a physical check
with serum markers every 3 months and an abdominal-pelvic
CT annually. No local relapse and no distant metastases were
observed in any of the three groups. Only one patient
experienced controlateral testicular cancer and he was
successfully treated with surgery. DFS and OS were 100%
since all patients were alive in complete remission at last
control, in all of the three groups. Discussion and
Conclusion: Some years ago standard adjuvant management
was extended-field radiotherapy. During the last years
alternative strategies, including surveillance, chemotherapy
and para-aortic lymph node radiotherapy have been explored.
With these approaches all patients affected by stage I
testicular seminoma can expect to be permanently cured. Our
work confirms that either radiotherapy or surveillance are
2302
effective strategies after surgery, providing excellent results
in terms of local control and survival. Concerns about second
cancers complicating radiotherapy are reducing its
popularity; the absence of tumour markers, the need for
frequent scans and evidence of poor compliance argue
against surveillance. The invasion of testicular veins or
lymphatics has been considered the most important predictor
of recurrence. Unfortunately, recent attempts to validate this
prospectively failed. Maybe surveillance could be the
preferred option also for pT2 patients. However, we still
recognize lymphovascular invasion as the key prognostic
factor. In our experience, the absence of vascular/lymphatic
invasion identifies a group of patients for whom surveillance
is a valid and safe option and can be preferred to
radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Finally, despite the limited
numbers of patients, our retrospective analysis shows that
probably, in this favourable group, surveillance does not
require a more intensive follow-up than radiotherapy.
1 Cullen M: Surveillance or adjuvant treatments in stage 1
testis germ-cell tumours. Ann Oncol 23(Suppl 10): x342x348, 2012.
2 Chung P et al: Stage I seminoma: adjuvant treatment is
effective but is it necessary? J Natl Cancer Inst 103: 194196, 2011.
3 Warde P et al: Prognostic factors for relapse in stage I
seminoma managed by surveillance: a pooled analysis. J
Clin Oncol 20: 4448-4452, 2002.
84
CORRELATION BETWEEN BASAL PCA3 LEVEL AND
BIOPSY-DRIVEN DISEASE RECLASSIFICATION
IN ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE
Cristina Marenghi1, Tiziana Rancati1,
Fernando Ravagnani2, Claudia Lombardo2,
Francesca Taverna2, Tiziana Magnani1,
Maria Francesca Alvisi1, Maurizio Colecchia3,
Nicola Nicolai4, Nice Bedini5,
Roberto Salvioni4, Riccardo Valdagni6
1Programma
Prostata,
Sperimentale,
3S. C. Anatomia Patologica,
4Urologia,
5Divisione di Radioterapia,
6Divisione di Radioterapia e Programma Prostata,
Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano,
Italy
2Oncologia
Background: One of the open issues in Active Surveillance
(AS) for prostate cancer (PCa) is lack of consensus on the
optimal selection criteria and on triggers for drop out and
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
Figure 1. Active Treatment Free Survival (ATFS) as a function of
PCA3 score at AS enrollment for the three selected endpoints: (a)
reclassification due to upgrading or upsizing (UPGRADING+
UPSIZING), (b) reclassifications due to upgrading and (c) upsizing
separetely.
radical intervention. The current methodologies for PCa staging
are sub-optimal in distinguishing patients (pts) with indolent
cancer from pts harboring aggressive disease. Ongoing research
is focused on the study of new biomarkers that could more
clearly discriminate PCa aggressiveness; among them PCA3,
which is a prostate specific noncoding mRNA that is
significantly overexpressed in PCa tissue compared to nonneoplastic prostatic cells. Urinary PCA3 level has been
significantly associated with Gleason Score (GPS) and PCa
volume in prostatectomy series, suggesting that this marker
may be useful in the selection of pts for AS. The goal of the
present study was to evaluate the relationship between PCA3
and biopsy-driven disease reclassification in an AS cohort.
Preliminary results are presented. Patients and Methods:
Starting in 2005, we are proposing AS in very low-risk Pca
within an institutional protocol (SAINT). In November 2007
we activated the international PRIAS protocol. Until February
2013 a total of 454 pts were enrolled in AS (287 PRIAS + 167
SAINT). Entry criteria are: iPSA ≤10ng/ml, T≤T2a, GPS≤3+3,
maximum 2 positive cores (PRIAS) and positive biopsy-
cores≤20% (SAINT), max core length containing cancer≤50%
(SAINT), PSA density<0.2ng/ml/cc (PRIAS). Pts are
monitored through PSA kinetics and with DRE and re-biopsy.
Beginning in 2008, pts were proposed to provide urine samples
for PCA3 measurement at AS enrollment (no specific selection
criteria were applied). Additional samples were collected
before re-biopsy. PCA3 was measured using Gen-probe assay.
Biopsy-driven active treatment free survival (ATFS) was
assessed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the log-rank
test was used to assess correlation between PCA3 score at AS
enrollment and ATFS. Three separate endpoints were
considered: (1) reclassification due to upgrading or upsizing
(UPG+UPS), (2) reclassification due to upgrading (UPG) and
(3) upsizing (UPS) separately. Results Seventy-eight pts had
PCA3 measured at AS enrollment (75/78 had at least one rebiopsy). Twentyone and 3 pts had a second and a third
evaluation, respectively. There was no significant difference in
age, PSA and PSA density between the subpopulation with
PCA3 measurement and the whole AS population. A PCA3
score>80 was correlated with increased disease reclassification
2303
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
rate due to UPG+UPS (log-rank test p=0.005, Hazard
Ratio=3.7) and to UPG (log-rank test p=0.04, Hazard
Ratio=4.4). Kaplan-Meier curves are presented in Figure 1.
Conclusion: In this preliminary analysis, in a cohort of pts with
very-low risk PCa who were selected for AS, a PCA3 score
>80 was significantly associated with disease re-classification
at re-biopsy. Specifically, it was correlated to enhanced rates
of upgrading. Further analysis is necessary to assess the
usefulness of PCA3 in AS management.
85
EXTERNAL VALIDATION OF A MODEL FOR THE
PREDICTION OF ACUTE GI TOXICITY IN
PROSTATE CANCER PATIENTS
Tiziana Rancati1, Barbara Avuzzi2, Claudio Stucchi3,
Emanuele Pignoli3, Sergio Villa2, Claudio Fiorino4,
Viviana Carillo4, Cesare Cozzarini5, Riccardo Valdagni6
1Programma
Prostata,
di Radioterapia,
3Sc di Fisica Medica, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale
dei Tumori, Milano;
4Divisione di Fisica Medica,
5Divisione di Radioterapia, Istituto Scientifico San
Raffaele, Milano;
6Divisione di Radioterapia e Programma Prostata,
Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano,
Italy
2Divisione
Purpose: External independent validation of a model
(nomogram, Red J 71(4) 2008) for the prediction of acute GI
toxicity (tox, within 1 month after treatment end) in prostate
cancer patients (pts) treated with radical radiotherapy (RT).
Materials and Methods: Grade ≥2 acute GI tox is the endpoint of
the nomogram. It includes: mean rectal dose, presence of
haemorrhoids, use of anticoagulants/ antiaggregants, neoadjuvant
androgen deprivation, diabetes and pelvic node irradiation. The
population (POP) used to develop the model consisted of pts
accrued in a multicenter prospective trial and treated in 2002-04
with 3DCRT, median dose 74Gy, 2Gy/fr. Toxicity was scored
through pt assessed questionnaire. The independent POP used
for external validation comprised prospective evaluated pts
enrolled in 2 centers (which did not participate in the previous
trial) and treated in 2010-12 with IMRT, median dose 78Gy,
2Gy/fr or moderate hypofractionation (hypo, 2.3-2.65Gy/fr).
Toxicity was scored with the same questionnaire and same
timing. Calibration of the model in the independent POP was
judged using Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) test, discriminating
capability was assessed using AUC. Results 149 pts were
enrolled, 40 (26.8%) exhibited grade ≥2 acute GI toxicity. Hypo
was used in 43 (28.9%) pts. Rectal doses in the hypo subgroup
were corrected using the linear-quadratic model (alpha/
2304
beta=10Gy) and total treatment time/dose recovery corrections
(assumed=0.7Gy/day). Calculated toxicity probabilities in the
independent POP ranged from 10% to 50%. Calibration was
very good, p of HL test=0.76, i.e. no significant difference
between expected vs. observed toxicity probabilities in 5
consecutive intervals: 13% vs. 14%, 23% vs. 25%, 28% vs. 21%,
30% vs. 24% and 40% vs. 44%. Discrimination was poor
(AUC=0.61) but comparable to the one in the original POP
(AUC=0.62). The model has satisfactory specificity (75%, with
a cutoff=30%), but poor sensitivity (42%). Conclusion: The
purpose of a predictive model is to provide valid outcome
predictions for new pts. Validation hence is an important aspect
of the process of predictive modelling. External validation of a
model for acute GI toxicity was performed providing a measure
of generalizability of model to POPs that are plausibly related.
Validation resulted in very good calibration, despite some
important differences in the POPs (year of RT, 3CDRT vs.
IMRT, prescribed doses, hypo). The model has satisfactory
capability in predicting absence of tox, while the % of false
positive is quite high. The range of predicted toxicity
probabilities is narrow and poor discrimination is related to this.
A possible explanation might reside in important predictive
variables (genetic?) which are not included in the model.
86
PATIENTS’ CHARACTERISTICS, DIAGNOSTIC
AND PRIMARY THERAPY PROCEDURES IN
PROSTATE CANCER PATIENTS ANALYZED
IN THE PERIODS 1996-1999 VS 2005-2007
Laura Botta1, Annalisa Trama2, Roberto Foschi2,
Nicola Nicolai3, Michele Lodde4, Andreas Seeber5,
Michael Aigner6, Francesco Bellù7, Tomas Dal Cappello8,
Mario Fusco9, Maria Francesca Vitale10, Fabio Pannozzo11,
Maurilio Natali11, Antonio di Croce12, Marina Vercelli13,
Alberto Quaglia14, Claudia Casella14, Antonella Puppo14,
Rosario Tumino15, Eugenia Spata15, Lucia Mangone16,
Francesca Ferrari17, Massimo Vicentini17, Silvano Piffer18,
Maria Adalgisa Gentilini18, Maddalena Cappelletti18,
Roberto Rizzello18, Lucia Preto19, Giovanna Tagliabue19,
Paolo Contiero19, Riccardo Valdagni20, Gemma Gatta2
1Unità
di Epidemiologia Valutativa - Dipartimento di
Epidemiologia Preventiva e Predittiva,
2Epidemiologia Valutativa,
3Clinica Urologica, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale
dei Tumori, Milano;
4Clinica Urologica, Ospedale di Bolzano, Italy;
5Ematologia E Oncologia, Ospedale di Merano and
Medical Universtiy, Innsbruck, Austria;
6Clinica Urologica, Ospedale di Bressanone;
7Registro Tumori, Registro Tumori dell’Alto Adige;
8Epidemiologia: Registro Tumori, Registro Tumori
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
dell’Alto Adige;
9Registro Tumori, Registro Tumori di Popolazione della
Regione Campania;
10Epidemiologia Descrittiva: Registro Tumori, Registro
Tumori di Popolazione della Regione Campania;
11Registro Tumori, Registro Tumori I Popolazione della
Provincia di Latina;
12Biologia, Istituto Nazionale Tumori Regina Elena Irccs Ifo, Roma;
13Registro Tumori, Registro Tumori Regione Liguria, IRCCS
A.O.Universitaria San Martino-IST Genova and
Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Università di Genova;
14Registro Tumori, Registro Tumori Regione Liguria, IRCCS
A.O.Universitaria San Martino-IST Genova;
15Registro Tumori, Registro Tumori della Provincia di
Ragusa;
16Statistica, Qualità e Studi Clinici, ASMN-IRCCS, Reggio
Emilia;
17Struttura Operativa Registro Tumori Reggio Emilia_epi,
Registro Tumori Reggiano, Reggio Emilia;
18Epidemiologia Clinica e Valutativa, Registro Tumori della
Provincia di Trento;
19Registro Tumori, Registro Tumori della Provincia di
Varese;
20Divisione di Radioterapia e Programma Prostata,
Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano,
Italy
Introduction/Background/Aim: In Italy, prostate cancer is the
first cancer among the most frequently diagnosed in men. The
incidence rates vary considerably across Italy (109.5 cases per
year over 100,000 in Northern Italy, 85.3 over 100,000 in the
Central regions, and 61.4 over 100,000 in the South). 5yr
relative survival being 88% with geographic variation that may
depend on the different use of PSA testing (North-West
regions: 90% versus 78% in the South). The main goal of the
present report is to describe patients’ characteristics at
diagnosis and to analyze diagnostic and therapeutic procedures
for prostate cancer in the different Italian regions in two
different periods (1996-1999 and 2005-2007). Methods: 8
different Cancer Registries (CRs) form North to South
participated in the study. Each CR contributed with a maximum
of 600 incidence cases, 300 from 1996-1999 (first period) and
300 from 2005-2007 (second period). Cases were randomly
selected from the EUROCARE (European Cancer Registry
based study on survival and care of cancer patients) database.
Information were collected on diagnostic procedures, stage at
diagnosis, treatment (radical prostatectomy, radical
radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, no treatment
and unknown treatment), clinical follow-up and life status.
Clinical Stage (cTNM) was grouped in five categories: 1.
T1/T2, N0/NX, M0/MX 2. T3/T4, N0/NX, M0/MX 3. Any T,
N1, M0/MX 4. Any T, any N, M1 5. Unknown primary
treatment was identified as the treatment delivered within one
year after the diagnosis. Results: 4577 cases were analyzed,
2140 in 1996-1999 and 2438 in 2005-2007. Regarding the
clinical staging, T1/T2, N0/NX, M0/MX increased in 20052007 (42% vs. 73%) while all other categories decreased as
follows: T3/T4, N0/NX, M0/MX (10% vs. 5%), any T, N1,M1
(17% vs. 8%), cTNM unknown (31% vs. 14%). The variability
among registries was high; specifically in the first period, those
who had T1/T2, N0/NX, M0/MX varied from 67% in Varese,
to 15% in Latina. T3/T4, N0/NX, M0/MX from 19% in Varese,
to 2% in Reggio Emilia and metastatic disease from 24% in
Naples to 9% in Alto Adige. In the second period, those with
T1/T2, N0/NX, M0/MX varied from 88% in Genoa, to 44% in
Naples. T3/T4, N0/NX, M0/MX were 10% in Trento vs. 0.8%
in Ragusa. Metastatic disease varied from 11% in Naples to
3% in Genoa. Radical radiotherapy and prostatectomy doubled
in 2005-2007 (21% vs. 40% and 7% vs. 12%, respectively),
hormonal therapy decreased (36% vs. 22%); cases with
unknown treatment halved (25% vs. 14%), with variability
across registries. Mean age at diagnosis decreased in 20052007 (73yr to 70yr). On the other hand, the percentage of PSA
value at diagnosis <10 ng/ml increased in this period (30.3%
to 54%). Analyses on the risk class are in progress. Discussion
and Conclusion: This study shows heterogeneities of patients’
features at diagnosis and of primary treatments in different
periods and geographic areas with more significant differences
in registries in the first period of analysis when compared to
the second (2005-2007). This study highlights, also in our
country, the recent, well known phenomenon of stage
migration and the consequent changes in primary treatments
over time. These findings are mostly due to the extensive use of
PSA testing, which also explains the widely recognized
problem of over diagnosis. This study was carried out thanks to
the funding received from AIRC (Associazione Italiana per la
Ricerca sul Cancro), Amgen Dompé and “Fondazione Trentina
per la Ricerca sui Tumori”.
87
IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION
OF β HEMOGLOBIN (HBB) EXPRESSION
IN PROSTATE CARCINOMA
Luca Ventura1, Mattia Capulli2, Cinzia Mercurio1,
Adriano Angelucci2, Anna Teti2, Nadia Rucci2
1Unità
Operativa di Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale San
Salvatore, L’Aquila;
2Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Applicate e
Biotecnologiche, Università, L’Aquila, Italy
Background: The first demonstration of hemoglobin
expression in breast cancer revealed a pattern increasing
with disease progression (1). Subsequently, we hypothesized
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
a role of β hemoglobin (HBB) in breast cancer progression
(2), demonstrating a positive correlation between HBB
expression and tumor cell aggressiveness (3). This is
conceivable if we consider the well known anti-oxidant role
of HBB, which act as a free radical scavenger that cancer
cells may use to survive. Based on these observations and
given the similarities between breast and prostate cancer, the
same rationale was shifted to prostate carcinoma. The aim
of this study was to investigate HBB immunoreactivity in
prostate carcinoma, other lesions and normal tissues.
Materials and Methods: After routine diagnostic
examination and reporting, paraffin blocks from 22 selected
patients, who underwent trans-urethral resection (3 cases),
and radical prostatectomy (19 cases), were cut to obtain
slides immunostained with a mouse monoclonal antibody
against HBB. Red blood cells were used as internal positive
control and negative controls were performed by omitting
primary antibody in each case. The selected cases included
normal tissues and prostatic diseases, such as
adenocarcinoma, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia,
prostatitis, adenosis, hyperplasia and glandular atrophy, as
well as two nodal metastases. HBB expression was recorded
as the percentage of positively stained cells. Known
prognostic factors (Gleason grading, percentage of cancer,
perineural infiltration, lymphovascular invasion, pT
category, and margin status) were available for each case.
Results Weak and focal (1%) cytoplasmic positivity was
noted in one out of 22 adenocarcinomas. This particular
case did not show peculiar clinicopathological features. The
neoplastic cells in the remaining 21 primary tumors and
nodal metastases were constantly negative. A weak positive
signal was focally detected in normal (1 case out of 22) and
hyperplastic luminal cells (3 out of 22 cases). Prostatic basal
cells were negative. Moderate and focal positivity was
observed in atrophic glands in a single case. Multifocal
immunostaining of extracellular space was present in one
case. Urothelial cells in normal urethra and urothelial
metaplasia were positive in 3 cases. Seminal vesicle
epithelium showed moderate positivity with a patchy pattern
of expression in 1 case. Discussion and Conclusion: No
significant expression of HBB was found in prostate
carcinoma cells, in contrast with the results obtained in
breast carcinoma. This allows to speculate that prostate
carcinoma may not be able to take advantage of HBB free
radicals scavenging systems, giving a reason for its
relatively indolent course in the majority of patients.
Therefore, the lack of HBB expression in prostate cancer
may explain its peculiar behaviour and the features of its
progression and metastatic spread. Despite focal positivity
in occasional cases, benign lesions and normal tissues were
negative. The positive staining of extracellular space,
urothelial and seminal cells may be related to the diffusion
of normal hemoglobin.
2306
1 Gorr TA, Wichmann D, Pilarsky C, Theurillat JP, Fabrizius,
Laufs T, Bauer T, Koslowski M, Horn S, Burmester T,
Hankeln T and Kristiansen G: Old proteins – new
locations: myoglobin, haemoglobin, neuroglobin and
cytoglobin in solid tumours and cancer cells. Acta Physiol
(Oxf) 202: 563-581. 2011.
2 Capulli M, Angelucci A, Driouch K, Garcia T, ClementLacroix P, Martella F, Ventura L, Bologna M, Flamini S,
Moreschini O, Lidereau R, Ricevuto E, Muraca M, Teti A,
Rucci N. Increased expression of a set of genes enriched
in oxygen binding function discloses a predisposition of
breast cancer bone metastases to generate metastasis
spread in multiple organs. J Bone Mineral Research 27:
2387-2398, 2012.
3 Ventura L, Capulli M, Mercurio C, Teti A and Rucci N:
Immunohistochemical study of β hemoglobin (HBB)
expression in human breast carcinoma and its potential
prognostic value. Pathologica 104: 338-339, 2012.
88
USE OF STAT IN PROSTATE CANCER:
CORRELATION WITH RISK FACTORS AND
IDENTIFICATION OF RESIDUAL COHORT
Sara Morlino1, Tiziana Rancati2, Claudio Fiorino3,
Viviana Carillo3, Cesare Cozzarini4, Gianni Fellin5,
Vittorio Vavassori6, Riccardo Valdagni7
1Divisione
di Radioterapia 1,
Prostata, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto
Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano;
3Divisione di Fisica Medica,
4Divisione di Radioterapia, Istituto Scientifico San
Raffaele, Milano;
5Divisione di Radioterapia, Ospedale Santa Chiara, Trento;
6Divisione di Radioterapia, Humanitas - Gavazzeni,
Bergamo;
7Divisione di Radioterapia 1 e Programma Prostata,
Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano,
Italy
2Programma
Purpose: Standardized Total Average Toxicity (STAT) score
was proposed by Barnett (IJROBP11) as a global score which
may be used to (a) facilitate the analysis of overall radiation
(RT) toxicity (tox), (b) pool data from multiple trials (in order
to increase statistical power) and (c) select patients (pts) to
be included in studies of possible genetic determinants of RT
tox. In the same paper application of STAT to 2 cohorts of
breast cancer pts was presented. We here evaluate application
of STAT to 2 prostate cancer populations (A and B), with the
aim of verifying that STAT keeps all known correlations of
single tox endpoints with clinical/dosimetric risk factors and
to select possible radiosensitive pts. Patients and Methods:
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
Population A (646 pts, doses 70-80Gy, 1.8-2Gy/fr) was
included in a prospective trial on rectal tox (recorded by
questionnaires). Population B (179 pts, doses 60-80Gy, 1.82.65Gy/fr) was included in a prospective trial on
genitourinary tox (measured by IPSS). STAT calculation was
made following definition by Barnett. Key point is that STAT
defines whether a pt’s global tox is high or low relative to the
distribution of the global tox of other pts. STAT measures the
distance between the single pt and the average of all
considered pts in terms of standard deviations. For population
A, 2 STATs were considered: baseline STAT (BSTAT) and
late (3yrs follow-up) STAT (STATGI). For population B, only
acute tox was available and acute STAT (STATGU) was
calculated. We considered pts with STATGI/STATGU>0.8 as
exhibiting high tox with respect to the whole cohort and
clinical/dosimetric predictors of STATGI/STATGU>0.8 were
determined through multivariable logistic analysis. Analysis
of residuals was used to individuate the radiosensitive
cohorts. Results: STATGI>0.8 (43/646pts) was predicted by:
BSTAT (continuous variable (cv), OR=2, p=0.04), previous
diseases of the colon (OR=3, p=0.02), the % volume of
rectum receiving more than 40Gy (V40Gy, cv, OR=1.02,
p=0.08) and V75Gy (cv, OR=1.05, p=0.03). Overall
p=0.0006, AUC 0.74. STATGU>0.8 (39/179pts) was
predicted by: pre-RT IPSS (cv, OR=1.14, p=0.0008), Body
Max Index (cv, OR=0.94, p=0.2), clinical T3 stage (OR=2,
p=0.1), absolute bladder surface receiving≥8.5 Gy/week
(S8.5w, cv, OR=1.014, p=0.03) and absolute bladder surface
receiving≥12.5 Gy/week (S12.5w, cv, OR=1.035, p=0.06)
Overall p<0.0001, AUC 0.81. From analysis of residuals, 14
and 11 pts emerged as possible radiosensitive pts (with high
STAT which is not predicted from model) for STATGI and
STATGU, respectively. Conclusion: Correlation between high
STATGI/STATGU and clinical/dosimetric risk factors
confirmed previous results found in the 2 populations for the
single tox endpoints. This global approach allows objective
identification of pts whose tox are not explained by the global
model and who may be included in studies of possible genetic
determinants of RT tox.
89
BIOCHEMICAL CONTROL AFTER RADIATION
THERAPY FOR PROSTATE CANCER:
HYPOFRACTIONATION VERSUS
CONVENTIONAL FRACTIONATION
Girolamo Spagnoletti, Raffaella Rignanese,
Giorgia Cocco2, Vincenzo Oriolo, Maria Piserchia,
Maria Enfasi, Valentina Verile, Antonio di Fiore,
Giuseppe Bove
Struttura Complessa di Radioterapia, Azienda OspedalieroUniversitaria Ospedali Riuniti Foggia;
Background: Many hypofractionated protocols are being
tested in radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Since the
alpha/beta ratio estimates for this tumour are much lower
than the typical values for many other cancers, we performed
a small randomized trial to compare a hypofractionated
versus a conventional schedule for radiation therapy in
localized prostate carcinoma. We have already reported about
acute and late toxicities in our experience. Now our aim is
to evaluate early biochemical control in the two arms of
treatment. Patients and Methods: From September 2008 to
July 2009, 40 patients with cT1-T2N0M0 prostate cancer
were randomized to receive either a conventional or a
hypofractionated radiation therapy with curative intent.
Patients were stratified according to stage, Gleason score and
presenting prostate-specific antigen level; 9 patients were at
low risk and 31 patients were at intermediate risk according
to Partin classification. The latter received neoadjuvant
hormonal therapy that started 2 months before the
radiotherapy onset and continued during radiotherapy.
Treatments were delivered using four to six coplanar 10-18
MV photon beams at a dose of 72- 78 Gy in 36-39 fractions
within 7-8 weeks or 64.8-70.2 Gy in 24-26 fractions within
5 weeks. Relapse rate, metastasis rate, Progression-Free
Survival (PFS) and Overall Survival (OS) were calculated.
Results: All patients completed the whole course of
radiotherapy without interruptions. Median follow-up was 50
months. Minimum follow-up was three and a half years.
Efficacy of radiotherapy, based on clinical, radiologic and
prostate-specific antigen data, was evaluated every 3 months
for 2 years and every 6 months subsequently. No
biochemical relapse was observed since no patient had a rise
in PSA by 2 ng/ml or more above the nadir PSA, according
to the Phoenix definition which is the current standard for
biochemical failure after radiotherapy. No distant metastasis
was observed in the two groups: bone scans were obtained
only when clinically indicated and always resulted negative.
PFS and OS were 100% since all patients were alive and free
from PSA failure at last control, in both groups. Discussion
and Conclusion: No difference was already noted in the
acute and chronic complications between hypofractionated
and conventionally fractionated radiotherapy. As regards
biochemical control, we are aware that our follow-up is still
too short. Nevertheless, it is not insufficient if we consider
that, without androgen deprivation, nearly a half of
recurrences are experienced in the first 2 years. Our study
confirms that both hypofractionated and conventionally
fractionated radiotherapy are effective strategies, providing
similar results in terms of local control and survival, and that
hypofractionation is a promising regimen for prostate cancer
radiotherapy. Longer follow-up is mandatory to evaluate the
effectiveness of the two regimens. Regarding tumour control,
assuming a low alpha/beta ratio for prostate carcinoma, we
expect an interesting therapeutic gain.
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
1 Brenner DJ et al: Direct evidence that prostate tumours
show higth sensitivity to fractionation (low α/β ratio),
similar to late-responding normal tissue. Int J Radiat Oncol
Biol Phys 52: 6-13, 2002.
2 Dasu A et al: Prostate alpha/beta revisited - an analysis of
clinical results from 14 168 patients. Acta Oncol 51(8):
963-974, 2012.
3 Spagnoletti G et al: Hypofractionation versus
conventionally fractionated radiation therapy for prostate
cancer: late toxicity. Anticancer Res 31: 1887-1888, 2011.
90
CLINICAL, RADIOLOGIC AND
PROGNOSTIC FEATURES OF RENAL
ANGIOMYOADENOMATOUS TUMOR:
DESCRIPTION OF A NEW ENTITY
Alessandro Antonelli1, Regina Tardanico2, Fabio Franco3,
Giacomo Galvagni1, Claudio Simeone1
1Clinica
Urologica, Università degli Studi di Brescia;
di Anatomia Patologica, Spedali Civili di Brescia;
31˚ Servizio di Radiologia, Spedali Civili di Brescia, Italy
2Servizio
Introduction and Objectives: Renal angiomyoadenomatous
tumor (RAT) is a rare subtype of renal tumor with only 7 cases
reported to date in the literature. Its pathological and
immunohistochemical features have been well described and do
not fit with any entity actually encompassed into the WHO
classification of renal tumors. Besides a complete pathological
definition of this entity, very little information is available on its
clinical, radiological and prognostic characteristics. The aim of
the present study is to review a single-centre series of 12
patients with RAT focusing on its clinical, radiological and
prognostic features. Methods: An expert uro-pathologist
reviewed the specimens of more than 1000 patients undergone
surgery for a renal tumor between 2002 and 2012 and made a
diagnosis of RAT on the basis of morphology (well capsulated
nodules with an admixture of epithelial, smooth muscle and
vascular components) and immunohistochemistry (stromal
component desmin +; epithelial component CK7+, 34betaE12
+, focal Cd10+, racemase –). The clinical, surgical and follow
up data of the patients with a diagnosis of RAT were then
retrieved from an institutional database dedicated to the patients
submitted to surgery for renal tumor at our institution. An expert
uro-radiologist, aware of the diagnosis, critically reviewed the
available radiological examinations. Results: 12 cases with
morphological and immunohistochemical features fully
consistent with the diagnosis of RAT were found (6 F, 6 M,
mean age 63.1 yrs, 42.5-76.8), all previously diagnosed as
unclassifiable renal tumors. Clinical presentation was
asymptomatic in 11/12 patients. Radiological examinations
were available for 8/12 patients: for all of them ultrasonography
2308
revealed a solid hyperechoic cortical nodule and CT a nodule
with sovraliquid density at basal scan, highly vascularized
during arterial phase and with a non homogeneous wash out
during the parenchymal phase, giving to the mass a mosaic
pattern aspect. 10/12 patients underwent a partial nephrectomy,
2/12 a radical nephrectomy; the mean pathological diameter was
2.4 cm (1.5-4 cm). At a mean follow up time of 6 yrs (range 110 yrs) there were no recurrences. Conclusion: RAT has a
typical radiological aspect (well capsulated small hyperechoic
nodule, enhancing with a mosaic pattern at CT) and a benign
biological behaviour. When a renal mass with these radiological
features is found, a conservative management should be
recommended.
91
THE PERCENTAGE OF CORE INVOLVED BY
CANCER IS THE STRONGEST PREDICTOR
OF INSIGNIFICANT PROSTATE CANCER,
ACCORDING TO AN UPDATED DEFINITION
(TUMOR VOLUME UP TO 2.5 CC): ANALYSIS
OF A COHORT OF 210 CONSECUTIVE
PATIENTS WITH LOW RISK DISEASE
Alessandro Antonelli1, Regina Tardanico1,
Andrea Vismara Fugini2, Luca Giovanessi2,
Tiziano Zambolin2, Claudio Simeone1
1Clinica
Urologica, Università degli Studi di Brescia;
di Anatomia Patologica, Spedali Civili di Brescia,
2Servizio
Italy
Objectives: The insignificant prostate cancer (ins-PCa) is
generally defined as an organ-confined neoplasm with Gleason
score ≤6, having a volume lower than 0.5 cc. A recent study
moved the limit value used to define the ins-PCa up to 1.3 cc,
2.5 cc considering the whole tumor volume. This study aimed at
researching the predictive factors linked with the updated insPCa diagnosis (overall tumor volume up to 2.5 cc; final Gleason
score ≤6; organ-confined disease) Methods: Retrospective
analysis of 210 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for a
cT1c prostate neoplasm with bioptic Gleason score ≤6. A
logistic regression model in order to assess the differences in
the distribution of some possibly predictive factors between the
ins-PCa cases, according to the updated definition, and the
remaining cases Results: By applying an updated definition of
ins-PCa, the prevalence of this condition increased from 13.3%
to 49.5% (104/210 patients). The univariate analysis showed a
statistically different distribution of the following factors: PSA
density, prostate volume, number of cores involved by cancer,
maximum percentage of core involvement by cancer. At the
univariate analysis, the maximum percentage of involvement of
the core retained its relevance (27.0% in ins-PCa cases, 43.8%
in the remaining cases; p=0.046, HR 0.972), and a 20% cut-off
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
could be detected. Conclusion: In a cohort of PCa cT1c/bioptic
Gleason score ≤6, cases the ins-PCa rate, according to the
updated definition, is close to 50% and the percentage of cancer
involvement of the core was the single factor that best predicted
this diagnosis.
92
WIDESPREAD PIN CAN PREDICT THE
DIAGNOSIS OF PROSTATE CANCER
AFTER A FIRST NEGATIVE RE-BIOPSY
Alessandro Antonelli1, Luca Giovanessi1,
Regina Tardanico2, Tiziano Zambolin1, Claudio Simeone1
1Clinica
Urologica, Università Degli Studi di Brescia;
di Anatomia Patologica, Spedali Civili di Brescia,
2Servizio
Italy
Introduction and Objectives: Actually no recommendations
exist on the management of patients with a negative re-biopsy
after the diagnosis of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN)
and little is known on the risk of prostate cancer (pCa) in this
setting. The aim of the present study was to find out which
factors could predict the diagnosis of PCa after the diagnosis
of PIN and a further negative re-biopsy. Patients and Methods:
At our institute prostatic biopsy follows standard indications;
usually an extended sampling (10-12 cores) is performed via a
transperineal approach with local anaesthesia. According to an
internal protocol, after the diagnosis of PIN, three further rebiopsies at a 6-months interval are recommended. Since 2001
the data of these patients have been perspectively stored in a
dedicated database that currently includes 725 cases. Among
them, the cases with a second biopsy negative for PCa have
been reviewed to evaluate which of the clinical or bioptic
characteristic available at the time of the first biopsy or the
second biopsy, could predict the later diagnosis of PCa. A
Table I (Abstract No 92).
Feature
Age (yrs) 1st bx
Previous negative bx
Positive DRE 1st bx
Positive US 1st bx
PSA value (ng/ml) 1st bx
Delta PSA (1st bx - 2nd bx) (ng/ml)
Number of cores 1st bx
Number of cores with PIN 1st bx
Number of cores with PIN ≥4 1st bx
PIN density 1st bx
2nd bx with normal hystology
2nd bx positive for PIN
no CaP
64.1±6.4
9.1% (17/187 pz)
20.3% (36/187 pz)
42.6% (75/186 pz)
7.1±5.5
0.19±3.38
11 (8-13)
2 (1-3)
20.3% (38/187 pz)
0.27±0.20
20.9% (39/187 pz)
78.6% (147/187 pz)
linear binary logistic regression was performed. Results: 232
patients were selected (age 64 years, range 49-87) with a
median number of 3 biopsies/patient (range 3-6) and followed
for a mean period of 18 months (interquartile range 13-25
months). A diagnosis of PCa occurred in 45/232 patients
(19.4%). The results of statistical analysis are summarized in
the table (bx – biopsy, DRE – digital rectal examination, US ultrasonography). Conclusion: The real need of further rebiopsies after the diagnosis of PIN is a controversial issue. In
a systematic protocol of re-biopsies the risk of PCa in patients
with PIN and a negative rebiopsy is equal to 19.4% and is
significantly related to the “amount” of PIN at the first biopsy,
expressed as a higher PIN density or the presence of more
than 4 cores positive for PIN (so called “widespread PIN”
according to Epstein and Netto [2]).
1 Bostwick DG and Montironi R: Prostatic intraepithelial
neoplasia and the origins of prostatic carcinoma. Pathol
Res Pract 191: 828-832, 1995.
2 Epstein JI and Potter SR: The pathological interpretation and
significance of prostate needle biopsy findings: implications
and current controversies. J Urol 166: 402-410, 2001.
93
TRANSPERINEAL PROSTATIC BIOPSY WITHOUT
PROSTATIC ANESTHESIA: OUR EXPERIENCE
Piergustavo De Francesco, Stefano Ricciardulli, Lucia
Mastroserio, Pietro Castellan, Rossella Manco, Manuela
Ingrosso, Michele Nicolai, Raffaele Tenaglia
Clinica Urologica Università G. D’Annunzio Chieti, Italy
Aim: Prostatic biopsy is one of the most important
examinations in Urology. Transperineal method presents
some benefits in terms of withdrawal quality and amount. In
CaP
65.7±6.6
13.3% (6/45 pz)
15.9% (7/44 pz)
41.9% (18/43 pz)
7.5±3.8
0.58±2.12
10 (8-13)
3 (1-4)
35.6% (16/45 pz)
0.34±0.27
20.0% (9/45 pz)
80.0% (36/45 pz)
p
0.142
0.395
0.508
0.929
0.627
0.540
0.459
0.146
0.032
0.053
0.889
0.933
RR (CI 95%)
1.039 (0.987-1.094)
1.538 (0.570-4.155)
0.741 (0.305-1.799)
0.970 (0.493-1.905)
1.014 (0.958-1.074)
1.036 (0.925-1.160)
0.969 (0.891-1.054)
1.107 (0.965-1.269)
2.163 (1.067-4.386)
3.857 (0.981-15.164)
0.985 (0.340-1.205)
0.982 (0.450-1.540)
2309
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
fact it allows to have more peripheric tissue, but it is less
used in comparison to the transrectal method, because of its
increased invasiveness. A lot of anesthetic techniques have
been described in licterature in order to increase its
tolerability: prostatic block, pudendal block, intraprostatic
anesthesia, used alone or in combination with each other. In
this study we evaluated the effectiveness in terms of pain
during and after biopsy, using only the anesthetic infiltration
in perineal undercutaneous tissues. Patients and Methods:
From January 2011 to January 2012 we performed 90
transperineal echoguided biopsies with 7 Mhz biplanar
transrectal probe. Each patient received antibiotic
prophylaxis with Levofloxacina 500 mg, from the day before
to three days after biopsy. The perineal zone was disinfected
with povidoneiodine solution. Under ecoguide mepivacaine
1% 5ml was injected with 22G needle. After 5 minutes from
anesthesia a 16G CVP was located as a guide. Subsequently
a transperineal ecoguided biopsy of 10 samples was
performed, following the Presti scheme, with 18G needle.
We evaluated pain using visual scale VAS, during anesthesia,
biopsy and 1 hour after the treatment. Results: 90 patients
with mean age of 68.5±5.2 were subjected to transperineal
ecoguided prostatic biopsy, from January 2011 to January
2012. Average PSA was 8.52 ng/ml (range 1.6-44 ng/ml).
The treatment length, evaluated from the beginning of
anesthesia to 10 samples end-time, was 15.62±3.11 minutes.
Pain was evaluated using VSA scale. Patients presented mean
average score of 3.15±1.52 during probe introduction,
3.62±1.71 during anesthesia, 1.52±0.70 during bioptic
samples and 0.72±0.70 1 hour after the treatment. No
patients needed an extra anesthetic dose. 1 patient needed
hospitalization for severe hematuria. No patients presented
rectal hemorrhage, sepsis or allergic reactions. Conclusion:
The anesthetic infiltration of perineal undercutaneous tissues
with mepivacaine 1% in ecoguided transperineal prostate
biopsy, allowed to use less anesthetic quantity, with none
collateral effect. This facilitated the receipt of 10 peripheric
prostatic tissue samples, following the Presti scheme, with a
very good tolerability. Periprostatic anesthesia during
ecoguided prostatic biopsy was not necessary.
1 Kubo Y, Kawakami S, Numao N, Takazawa R, Fujii Y,
Masuda H, Tsujii T and Kihara K: Simple and effective
local anesthesia for transperineal extended prostate biopsy:
application to three-dimensional 26-core biopsy. Int J Urol
16(4): 420-423, 2009.
2 Iremashvili VV, Chepurov AK, Kobaladze KM and
Gamidov SI: Periprostatic local anesthesia with pudendal
block for transperineal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy:
a randomized trial. Urology 75(5): 1023-1027, 2010.
3 Matlaga BR, Lovato JF and Hall MC: Randomized
prospective trial of a novel local anesthetic technique for
extensive prostate biopsy. Urology 61: 972-976, 2003.
2310
94
AGE IS THE MAIN PREDICTOR OF
COMPLICATIONS AFTER SURGERY FOR RENAL
TUMOR: SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION OF 1800
PATIENTS IN A SINGLE-CENTRE COHORT
Alessandro Antonelli, Giacomo Galvagni,
Stefano Legramanti, Mario Sodano,
Serena Corti, Alberto Cozzoli, Claudio Simeone
Clinica Urologica, Università degli Studi di Brescia, Italy
Introduction and Aim: Age at diagnosis in patients with
renal cell carcinoma is increasing and so the risk of
surgery in older and comorbid patients is a raising issue.
The aim of this study was to evaluate which factors play a
role in determining post-surgical complications. Methods:
retrospective evaluation of an Institutional database
prospectively compiled to store the data of all the patients
undergone surgery for renal tumour at our institution.
Complications were registered up to 90 days after the
operation and classified according to the Clavien-Dindo
system. For this study the events of grade 2-3-4-5 were
considered as “major complications”. The correlation of
some parameters with a major grade complication was
evaluated by a logistic regression model. Results: 1798
patients (age 62.1±12.1 years) submitted to radical (1245
patients) or partial nephrectomy (553) were evaluated. No
complications occurred in 1352 patients (75.2%), a single
event of complication in 358 cases (19.9%), 2 events in 80
(4.4%) and 3 in 7 (0.4%). The worse complication
recorded was grade 1 in 142 cases (31.5% of patients with
at least one event of complication), grade 2 in 215
(47.7%), grade 3a in 32 (7.1%), grade 3b in 28 (6.2%),
grade 4 in 25 (5.5%) and grade 5 in 9 (2.0%). Overall,
1489 patients had no complications or only a grade 1
complication (82.8%), whereas 309 experienced a major
complication (17.2%). The Table I summarises the
statistical analysis. There was a significant difference in
the mean age of patients without or with major
complication considering separately the cases with
Charlson score 0 (58.9 vs. 64.0 yrs, p<0.0001), 1-2 (64.8
vs. 67.8 yrs, p=0.014), but not ≥3 (68.1 vs. 69.2, p=0.539).
Conclusion: In the present analysis the risk of developing
a major complication after surgery for renal tumor was not
related to the extent of the disease (symptoms, histology,
diameter and staging) or the type of surgery (radical or
partial nephrectomy), but to the age and, only in univariate
analysis, to comorbidities. At subanalysis, age was not a
determinant only for patients with a higher comorbidity
index (Charlson score ≥3). The options of active
surveillance or ablative therapies could be reasonable for
older and more comorbid patients due to the higher risk of
severe complications after surgery.
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
Table I (Abstract No 94).
Age (yrs)
Gender
male
female
Charlson score
0
1-2
≥3
Symptoms
none
local
systemic
Pathological diameter (cm)
Histology
benign
malignant
pTNM stage
1-2
3-4
Surgery
radical nephrectomy
partial nephrectomy
No or minor
complication
Major
complication
p univariate
p multivariate
HR (95% CI)
82.9% (908 pts)
82.7% (581 pts)
66.7±20.6
17.1% (187 pts)
17.3% (121 pts)
<0.001
0.910
<0.001
1.031 (1.019-1.043)
0.001
0.130
82.4% (845 pts)
84.3% (494 pts)
80.7% (138 pts)
14.7% (166 pts)
21.0% (99 pts)
22.8% (44 pts)
17.6% (180 pts)
15.7% (92 pts)
19.3% (33 pts)
5.5±3.4
0.462
-
6.0±3.8
0.101
0.116
-
61.2±12.8
85.3% (967 pts)
79.0% (373 pts)
77.2% (149 pts)
86.2% (125 pts)
82.5% (1364 pts)
83.6% (912 pts)
80-4% (451 pts)
83.3% (1037 pts)
81.7% (452 pts)
13.8% (20 pts)
17.5% (289 pts)
13.8% (179 pts)
19.6% (110 pts)
16.7% (208 pts)
18.3% (101 pts)
95
RETROPERITONEAL CELLULAR SCHWANNOMA
INCIDENTALLY FOUND IN A 21-YEAR-OLD
MARTIAL ARTS MALE PRACTITIONER
Luca Ventura1, Guido Ranieri2, Giovanni Luca Gravina3,
Claudio Festuccia4, Antonella Dal Mas1,
Luigi di Clemente2, Fabrizio Liberati5
1Unità
Operativa di Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale San
Salvatore, L’Aquila;
2Unità Operativa di Urologia, Ospedale San Salvatore,
L’Aquila;
3Divisione di Radioterapia, Dipartimento di Scienze
Cliniche Applicate e Biotecnologiche, Università Degli
Studi de L’Aquila;
4Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche Applicate e
Biotecnologiche, Università degli Studi de L’Aquila;
5Unità Operativa di Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale San
Camillo De’ Lellis, Rieti, Italy
Introduction: Schwannoma is a benign peripheral nerve
sheath tumor, presenting as a slowly growing mass that may
cause vague local symptoms, but usually diagnosed only
incidentally (1). Retroperitoneal location is fairly
uncommon and its presence in perirenal region may
generate confusion with a primary kidney neoplasm. We
0.302
-
-
-
0.417
report a case of retroperitoneal schwannoma of the psoas
muscle, incidentally discovered in a 21-year-old male
patient. Patients and Methods: A 21-year-old man presented
to our observation for a scheduled medical check-up,
complaining of a mild right flank pain. He was a long-time
martial arts practitioner and recently had become world
champion of korean karate (hwal moo do). For this reason
he had suffered repeated trauma in the abdominal region,
but his past medical history was free of significant diseases.
Abdominal ultrasonography showed a well-encapsulated
hypoechoic mass adjacent to the psoas muscle and the right
lower renal pole. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
displayed a 58×50×55 mm, well-circumscribed, round mass,
close to the right psoas muscle, and displacing the
homolateral kidney. The slight enhancement observed after
gadolinium injection allowed to better display the cystic
spaces within the mass and the clearcut margins that
separated it from the renal pole. The patient underwent
surgical excision with the suspect diagnosis of an hematoma
or a vascular neoplasm. Results Surgical specimen consisted
of a roundish, encapsulated mass, measuring 6 cm in largest
diameter with an external grey surface covered by fat and
yellow tan cut surfaces presenting multiple pseudocystic
spaces. Microscopic examination revealed cellular fascicles
of spindle cells with focal evidence of nuclear palisading,
multiple cystic and pseudoglandular spaces, multifocal
2311
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
foamy cells and sclerotic areas. Numerous thickened and
hyalinized blood vessels were evident throughout the tumor
tissue. No mitotic figure was observed. Neoplastic cells
were diffusely immunoreactive for S100 protein, focally
positive for GFAP, and negative for α-smooth muscle actin,
desmin, CD34, CD117 and AE1/AE3 cytokeratins. Ki-67
proliferation index was 3%. Histological diagnosis was of
cellular schwannoma. Discussion and Conclusion:
Schwannomas are benign soft tissue tumors that originate
from the peripheral nerve sheath. Their most common sites
are head and neck region and extremities, whereas the
retroperitoneal location is rare, accounting for 0.3 to 3.2%
of all schwannomas (2). MRI with gadolinium enhancement
has been advocated as superior to computed tomography in
highlighting cystic degeneration, defining margins and
identifying the point of origin from the nerve (1).
Retrospective evaluation of MRI in our case allowed to
confirm this assessment and to identify the possible origin
of the lesion from the genitofemoral nerve. Definitive
diagnosis can only be made by histopathological
examination with immunohistochemical confirmation (1),
but preoperative fine needle aspiration diagnosis may be
performed (2). According to a recent report, retroperitoneal
schwannoma often occurs in middle-aged women, exhibits
cellular subtype features and extensively expresses GFAP
(3). Except for the classification in the cellular subtype, our
case does not confirm such observation, showing only
limited areas of GFAP positivity and occurring in a young
adult male patient.
1 Choudry HA, Nikfarjam M, Liang JJ, Kimchi ET, Conter
R, Guani NJ and Staveley O’Carroll KF: Diagnosis and
management of retroperitoneal ancient schwannomas. W J
Surg Oncol 7: 12, 2009.
2 Kudo T, Kawakami H, Kuwatani M, Ehira N, Yamato H, Eto
K, Kubota K and Asaka M: Three cases of retroperitoneal
schwannoma diagnosed by EUS-FNA. W J Gastroenterol
17: 3459-3464, 2011.
3 Hirose T, Ishizawa K, Sakaki M and Fujii Y: Retroperitoneal
schwannoma is characterized by a high incidence of cellular
type and GFAP-immunoreactivity. Pathol Int 62: 456462,
2012.
96
TESTING THE AGILE DATABASE FOR AN
EXTERNAL VALIDATION OF A NOMOGRAM TO
PREDICT MALIGNANCY OR AGGRESSIVENESS
OF RENAL MASSES, BASED ON R.E.N.A.L. SCORE
Alessandro Antonelli1, Andrea Minervini2, Luca Cindolo3,
Angelo Porreca4, Simone Crivellaro5, Paolo Parma6,
Stefano Zaramella7, Bernardo Rocco8, Pierluigi Bove9,
2312
Vincenzo Pagliarulo10, Antonio Celia11, Carlo Ceruti12,
Mario Falsaperla13, Roberto Nuciotti14
Urologica Università degli studi di Brescia;
Urologica, Università di Firenze;
3Unità Operativa di Urologia, Ospedale di Chieti-vasto;
4Unità Operativa di Urologia, Ospedale di Abano Terme;
5Clinica Urologica, Università di Udine;
6Unità Operativa di Urologia, Ospedale di Mantova;
7Unità Operativa di Urologia, Ospedale di Novara;
8Clinica Urologica, Università di Milano;
9Clinica Urologica, Università La Sapienza di Roma;
10Clinica Urologica, Università di Bari;
11Unità Operativa di Urologia, Ospedale di Bassano del
Grappa;
12Unità Operativa di Urologia, Università di Torino;
13Università Operativa di Urologia, Ospedale di Catania;
14Unità Operativa di Urologia, Ospedale di Grosseto, Italy
1Clinica
2Clinica
Introduction and Aim: Actually only a few preoperative
systems are available to predict malignancy or aggresiveness
of a renal mass, and all of them suffer from a low predictive
accuracy. Recentely, Kutikov et al. (1) generated a
nomogram based on R.E.N.A.L. score, that showed a
predictive accuracy higher than 70%. The aim of this study
was to perform an external validation of this predictive tool
on a cohort of patients submitted to partial nephrectomy.
Methods: Agile is a collaborative group of Italian young
(<40 yrs) urologists with a specific interest in mini-invasive
surgery. Since 2011 the group perspectively shared and
compiled a database to collect the data of all the patients
undergoing open, laparoscopic or robotic partial
nephrectomy. Among the data, also R.E.N.A.L. score has
been calculated in its attributes by an urologist blinded of the
final pathology. After the centralization of database, the
nomogram proposed by Kutikov has been applied to each
case, using the online calculator available at
www.cancernomograms.com, to calculate the predicted
probability of malignancy and aggressiveness. A logistic
regression model has been used to estimate the correlation
of each of the parameters included into the nomogram and
the final pathology. Results: The data of 294 patients have
been collected (185 male, 109 female, age 63±12 yrs),
submitted to open (197 patients), laparoscopic (28) or robotic
(69) partial nephrectomy. Histology was benign in 60 cases
(21.6%), malignant in 234 (79.4%); among malignant cases,
was aggressive - high grade - in 34 (17.9%), not aggressive
in 144 (82.1%). Mean total R.E.N.A.L. score was 5.8±1.6.
The Tables present the results of statistical analysis that
estimate the correlation of the parameters included into the
nomogram with malignancy (Table I) or aggressiveness
(Table II) at final pathology (in bold correlation with
statistical significance).
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
Table I. Statistical correlation between characteristics and
malignant histology.
Age (yrs)
Male gender
Nephrometry sum
R attribute
1
2
3
E attribute
1
2
3
N attribute
1
2
3
L attribute
1
2
3
involvement of renal sinus
no
yes
p
0.364
0.010
0.217
0.303
referent
0.544
0.175
0.376
referent
0.326
0.265
0.322
referent
0.685
0.141
0.049
referent
0.021
0.924
referent
0.347
RR (95% CI)
1.011 (0.988-1.034)
2.138 (1.203-3.798)
1.129 (0.931-1.368)
1.252 (0.606-2.588)
0.347 (0.075-1.603)
1.371 (0.731-2.572)
2.360 (0.521-10.689)
1.262 (0.410-3.889)
2.524 (0.737-8.644)
2.471 (1.145-5.332)
0.968 (0.498-1.881)
0.59 (0.201-1.758)
Table II. Statistical correlation between characteristics and high
grade RCC.
Age (yrs)
Male gender
Nephrometry sum
R attribute
1
2
3
E attribute
1
2
3
N attribute
1
2
3
L attribute
1
2
3
Involvement of renal sinus
no
yes
p
0.364
0.010
0.217
0.303
referent
0.544
0.175
0.376
referent
0.326
0.265
0.322
referent
0.685
0.141
0.049
referent
0.021
0.924
referent
0.347
RR (95% CI)
1.011 (0.988-1.034)
2.138 (1.203-3.798)
1.129 (0.931-1.368)
1.252 (0.606-2.588)
0.347 (0.075-1.603)
1.371 (0.731-2.572)
2.360 (0.521-10.689)
1.262 (0.410-3.889)
2.524 (0.737-8.644)
2.471 (1.145-5.332)
0.968 (0.498-1.881)
0.59 (0.201-1.758)
The malignancy rate predicted by the nomogram for benign
and malignant tumors was 79.2% and 80.3%, respectively
(AUC 0.541, p=0.326); the predicted aggressiveness rate for
non aggressive and aggressive renal cancer was 30.9% and
38.6%, respectively (AUC 0.660, p=0.004). Conclusion:
Conversely to the cohort in which the nomogram has been
generated – that included also advanced or metastatic tumors
– the present study aims at validating the nomogram on a
cohort of cases submitted to partial nephrectomy, in which
the prediction of malignancy or aggressiveness could be
more clinically important because these masses could be
amenable of ablation or observation. The nomogram showed
a poor predictive ability for malignancy, whereas a discrete
accuracy for aggressiveness, mainly due to a strong
relationship with the diameter of the tumor. Since the
external validation failed, the nomogram should be recalibrated on a cohort of small renal masses.
1 Kutikov A, Smaldone MC, Egleston BL et al: Anatomic
features of enhancing renal masses predict malignant and
high-grade pathology: a preoperative nomogram using the
RENAL Nephrometry score. Eur Urol 60(2): 241-248, 2011.
97
COMPLICATION RATE AFTER TURP AND HIFU
Roberto Sanseverino1, Oliver Intilla2, Giovanni Molisso2,
Tommaso Realfonso2, Umberto di Mauro2,
Giorgio Napodano2
1UOC-Urologia-Umberto
I Nocera Inferiore, UOCUrologia-Umberto I Nocera Inferiore;
2Divisione di Urologia, Ospedale Umberto I, Nocera
Inferiore, ASL Salerno, Italy
Introduction: To evaluate whether splitting TURP and Hifu
in two sessions can reduce complication rate in patients with
localized prostate cancer. Patients and Methods: From
November 2004 to November 2012, 118 patients affected by
localized prostate cancer underwent HIFU following TURP.
In 39 patients both procedures were performed in the same
session (Group A); in 79 patients HIFU was delayed (Group
B). Follow up included serial PSA measurements and
prostate biopsies 6 months after the treatment in all patients.
Biochemical recurrence was defined as PSA nadir + 2 ng/ml
(ASTRO 2005 criteria). We have evaluated complication rate
in the Group A and B. Results: The mean age, PSA and
prostate volume were 78.9 years, 8.7 ng/ml and 31 cc,
respectively. Mean procedure time was 127 minutes and
mean hospitalization was 3.8 days. Complication rate was
not associated with clinical stage (T1 vs. T2) (p<0.6),
Gleason score (p<0.5), age (p<0.2), prostate volume
(p<0.06), PSA (p<0.9). Complications rate was lower when
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
HIFU has been delayed after TURP (Group B).
Complications occurred in 31% (12/39) of Group A patients
and in 12% (10/79) of Group B patients (p<0.02). Prostatic
biopsy was positive in 17 patients. Overall and cancer
specific survival was 93%. Conclusion: Splitting TURP and
HIFU in two different sessions seems to reduce postoperative
complications and improve patient tolerance of the
procedure. Longer follow up and a larger patient population
are needed to obtain more robust evidence.
98
INTRAVESICAL BAOBAB OIL IN THE
MANAGEMENT OF BCG-INDUCED
LOWER URINARY TRACT SYMPTOMS
Cristian Verri1, Emanuele Liberati2, Francesco De Carlo3,
Savino Mauro di Stasi3
1Dipartimento
di Scienze Chirurgiche/Urologia, Università
Tor Vergata;
2Urologia Oncologica, Policlinico Casilino;
3Divisione di Urologia, Universita Tor Vergata, Roma, Italy
Objectives: Baobab oil is often used in traditional medicine
as antipyretic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and
antimicrobial. It also regenerates the epithelial tissue in a
short time improving tone and elasticity. We evaluated the
effects of intravesical Baobab oil in patients with BCGinduced lower urinary tract symptoms. Methods: From
September 2012 to January 2013, 40 patients on induction
course of intravesical BCG with lower urinary tract
symptoms BCG-induced and unresponsive to standard
therapies were enrolled. The symptoms were assessed using
a detailed grid of classification for BCG lower urinary tract
related side effects. Patients were treated with an intravesical
instillation of 50 ml sterile Baobab natural oil (Baotrophic,
Physion Srl, Mirandola, Italy). After draining of the bladder,
the suspension was infused intravesically through a Foley
catheter. The solution was retained in the bladder for 60 min,
followed by emptying of the bladder and removal of the
catheter. Outcome measures were cystitis, diurnal frequent
micturition, nocturnal frequent micturition, stress
incontinence, hematuria, pelvic pain that were analyzed
before and one week after treatment. All patients were
assessed for safety. Results: At baseline and one week after
an intravesical instillation of Baobab oil, cystitis was
recorded in 40/40 patients (100%) and 21/40 (52.5%,
[p=0.0001]), diurnal frequent micturition in 40/40 (100%)
and 20/40 (50%, [p=0.00001]), nocturnal frequent
micturition in 40/40 (100%) and 20/40 (50%, [p=0.0001]),
stress incontinence in 17/40 (42.5%) and 6/40 (15%,
[p=0.0023]), hematuria in 22/40 (55%) and 6/40 (15%,
[p=0.0047]), and pelvic pain in 7/40 (17.5%) and 2/40 (5%,
2314
[p=0.0001]), respectively. There were no adverse events with
intravesical Baobab oil instillation. Conclusion: Intravesical
natural Baobab oil is feasible, safe and confers therapeutic
benefits via localized direct action within the bladder wall.
Compliance with induction and maintenance intravesical
BCG may be improved by adjuvant intravesical Baobab oil.
However, randomized studies must be done to confirm these
initial findings.
99
VERUMONTANUM: AN ANATOMICAL
LANDMARK DURING RADICAL
PROSTATECTOMY FOR THE COMPLETE
SAVING OF STRIATED SPHINCTER
Federico Lanzi, Nicola Tosi, Filippo Cecconi, Filippo
Gentile1, Gerardo Pizzirusso, Giovanni De Rubertis,
Gabriele Barbanti
UOC di Urologia, AOU Senese, Siena, Italy
Aim: To investigate functionally and oncologically the role of
verumontanum as a landmark for the complete saving of
striated sphincter in patients undergone radical prostatectomy.
Materials and Methods: Verumontanum can be considered as
an anatomical landmark in saving the maximal length of
urethra and, consequently, the maximum of striated sphincter.
Either by retrograde or antegrade approach to the radical
prostatectomy it is afoundamental anatomical preparation of
urethral sphincter with an excellent visualization of the apex.
After that urethra can be resected with the maximum respect
of anatomical boundaries of urethral sphincter and minimizing
the risk of leaving prostatic tissue in situ. From January 2008
to December 2011 we prospectively collected the data of 123
patients undergone radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) for
clinically localized prostate cancer. We determined two
cohorts: Group A (59 patients) undergone RRP without the
saving of verumontanum, and Group B (64 patients)
undergone RRP with the saving of verumontanum. Both,
Groups A and B, were homogeneous in terms of preoperative
PSA, pathological staging and pathological Gleason Score.
Continence was evaluated with ICIQ-SF questionnaire at
month 1, 3, 6 and 12. Results: Mean follow-up was (range)
23.7 (13-45) months for Group A and 22.4 (13-47) months for
Group B. In 5/59 (8.4%) cases of Group A and in 6/64 (9.3%)
of Group B it was found a positive apical surgical margin
(p=0.3219): of these patients, 2 in Group A and 3 in Group B
developed biochemical recurrence (p=0.4877). Overall, 94.3%
of Group A and 95.3% of Group B patients completely
fulfilled our continence criteria (no pads and ICIQ-SF≤2) at a
minimum follow-up of 12 months; continence was obtained
within the first month in 38 (71.7%) patients of Group A Vs
50 (78.1%) of Group B, 43 (81.1%) Vs 56 (87.5%) within the
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
third month, 47 (90.5%) Vs 60 (93.7%) within the sixth month
and in 50 (94.3%) Vs 61 (95.3%) respectively. The saving of
verumontanum didn’t result significantly in overall continence
(p=0.09) but resulted influential in early recovery of
continence (p<0.0001). Discussion: Verumontanum can be
considered an anatomical landmark in saving the maximum of
striated sphincter. In our experience, radical retropubic
prostatectomy with the saving of verumontanum determined
an early continence recovery without increasing the risk of
leaving prostatic tissue in situ. The limit of this study is
represented by the small number of both groups and the
exiguity of events; our pilot study underlines the need of a
large, randomized trials to define the role of verumontanum in
overall and early continence recovery.
100
MINIMIZING COSTS OF ROBOTIC UROLOGIC
SURGERY: A COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS
Federico Lanzi, Nicola Tosi, Filippo Gentile,
Filippo Cecconi, Gerardo Pizzirusso,
Giovanni De Rubertis, Gabriele Barbanti
UOC di Urologia, AOU Senese, Siena, Italy
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the financial
implications of minimally invasive surgery such as robotic
radical prostatectomy (RRP) and renal robotic tumoral
enucleation (RTE) performed as standard techniques or as
money-saving procedures. Methods: From April 2011 to
January 2013 87 patients underwent robotic surgery for prostate
(52 patients) and renal cancer (35 patients). We identified the
first set of patients treated after the initial learning curve (Group
A) and the latest ones (Group B) of each procedure. The first 8
prostatectomies and the first 5 tumoral enucleations were
performed following the standard procedures and adopting the
prescribed instrumentation. During our experience we redefined
the procedures excluding from operating kits some tools to
minimize costs. In the present study we compared costs and
surgical outcome of the first set of patients to the latest one.
Technical features of prostatic and renal surgery are summarized
in Tables I and II respectively. Results: Instrumentation costs of
both radical prostatectomy and tumoral enucleation resulted
significantly lower in the last 20 procedures: 2577€ Vs 4961€
for RRP and 2457€ Vs 4836€ for robotic RTE, saving the 48%
and the 49.2% respectively (Tables I and II). Mean (range)
operating time for RRP in Group A was 226.2 (165-270)
minutes Vs 172.5 (150-180) minutes of Group B (p=0.0041).
Both groups of robotic radical prostatectomies resulted similar
Table I.
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
Table II.
in intraoperative blood loss (p=0.482), histopatologicallyconfirmed positive surgical margins (p=0.089) and
hospitalization (p=0.195). Regarding renal tumoral enucleation,
mean (range) operating time for RTE in Group A was 115.8
(75-170) minutes Vs 104.1 (85-150) minutes of Group B
(p=0.5151); intraoperative blood loss and hospitalization
resulted comparable (p=0.487 and p=0.379 respectively). In
both groups positive surgical margins were not found, while in
Group B a peritumoral pseudocapsule incision. Conclusion: In
literature it is widely demonstrated that the feasibility and
safeness of robotic surgery allows minimally invasive
procedures and oncologic and functional results comparable to
standard open procedures with fewer major complications and
shorter length of hospital stay. On the other hand, the DaVinci
System determines higher costs of each single procedure than
the relative open and laparoscopic surgery. This study should be
considered a step in driving down costs of robotic surgery.
Technical difficulties in using less tools are usually limited to
the very first procedures. Our instrumentation expedients,
compared with conventional robotic radical prostatectomy and
renal robotic tumoral enucleation, determined a saving up to
49.2% for each single procedure with intra- and postoperative
result comparable to the standard procedures.
2316
101
DIAGNOSTIC VALIDATION OF URINARY
TYR-PHOSPHORYLATED PROTEINS
AS BLADDER CANCER MARKER
Antonino Battaglia1, Marco Allasia1, Andrea Gonella1,
Amina Khadjavi2, Agata Notarpietro2, Francesca Mannu3,
Giuliana Giribaldi2, Franco Turrini2, Dario Fontana1,
Paolo Destefanis1, Bruno Frea1
1Clinica
Urologica,
di Scienze Biochimiche, Azienda
Ospedaliera Città della Salute e della Scienza, Sede
Molinette, Torino;
3Dipartimento di Scienze Biochimiche, Nurex Srl, Sassari, Italy
2Dipartimento
Background and Aim: Different urinary markers of transitional
cell carcinoma (TCC) have been proposed. None of them,
however, is approved by the international guidelines or used
with scientific safety by urologists in their clinical practice.
Cystoscopy continues to represent the gold standard method of
diagnosis, and is highly accurate, sensitive and specific. The
urine cytology is instead non-invasive but has a high rate of
false negative, especially in low-grade TCC. We try to give a
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
significant answer of these open questions using a proteomic
approach, that is widely used in molecular oncology. Using
proteomic approaches, we previously demonstrated (1) that the
levels of Tyr-phosphorylated proteins (TPPs) are highly
increased in bladder cancer tissues and that soluble TPPs can
be also detected in patient urine samples. Now, we have
evaluated their diagnostic performances measuring urinary TPP
levels in 230 urine samples from bladder cancer patients and
healthy subjects. Patients and Methods: Patients with suspected
bladder cancer were enrolled in this study before undergoing
transurethral resection of the bladder or radical cystectomy.
Patients with a histological diagnosis different from bladder
cancer or with a previous bladder cancer history were excluded.
Urines for the control group were collected from healthy blood
donors, after an interview, to exclude urological problems. Only
volunteers more than 50 years old were enrolled. The urinary
levels of TPPs were analyzed using an experimental diagnostic
test (pYtest, provided by Nurex srl). The area under the ROC
curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative
predictive values (PPV and PNV) were calculated using Bayes’
theorem (MedCalc 11.3.3). Results: Urinary TPP levels from 87
bladder cancer patients (7 Tx, 47 Ta, 17 T1, 12 T2/3, 4 CIS)
and from 143 healthy subjects were measured. The AUC was
0.875 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.8260.915. For the
best cut-off value (261.26 standard units), a sensitivity of
80.46% and a specificity of 79.72 % were obtained. PPV and
PNV were 70.1% and 87.7%, respectively. Conclusion: The
proteomic approach is shown to be helpful uro-oncology too,
not only toward understanding the molecular pathways of
carcinogenesis, but also toward detection of possible markers in
the urine samples. Preliminary evaluation confirms the excellent
diagnostic performances of TPPs as bladder cancer marker. To
confirm and validate the proteomic approach through the
individualisation of TPPs with the pYtest we need to increase
the enrolled patients within a multicenter study. Next aim is to
recruit more patients to confirm stastically the results and
validate definitely the pYtest as a bladder cancer marker.
1 Khadjavi A, Barbero G, Destefanis P et al: Evidence of
abnomal tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in bladder
cancer patient urine: the road toward a new diagnostic
tool?; J Urol 185(5): 1922-1929, 2011.
102
THE STABILITY AND ELECTROMOTIVE
ADMINISTRATION OF RESINIFERATOXIN
INTO THE PIG BLADDER WALL
Savino di Stasi1, Emanuele Liberati2, Cristian Verri1, Renato
Massoud3, Pierluigi Navarra4, Antonella Giannantoni5
1Department
Vergata;
of Surgery/Urology, Università di Roma Tor
2Operative
Unit of Urologic Oncology, Università di Roma
Tor Vergata;
3Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies,
Università di Roma Tor Vergata;
4Institute of Farmacology, Università Cattolica di Roma;
5Department of Urology and Andrology, University of
Perugia, Italy
Introduction & Objectives: Intravesical vanilloids such as
Capsaicin and Resiniferatoxin (RTX), which are still under
investigation for the treatment of detrusor overactivity, seem to
have a role also in the management of urothelial cancer. We
investigated the stability of RTX stock solutions under different
experimental conditions, and bladder wall tissue concentrations
of drug following passive diffusion (PD) and electromotive
drug administration (EMDA). Materials and Methods: For
stability studies, RTX 1 mg was dissolved in 1 ml of absolute
ethanol and diluted (10 fold) in ethanol/water (50/50), so that
we had RTX 1 mg in 10 ml of equal parts ethanol/water solvent
as our stock solutions. Aliquots of 250 ml were then stored in
glass containers or high grade polypropylene (plastic)
containers and subjected to different temperatures (room
temperature, +4˚C and –20˚C) and light/dark conditions over
times ranging from 0-144 hours. 10 ml of samples were loaded
for HPLC analysis. Results were normalized by taking the
value at time 0 as 100%. For comparative bladder wall tissue
content studies, full thickness sections of viable pig bladder
wall were placed in two chamber cells with urothelium
exposed to donor compartments containing RTX 100 nM
concentration in 100 ml 0.9% NaCl solution and with serosafacing receptor compartments containing 100 ml 0.9% NaCl
solution. An anode and a cathode were placed in the donor and
receptor compartments, and 10 paired experiments – current 23
mA (EMDA)/no current (PD) – were conducted over a 30-min.
RTX tissue content was assessed by HPLC. Tissue viability
and morphology were assessed by trypan blue exclusion test
and histological and mass spectrometry analyses. Results:
Both, room temperature and light exposure affect RTX stability
and the combined effect of these factors is additive. RTX
degradation, if present, falls to a nadir at 48 hours. At low
temperatures (+4˚C or –20˚C), in the dark, plastic storage
affords better stability than glass. Mean RTX tissue
concentrations were 0.894±0.22 mg/ml in samples exposed to
EMDA and 0.212±0.05 mg/ml in samples exposed to PD
(p=0.0076). After EMDA tissues were viable, undamaged
histologically and no RTX structural modification was
observed. Conclusion: RTX stock solutions should be stored at
temperature 4˚C in the dark; the material comprising the
container for RTX is of secondary importance. EMDA
enhances administration of RTX into viable bladder wall tissue
compared to PD. These results could allow more appropriate
treatment’ modalities with better results for the use of RTX in
clinical practice.
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
103
CONTROLLED HYPOTENSION DURING ROBOTASSISTED RENAL TUMORAL ENUCLEATION:
INTRA AND POSTOPERATIVE IMPLICATIONS
not increase the complication rate and provided excellent
functional outcomes. Available data are not adequately
mature to determine long-term functional outcomes and
further experience and follow-up is mandatory.
UOC di Urologia, AOU Senese, Siena, Italy
104
A RANDOMIZED PROSPECTIVE STUDY:
HYALURONIC ACID VERSUS STANDARD
THERAPY IN BLADDER CANCER
LOCAL COMPLICATIONS
Federico Lanzi, Filippo Gentile, Nicola Tosi, Gerardo
Pizzirusso, Filippo Cecconi, Giovanni De Rubertis,
Gabriele Barbanti
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the
feasibility and safety of robotic-assisted renal tumoral
enucleation (RTE) with controlled hypotensive anesthesia to
avoid hilar clamping and eliminate renal ischemia. Methods:
From April 2011 to January 2013, 35 consecutive patients
underwent robotic surgery for clinically localized renal
cancer. Overall 31/35 patients presented no major
contraindications to hypotensive anesthesia; mean age
(range) was 68 (45-77) years. RTE was usually performed
through a transperitoneal approach without renal hylum
isolation. Tumoral enucleation was performed by blunt
dissection using the natural cleavage plan between the
pseudocapsule and renal parenchyma. Postoperative period
patients were evaluated by daily physical examination and
routine blood tests on day 1 and 3. Additional examinations
were performed in selected cases. Results: Mean arterial
pressure during controlled hypotension was 68 mmHg
(ranging between 65 and 95 mmHg) and hypotension was
prolonged meanly for 12.4 (range: 9.3-19.5) minutes. Mean
(range) operative time was 115.8 (75-170) minutes with
mean blood loss of 150 ml (55-480 ml). No patients required
intraoperative blood transfusions. Mean (range) tumor size
was 27 (10-54) mm and mean postoperative hospital stay
was 3.4 (2-10) days. Overall 3 patients developed
postoperative complications: 2 anemization treated by blood
transfusions and 1 delayed canalization that required
nasogastric tube insertion. No patients developed major
medical complication (syncope, heart failure, stroke). In two
cases we observed fatigue that regressed on postoperative
day 3. Mean (range) pre and postoperative serum creatinine
was 1.0 (0.7-2.3) and 1.2 (0.7-2.7) mg/dl respectively
(p=0.487); mean estimated pre and postoperative glomerular
filtration rate were 85.9 and 75.2 ml/minute/1.73m2. At
histopathological evaluation no positive surgical margins
were found; in only one case a peritumoral pseudocapsule
incision was discovered. Conclusion: In literature, the need
of minimizing ischemia during nephron sparing surgery for
renal tumors has been widely demonstrated. Controlled
hypotension may be an alternative to warm ischemia with
renal hilar clamping or to superselective clamping of arterial
branches.
Robotic-assisted
zero-ischemia
tumoral
enucleation technique is a reasonable approach to renal
tumours; moreover, in our series avoiding hilar clamping did
2318
Andrea Gonella, Antonino Battaglia, Marco Allasia,
Andrea Bosio, Alessandro Bisconti, Carlo Negro,
Andrea Buffardi, Maria Teresa Carchedi,
Paolo Destefanis, Bruno Frea
Clinica Urologica, Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute e
della Scienza, Sede Molinette, Torino, Italy
Background: Hyaluronic acid is a glycosaminoglycan of the
extracellular matrix. Scientific literature suggests a
correlation
between
bladder
inflammation
and
glycosaminoglycan layer absence. Many studies point out
that hyaluronic acid intravesical somministration can reduce
disabling symptoms, i.e. interstitial cystitis. It is possible to
emphasize a satisfactory reduction of lower urinary tract
symptoms due to intravesical immune or chemotherapy for
bladder cancer. A preliminary Italian study underlines an
improvement of quality of life recorded on patients who
underwent intravesical hyaluronic acid instillations after the
development of local toxicity after immuno or chemotherapy.
Objectives: The primary end-point of this study is the
evaluation of the effectiveness of therapy with hyaluronic
acid, measured as reduction of voiding symptoms, compared
to standard therapy (interruption of BCG/Immunotherapy
instillations + antibiotic and antispasmodic therapy). The
second end-points are: the reduction of inflammation at
histopathology findings, the evaluation of the toxicity of the
therapy and the possible improvement of cancer intravesical
treatment. Patients and Methods: Patients with previous
bladder cancer, suitable for immune-chemotherapy and who
experienced a local toxicity (WHO grade II or III) were
included in the study. During the visit, patients were invited
to fill an international questionnaires like: VAS; IPSS; CPSENIH; ICQ-MLUTS; OAB-q SF and BCG symptoms
questionnaire. Furthermore, we also collected: urinalysis;
urine culture; renal-bladder ultrasound; cystoscopy and urine
cytology. In the second step we randomized the patients in
two main groups: Group A, therapy with intravescical
hyaluronic acid according to the scheme:1 instillation (40 mg
hyaluronic acid) to maintain inside the bladder for at least
30 minutes + 1 instillation/week for 6 weeks + 1
instillation/month for 3 months + 1 instillation/every 3
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
months as maintenance; Group B, standard therapy:
oxybutynin hydrochloride 5 mg (2.5 mg × 3 times/die until
the disappearance of the symptomatology) + ofloxacin 200
mg (1 co/12 hours for 10 days). The evaluation of efficacy
of two therapies was performed after: 6 weeks; 3 months, 6
months and after one year by a new filling of the
questionnaires: VAS, IPSS, CPSE-NIH, ICQ-MLUTS, OABq SF, BCG symptoms; and a new collection of exams:
urinalysis, urine culture, renal-bladder ultrasound,
cystoscopy and urine cytology. Results: We recruited 14
patients (8 Group A and 6 Group B). Group A-patients did
not present at the moment side-effects after hyaluronic acid
instillations and reported a subjective decrease in voiding
symptoms. Two of them (2/8) dropped out of the study after
tumor recurrence and subsequent radical cystectomy. Some
patients of Group B (2/6) were forced to exit the protocol
due to the development of intolerance to oxybutynin (severe
urinary retention); others (3/6) presented mild side-effects
(dry mouth); 1/6 finished the protocol with full benefit.
Conclusion: In order to have a general view of the
effectiveness of hyaluronic acid we plain toenrol more
patients in this study. The analysis of the first results and the
satisfaction of the patients are positive points to encourage
the continuation of the use of intravesical hyaluronic acid.
105
DIFFERENTIAL EXPRESSED PROTEINS IN URINE
SAMPLES FROM VON HIPPEL-LINDAU DISEASE
AND RENAL CELL CARCINOMA PATIENTS
VERSUS HEALTHY PEOPLE
Marco Allasia1, Antonino Battaglia1, Andrea Gonella1,
Barbara Lucatello2, Agata Notarpietro3, Giorgia Mandili3,
Amina Khadjavi4, Andrea Bosio1, Beatrice Lillaz1,
Giuliana Giribaldi3, Mauro Maccario2,
Paolo Destefanis1, Bruno Frea1
1Clinica
Urologica,
2Endocrinologia,
3Dipartimento
4Biochimica,
di Scienze Biochimiche,
Azienda Ospedaliera Città della Salute e della Scienza,
Sede Molinette, Torino, Italy
Background: Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is an autosomal
dominant, inherited syndrome occurring in 1 out of 35,000
births. VHL is characterized by the development of retinal and
CNS haemangioblastomas, phaeochromocytomas, pancreatic
neuroendocrine tumours, clear-cell renal cancers (RCC) and
renal cysts. In particular, RCC occurs in about 40% of patients
affected by VHL disease and is often bilateral and multifocal.
Actually the only method to identify abdominal lesion is the
yearly radiological imaging. There are no reliable methods and
markers to classify the VHL patients based on the risk of
developing renal cancer (RCC). In order to identify
differentially expressed proteins, that could be useful as
predictors of the VHL related RCC, we performed 2DE analysis
on urine samples from healthy subjects, patients with sporadic
RCC and VHL syndrome patients. The latter were collected
during the annual follow-up in our clinical care VHL-centre.
Materials and Methods: Urine samples were collected from 9
healthy subjects, 10 patients affected by VHL syndrome and 9
patients with RCC. Proteins were obtained through Acetone
Precipitation and solubilised in Lysis Buffer (9M Urea, 4%
CHAPS, 1mM Na3VO4, 80 mM DTT, protease inhibitors).
Following protein quantification, 200 μg of each sample were
loaded on IPG strip gels (7 cm IPG strips, pH 3-10 NL) after
dialysis. For second dimension 10% poly-acrylamide gels were
run. Colloidal Comassie-stained gels were analysed by PD
Quest 2D analysis software and statistical analysis was
performed (T test). The study was approved by the internal
institution ethical committee. Results: From January 2012 to
January 2013 we collected urine samples (100 ml) from 10
VHL patients, 9 sporadic RCC and 9 healthy people and we
compared the protein expression profile among them. Mean age
of the VHL group was 34.33 years (range 24-58), 6 male and 3
female, 3 patients had positive history of renal cancer. Mean age
of sporadic RCC patients was 65 years (range 43-78), 4 male
and 5 female, all with histological diagnosis of clear cell RCC.
The healthy urine samples were collected from 9 blood donors,
with mean age of 42 years (range 25-58) 4 male and 5 female.
Image analysis of the 2DE maps showed 35 statistically
significant (p<0.05) differentially expressed spots among the
three groups. Conclusion: Through PD Quest 2D analysis
software of the 2DE urine maps we demonstrated the presence
of 35 statistically significant (p<0.05) differentially expressed
proteins in VHL patients versus RCC and healthy people. These
preliminary evidence could suggest the possibility to develop a
risk assessment tool for RCC in VHL patients.
106
POLYTETRAFLUOROETHYLENE
PLEDGETS DURING NEPHRON-SPARING
SURGERY FOR RENAL TUMORS:
INTRAOPERATIVE AND LONG-TERM RESULTS
Nicola Tosi, Federico Lanzi, Filippo Gentile,
Gerardo Pizzirusso, Filippo Cecconi,
Giovanni De Rubertis, Gabriele Barbanti
UOC di Urologia, AOU Senese, Siena, Italy
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility
and safety of hemostasis performed through polytetrafluoroethylene pledgets placement during open nephron-sparing
surgery for renal tumors. Methods: From 2008 to December
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
2012, 84 consecutive patients underwent open nephron-sparing
surgery (NSS) for clinically localized renal cancer. NSS was
performed as tumoral enucleation technique, usually by a
lateral retroperitoneal approach, and always by blunt dissection
on the natural cleavage plane between the tumor and normal
parenchyma. Smaller exophytic lesions were approached
avoiding the clamp of renal pedicle. Incidental opening of the
calyces were ligated using a running suture with 4/0
monofilament.
In
54/84
cases,
we
adopted
Polytetrafluoroethylene pledgets to firm a significant
parenchymal defect. Polytetrafluoroethylene pledgets are
fashioned into 10×5 mm strips and used to dissipate the high
tensile strenght of mattress suture with 2/0 adsorbable
polyfilament. Polytetrafluoroethylene is fully chemically inert
and insoluble in organic solvents; moreover its peculiar fluency
with very low friction rates helps its placing. We adopted
Polytetrafluoroethylene pledgets in 54/84 cases. Results: Mean
(range) operative time was 97.6 (55-189) minutes with mean
blood loss of 250 ml (55-680 ml). Renal pedicle was clamped
in 16/54 (29.6%) cases and mean warm ischemia was 13.5
(range: 10-21) minutes. Mean tumor size was 31 (range: 1072) mm. Overall, 11 perioperative complications occurred
(7/54=12.9%); of these, 6 were medical and 1 surgical. Medical
complications included fever, blood loss requiring transfusions,
while surgical complication was prolonged blood loss from
drainage treated by a second invasive procedure. Mean (range)
pre and postoperative serum creatinine was 1.1 (0.7-3.6) and
1.26 (0.7-5.9) mg/dl respectively. At histopathological
evaluation, a focal positive surgical margin was found in 4/54
(9.2%) of cases: 3 of these resulted endophitic in more than
50% of their volume. Mean (range) follow-up was 29.6 (2-48)
months; none of the patients developed allergenic reactions to
Polytetrafluoroethylene pledgets. Conclusion: Nephron-sparing
surgery with polytetrafluoroethylene hemostasis was found to
be a safe procedure without other additional hemostatic agents,
irrespective of tumor size, because the tensile strength was
sufficient to keep the repaired parenchyma firm and to allow
an excellent control of enucleation bed bleeding. In our
experience the procedure is low-price, easy to perform and
time-saving. In our series the procedure did not affect renal
function.
107
THE MAXIMUM SAVING OF FUNCTIONAL
URETHRA DURING RADICAL CYSTECTOMY
AND ILEAL ORTHOTOPIC NEOBLADDER
IDENTIFYING VERUMONTANUM
Federico Lanzi, Gerardo Pizzirusso, Filippo Gentile,
Nicola Tosi, Filippo Cecconi, Giovanni De Rubertis,
Gabriele Barbanti
UOC di Urologia, AOU Senese, Siena, Italy
2320
Aim: Radical cystectomy plus ileal orthotopic bladder
substitution is a choice for primary invasive bladder cancer
and for high grade, refractory to conservative therapy,
multifocal and quickly recurrent superficial bladder cancer,
in young patients determined to maintain an adequate
selfcorporeal image. The aim of this study was to investigate
functionally and oncologically the role of verumontanum as a
landmark for the complete saving of striated sphincter in
patients undergone radical cystectomy and ileal orthotopic
bladder substitution. Patients and Methods: From January
2008 to December 2011, we prospectively collected the data
of
42
patients
undergone
radical
retropubic
cystoprostatectomy plus ileal orthotopic bladder substitution
for clinically localized bladder cancer. We compared the
intraoperative identification and saving of verumontanum and
follow-up data determined through urodynamic evaluation.
Clinical, surgical and complete follow-up data were available
for 37/42 patients. The urethral sphincteric mechanism was
evaluated with urodynamic study in different positions at a
minimum follow-up of 12 months. After that, to compare
intraoperative
findings
every
patient
underwent
uretrocystoscopy to confirm the presence or absence of
verumontanum. Continence was evaluated with ICIQ-SF
questionnaire at months 1, 3, 6 and 12. Results: Mean followup was (range) 21.5 (12-41) months. In 4/37 (10.8%) cases
transitional cancer was found in the bladder trigone and in 2
of them an unespected presence of tumor was found in the
prostatic urethra. In one case a pT2b prostatic carcinoma
Gleason 3+3 was discovered. None of the cases showed a
positive apical surgical margin. Overall, 30/37 (81.1%)
patients completely fulfilled our continence criteria (≤1
pad/die and ICIQ-SF≤2/2/2) in daytime and 24/37 (64.8%)
on nighttime at a minimum follow-up of 12 months. In 15/37
(40.5%) patients with verumontanum (Group A) continence
was obtained within the first month in 2/15 (13.3%) cases Vs
0/22 in patients without the saving of verumontanum (Group
B), 5/15 (33.3%) Vs 5/22 (22.7%) within the third month,
10/15 (66.7%) Vs 13/22 (59%) within the sixth month and in
13/15 (86.7%) Vs 16/22 (72.7%) at a 12-months follow-up in
Group A and B respectively. The saving of verumontanum
resulted statistically significant in overall continence
(p=0.0067) and influential in early recovery of continence
(p<0.0001). Urodynamic evaluation demonstrated a
significantly longer functional urethral length in Group A
patients (mean, range: 32, 28-37 mm) Vs Group B patients
(25, 16-31 mm) (p=0.0036). Overall 14/15 patients of Group
A demonstrated a Valsalva leak point pressure ≥40cmH2O Vs
13/22 of Group B. Discussion: Verumontanum can be
considered an anathomical landmark in saving the maximum
of striated sphincter and consequently, the maximum of
striated sphincter. In our experience, the saving of
verumontanum during radical cystectomy and ileal orthotopic
bladder substitution improved overall and early continence
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
recovery. The limit of this study is represented by the small
number of both groups and the exiguity of events; our pilot
study underlines the need of large, randomized trials to define
the role of verumontanum in overall and early continence
recovery
108
URETERAL STENTING WITH URORADIOLOGICAL COMBINED MANEUVER
IN IATROGENIC URETERAL INJURIES
Nicola Tosi1, Federico Lanzi1, Marco Cini2,
Claudio Ceccherini2, Filippo Gentile1, Gerardo Pizzirusso1,
Filippo Cecconi1, Carmelo Ricci2, Gabriele Barbanti1
1UOC
2Uo
di Urologia,
di Radiologia Interventistica, AOU Senese, Siena, Italy
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to present our
JJ stenting technique in ureteral iatrogenic injuries in patients
non suitable to reconstructive surgery. Patients and Methods:
From 2009 to 2012 three patients undergone adjuvant
radiotherapy plus radical hysteroannessiectomy for
endometrial cancer were evaluated for anuria (2/3 patients)
or sepsis (1/3). CT-urography demonstrated an avulsion in
the ureters. In urgency, a nephrostomic catether was placed
in the involved kidney. All patients were non suitable for an
open ureterocystoneostomy or ureteral repair due to very low
performance status. After general clinical stabilization a
combined uro-radiological maneuver was performed to place
a JJ stent. Cystoscopically, the distal ureteral segment was
cannulated and a guidewire was advanced into the urinoma.
An angiographic catheter was then advanced over the
guidewire to the site of rupture. A guidewire was then placed
through the indwelling nephrostomy tube and an Amplatz
gooseneck snare was placed antegrade into the urinoma
cavity. The guidewire was grasped from below by the snare
and pulled through the percutaneous access site. A 6F double
J ureteral stent was then placed. Nephrostomy was removed
on postoperative day 10. Results: Mean operative time
(range) was 8.4 (5-12) minutes. At a mean (range) follow-up
of 12.3 (8-16) months all the three patients demonstrated a
conserved renal function. Due to very low performance
status and local tumoral progression, it was indicated to
maintain ureteral stents which were substituted every 6
months. A retrograde pielography performed during
substitutions demontrated the absence of ureteral defects in
2/3 patients. Conclusion: Double J stenting with uroradiological combined maneuver is an effective and safe
approach to ureteral iatrogenic injuries. The minimally
invasive aspect of this procedure may be considered
whenever a patients presents critical clinical and surgical
conditions that contraindicate ureterocystoneostomy.
109
ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE IN PROSTATE CANCER:
8 YEAR EXPERIENCE
Riccardo Valdagni1, Cristina Marenghi2, Tiziana Rancati2,
Maria Francesca Alvisi2, Tiziana Magnani2, Nice Bedini3,
Lara Bellardita2, Nicola Nicolai4, Maurizio Colecchia5,
Roberto Salvioni4
1Programma
Prostata - SC Radioterapia Oncologica 1,
Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano;
2Programma Prostata,
3Sc Radioterapia Oncologica 1,
4Sc Chirurgia Urologia,
5Anatomia Patologica, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale
dei Tumori, Milano, Italy
Aim: In March 2005 we started proposing active surveillance
(AS) as an alternative option to radical treatments for verylow risk prostate cancer in a multidisciplinary setting.
Patients and methods: Two AS protocols are open to
recruitment: the international PRIAS study and the monoinstitutional SAINT protocol. Inclusion criteria for both
protocols are: initial PSA≤10 ng/ml, DRE≤T2 and GPS≤3+3.
Differences in protocols are: PSA density<0.2 ng/ml/cc
required by PRIAS and number of positive cores which are
no more than 2 in PRIAS, no more than 25% and no more
than 50% in each core in SAINT. Follow-up is monitored
with PSA, DRE, re-biopsy at definite intervals. Extra
biopsies are recommended when PSA doubling time (DT) is
between 3 and 10 yrs. Whenever during follow-up the
PSADT turns under 3yrs, clinical stage becomes >T2, rebiopsies show more than 2 (or 25%) positive cores or
GPS>3+3, patients are switched to active treatment. Active
treatment free survival (ATFS) was assessed using KaplanMeier survival analysis and correlation between pts’
characteristics and protocol-advised drop out was analysed
through log-rank test and Cox analysis. Results: 454 pts were
enrolled in AS (February 2013): 167 in SAINT and 287 in
PRIAS. 266/342 (58.6%) pts are still on AS (median f-up of
37.2 mos, range 2.3-107.7; median time in AS 21.4 mos,
range 2.4-107.7). 136/454 (29.9%) pts dropped out: 22 due
to PSADT, 114 to upgrading and/or upsizing at re-biopsy
(64/114 at first re-biopsy). 10 pts dropped out due to
comorbidities, 7 due to personal choice (anxiety-related), 34
due to off-protocol reasons and 1 due non-PCa death.
Actuarial ATFS was 76% and 58% at 18 (after the first rebiopsy) and 36 months, respectively. To date, no unfavorable
outcome has been observed. Biopsy-related ATFS correlates
with age <66 yrs (p=0.06, Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.6, ATFS at
36 mos 62% vs. 77%), with PSA density<0.12 ng/ml/cc
(p=0.03, HR=1.8, ATFS at 36 mos 80% vs. 60%) and
prostate volume <52cc (p=0.004, HR=2.2, ATFS at 36 mos
85% vs. 65%). ATFS results are shown in Figure 1.
2321
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
Figure 1. (a) Active Treatment Free Survival (ATFS), whole Active Surveillance population, all causes; (b) biopsy-related ATFS as a function
og age; (c) biopsy-related ATFS as a function of PSA density.
Conclusion: AS is feasible in selected men with early PCa.
Most of pts dropped out at1yr re-biopsy which should
probably be considered as a confirmatory biopsy. Age>66yrs,
PSA density>0.12 ng/ml/cc and prostate volume >52cc
correlate with biopsy-related ATFS as risk factors for
reclassification. Better multivariable models are obtained
when more specific endpoints are considered and PCA3 is
added as prognosticator. Detailed results will be available in
a dedicated analysis. The research was partly supported by
Fond Monzino.
110
TARGET THERAPIES (TT) FOR METASTATIC
RENAL CELL CARCINOMA (MRCC) IN THE REAL
WORLD. RESULTS OF AN ITALIAN SURVEY
Anna Paola Fraccon1, Carmen Barile2, Felice Pasini2,
Cosimo Sacco3, Teodoro Sava4, Francesco Valduga5,
Umberto Basso6, Emanuela Vattemi7, Giovanni Rosti8,
Emilia Durante9, Maurizio Nicodemo10, Giovanni Lo Re11,
Rita Cengarle12, Paola Bertocchi13, Daniele Bernardi14,
2322
Donata Sartori15, Donatella Donati16, Cristina Pegoraro17,
Franco Bassan18, Fable Zustovich6, Fernando Gaion19,
Luigi Salvagno20, Francesco Massari4,
Ignazio Martellucci21, Caterina Modonesi22,
Mauro Giusto23, Alessandra Bearz24, Romana Segati25
1Oncologia,
Casa di Cura Dott. Pederzoli;
di Oncologia Medica, Ospedale Santa Maria Della
Misericordia, Rovigo;
3U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Ospedale Universitario ,Udine;
4U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Azienda Ospedaliera
Universitaria Integrata, Verona;
5U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Ospedale Santa Chiara,
Trento;
6U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Istituto Oncologico Veneto,
Padova;
7U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Ospedale Centrale Regionale,
Bolzano;
8U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Ospedale Ca’foncello, Treviso;
9U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Ospedale Mater Salutis,
Legnago;
10U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Ospedale Sacro Cuore-Don
Calabria, Negrar;
2U.O.
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
11U.O.
di Oncologia Medica, Ospedale Santa Maria degli
Angeli, Pordenone;
12U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Ospedale Carlo Poma,
Mantova;
13U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Fondazione Poliambulanza,
Brescia;
14U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Assl10 Veneto Orientale, San
Dona’ di Piave;
15U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Azienda Ulss13, Mirano;
16U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Ospedale, Ferrara;
17U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Ospedale, Montecchio
Maggiore;
18U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Ulss4, Thiene;
19U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Ulss15, Camposampiero;
20U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Ospedale, Vittorio Veneto;
21U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Ospedale, Siena;
22U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Ospedale, Este;
23U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Ospedale, Belluno;
24U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Centro Riferimento
Oncologico, Aviano;
25U.O. di Oncologia Medica, Ospedale, Feltre, Italy
Background: This Italian multicentric survey aimed at
assessing the role of some prognostic factors already
described in literature and to verify the outcome of mRCC
pts treated with TT in the community setting outside clinical
trials. Methods: Individual data from the clinical records of
902 mRCC pts treated with TT from 2007 to December 2012
were obtained from 28 Italian Institutions, through a
questionnaire sent to each participating center and approved
by local ethical committee. Results: Median age was 60
(range 25-89), 75% pts were males. Median overall survival
(mOS) was 24 mo (range 1-85), without statistical difference
among the centres. Histology was clear cell (CC), CC with
sarcomatoid component, papillary, NOS, not available in
82%, 6%, 4%, 4% and 4%, respectively. mOS was 28 and
12.5 mo for CC and non-CC histology, respectively
(p<0.001). Nephrectomy was performed in 88% of the cases.
mOS of these pts was 28 mo vs. 6.5 of those not receiving
surgery (p<0.001). The number of metastatic sites was ≥3 in
43% of the pts; mOS of this group was 18 mo vs. 31 mo of
pts with ≤2 metastatic sites (p=0.0001). MSKCC risk score
(542 evaluable pts) was poor in 15%, intermediate in 53%
and good in 32% of the pts; mOS was 6.4, 24 and 49 mo for
poor, intermediate and good risk pts, respectively (p<0.001).
ECOG PS was 0-1 in 90% of the pts; mOS of pts with PS
≥2 was 6 mo (p=0.0001). First line treatment was: sunitinib
693 pts (76.6%), sorafenib124 (13.7%), temsirolimus 35
(4%), bevacizumab 26 (3%), pazopanib 19 (1.5%) and other
therapies 5 pts. Median 1st line PFS (mPFS1) was 11 months
for sunitinib and 7 months for sorafenib. Overall response
rate was 33.5% (CR 3.5% + PR 30%), 30% SD, not
evaluable 3.5%. Dose reduction of sunitinib and sorafenib
was required in 49% and 39% of the cycles administered,
respectively; 137 pts (15%) received only 1 cycle of sunitinib
mostly for rapid progression and/or deterioration. Second
line therapy was performed in 46% of the pts: sorafenib 143
(16%), everolimus 121 (13%), sunitinib 100 (11%),
temsirolimus 25 (3%), chemo-immunotherapy 26 (3%),
others (1%). mPFS2 was 6 mo with sunitinib and about 4 mo
with the other therapies (p=0.001). 155 pts (17%) received
3 treatment lines, with different sequences and the 3rd line
PFS was 6 months. OS was slightly better for the TKI-TKImTOR sequence than for the TKI-mTORTKI (48 vs. 37
months, p=0.06). At multivariate analysis, CC histology,
prior nephrectomy, number of metastatic sites, PS, MSKCC
risk, platelets and neutrophils count were independent
prognostic factors. Conclusion: This survey confirms the
results of prospective clinical trials in terms of outcome.
Many patients achieved long term OS after subsequent lines
of therapy, but, on the other hand, a similar percentage of pts
experienced rapid progression. Further studies are needed to
better identify the subset of pts who may benefit the most
from TT. Moreover, our study showed that clear cell
histology, prior nephrectomy, number of metastatic sites, PS,
MSKCC risk, platelets and neutrophils count maintain their
prognostic value also in mRCC pts treated with TT in the
everyday clinical practice.
111
IS MULTIPARAMETRIC MRI RELIABLE IN
SELECTING PATIENTS WITH PROSTATE
CANCER FOR ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE?
Francesco Porpiglia1, Cristian Fiori2, Fabrizio Mele2,
Matteo Manfredi2, Susanna Grande2, Massimiliano
Poggio2, Diletta Garrou2, Enrico Bollito3, Mauro Papotti3,
Filippo Russo4, Daniele Regge4
1SCDU
Urologia, AOU San Luigi Gonzaga;
Urologia, Ospedale San Luigi Gonzaga, Orbassano;
3Scdu Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale San Luigi Gonzaga,
Orbassano;
4Sc Radiologia, IRCC Candiolo, Italy
2Scdu
Introduction: In case of low risk incidental prostate cancer
(PCa), the question arises whether to treat or follow a
program of active surveillance (AS) (1). These programs,
based on clinical and pathological features, can sometimes
mistakenly select patients (2). Multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) has shown promise in localizing and characterize PCa
(3). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of mpMRI in improving the selection of patients eligible for AS
programs. Methods: We reviewed our prospectively
maintained PCa database and extracted the data about
consecutive patients treated with radical prostatectomy (RP)
2323
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
Table I (Abstract No 111).
TV (cc)
≤0.5 (insignificant)
>0.5 (significant)
TOT
Identified
79 (53.0%)
238 (96.4%)
317 (80.1%)
mp-MRI
Not
identified
70
9
79
Identified
32 (21.5%)
208 (84.2%)
240 (60.6%)
previously undergone mp-MRI. We compared data of
patients who fulfilled the AS criteria with data of mp-MRI
and the pathological analysis. Clinical AS criteria were
those of PRIAS (Prostate Cancer Research International:
Active Surveillance) protocol: PSA<10 ng/ml and
density<0.2 ng/ml; <2 positive cores at prostate biopsy and
GS<6; clinical stage T1c-T2. Radiological criteria of
inclusion of AS on mp-MRI were major tumor diameter
<10 mm, organ-confined PCa, ADC <0.8/1. Pathological
criteria using Epstein definition of insignificant disease
were: organ-confined PCa, no evidence of Gleason 4 or 5;
tumor volume <0.5 cc. The same surgeon, the same uropathologist and the same uro-radiologist performed all the
procedures. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative
predictive value (PPV and NPV) of PRIAS criteria, mpMRI and PRIAS + mp-MRI were calculated based on 2x2
tables, using pathological results as gold standard. Results:
On pathological examination, 19/180 (10.6%) patients
would have been properly selected for AS. Using PRIAS
criteria to select patients for AS, sensitivity, specificity,
PPV and NPV were 15.8%, 75.8%, 7.1% and 88.4%,
respectively. Using only mp-MRI criteria to select patients
for AS, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 100%,
87.9%, 50% and 100%, respectively. Using PRIAS + mpMRI criteria, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were
15.8%, 98.8%, 60% and 90.9%, respectively. Only 2
patients selected for AS with PRIAS and MRI criteria had
a non-low risk PCa (GS 7). PRIAS criteria fulfilled, PRIAS
criteria not fulfilled, TOT mp-MRI criteria fulfilled, mpMRI criteria not fulfilled TOT PRIAS + mp-MRI criteria
fulfilled, PRIAS + mp-MRI criteria not fulfilled, TOT
Epstein criteria fulfilled 3 16 19 Epstein criteria fulfilled,
19 0 19 Epstein criteria fulfilled 3 16 19 Epstein criteria
not fulfilled, 39 122 161 Epstein criteria not fulfilled 19
138 161 Epstein criteria not fulfilled 2 159 161 TOT 42 138
180 TOT 38 138 180 TOT 5 175 180. Conclusion: The
results of our study suggested that actual inclusion criteria
are inadequate to candidate patients with PCa for AS. In
our cohort, mp-MRI seems to improve selection of patients
for AS when used in combination with clinical criteria such
as PRIAS.
2324
PB
Not
identified
117
39
156
TOT
p-Value
149
247
396
<0.0001
<0.0001
<0.0001
1 Mouraviev V, Villers A, Bostwick DG, Wheeler TM,
Montironi R and Polascik TJ: Understanding the
pathological features of focality, grade and tumour volume
of early-stage prostate cancer as a foundation for
parenchyma-sparing prostate cancer therapies: active
surveillance and focal targeted therapy. BJU Int 108(7):
1074-1085, 2011.
2 Muller G, Bonkat G, Rieken M, Wyler SF, Bubendorf
L, et al: Potential consequences of low biopsy core
number in selection of patients with prostate cancer for
current active surveillance protocols. Urology. 2013,
Epub.
3 Hoeks CM, Barentsz JO, Hambrock T et al: Prostate
cancer: multiparametric MR imaging for detection,
localization, and staging. Radiology 261: 46-66, 2011.
112
DETECTION OF CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT
PROSTATE CANCER: A COMPARISON OF
MULTIPARAMETRIC MRI AND PROSTATE BIOPSY
Francesco Porpiglia1, Cristian Fiori2, Fabrizio Mele2,
Matteo Manfredi2, Susanna Grande2, Marco Cossu2,
Giovanni Cattaneo2, Enrico Bollito3, Mauro Papotti3,
Filippo Russo4, Daniele Regge4
1SCDU
Urologia, AOU San Luigi Gonzaga;
Urologia, Ospedale San Luigi Gonzaga, Orbassano;
3SCDU Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale San Luigi Gonzaga,
Orbassano;
4Sc Radiologia, IRCC Candiolo, Italy
2SCDU
Introduction: Since the introduction of PSA in clinical
practice, we have seen a rise in incidental prostate cancer
(PCa), with an increase in low-risk disease (1). The current
definition of clinically significant disease is a PCa with a
tumor volume (TV) >0.5 cc (2). Recently, with the
introduction of prostate multiparametric MRI (mp-MRI),
we can benefit of anatomical, morphological and functional
information for the most suitable therapeutic approach for
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
PCa (3). The aim of this prospective study was to analyse
the ability of prostate biopsy (PB) and preoperative mpMRI to correctly identify clinically significant PCa foci in
patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) for PCa.
Patients and Methods: We extracted data from our
prospectively maintained database of 180 consecutive
patients with PCa. All of them underwent mp-MRI prior to
laparoscopic or robot-assisted RP. MRI was performed with
a conventional study with T1-w, T2-w and diffusion
sequences. After precontrast acquisitions, patients were
intravenously given gadobutrol. RP specimens were
evaluated according to a validated international protocol.
The same surgeon, the same uro-pathologist and the same
uro-radiologist performed all the procedures. We defined
significant disease based on the current cut off of TV
(0.5cc) measured on RP specimen, considered our gold
standard. We then compared transrectal PB (with at least 12
samples) and mp-MRI in terms of detection rate of
significant PCa. Statistical analyses were performed using
Chi-square test. All analyses were performed by using
Statistic 7 software (Statsoft, Tulsa, Oklahoma) (pvalues<0.05 were considered as statistically significant).
Results: On histological examination, 396 neoplastic
lesions were identified (Table I). Compared to PB, mp-MRI
demonstrated a high sensitivity in detecting PCa. Although
mp-MRI had also values of sensibility higher than biopsy,
both had low sensitivity in detecting small lesions. mp-MRI
missed 79 lesions, of which 9 were significant: 7 with a TV
> 0.5cc and 2 with both a TV >0.5 cc and a pGS 7. 6
tumors with GS 7 and volume <0.5cc were lost. PB missed
156 lesions, of which 39 neoplastic lesions with a TV
>0.5cc (1 had a GS >8, 26 had a GS 7 and 12 had a GS
<6). 28 tumors with GS 7 and volume <0.5cc were lost.
Conclusion: In our study, mp-MRI was able to correctly
identify almost all clinically significant PCa. This technique
seems to be a reliable tool in order to select the best
treatment tailored for each patient.
1 Mouraviev V, Villers A, Bostwick DG, Wheeler TM,
Montironi R and Polascik TJ: Understanding the
pathological features of focality, grade and tumour volume
of early-stage prostate cancer as a foundation for
parenchyma-sparing prostate cancer therapies: active
surveillance and focal targeted therapy. BJU Int 108(7):
1074-1085, 2011.
2 Ploussard G, Epstein JI, Montironi R et al: The
contemporary concept of significant versus insignificant
prostate cancer. Eur Urol 60: 291-303, 2011.
3 Alessandro Sciarra, Jelle Barentsz, Anders Bjartell, James
Eastham, Hedvig Hricak, Valeria Panebianco J and Alfred
Witjes: Advances in magnetic resonance imaging: how
they are changing the management of prostate cancer. Eur
Urol 59(6): 962-977, 2011.
113
TRANSPERITONEAL EXTENDED LYMPH NODE
DISSECTION WITH ROBOTIC APPROACH:
50 PATIENTS TREATED DURING ROBOTASSISTED RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY
Francesco Porpiglia, Ivano Morra, Fabrizio Mele,
Riccardo Bertolo, Daniele Amparore, Andrea di Stasio,
Cristian Fiori
SCDU Urologia, Ospedale San Luigi Gonzaga, Orbassano,
Italy
Introduction: Lymph node dissection (LND) is a basic
diagnostic step in selected patients with prostate cancer.
When dissection is limited to the obturator fossa, about
50% of lymph node metastases will be missed; for this
reason extended LND has been recommended by EAU
guidelines. Some Authors proposed the use of da Vinci
system to perform the procedure and literature results are
encouraging. The aim of this study was to present our
experience with robotic extended “modified” LND
(emLND). Patients and Methods: From August 2011 to
September 2012, 50 patients were treated with
transperitoneal emLND with robotic approach at our
Institution. Surgical technique: The dissection begins with
the incision of peritoneum, laterally to the umbilical
ligament until the ureter, external iliac vessels are identified
and exposed. The ureter is identified, dissected, suspended
by using a vessel loup and then displaced. Hypogastric
artery is identified and dissected close to common iliac
artery. The external iliac lymph nodes are progressively
dissected. This dissection is limited to the medial portion
of the vessels, whilst the tissue that covers the lateral
portion is left in place to prevent lymphedema. An Hem o
lok clip is placed just cranially to the Cloquet lymph node,
which is preserved to prevent lymphocele and lymphedema.
Then the obturator fossa is reached and the lymph nodes
are progressively dissected until complete exposition of
obturator nerve is achieved. The presacral lymphnodes are
then identified and dissected. The same technique is used
at the left side. At the end of radical prostatectomy, the
peritoneum is sutured by using a running 3/0 “barbed”
suture. At the end of the suture the peritoneal cavity and
retropubic space do not communicate thanks to prevesical
fascia. Perioperative and pathological data were recorded,
complications were recorded and classified according to
Clavien system. Results: Mean operative time was 34
minutes; right and left LND were equally time-consuming.
No intraoperative complication occurred, in particular no
vessel injuries were recorded. Post operative complications
occurred in two cases (4%): a prolonged ileus (grade II)
and ureteral fistula treated with JJ stent placement (grade
III). In this last case no further complications were
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
recorded after the stent removal (2 months after surgery).
Notably, no symptomatic lymphoceles or lymphedema were
recoded. Mean of removed lymph nodes was 24.6, pN1 rate
was 10% while mean of positive LN was 2. Conclusion: It
is our experience that robotic system allows a safe and
effective LND and our details of technique tend to further
reduce complications. It is our subjective feeling that
robotic technology, with the increased freedom of
movement significantly facilitates LND.
114
A COMPARISON OF MULTIPARAMETRIC MRI
AND PROSTATE BIOPSY IN PATIENTS WITH
PROSTATE CANCER WITH PSA <10 NG/ML AND
NEGATIVE DRE UNDERGOING RADICAL
PROSTATECTOMY
Francesco Porpiglia1, Cristian Fiori1, Fabrizio Mele1,
Matteo Manfredi1, Giovanni Cattaneo1, Nicoletta Serra1,
Francesca Ragni1, Enrico Bollito2, Mauro Papotti2,
Filippo Russo3, Daniele Regge3
1SCDU
Urologia, Ospedale San Luigi Gonzaga, Orbassano;
2SCDU Anatomia Patologica, Ospedale San Luigi Gonzaga,
Orbassano;
3Sc Radiologia, IRCC Candiolo, Italy
Aim: To analyse the ability of prostate biopsy and
multiparametric (mp) MRI to correctly identify tumour foci
in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) for PCa
with a PSA <10 ng/ml and a negative DRE and to compare
these results dividing our population in terms of diagnosis
at first or second PB. Patients and Methods: 157 patients
with clinically localised PCa with a PSA <10 ng/ml and a
negative DRE diagnosed on the first or second prostate
biopsy were enrolled. First biopsies consisted of twelve
samples (Group A) while second biopsies consisted of 18
samples (Group B). All patients underwent mp-MRI with
T2-weighted images, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI),
dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI prior to RP at our
institution. A map of comparison describing each positive
biopsy sample was created for each patient, with each
tumour focus shown on the MRI and each lesion present on
the definitive histological examination in order to compare
tumour detection and location. Results: Compared to
prostate biopsy, mp-MRI demonstrated a higher detection
rate, reaching statistical significance (p<0.05) in most of
stratifications (tumour volume, tumour location and
pathological Gleason Score) except for tumour location in
Group B, GS <6 in Group B, GS 7b in Groups A and B,
GS >8 in overall and subdivided population. Overall
sensitivity of prostate biopsy and mp-MRI in identifying
tumour lesions were 59.4% and 78.9%, respectively
2326
(p<0.0001). PB missed 144/355 lesions, 59 of which
(16.6%) were significant: 11 with a TV >0.5 ml, 25 with a
pGS=7 and 23 with both a TV >0.5 ml and a pGS=7. No
statistically significant differences in the number of missed
significant lesions were recorded between Groups A and B.
mp-MRI missed 75/355 lesions, 12 of which (3.4%) were
significant: 4 with a TV >0.5 ml, 6 with a pGS=7 and 2
with both a TV >0.5 ml and a pGS=7. Positive predictive
value of prostate biopsy and mp-MRI to detect the
prevalence of Gleason pattern 4 (GS >7b) are 96.3% and
99.6%, respectively. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were
0.6067 and 0.9207 for PB and mp-MRI, respectively.
Conclusion: mp-MRI identifies more tumour lesions than
first and second prostate biopsies. Furthermore, mp-MRI
provides more information concerning tumour anatomy
(tumour volume and location) and aggressiveness
(prevalence of Gleason pattern 4). In patients with
clinically localized PCa, mp-MRI is a useful tool for better
therapeutic planning.
115
MARGINS, ISCHAEMIA AND COMPLICATIONS
(MIC) RATE FOLLOWING LAPAROSCOPIC
PARTIAL NEPHRECTOMY: EVALUATION OF
IMPACT OF LEARNING CURVE AND TUMOUR
COMPLEXITY
Francesco Porpiglia, Riccardo Bertolo, Ivano Morra,
Daniele Amparore, Andrea di Stasio, Cristian Fiori
SCDU Urologia, Ospedale San Luigi Gonzaga, Orbassano,
Italy
Introduction and Aim: Standardising the reports of Partial
Nephrectomy (PN) outcomes, not only in terms of
oncology but also in terms of functional results and
complications, is critical to compare different techniques.
Combining surgical margins status, complications
according to the Clavien system and the duration of
ischaemia, some authors recently proposed the novel
“margin, ischaemia, and complications” (MIC) binary
system, with the aim of standardising the reporting of PN
results Primary aim of the study was to present our
laparoscopic PN (LPN) results according to the MIC
system; the secondary aim was to assess the role of
learning curve and tumour complexity on the outcomes by
using MIC system. Patients and Methods: Data were
obtained from our prospectively-maintained LPN database,
including only patients who underwent LPN performed
with vascular clamping. According to MIC system
definition, the goal of LPN was reached when surgical
margins were negative, warm ischaemia time (WIT)
was<20 min and no major complications occurred. Patients
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
were stratified by quartiles of distribution (named “LPNeras” 1-4): MIC rates in different LPN-eras were compared
evaluating the impact of learning curve and tumour
complexity (as assessed by the PADUA score) on the
outcomes. Chi-square, Kruskall-Wallis, one-way- and
factorial-ANOVA tests were used for statistical analysis (pvalues <0.05 were considered as statistically significant).
Results: Studied population consisted of 206 patients.
Overall MIC rate was 63.1%: it progressively increased
along the learning curve, reaching 84.9% in LPN-era 4
(p<0.0001). PADUA score risk-group categories were
inversely correlated with MIC score (p=0.0014). When
simultaneously considering the effects of both LPN-eras
and PADUA score risk-group categories, a trend towards a
higher MIC rate was found in latest series regardless of
tumour complexity. When MIC score components were
separately analysed, WIT was significantly decreased from
LPN-era 1 to 4 (p<0.001) and PADUA score risk-group
categories 3 to 1 (p=0.001). A trend towards a decrease in
the complications rate along the learning curve was
observed (p=0.251), while LPN-era and PADUA score
together significantly influenced the complications rate
(p<0.001). Positive surgical margins rate was stable
throughout the case study. Conclusion: MIC rate increased
with surgeon’s experience and decreased when complex
lesions were treated. In our opinion MIC system was an
easy, useful and reproducible tool to evaluate LPN data
series.
116
FLUORESCENCE CYSTOSCOPY WITH
HEXAMINOLEVULINATE IN DIAGNOSIS AND
FOLLOW UP OF BLADDER CANCER:
FIVE-YEARS EXPERIENCE
Francesco Porpiglia, Massimiliano Poggio,
Marco Cossu, Nicoletta Serra, Riccardo Bertolo, Giovanni
Cattaneo, Diletta Garrou, Cristian Fiori
SCDU Urologia, Ospedale San Luigi Gonzaga, Orbassano,
Italy
Introduction and Aim: Fluorescence cystoscopy (FC) with
hexaminolevulinate (HAL) compared to standard white light
cystoscopy (WLC) can improve detection of transitional cell
carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder and carcinoma in situ.We
present our experience using combined WC and HAL-FC for
diagnosis and follow up of bladder TCC. Patients and
Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our prospectively
maintained TCC database (1/2007-9/2012) and we extracted
the data of 80 patients (70 males and 10 females, mean age
69.7 years) with history of high risk TCC undergone WLC
and HAL-FC. One hour before the procedure HAL 85 mg
diluted in saline 50 ml was administered intravesically. In all
patients traditional WLC followed by a FC with blue light
was performed. In case of negative WLC and HAL-FC, no
biopsies were performed; in case lesions suspicious to be
TCC, a cold biopsy and/or transurethral resection were
performed. Patent TCC were not considered in this study.
Results: Overall, we performed bioptic resection of all
suspect lesions (154 biopsies) detected in white and/or blue
light. In 12 cases simple FC without biopsies was carried out
(negative WLC/HALFC). WLC detected 98 suspect lesions,
being negative in 44 cases. FC detected 140 suspect lesions,
being negative in 76 cases. WLC found 54 cancer/dysplasia,
while FC 64 cancer/dysplasia. In particular, FC detected a
higher number of carcinoma in situ than WLC. Among the
98 WLC+(FC+/FC-) lesions, 36 were neoplastic, 18 CIS and
44 flogistic; the 140 FC+ (WLC+/WLC-) lesions, 38 were
neoplastic, 26 Cis and 76 flogistic. FC+/WLC- lesions were
44: 10 were positive cancer/dysplasia (6 CIS). The 2
WLC+/FC- lesions were all negative for cancer, as well as
the 12 WLC-/FC- lesions. False positives were similar in
both groups (FC 45% vs. WLC 44.8%), but the FC
diagnostic gain was higher (22.7%) than WLC, especially
regarding the diagnosis of carcinoma in situ. Conclusion: FC
with HAL is a safe and effective procedure, and is a useful
adjunct to WLC, improving its diagnostic gain toward
carcinoma in situ. In our opinion, considering cost and
effectiveness, this procedure should be reserved to patients
affected by high risk superficial bladder carcinoma as
optimal therapeutic choice.
117
THE VALUE OF HISTOLOGICAL REVISION OF
BIOPSY CORES IN PATIENTS SUITABLE FOR
ACTIVE SURVEILLANCE: COMPARISON WITH
SURGICAL SPECIMENS AFTER RADICAL
PROSTATECTOMY AND CLINICAL FOLLOW-UP
R. Schiavina1, M. Fiorentino2, E. Brunocilla1,
A. Bertaccini1, F. Manferrari1, S. Rossi1, S. Rizzi1,
D. Romagnoli1, M. Cevenini, L. Bianchi1, M. Borghesi1,
D. Diazzi1, H. Dababneh1, G. Passaretti1, G. Martorana1
1University
of Bologna, Dept. of Urology, Bologna;
Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Institute of Oncology and
Pathology, Bologna, Italy
2S.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the value
of histological revision of biopsy cores and pathological
specimens after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with
low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) potentially suitable for active
surveillance (AS). Patients and Methods: Among 1344
patients treated with RP between 2004 and 2011, we
identified 134 men (10%) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
for the AS of P.R.I.A.S. study (PSA≤10; PSA density 0.2
ng/ml. Pathological indolent PCa was defined as organconfined PCa and Gleason ≤6 of any volume. The main end
points were: a) quantify the difference between biopsy and
pathological Gs and stage before and after revision; b)
quantify the real amount of “true” biopsy Gs 3+3 after
revision and assess the pathological and oncological
outcomes of patients with “true” biopsy Gs 3+3 (GROUP 1)
versus patients with biopsy Gs >3+3 (GROUP 2); c) assess
the accuracy of the revision of biopsy Gs in the prediction
of pathological indolent PCa. T-student, Mann-Whitney and
Pearson chi-square tests and ROC analysis were used.
Results: The mean (IQR) age, PSA and number of cores
taken were 69.5±5.3 (61-70) yrs, 5.9±1.8 (4.6-7.4) ng/ml
and 13.2±3.1 (11-15 cores taken) respectively. With mean
follow-up 40.8±21.2 mo (10-93), cancer-specific survival
was 100% at 7 yrs and 2 patients died for unrelated disease.
After revision, median Gs of biopsy cores and pathological
specimen increased by 1 point (from 6 to 7) and the amount
of patients with pathological stage T3a-b increased from 6
(4.4%) to 11 (8.2%) (all P3+3 (GROUP 2). In GROUP 1,
19 (43.2%) had pathological indolent disease, while in 90
patients of GROUP 2 only 11 (12%) had pathological
indolent disease (p<0.001). Two patients underwent
adjuvant radiotherapy (ART) in GROUP 1, while 4 patients
underwent ART and 2 had BCR in GROUP 2 (p=0.619).
After revision, the AUC of biopsy Gs revision in the
prediction pathological indolent disease (GROUP 1 vs.
GROUP 2) was 0.696. Conclusion: After revision of biopsy
cores performed by a single experienced uropathologist, 2/3
of patients would rather have been excluded from AS. The
wide study period can partially explain these significant
divergence in Gs before and after revision. The histological
revision is essential to enhance the likelihood of revealing
indolent PCa.
118
ACCURACY OF [11C] CHOLINE POSITRON
EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY/COMPUTED
TOMOGRAPHY IN PREOPERATIVE STAGING IN
PATIENTS WITH BLADDER CANCER REFERRED
TO RADICAL CYSTECTOMY: COMPARISON WITH
CONVENTIONAL COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
R. Schiavina1, G. Passaretti1, D. Romagnoli1,
A. Bertaccini1, E. Brunocilla1, F. Manferrari1,
M. Garofalo1, V. Vagnoni1, G.C. Rocca1, L. Bianchi1,
F. Chessa1, L. Bianchi1, M. Borghesi1,
M. Fiorentino2, G. Martorana1
1University
of Bologna, Dept. of Urology, Bologna;
Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Institute of Oncology and
Pathology, Bologna, Italy
2S.
2328
The preoperative detection of lymph node (LN)
involvement in patients with Bladder Cancer (BCa) is of
the utmost importance for the medical and surgical
management. Computed Tomography (CT) is so far the
standard staging modality, but it affords only
morphological information. 11C-choline PET/CT value in
prostatic cancer detection has been already confirmed
nevertheless few and conflicting data are reported about
the diagnostic value of 11 C-choline PET/CT in the
preoperative staging of bladder cancer.The aim of this
study was to evaluate the efficacy of the 11 C-choline
Positron Emission Tomography with CT (PET/CT) and
contrast enhanced CT for LNs staging in BCa. Twenty
male patients with BCa were studied with 11 C-choline
PET/CT and diagnostic CT before radical cystectomy
(RC) with extended pelvic lymph nodes dissection
(ePLND). Lymph nodes histological findings were
compared with 11 C-choline PET/CT and CT. Patient,
lymph node and zonal-based analyses were obtained.
Pelvic zonal dissection template included 3 fields: paraaortal, interaortocaval, para-caval and presacral LNs(A);
right pelvic LNs(B); left pelvic LNs(C). Sensitivity,
specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative
predictive value (NPV) and accuracy were evaluated. A
total of 655 LNs were removed; LN metastases were
found in 4 of 20 patients (20%). In patient based analysis
11 C-choline PET/CT and CT sensitivity, specificity, PPV,
NPV and accuracy were 75% 81% 50% 93% 80%; and
respectively 25%,94%,50%,83%,80%. In LN-based
analysis, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy
were respectively 10% 70% 50% 96% 94% for 11 Ccholine PET/CT and 3%, 70%, 30%, 95%, 95% for CT.
In zonal-based analyses 11C-choline PET/CT sensitivity,
specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were 25%, 94%,
37.5%, 6%, 13%, while CT showed 3%, 57%, 25%, 11%,
13%. Finally 11C-choline PET/TC detection rate was 8%,
18%, 29%, respectively for 0.9-4.9 mm, 5-9.9mm,
≥10mm LN metastases, higher than CT detection rate.
Our data suggest that 11C-choline PET/CT, providing few
false-negative and false-positive than CT, is particularly
useful in evaluating patients with nodal enlargement or
nodes with borderline sizes; moreover, it can identify
lymph node metastases <10 mm more reliably than CT
does. 11 C-choline PET/CT detected bone marrow
metastases and lung nodes. The limited number of
patients was the major limitation of this study. Although
this is a preliminary report, and other studies are needed
to confirm our results, at present 11 C-choline PET/CT
seems to be a promising imaging technique for the
detection of lymph node metastases, more sensitive and
specific than CT. 11 C-choline CT/PET is useful for
prognostic information and preoperative management for
bladder cancer patients.
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
119
PRESERVATION OF THE SMOOTH MUSCULAR
INTERNAL (VESICAL) SPHINCTER AND OF THE
PROXIMAL URETHRA DURING RETROPUBIC
RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY: DESCRIPTION OF
THE TECHNIQUE AND EARLY RESULTS
dry safety pad: the continence rate was 52.1%, 72.5%, 81.3 and
95.3% at 3, 7, 90 and 120 days respectively after catheter
removal. Conclusion: The described technique is a feasible and
safe method for preservation of the internal urethral sphincter.
Despite our positive results and enthusiasm, further studies with
larger series are needed to confirm these findings.
University of Bologna, Dept. of Urology, Bologna, Italy
120
HIGH DOSE RATE BRACHYTHERAPY (HDR-BRT)
COMBINED WITH IMAGE-GUIDED INTENSITY
MODULATED RADIOTHERAPY (IG-IMRT): A 12
CASES EXPERIENCE
E. Brunocilla, C.V. Pultrone, R. Schiavina, G.C. Rocca,
M. Borghesi, V. Vagnoni, Z. Zukerman,
D. Diazzi, G. Martorana
Introduction and Objectives: The preservation of urinary
continence is one of the most important endpoints of retropubic
radical prostatectomy (RRP). Numerous mechanisms have been
advocated as responsible for male postoperative urinary
continence, but the preservation of the integrity of the external
urethral sphincter muscle, of the pelvic floor as well as anterior
and posterior urethral support, seems to play the most important
role. We describe our technique for preservation of the smooth
muscular internal (vesical) sphincter and proximal urethra
during radical retropubic prostatectomy. Methods: The first
steps of the prostatectomy reflect the standard RRP, while for
the final phases the procedure continues in an anterograde
manner with incision of the fibers of the detrusor muscle at the
insertion of the ventral surface of the base of the prostate. At
this level, the inner circular muscle of the bladder neck forms a
sphincteric ring of smooth muscle that covers the longitudinally
oriented smooth muscle component of the urethral musculature
that extends distally to the verumontanum: these two proximal
structures represent the internal sphincter that envelops and
locks the proximal urethra. A blunt dissection is continued until
the ring shaped vesical sphincter is separated from the prostate
and the longitudinally oriented smooth muscle component of
the urethral musculature is identified. The base of the prostate is
then gently separated from the urethra and from the bladder
until the maximal length of the urethral musculature is isolated
and preserved. Finally, an urethra-urethral anastomosis is
performed and the ventral stitches are also placed through the
circular fibers of the bladder neck. In all cases we perform
circumferential biopsies of the proximal urethra and of the base
of the prostate. Results: From February 2007 to January 2011,
66 patients with organ confined prostate cancer were submitted
to RRP with the technique described above.Exclusion criteria
were large mid lobe prostate or large prostate volume (>80 cc)
and high-risk PCa (defined as PSA> 20 ng/ml or clinical T3 or
clinical Gleason score >7).Operative time was 119 minutes.In
all cases the catheter was removed after 12 days.In all cases the
catheter was removed after 12 days.In all cases the surgical
margins at the base of the prostate specimen and at the proximal
urethra were negative.We evaluated the percentage of patients
with early and global restoration of urinary continence, defined
as the use of no pads and no leakage of urine or the use of a
G. Tolento2, A. Bertaccini1, M. Giampaoli1, M. Ntreta2,
F. Romani3, F. Manferrari1, R. Schiavina1, D. Marchiori4,
G. Martorana1, R. Mazzarotto2
1U.O.
Urologia-Martorana, Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpigli,
Bologna;
2U.O. Radioterapia-Mazzarotto, Policlinico S.OrsolaMalpigli, Bologna;
3U.O. Fisica Medica, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi,
Bologna;
4Gynepro Medical, Bologna, Italy
Introduction: Radiotherapy represents, together with
surgery, a treatment option in patients with localized
prostate cancer. Image Guided-Intensity Modulated
Radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) with fiducial markers and/or High
Dose Rate Brachytherapy (HDR-BRT) allowed to safely
deliver high radiation doses to the prostate (1, 2).
Furthermore, recently the combination of External Radiation
Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) plus HDR-BRT showed better
results than the two separated techniques alone (3). In
addition Brachytherapy, due to its characteristic high dose
per fraction, might have some radiobiological advantages
due to the low alpha/beta ratio of the prostate cancer cells
(4, 5). Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the
feasibility and the early toxicity of a cohort of patients
affected by high and very high risk prostate cancer and
treated with HDR-BRT combined with EBRT in the
Radiotherapy Department in S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital,
Bologna. Patients and Methods: Between May 2011 and
January 2013, a cohort of 12 patients (mean age 69.5 years)
affected by prostate cancer (7 high and 5 very high risk)
were treated with HDR-BRT plus IG-IMRT. HDR-BRT was
delivered to the prostate in one fraction of 14 Gy via
temporary transperineal insertion of 16-18 plastic
afterloading catheters using a Transrectal Ultra-Sound
guided approach. Afterwards each patient received a 5000
cGy IG-IMRT in 25 fraction of 200 cGy targeting the
prostate, the seminal vesicles and the pelvic lymph nodes.
IPSS-short form and IIEF-5 questionnaires were submitted
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ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
to each patient before the treatment and re-submitted at each
follow-up. Two years Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT)
was given to patients; only 2 patients were ineligible due
cardiologic and diabetologic comorbidities. Results: Among
12 patients, 7 reported acute early toxicity (grade 1 in the
RTOG scale) after the treatment. Early toxicity disappeared
in 5 patients while in 2 patients it is still present (grade 1 in
the RTOG scale). The mean follow-up time was 7.7 months
(min 3, max 18 months). At the last follow-up, each patient
showed an improvement of the IPSS score (mean basal IPSS
13.3; mean IPSS at last submission 6.3), while 4 patients
showed a lowering of the IIEF-5 (mean basal IIEF-5 11.2;
mean IIEF-5 at last submission 4, 5). All patients underwent
a lowering in the last available measured PSA (mean basal
PSA after 1 month of ADT 4.60 ng/mL; mean PSA at last
follow-up 0.45 ng/mL). Conclusion: Treating patients
affected by high and very high risk prostate cancer with
HDR-BRT combined with IG-IMRT appears to be feasible
and safe. However a longer period of observation of a
greater cohort of patients is needed to determine the impact
in the Quality of Life and to evaluate the oncological
outcomes.
1 Zelefsky MJ, Chan H, Hunt M et al: Long-term outcome
of high dose intensity modulated radiation therapy for
patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. J Urol
176: 1415-1419, 2006.
2 Bachand F, Martin AG, Beaulieu L et al: An eight-year
experience of HDR brachytherapy boost for localized
prostate cancer: biopsy and PSA outcome. Int J Radiat
Oncol Biol Phys 73: 679-684, 2009.
3 Pieters BR, de Back DZ, Koning CC et al: Comparison
of three radiotherapy modalities on biochemical control
and overall survival for the treatment of prostate cancer:
a systematic review. Radiother Oncol 93: 168-173, 2009.
4 Kovacs G, Potter R, Loch T et al: GEC/ESTRO-EAU
recommendations on temporary brachytherapy using
stepping sources for localised prostate cancer. Radiother
Oncol 74: 137-148, 2005.
5 Brenner DJ, Martinez AA, Edmundson GK et al: Direct
evidence that prostate tumors show high sensitivity to
fractionation (low alpha/beta ratio), similar to late-responding
normal tissue. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 52: 6-13, 2002.
121
RESEARCHING THE MORE EFFICIENT MODEL
FOR CALCULATING THE PSA VELOCITY IN
ORDER TO DETECT A PROSTATE CANCER:
AN EXPLORATIVE STUDY
A. Bertaccini1, M. Giampaoli1, F. Manferrari1,
R. Schiavina1, D. Marchiori2, G. Martorana1
2330
1U.O.
Urologia-Martorana, Policlinico Sant’OrsolaMalpighi, Università di Bologna;
2Gynepro Medical, Bologna, Italy
Introduction: The introduction of PSA into the urological
clinical practice has led to an always more common use of
its “derivatives”. Since the original description by Cartel et
al. (1), PSA Velocity gained importance, although sometimes
with conflicting evidences (2), as a diagnostic tool in order to
identify which patients should undergo a prostate biopsy (35). However, there is not an actual agreement about which
formulas to use and how many PSA dosages to consider in
the calculation. Aim: Purpose of this retrospective
exploratory study was to evaluate the most suitable system
to calculate the PSA Velocity, in particular which kind of
formula to use and which monitoring PSA lapse of time to
consider. Patients and Methods: This retrospective
explorative study was conducted in a cohort of 103 patients
(mean age of 65,7 years) scheduled for a prostate biopsy in
the Urology Clinic, Sant’Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna.
All available measured PSA were collected from the patients
who underwent a PSA dosing at least 3 times in the past 2
years. PSA Velocity was calculated using two different
mathematic models: first using the average of the PSA
increases over time then through the slope of the least square
regression line (PSA VelocitySlope (3)) obtained from PSA
vs. Time. The previous two formulas were applied either in
all the available measured PSA (mean of 7 dosed PSA values
in a mean lapse of time of 4.4 years) either in the PSA values
measured in the last 2 years alone (mean of 5 dosed PSA
values). Results: Among 103 patients, 39 (mean PSA: 7.51
ng/mL; C.I.95% 5.75-9.26) were found positive for a
Prostate Cancer while 64 were found negative (mean PSA:
7.20 ng/mL; C.I.95% 6.09-8.41). At the receiver operating
characteristic (ROC) analysis the PSA VelocitySlope
calculated with all the available PSA measurements
evidenced the best score (AUC 0.58; C.I.95% 0.46-0.68).
PSA Velocity with all the available PSA measurements
(AUC 0,51; C.I.95% 0.39-0.63), PSA VelocitySlope
calculated with last 2 years PSA (AUC 0.51; C.I.95% 0.400,62) and to the PSA Velocity with the last 2 years PSA
(AUC 0.50; C.I.95% 0.38-0.61) showed lower scores. The
PSA alone showed the lowest AUC (AUC 0,48; C.I.95%
0.36-0.60). Conclusion: PSA Velocity calculated through the
slope of the least square regression line of PSA vs. Time
appears to be more useful if obtained from the largest pool of
PSA measurements. However, further studies are needed to
be conducted in order to validate and standardize an optimal
PSA Velocity calculation.
1 Carter HB, Pearson JD, Metter EJ, et al: Longitudinal
evaluation of prostate specific antigen levels in men with
and without prostate disease. JAMA 267: 2215-2220, 1992.
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
2 Vickers AJ, Savage C, O’Brien MF and Lilja H:
Systematic review of pretreatment prostate-specific antigen
velocity and doubling time as predictors for prostate
cancer. J Clin Oncol 27: 398-403, 2009.
3 Smith DS and Catalona WJ: Rate of change in serum
prostate specific antigen levels as a method for prostate
cancer detection. J Urol 152: 1163-1167, 1994.
4 Loeb S, Roehl KA, Helfand BT, Kan D and Catalona WJ:
Can PSA Velocity Thresholds Reduce the Detection of
Insignificant Prostate Cancer? J Urol 2010.
5 National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice
Guidelines in Oncology. 2011. http://www.nccn.org/
professionals/physician_gls/pdf/prostate_detection.pdf.
9 Benecchi L, Pieri AM, Destro Pastizzaro C and Potenzoni
M: Optimal measure of PSA kinetics to identify prostate
cancer. Urology 71(3): 390-394, 2008.
122
NARROW BAND IMAGING (NBI) TURBT: DOES IT
IMPROVE DETECTION RATES? SINGLE CENTRE
PRELIMINARY EXPERIENCE
Roberto Giulianelli, Barbara Cristina Gentile, Giorgio
Vincenti, Stefano Nardoni*, Luca Mavilla, Luca Albanesi,
Francesco Attisani, Gabriella Mirabile, Francesco Pisanti,
Davide Granata, Manlio Schettini
Division of Urology, Nuova Villa Claudia, Rome, Italy
Introduction: Bladder cancer treatment is considered as the
most expensive tumour treatment regarding the cost per
patient per year as well as lifetime cost per patient.
According to literature, 50% to 70% of the NMIBC (nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer) patients display recurrence
after the initial endoscopic treatment. Many cases of early
recurrences are determined by the incomplete tumor
removal through trans-urethral resection. NBI is an optical
image endoscopy technique designed to enhance the
contrast between mucosal surfaces and microvascular
structures without the use of dyes. The aim of this study
was to compare the predictive power of the white light
(WL) versus NBI TURBT detection rate, in the diagnosis
of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Materials and
methods: From June 2010 to December 2011, 513
consecutive patients, 342 male and 171 female, affected by
non-muscle invasive, primitive or recurrence bladder
tumours, underwent WL and NBI bipolar TURBT. All
patients provided written informed consent prior the study.
The study was conducted in accordance with good clinical
practice and the Declaration of Helsinki, including the most
recent amendments (Edinburgh, 2000). Results as shown in
Tables I and II.
Table I.
Patients
characteristics
(%)
Primitive lesions
Positive
Positive
Lesions positive
WL TURBT NBI TURBT only NBI TURBT
(%)
(%)
(%)
156 (50.6%) 127 (41.2%)
43 (13.9%)
82 (37.7%) 135 (62.2%)
40 (18.4%)
Recurrence lesions 176 (85.8%)
91 (44.3%)
<3 CM
77 (24.1%)
Unifoc lesions
Multif lesions
>3 CM
TableII.
Neoplasms
(pts)
PUMNPL
Ta
T1
CIS
PUMNPL
primitive
205 (69.2%)
242 (75.8%)
127 (65.4%)
91 (30.7%)
67 (34.5%)
29 (14.1%)
32 (10.8%)
46 (14.4%)
26 (13.4%)
WL
Increased Detection
cystoscopy detection rate
rate
(%)
before NBI
before
cystoscopy
WL
(%)
TURBT (%)
67 (13.06%) 40 (7.7%)
Increased
detection
before
TURBT
NBI (%)
75 (14.6%) 34 (6.6%)
204 (39.7%) 132 (25.7%) 204 (39.7%) 108 (21.05%)
71 (13.8%) 67 (13.06 %) 85 (16.5%) 67 (13.06%)
7 (1.36%)
9 ((1.75%)
27 (5.26%) 23 (4.48%)
7 (1.36%)
9 (1.75%)
32 (6.23%) 16 (3.1%)
Ta primitive 138 (26.9%) 78 (15.2%) 132 (25.7%) 49 (9.55%)
T1 primitive
Cis primitive
PUMNPL
reccurence
46 (8.9%)
37 (7.21%)
20 (3.89%)
8 (1.55%)
7 (1.36%)
6 (1.16%)
57 (11.1%) 40 (7.79%)
7 (1.36%)
21 (4.09%)
6 (1.16%)
9 (1.75%)
Ta reccurence 66 (12.8%) 54 (10.52%) 72 (14.93%) 43 (8.38%)
T1 reccurence 25 (4.87%) 30 (5.84%)
Cis
0 (0%)
3 (0.58%)
28 (5.45%) 27 (5.26%)
0 (0%)
3 (0.58%)
Conclusions: Combination of NBI cystoscopy and NBI
TURBt seems to provide a better diagnostic and
therapeutic approach to bladder tumours, especially in Ta
and T1 lesions. The detection rate after NBI TURBT
versus WL TURBT improved significantly (42.5%,
p<0.01). NBI TURBT improved overall detection rate in
multifocals and over 3 cm lesions (by 62.2% and 34.5%,
respectively) than unifocals and less 3 cm lesions (by
30.7% and 24.1%, respectively). For multifocals and less
than 3 cm lesions the ability to detect tumors which are
not visible in the white light TURBT was increased with
the use of NBI by 18.4% and 14.4% compared to unifocals
and over 3 cm lesions [10.8% and 13.4% (p<0.01)]
respectively. Despite the overall high rate of NBI, false
positive were 99 pts. (19.2% before NBI cystoscopy and
93 pts (18.3%) before NBI TURBT).
2331
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
123
NARROW BAND IMAGING (NBI) CYSTOSCOPY:
DOES IT IMPROVE DETECTION RATE?
PRELIMINARY EXPERIENCE IN A SINGLE
CENTRE
Roberto Giulianelli, Barbara Cristina Gentile, Giorgio
Vincenti, Stefano Nardoni*, Luca Mavilla, Luca Albanesi,
Francesco Attisani, Gabriella Mirabile, Francesco Pisanti,
Davide Granata, Manlio Schettini
Division of Urology, Nuova Villa Claudia, Rome, Italy
Introduction: The standard method used to diagnose bladder
neoplasms and monitor patients for recurrence is white-light
(WL) cystoscopy. Undetected tumours may appear later as a
recurrence, and some of them may become invasive,
highlighting the need for developing better endoscopic
methods to detect recurrent bladder tumours. NBI is an
optical image endoscopy technique designed to enhance the
contrast between mucosal surfaces and microvascular
structures without the use of dyes. The aim of this study was
to compare the predictive power of white light (WL)
cystoscopy versus NBI cystoscopy for the diagnosis of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. Materials and methods:
From June 2010 to December 2011, 513 consecutive
patients, 342 male and 171 female (Table I), affected by nonmuscle invasive bladder tumours, underwent WL plus NBI
cystoscopy . All patients provided written informed consent
prior the study. Inclusion criteria were primitive bladder
neoplasms (positive to ultrasounds or urinary cytology)
and/or recurrent non-muscle invasive bladder neoplasms in
follow-up. Exclusion criterion was gross hematuria at the
time of cystoscopy. Results are shown in Table II. The use of
NBI cystoscopy improved detection rate in more than 45% of
the patients (231 patients with primitive and recurrent lesions
visible with NBI). In 20.4% (105 pts) the lesions were visible
only by the use of NBI cystoscopy. NBI cystoscopy increased
the ability to detect multifocal and >3cm lesions not visible
by WL in 29.4% and 34.3% respectively. Conclusion:
Table II.
Neoplasms
Primitive lesions (%)
Reccurence lesions (%)
Unifocal lesions (%)
Multifocal lesions (%)
<3 CM (%)
>3 CM (%)
2332
Overall visible
lesions with WL
cystoscopy (%)
189 (60.9%)
111 (54.6%)
197 (66,5%)
74 (34.1%)
203 (63.8%)
97 (49.7%)
Overall visible
lesions with NBI
cystoscopy (%)
135 (43.5%)
96 (47.2%)
99 (33.4%)
143 (65.8%)
101 (19.6%)
130 (66.6%)
Table I. Patient’s characteristics.
Sex (M/F)
Age (mean, yrs )
Smockers/Non-Smockers
Primitive lesions
Recurrent lesions
Unifocal lesions
Multifocal lesions
<3 cm
>3 cm
333/180
66.4
342/171
310
203
296
217
318
195
The use of NBI cystoscopy increased the overall detection
rate in 45.02% (p<0.01), the overall focality detection rate
in 47.17% (p<0.01) and the overall dimension detection rate
in 44.9% (p<0.01) of the patients.
124
EN BLOC TURB WITH PLASMAKINETIC BUTTON
TURIS: IS IT A BETTER TREATMENT OPTION?
Roberto Giulianelli, Barbara Cristina Gentile, Luca
Mavilla, Luca Albanesi, Francesco Attisani, Gabriella
Mirabile, Francesco Pisanti, Davide Granata, Giorgio
Vincenti, Manlio Schettini
Division of Urology, Nuova Villa Claudia, Rome, Italy
Introduction: The aim of the transurethral resection of
bladder tumor (TURBT) is to completely remove the tumor
and to determine its stage by identifing detrusor muscle
invasion. Conventional endoscopic resection removes tumors
in piecemeal and the adequacy of TURBT is often identified
later only by the subsequent histopatological examination.
Presence of detrusor is a surrogate for the completeness of
resection but the absence of detrusor muscle in TURBT
specimen in up to 50% of the cases has been reported.
Restaging TURBT has shown presence of residual disease in
up to 76% of cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate
Visible lesions
with WL and NBI
cystoscopy (%)
257
138
249
146
275
120
(83.4%)
(67.3%)
(84.1%)
(67.2%)
(86.4%)
(61.5%)
Visible lesions
only WL
cystoscopy (%)
8 (2.58%)
5 (2.46%)
6 (2.02%)
7 (3.2%)
5 (1.5%)
8 (4.1%)
Visible lesions
only NBI
cystoscopy (%)
43
62
41
64
38
67
(13.8%)
(30.5%)
(13.8%)
(29.4%)
(11.9%)
(34.3%)
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
the adequacy of en bloc TURB specimen by the presence of
the detrusor muscle. We performed en-bloc TURBT using
the Plasmakinetic Button Turis Gyrus system. Materials and
Methods: From June 2010 to December 2011, 513
consecutive patients, 342 male and 171 female, affected by
non-muscle invasive bladder tumours, underwent white light
(WL) plus NBI bipolar TURBT. In 26 pts we performed en
bloc NBI bipolar TURBT. All patients provided written
informed consent prior to the study. All procedures began by
performing a white light cystoscopy, and after this, the use
of NBI confirmed what had been seen and revealed eventual
more suspicious areas. All endoscopic resections were
performed with a button loop and Olympus Gyrus bipolar
generator (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan), in saline, with 30
degrees optic. Resection of each lesion was carried out with
white light, whilst the resection of surgical margins and bed
of resection were performed using only NBI light.
Primitive T
Neoplasms (pts)
PUNMPL (pts)
Ta LG (pts)
TaHG (pts)
T1LG (pts)
T1HG (pts)
CIS
Recurrences
T neoplasms (pts)
PUNMPL (PTS)
TaLG
TaHG
T1LG
T1HG
cis
Unifocal
Multifocal
<3 cm
>3 cm
39
67
17
12
21
6
10
35
40
3
51
7
49
59
15
10
16
11
0
43
42
5
56
2
24
53
18
9
27
2
6
29
15
6
13
1
30
61
22
11
31
3
0
21
11
4
9
0
Results: Of 26 patients in the en-bloc group, 25 (96.1%) had
detrusor muscle in their initial specimen. In the en-bloc group,
the procedure could be completed without any bladder
perforation as observation was much better due to better
hemostasis. Median catheterization time was 30 hours (24-36),
mean hospital stay was 42 hours (36-48), mean bleeding loss
was 0.9 gr/dl (0.3-1.5) and no death occured during peri-or
post-operative follow-up. Early adverse events were dysuria
(52.1%), urgency (15.3%), haematuria (11.5%) and AUR with
re-catheterization (3.8%). No second look hemostatic
endoscopy was performed. Conclusion: An ideal TURBT
would mean complete resection of the visible tumor, resection
of the surrounding healthy looking mucosa for up to 1 cm and
then removal of the detrusor muscle. Inadequate TURBT, is
not only judged by the absence of muscle in the specimen, but
also by the rate of recurrence at the same site. It is common
knowledge that recurrence is seen in 50-80% of non-muscleinvasive bladder cancer mostly during the first year.
126
SUNITINIB IN METASTATIC RENAL
CELL CARCINOMA: RESULTS OF
A MONOCENTRIC EXPERIENCE
Elisa Zanardi1, Marco Maruzzo1, Umberto Basso1,
Fable Zustovich1, Pasquale Fiduccia1, Antonella Brunello1,
Anna Roma1, Patrizia Farina1, Elisabetta Bezzon2,
Alberto Banzato3, Filiberto Zattoni4, Vittorina Zagonel1
1Oncologia
Medica 1, Istituto Oncologico Veneto IOV,
IRCCS, Padova;
2Radiodiagnostica Oncologica, Istituto Oncologico Veneto
IOV - IRCCS, Padova;
3Cardiologia, Istituto Oncologico Veneto IOV, IRCCS, Padova;
4Urologia, Università degli Studi di Padova, Padova, Italy
Background: Sunitinib is a multi-target tyrosine-kinase
inhibitor largely used for the treatment of metastatic renal
cell carcinoma (mRCC) in first or subsequent lines
therapy. Patients and Methods: From March 2006 to
September 2012, we retrospectively reviewed clinical data
of patients with mRCC treated with sunitinib at our
Institution. Results: We evaluated 106 patients, median age
63 years (range 27-89), 70% males, with clear cell
histology (89%), and with prior nephrectomy (87%).
Sunitinib was used either as first (70%) or second or
further line of treatment after cytokines or targeted
therapies. The median number of cycles received was 8 (149). In the first line treatment median PFS and OS were
15.0 months (95% CI=9.8-20) and 35 months, respectively.
In the second or further line PFS and OS were 15 months
(11.7-18.2) and 25 months, respectively. The prognostic
relevance of Motzer risk score was maintained in all the
lines of treatment. Patients who received at least 4 cycles
at standard dose (50 mg/d 4 wks on/2wks off) had a
significantly better PFS and OS compared to patients who
did not (PFS 23.0 vs. 12.0 months p=0.012, OS 49.0 vs.
16.0 months p=0.006). Among the patients treated in first
line, the 18.9% had a disease progression within three
months from starting sunitinib (primary refractory), while
25.7% were treated for more than 24 months (long term
responders). Grade 3 or 4 toxicities were found in 35% of
the patients but only 6.6% (7 patients) discontinued
treatment because of unacceptable toxicities. Conclusion:
Sunitinib is an active and feasible drug in a large
population of mRCC patients. In our group of patients we
observed PFS, and OS results apparently superior
compared to pivotal trials (1, 2). These results can be
explained by patients selection, better management of drug
toxicities, less strict criteria for radiological progression,
and availability of further sequential treatments. Patients
receiving at least four full dose cycles achieved
statistically significant better outcomes.
2333
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
1 Motzer RJ, Hutson TE, Tomczak P et al: Overall survival
and updated results for sunitinib compared with interferon
alfa in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. J Clin
Oncol 27(22): 3584-3590, 2009.
2 Gore ME, Szczylik C, Porta C et al: Safety and efficacy of
sunitinib for metastatic renal-cell carcinoma: an expandedaccess trial. Lancet Oncol 10(8): 757-763, 2009.
127
MULTIPARAMETRIC CAD SYSTEM FOR MR
PROSTATE CANCER DETECTION
Valentina Giannini1, Simone Mazzetti2, Anna Vignati1,
Christian Bracco2, Michele Stasi2, Filippo Russo1,
Enrico Bollito3, Daniele Regge1
1Department
of Radiology,
of Medical Physics , [email protected]: Institute for Cancer
Research at Candiolo, Candiolo;
3Dept. of Pathology, University of Turin at San Luigi
Gonzaga Hospital, Regione Gonzole 10, Orbassano, Italy
2Dept.
Introduction/Background/Aim: Prostate specific antigen (PSA)based screening reduces the rate of death from prostate cancer
(PCa) by 31%, but this benefit is associated with a high risk of
overdiagnosis and overtreatment. As prostate transrectal
ultrasound-guided biopsy, the standard procedure for prostate
histological sampling, has a sensitivity of 77% with a
considerable false-negative rate, more accurate methods need to
be found to detect or rule out significant disease. Prostate
magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has the potential to improve
the specificity of PSA-based screening scenarios as a noninvasive detection tool, in particular exploiting the combination
of anatomical and functional information in a multiparametric
framework. The study present aims at increasing the objectivity
and reproducibility of prostate MRI interpretation by developing
an automated interpretation approach for ultimate use in
computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), which combines T2-w,
Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced (DCE) and Diffusion-Weighted
(DW) parameters, in order to calculate a pixel-wise malignancy
probability map. This method can be of benefit to improve the
diagnostic accuracy of the radiologists, reduce reader variability
and speed up the reading time, automatically highlighting
probably cancer suspicious regions. Patients and Methods: The
dataset used in this study comprised 10 patients of the IRC C
(Cardiolo, Italy) (mean age: 64 years) with 11 lesions (mean
volume: 0.79±0.43 cc). Inclusion criteria were positive biopsy
and a PSA level greater than 4 ng/ml. MRI protocols and
reference standard. Axial T2-w, DW, and DCE sequences were
performed at 1.5T MR using an endorectal coil with integrated
pelvic phased multi-coil array (Signa LX, GE Healthcare,
Milwaukee, WI). Within 3 months, all patients underwent
radical prostatectomy. Foci of cancer were contoured by the
2334
pathologist and histological samples digitalized. An experienced
radiologist compared the acquired sequences with
histopathologic sections and outlined a ROI on the T2-w images
in correspondence with each foci of cancer. Non-tumoural
prostate regions of the peripheral gland were also selected for
each patient to sample benign tissue behaviour on multiparametric MR imaging. CAD pipeline. MRI data were
processed with software packages in-house developed using
Matlab® or C++ algorithms. First, automatic image registration
was performed to correct for misalignment between images
coming from different MR sequences. Registration should
correct for voluntary and involuntary movements during the
DCE, as well as for image distortion due to the magnetic
susceptibility in the DW images. Having all the datasets
registered, each pixel could be represented like a vector
containing scalar values, such as T2-w image intensity,
quantitative physiological parameters (i.e. Kep, Ktrans) obtained
from DCE-MRI datasets, and values of apparent diffusion
coefficient maps obtained from DWI images. Next, all these
parameters were fed into a linear SVM classifier in order to
provide a classification that maximizes the detection of true
positives while at the same time minimizing the false positive
benign area. A parametric color-coded map of the prostate gland
was then created; colors were assigned based on the probability
of presence of cancer in each pixel. Results: The mean area
under the ROC curve for the SVM classifier was 0.93±0.09,
sensitivity 87.2% and specificity 89.2% at the best cut-off point.
Figure 1 shows an example of the output probability map for
one suspected lesion.
Figure 1. Malignancy likelihood map of a malignant (plain arrow)
and a normal (arrowhead) region. Red colour means a probability
p≥0.8, green and blue p<0.5
Discussion and Conclusion: The promising results, obtained
from a dataset of 10 patients, should be validated on a larger
cohort of subjects, but they suggest that the discrimination on
a voxel basis between benign and malignant tissues is feasible
with good performances. This method can be of benefit to
improve the diagnostic accuracy of the radiologist, reduce
reader variability and speed up the reading time, automatically
highlighting probably cancer suspicious regions.
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
1 Hoeks CM et al: Prostate cancer: multiparametric MR
imaging for detection, localization, and staging. Radiology
261(1): 46-66, 2011.
2 Cornud F et al: Value of Multiparametric MRI in the Workup of Prostate Cancer. Curr Urol Rep 13: 82-92, 2012.
128
A DIALYZED, ELDERLY PATIENT WITH POOR
PERFORMANCE STATUS TREATED WITH
SUNITINIB FOR METASTATIC CLEAR CELL
CARCINOMA
Donatello Gasparro1, Sara Tarasconi2
1Medical
Oncology Unit, University Hospital; Parma,
Department, University Hospital, Parma, Italy
2Emergency
Introduction: Patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma often
present impaired renal function as a consequence of surgical
treatment. Sometime the impairment of renal function is so
severe to require haemodialysis, and in this case the patients are
often considered unfit for cytoreductive treatment. In the last few
years the advent of some targeted agents has permitted to
manage this cohort of patients with efficacious and well tolerated
treatment. The efficacy and toxicity profile of the treatment are
similar to those in the general population of patients with
metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We present a case
report of an elderly patient with end-stage chronic renal failure
requiring dialysis and poor performance status. Methods: In May
2008, a 76 year old man was referred to our institution. In 1998
he underwent right nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma, with
subsequent onset of end stage chronic renal failure requiring
haemodialysis. He was subjected to follow up until November
2007 when he underwent radical cystectomy and prostatectomy
for Papillary Urothelial cancer of the bladder (PT2a-Nx-Mx). A
staging computed tomography scan (TC) showed multiple
retroperitoneal abdominal nodules (in infrahepatic space and
infiltrating the psoas muscle) so he was referred to our
institution. We decided to perform an US-guided biopsy,
obtaining histological diagnosis of renal clear cell carcinoma
metastases. In consideration of performance status (PS 2),
advanced age and dialytic treatment we were undecided between
starting specific treatment or only best supportive care. The long
disease-free interval after nephrectomy and the presence of
severe back pain induced us to start a treatment with Sunitinib,
despite the lack of data from literature about feasibility of this
therapy in dialyzed patients. In consideration of advanced age
and performance status (PS 2) we decided for a 25% dose
reduction. In July 2008 the patient began the treatment with
Sunitinib 37.5 mg daily for 4 weeks followed by a 2 weeks
break. From the third cycle, we further reduced the dose to 25
mg daily (for 4 weeks followed by a 2 weeks break) because of
the onset of grade III asthenia. The patient continued the
treatment with the same schedule until December 2011 for a
total of 27 cycles. In December 2011, despite stable disease, the
patient asked for discontinuation of the therapy. Results: After
two cycles, a restaging CT scan revealed a partial response, with
a significant reduction in size of the nodules. The subsequent
ultrasound and radiological (CTscan) evaluations showed the
disappearance of some nodules and further dimensional
reduction of others. After the discontinuation of the treatment we
observed a slow, progressive increase of the dimension of the
metastases. Back pain disappeared after the first cycle and to date
is still absent. The most severe adverse effect was grade III
asthenia (due to the dialytic treatment performed three times a
week). Discussion: Our case demonstrates, in agreement with
other literature reports, that treatment with Sunitib is feasible in
patients with chronic renal failure requiring haemodialysis. Poor
performance status and advanced age must not be considered
exclusion criteria for cytoreductive treatment, especially in
metastatic renal cell cancer carcinoma with a long disease –free
interval after primary treatment.
1 Josephs D, Hutson TE, Cowey CL et al: Efficacy and toxicity
of sunitinib in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma
with severe renal impairment or on haemodialysis. BJU Int
2011. Jan 18 [Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.
2 Thiery-Vuillemin A, Montange D, Kalbacher E, Maurina T,
Nguyen T, Royer B, Bouchet S, Bazan F, Curtit E and Pivot
X: Impact of sunitinib pharmacokinetic monitoring in a
patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma undergoing
hemodialysis. Ann Oncol 22(9): 2152-2154, 2011.
129
LONG TERM SAFETY OF FIRST LINE SUNITINIB
THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED RENAL
CELL CANCER
Vittorio Ferrari1, Daniela Nonnis1, Francesca Consoli1,
Francesca Valcamonico1, Giuseppina Arcangeli1,
Laura Ferrari1, Anna Scalvini1, Alfredo Berruti2,
1Oncologia Medica, Spedali Civili di Brescia, Università
degli Studi di Brescia;
2Dipartimento di Specialità Medico-Chirurgiche, Scienze
Radiologiche e Sanità Pubblica, Azienda Ospedaliera
Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy
Background: Vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF)
pathway plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of renal
cell carcinoma (RCC). The development of target agents
blocking this molecular mechanism has consistently
modified the prognosis of RCC patients, with a significant
number of long-term survivors. Sunitinib has an established
role in the first line therapy of advanced RCC. While the
acute and intermediate toxicities of the drug are largely
known, the long term safety is poorly defined. The aim of
2335
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
this study was to describe the tolerability of the drug when
administered continuously for a very long time period.
Methods: A mono-institutional retrospective study including
85 consecutive patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was
conducted at The Department of Medical Oncology at
Spedali Civili of Brescia from 2006 to 2012. All these
patients were treated with sunitinib as first line therapy until
progression. The end-point was the evaluation of long term
side effects beyond 18 months of treatment. Results: We
identified at least 13 patients who were treated as first line
therapy with sunitinib for more than 18 months. The median
duration of this treatment was 29 months (range: 22-62
months). Overall survival was 52 months (range: 22-89
months). For the 18th month onwards no dose reduction was
necessary. The main side effect was persistent asthenia G1-2
(NCI-CTCAE vs. 4.0) in all patients. These patients
experienced similar grade gastrointestinal (diarrhea, taste
changes) toxicity, hand-foot syndrome and hair discoloration
before and after the cut-off date of 18 months. However,
some of the side effects experienced in the first months such
as skin discoloration and mucositis improved spontaneously
with the prosecution of the treatment. Hypertension and
hypothyroidism were controlled by the adequate medical
treatment during the entire period of observation. No pts
discontinued the treatment due to toxicity. Conclusion: These
preliminary results suggest that long-term use of sunitinib is
feasible and some of the side effects experienced in the first
period may disappear with the prolonged use. Given the
many emerging treatment options for advanced RCC, the
safety in long-term survivors warrants greater attention.
disease after 12 weeks (two cycles) of sunitinib at the dose
of 50 mg/day on a 4 week-on/2 week off schedule. He has
continued therapy for more than 30 months and with the
exception of mild fatigue and nausea, the treatment has been
well tolerated. One year after beginning sunitinib, the patient
developed hypertension (G2) requiring a dose reduction to
37.5/day with the same schedule. Re-escalation to the
standard dose occurred within 10 weeks when hypertension
was controlled with medical management. Discussion and
Conclusion: This case illustrates the potential for patients
with mRCC to derive long term benefit from sunitinib when
used after bevacizumab. The patient’s extented follow up
period highlights the tolerability of sunitinib and the
durability or response at the dose of 50 mg/day.
130
LONG TERM RESPONSE WITH SUNITINIB FOR
METASTATIC RENAL CELL CARCINOMA
REFRACTORY TO BEVACIZUMAB
Background: Brain metastases (BM) occur in 2% to 17% of
patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC). Transport of
Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors (TKIs) across the blood-brain
barrier is limited and radiotherapy (whole-brain or
stereotactic radiosurgery) is the treatment of choice to
achieve a local brain control. Case Report: We report the
case of a 83 years-old man, who underwent in 1993 a radical
right nephrectomy for RCC (stage III according to AJCC).
Follow-up was negative until 2007, when a CT scan revealed
a lung nodule in the middle lobe. Considering the long
disease free survival and the single metastatic site, the patient
underwent a right lung wedge resection. The histology
confirmed a metastasis from renal clear cell carcinoma. After
surgery, the patient began a follow-up programme. In
December 2008 a spiral CT showed progressive disease in
mediastinal and hilar nodes and a physical examination
revealed a single skin lesion on the left forearm that was
surgically removed resulting as metastatic site of RCC.
Patient’s performance status was good and he was classified
in favourable risk group according to the MSKCC and
Heng’s score criteria. In February 2009 he started Sunitinib
Franco Morelli, Lucia Lombardi, Annamaria Capotorto,
Evaristo Maiello
Department Haematology-Oncology IRCCS Casa Sollievo
della Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo (FG), Italy
Background: Multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs)
have significantly extended the overall survival (OS) and
progression free survival (PFS) of patients with metastatic
renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The sequential use of TKIs has
been an effective strategy to prolong PFS. This strategy is
supported by the results of several retrospective studies, all
indicating that there is limited or no cross resistance among
the TKIs. Patients and Methods: A 58 year old man with
mRCC developed progressive bone metastases after 12 weeks
of treatment with the VEGF-binding agent bevacizumab in
combination with IFN-a. Results: The patient had stable
2336
1 Rini BI: J Clin Oncol 26(22): 3743-3748, 2008.
2 Ronnen EA: Urology 68: 672-673, 2006.
3 Kruck S; Expert Rev of Anticancer Therapy 12: 777-785,
2012.
131
IMPACT OF TREATMENT WITH TYROSINE
KINASE INHIBITORS ON BRAIN METASTASES
FROM RENAL CELL CARCINOMA
M Bassanelli, A Felici, S Giacinti, A Baldoni, AM
Aschelter, P Marchetti
Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and
Psychology, Sapienza University, Sant’Andrea Hospital,
Via di Grottarossa 1035-1039, 00189, Rome, Italy
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
50 mg daily (4 weeks on and 2 weeks off). A CT scan
performed after three months of treatment showed a stable
disease (SD), while a partial response (PR) in all node sites
was achieved after 8 cycles. A right frontal BM of 17 mm
was highlighted on a MRI brain scan performed on July
2010. Due to the PR on mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes,
despite the brain progression, we decided to treat BM with
stereotactic radiotherapy (18 Gy, 1 fr), and to continue
Sunitinib at the same dose-schedule. Patient remain stable
for 8 cycles more. A total of 16 cycles was administrated and
the main toxicities experienced were: hyperglycemia,
hypertriglyceridemia, stomatitis, asthenia and diarrhea of
grade 2 and nausea, hand-foot syndrome, thrombocytopenia
and hypertension of grade 1. In November 2011 a CT scan
showed new lung metastases and a second line therapy, with
Everolimus at 10 mg daily, was started. A SD was achieved
and maintained until October 2012 when lung progressive
disease appeared. Considering the good performance status,
the prior therapies and the prolonged disease control with the
previous TKI treatment we decided for a third line therapy
with Axitinib (5 mg twice daily). At the first CT evaluation
lung and nodal metastases were stable and this therapy is
currently ongoing. Conclusion: The clinical outcome of our
patient was not influenced by brain metastases and a
multimodal approach appeared to be the best way to prolong
his progression-free survival. Some retrospective series
confirmed that the outcome of RCC patients was influenced
by extracerebral metastases rather than the diagnosis of BM,
but largest studies are needed to clarify the best clinical
strategy in this setting.
1 Motzer RJ, Hutson TE, Tomczack P et al: Overall survival
and updated results for sunitinib compared with interferon
alfa in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. J Clin
Oncol 27: 3584-3590, 2009.
2 Vogl UM, Bojic M, Lamm W et al: Extracerebral
metastases determine the outcome of patients with brain
metastases from renal cell carcinoma. BMC Cancer 10:
480, 2010.
3 Staehler M, Haseke N, Nuhn P et al: Simultaneous antiangiogenic therapy and single-fraction radiosurgery in
clinically relevant metastases from renal cell carcinoma.
BJU Int 108(5): 673-678, 2011.
132
FATIGUE IN METASTATIC RENAL CELL
CARCINOMA (mRCC): CLINICIAN-REPORTED
VS. PATIENT-REPORTED OUTCOME
Mimma Rizzo, Giacomo Cartenì
UOSC di Oncologia, Azienda Ospedaliera di Rilievo
Nazionale “A. Cardarelli”, Napoli, Italy
Introduction: Fatigue is a feeling and a state of tiredness
that exceeds the norm and is experienced as clearly
unpleasant. The assessment of fatigue may be useful to
monitor the effectiveness of interventions. Therefore,
fatigue was recently reported (1) as the main single reason
for a patient to prefer Pazopanib over Sunitinib in mRCC.
Fatigue may be reported as a CTC-AE (mild/
moderate/severe/life-threatening) item as well as a score
obtained from a Quality of Life (QoL) questionnaire (i.e.
FACT-Fatigue). The aim of this analysis was to verify if
clinician-reported and patient-reported levels of fatigue are
suitable to conduct to the same therapeutic decisions.
Methods: CTC-AE Fatigue rates were reported from the
Pazopanib vs. Best Supportive Care (BSC) (2), and from
Pazopanib vs. Sunitinib (PISCES (1) and COMPARZ [3])
studies; relative and absolute effects were calculated using
the RevMan5 and GRADE-PRO software. FACT-Fatigue
scores were reported when available. Results: The
administration of Pazopanib increased by more than 2
times (as compared to BSC) the risk of fatigue (RR: 2.23;
95% CL: 1.26 to 3.93), with an absolute effect of 119
more fatigue episodes every 1000 patients treated (95%
CL: 26 more to 283 more). When Pazopanib and Sunitinib
were compared in a randomized basis, the absolute
estimate of the effect was limited to 67 fewer fatigue
episodes in favour of Pazopanib every 1000 patients
treated (pooled analysis of PISCES and COMPARZ
studies; Table I).
Table I. Fatigue in Pazopanib Vs Sunitinib studies.
Fatigue events
by treatment
Relative effect
Relative
Risk
(95% CL)
Pazopanib: 348/707
0.8807
Sunitinib: 389/696 (0.7970 to 0.9731)
Absolute effect
Fatigue episodes/
1000 patients
(95% CL)
67 fewer
(15 fewer to 113 fewer)
The differences between treatments in terms of FACTFatigue mean change from baseline were 2.49 (PISCES)
and 2.32 (COMPARZ) in favour of Pazopanib, both scores
being below the M.I.D (Minimal Important Difference that
patients perceived as important in either benefit or harm,
and that would lead clinicians to consider a change in
patients therapy). Conclusion: It is in clinicians duty to
decide if the increase in CTC-AE fatigue rates and FACTFatigue scores is clinically relevant when determining the
benefit-to-harm ratio of a candidate treatment. Anyway, the
patient-preference outcome (of the PISCES study) seems
not mirroring the evidence previously presented; possibly,
the lack of validation of this questionnaire may have
played a role.
2337
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
1 Escudier B, Porta C, B Petri et al: Patient preference
between pazopanib (Paz) and sunitinib (Sun): Results of a
randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over
study in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma
(mRCC)—PISCES study, NCT 01064310. J Clin Oncol
30, 2012 (suppl; abstr CRA4502).
2 Sternberg CN, Hawkins RE, Wagstaff J, Salman P,
Mardiak J, Barrios CH, Zarba JJ, Gladkov OA, Lee E,
Szczylik C, McCann L, Rubin SD, Chen M and Davis ID:
A randomized, double-blind phase III study of pazopanib
in patients with advanced and/or metastatic renal cell
carcinoma: Final overall survival results and safety update.
Eur J Cancer 12. doi:pii: S0959-8049(12)00980-X.
10.1016/j.ejca.2012.12.010. [Epub ahead of print], 2013.
3 Motzer R, Hutson TE, Reeves J et al: Randomized, open
label, phase III trial of pazopanib versus sunitinib in firstline treatment of patients with metastatic renal cell
carcinoma (mRCC); Results of the COMPARZ Trial,
ESMO 2012 (abstract LBA8_PR).
133
LONG TERM STABLE DISEASE IN A POOR-RISK
RENAL CELL CARCINOMA (RCC)
M. Pagano, N.M. Asensio Sierra, C. Boni
Oncology Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera S.Maria Nuova IRCCS Reggio Emilia, Italy
Introduction: Treatment options have increased considerably for
patients with advanced RCC with introduction of vascular
endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and mammalian target of
rapamycin/mammalian target of rapamycin-containing complex
1 (mTOR/TORC1) inhibitors (1-4). Temsirolimus is an inhibitor
of mammalian target of rapamycin kinase, a component of the
intracellular signaling pathways involved in the growth and
proliferation of cells. The initial choice of therapy for individual
patients is based on clinical risk determined by validated
prognostic models and on evidence of benefit derived from
clinical trials within risk categories (5, 6). These prognostic
factors are well established: high serum lactate dehydrogenase
>1.5 ULN, low hemoglobin, high corrected serum calcium >10
mg/dL, time from diagnosis to treatment <1 year and Karnofsky
Performance Status ≤60-70. Patients with 3 or more risk factors
are defined as poor risk and represent about 20% of patients
with advanced RCC. The median survival time in this group is
approximately of 5 months. Despite the number of molecules
now available in the clinical practice in the subgroup of patients
with poor prognosis renal cancer, temsirolimus therapy seems
to be the one offering greater advantage in terms of overall
survival (OS) (7). We present a case of a patient long-term
responsive to treatment with temsirolimus. Case Report: On
2338
December 2011, a 49 year-old female patient underwent left
radical nephrectomy for clear cell renal carcinoma G3 according
to Furmhan, pT2Nx M1 (bilateral lung and brain). At physical
examination a right breast nodule (2.5 cm) was found and a
biopsy showed an infiltrating breast ductal carcinoma: (IDC)
G3, ER 100%, PgR 50%, TTF1 negative, Ki 67 10%, HER2
negative, cT2cN0. To clarify the nature of the lung metastasis a
biopsy was performed, confirming a renal origin. The laboratory
analysis showed iron deficiency anemia (Hb 8.4 gr/dl), IgG
monoclonal gammopathy, LDH values 294 U/L, and Calcium
8.2 mg/dL. In January 2012, the patient was treated with brain
radiotherapy (20 Gy in 4 fractions). At the end of radiotherapy
the patient showed Grade 3 asthenia. After evaluation of
prognostic factors (anemia, Karnofsky 70, time from diagnosis
to treatment inferior to one year) on February 2012, treatment
with weekly temsirolimus at a total dose of 25 mg was started.
For breast cancer treatment, the surgical option was not
considered due to the poor performance and advanced RCC,
and therapy was continued with an aromatase inhibitor. Results:
Response to treatment was evaluated with total body CT scans
every 3 months. After 48 weeks of temsirolimus a stable disease
was observed until today. Changes in triglycerides and
cholesterol values were observed (45 mg/dL vs. 160 mg/dL; 93
mg/dL vs. 246 mg/dL respectively) without requiring medical
treatment. Blood glucose levels didn’t changed. During
treatment, LDH values showed an initial exponential growth,
reaching values greater than 900 U/L after the first month of
therapy. Then LDH values were stabilized gradually reaching
constant values of 400 U/L. The Hb levels increased during the
course of treatment achieving stable values of >11 gr/dL.
Gradual improvement of clinical condition, with a significant
rising of Karnosfky PS was observed. Treatment was in general
well tolerated. Discussion and Conclusion: In the trial that
compared Temsirolimus with Interferon alfa, treatment with
Temsirolimus was associated with a moderate prolongation of
overal survivall in patients with poor prognosis advanced RCC.
The median OS was 10.9 months with temsirolimus versus 7.3
months in the group with interferon alfa; median progressionfree survival times were 3.8 and 1.9 months respectively (7).
Here we reported a case of a prolonged response to
Temsirolimus with a relevant still lasting 13 months stable
disease. Temsirolimus was well tolerated; the triglycerides and
cholesterol increased values, may have been influenced by
concomitant therapy with an aromatase inhibitor. Our result in
this particular case made us wonder for how long we will have
to continue Temsirolimus therapy in presence of disease
stabilization, in the absence of data from literature.
1 Escudier B, Eisen T,M Stadler W et al: Sorafenib for
treatment to renal cell carcinoma: Final efficacy and safety
results of the phase III treatment approaches in renal
cancer global evalutation trial. J Clin Oncol 27: 3312-3318,
2009.
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
2 Motzer RJ, Huston TE, Tomczak P et al: Sunitinib versus
interferon alfa in metastatic renal- cell carcinoma. N Engl
J Med 356: 115-124, 2007.
3 Motzer RJ, Escudier B, Oudard S et al: Efficacy of
everolimus in advanced renal cell carcinoma: A doubleblind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase III trial.
Lancet 372: 449-456, 2008.
4 B. Escudier, J Bellmunt, S. Negrier et al: Phase III trial of
bevacizumab plus interferon alfa-2a in patients with
metastatic renal cell carcinoma (AVOREN): Final analysis
of overall survival. J Clin Oncol 28: 2144-2150, 2010.
5 TM Mekhail, RM Abou-jawde et al: Validation and
extention of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering prognostic
factors model for survival in patients with previously
untreated metastatic renal cell carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 23:
832-841, 2005.
6 RJ Motzer, M Mazumdar et al: Survival and prognostic
stratification of 670 patients with advanced renal cell
carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 17: 2530-2540, 1999.
7 Hudes G, Carducci M, Tomczak P et al: Temsirolimus,
Interteron Alfa, or both for advanced renal- cell carcinoma.
N Engl J Med 356: 2271-2281, 2007.
134
MAGNETIC RESONANCE AS AN EARLY
INDICATOR OF CLINICAL OUTCOME IN
PATIENTS WITH METASTATIC RENAL CELL
CARCINOMA
Riccardo Ricotta1, Angelo Vanzulli2, Sara di Bella1,
Maria Olga Giganti1, Barbara Colnago2,
Lisa Pietrogiovanna1, Antonella Verrioli2,
Dario di Trapani3, Francesco Sozzi3,
Aldo Massimo Bocciardi3, Salvatore Siena1
1Divisione
Oncologia Falck,
di Radiologia,
3Divisione di Urologia,
Ospedale Niguarda Ca’ Granda, Milano, Italy
2Divisione
Background: Treatment with multitargeted tyrosine kinase
inhibitors (TKIs), has significantly improved the clinical
outcome of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma
(mRCC). In the era of targeted therapies, a rapidly growing
body of knowledge has generated criticisms regarding timing
and parameters for cancer response assessment. An early
identification of patients who are likely to benefit from
treatment remains of paramount importance. Preliminary studies
conducted by our group and others have shown that an early
tumor shrinkage ≥10% represents a predictive imaging marker
of clinical outcome to targeted drugs in mRCC and other solid
tumors (1-3). The purpose of our study was to determine
whether an early radiologic assessment by magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI) after 2 weeks of therapy was able to select
patients with mRCC who derived benefit from treatment with
TKIs. Patients and Methods: Since October 2009, 19 patients
with mRCC were treated with TKIs at Ospedale Niguarda Ca’
Granda. Seventeen patients were treated with sunitinib (11 in
first and 6 in second-line setting, respectively), 1 patient
received pazopanib (first-line) and 1 patient sorafenib (thirdline). According to Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
classification, 4 patients were low risk and 15 were intermediate
risk. All patients were evaluated by unenhanced MRI at baseline
and week 2 after the beginning of the treatment with TKIs and
by contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) within 812 weeks (first examination), then every 12-16 weeks according
to clinical practice. We defined early response as a tumor
shrinkage ≥10% at week-2 MRI, while response by CECT was
defined according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid
Tumour (RECIST 1.1). Results: Twelve patients (63.2%)
presented some degree of tumor shrinkage by week-2 MRI,
ranging from 3.2 to 32.5% (mean reduction (SD) of diameter
of target lesions was 11.5% ± 10%). Early response was
observed in 6/19 cases (31.6%) and 100% of these patients had
a disease control rate (DCR) by first CECT, compared with
69% among early nonresponders (9/13). Median PFS was 114
weeks (95% CI, 0-239.7) vs. 27.1 weeks (95% CI, 23.4-30.8)
for patients with [n=6 (31.6%)] or without [n=13 (68.4%)] early
response, respectively (Log Rank p=0.065). The percentage of
patients who were progression-free after 6 months from the
beginning of the treatment was 100% (5/5 evaluable patients)
vs. 50% (6/12 evaluable patients) for early responders vs. early
nonresponders, respectively (p=0.1, Fisher exact test 2-tailed).
The results in terms of OS are still pending. Conclusion: Our
data indicate that the dimensional reduction of tumor burden is
assessible by MRI after 2 weeks of therapy with TKIs. The
present results suggest that detection of an early response may
be associated with a prediction of clinical outcome, although
this study has the limitation of the cohort-type design and of a
small population evaluated. Therefore, the findings should be
considered hypothesis, and prospective clinical studies aimed to
comparison with standard radiologic criteria are needed.
1 Ricotta R, Vanzulli A, Moroni M et al: Magnetic resonance
imaging as an early indicator of clinical outcome in
patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma treated with
cetuximab or panitumumab. Clin Colorectal Cancer 12(1):
45-53. Epub 2012 Oct 4, 2013.
2 Thiam R, Fournier LS, Trinquart L et al: Optimizing the
size variation threshold for the CT evaluation of response
in metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with sunitinib.
Ann Oncol 21: 936-941, 2010.
3 Piessevaux H, Buyse M, De Roock W et al: Radiological
tumor size decrease at week 6 is a potent predictor of outcome
in chemorefractory metastatic colorectal cancer treated with
cetuximab (BOND trial). Ann Oncol 20: 1375-1382, 2009.
2339
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
135
CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN CASTRATION
RESISTANT PROSTATE CANCER PATIENTS
TREATED WITH ABIRATERONE ACETATE
OR ENZALUTAMIDE. A META-ANALYSIS
Daniele Alesini, Roberto Iacovelli, Michela Palleschi,
Alessia Pochesci, Daniela Modica, Ilaria Attili,
Gabriele Piesco, Simone Scagnoli,
Valentina Orlando, Enrico Cortesi
Dipartimento di Scienze Radiologiche, Oncologiche ed
Anatomo-Patologiche, Day Hospital Oncologico B,
Sapienza-Università di Roma, Italy
Background: New hormonal treatments (HT) have
demonstrated significant activity thus providing new nonchemotherapeutic options for castration resistant prostate
cancer patients. Although these agents seem to have favorable
toxicities, they could enhance the well-known cardiovascular
toxicity of previous anti-androgen therapies. We performed a
meta-analysis to determine the risk of cardiovascular adverse
events for CRPC pts treated with new anti-androgen
therapies. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE/PubMed,
conferences and clinicaltrials.gov databases were searched for
articles reported from January 2006 to June 2012. Eligible
studies were limited to phase III trials of US Food and Drug
Administration—approved new hormonal treatment for
CRCP (enzalutamide and abiraterone acetate) that reported
on patients with cancer, randomized design and adequate
information on cardiovascular adverse events. Data extraction
was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for
Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)
statement. Statistical analyses were conducted to calculate the
summary incidence, relative risk (RR) and 95% Confidence
Intervals (CIs) by using random-effects or fixed-effects
models on the basis of the heterogeneity of included studies.
Results: Three randomized controlled trials that enrolled a
total of 3482 patients with CRPC met the eligibility criteria
for inclusion in the final analysis. A total of 3466 patients
were evaluable for safety analysis; among these 2133 received
HT (1333 abiraterone acetate and 800 enzalutamide) and
1333 received placebo in the control arms. The incidence of
all grade cardiac events was 9.1% (95%CI, 7.9-10.3) in the
HT arm compared to 6.9% (95%CI, 5.5-8.3) in the control
arm with a RR of 1.15 (95%CI, 0.91-1.46) (I2=43%;
Chi2=3.52, p=0.17), the RR was higher for abiraterone (1.33;
95%CI, 1.00-1.76) (I2=0%; Chi2=0.15, p=0.7), compared to
enzalutamide (0.81; 95%CI, 0.53-1.26) but the difference was
not significant (p=0.07). The incidence of high grade cardiac
events was 2.5% (95%CI, 1.8-3.2) in the HT arm compared to
1.4% (95%CI, 0.8-2.1) in the control arm with a RR (random
effect) of 1.26 (95%CI, 0.42-3.79) (I2=72%; Chi2=7.21,
p=0.03).The RR (fixed effect) was higher for abiraterone
2340
(2.21; 95%CI, 1.18-4.17; p=0.01) (I2=0%; Chi2=0.03,
p=0.87), compared to enzalutamide (0.44; 95%CI, 0.16-1.19)
and the difference was significant (p=0.007). Conclusion:
Abiraterone acetate was found to be related to a small but
significant higher incidence and risk of high grade cardiac
events compared to the placebo and to enzalutamide.
136
THE IMPACT OF FAT INFILTRATION AND RENAL
VEIN THROMBOSIS ON CANCER-SPECIFIC
SURVIVAL IN T3A KIDNEY TUMORS
A. Baccos, R. Schiavina, G.C. Rocca, M. Borghesi,
C. Pultrone, F. Chessa, L. Della Mora, G. Saraceni,
M. Cevenini, E. Brunocilla, A. Bertaccini, M. Garofalo,
F. Manferrari, G. Martorana
University of Bologna, Dept. of Urology, Bologna, Italy
Introduction & Objectives: The role of fat infiltration and renal
vein thrombosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is
still controversial. Aim of this study was to evaluate the
prognostic impact of these parameters in pT3a RCC patients
and to identify possible new prognostic groups. Patients and
Methods: We analyzed 122 consecutive pT3a patients who
underwent radical nephrectomy for RCC between 2000 and
2011 at our Institution. Age, gender, multifocality, kind of
presentation, pathological tumor size, margin status, histological
subtype, Fuhrman grade, presence of node or systemic
metastasis, tumor necrosis, sarcomatoid differentiation,
peritumoral fat and/or hilar fat infiltration and renal vein
thrombosis were evaluated. CSS rates were estimated using
Kaplan Meier survival curves; univariable and multivariable
analysis were performed with Cox analysis.
Figure 1.
Abstracts of the 23nd Annual Meeting of the Italian Society of Uro-Oncology (SIUrO), 9-11 June, 2013, Florence, Italy
Results: The mean follow-up was 41.7±35.4 mo, the mean
age was 64.1±12.0 yrs, 98 (0.3%) were male, 8 (6.5%) had
tumor multifocality, mean tumor size was 7.3±2.8 cm, 67
(54.9%) were incidental, 19 (15.6%) had node metastases, 17
(14%) had systemic metastases, 3 (2.5%) had positive
surgical margins, 98 (80.3%) had clear cell RCC, 31 (25.4%)
were G2, 67 (54.9%) were G3 and 24 (19.7%) were G4 RCC,
31 (5.4%) had tumor necrosis, 10 (8.2%) had sarcomatoid
differentiation. Patients with peritumoral fat and/or hilar fat
infiltration (n=63, 51.6%) and patients with renal vein
thrombosis (n=18, 14.7%) experienced comparable CSS rates
(p>0.05) while patients with both renal vein thrombosis plus
fat infiltration (n=41, 33.6%) showed worse CSS than the first
group (p=0.02). Finally patients were divided in new
prognostic groups: group A, fat invasion or renal vein
thrombosis (n=81, 66.3%) and group B, fat invasion and renal
vein invasion (n=41, 33.7%) (Figure 1). At multivariate
analysis, the new grouping as well as pathological tumor size,
margin status, and Fuhrman Grade were independent
prognostic predictors of CSS (all p<0.05). Conclusion:
Patients with both fat invasion and renal vein thrombosis
experience worse CSS rates when compared to those with
only one factor. This new grouping could be considered in the
prognostic classification of pT3a RCC patients.
2341
Authors Index*
ANTICANCER RESEARCH 33: 2245-2342 (2013)
(Figures indicate abstract number. *Missing abstracts were withdrawn.
Alesini D, 135
Allasia M, 105
Alongi F, 20, 21, 22
Alvisi MF, 80
Angelucci A, 57
Antonelli A, 90, 91, 92, 94, 96
Baccos A, 136
Barboro P, 50
Bassanelli M, 131
Battaglia A, 101
Bellardita L, 40, 41
Bertaccini A, 121
Biasco E, 65
Bollito E, 82
Botta L, 86
Bracci S, 9
Brancato T, 24
Bruni A, 26
Brunocilla E, 119
Buffardi A, 66
Carbone SF, 32
Carfagno T, 33
Catanzaro M, 29, 30
Chiapparrone G, 39, 51
Comploj E, 45
Cova G, 49
Cozzarini C, 81
De Francesco P, 93
De Luca S, 10, 11, 35, 38, 47
De Nunzio C, 52, 54, 55
De Renzi F, 25
Dell’ Atti L, 1, 2, 4, 27
Della Melina A, 13, 18
di Stasi S, 102
Ferrari V, 129
Ferro M, 31, 43, 44, 46
Festuccia C, 76, 77
Foschi R, 79
Fraccon AP, 110
2342
Gasparro D, 128
Giannini V, 127
Giulianelli R, 122, 123, 124, 125
Gonella A, 104
Gontero, P, 23
Gravina GL, 14, 15
Guttilla A, 28
Lanzi F, 99, 100, 103, 107
Lombardo R, 56, 58, 61
Mangolini A, 3
Marenghi C, 84
Morelli F, 130
Morlino S, 88
Napodano G, 74
Nardoni S, 122, 125
Nicolai N, 64
Pagano M, 133
Patriarca C, 5
Porpiglia F, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116
Rancati T, 85
Ricciardulli S, 42
Ricotta R, 134
Rizzo M, 132
Sanità P, 60, 62
Sanseverino R, 73, 75, 97
Scalici Gesolfo C, 36, 59
Scattoni V, 68, 69, 70, 71
Schiavina R, 8, 117, 118
Scurria S, 34, 37
Spagnoletti G, 53, 83, 89
Tolento G, 120
Tosi N, 106, 108
Trama A, 78
Valdagni R, 109
Valeriani M, 6, 7
Ventura L, 63, 87, 95
Verri C, 98
Villa S, 67
Zanardi E, 126
`