Open Enrollment - Malamalama Waldorf School

Strawberries from Denison Farm
Corvallis, Oregon
Organic Agriculture
Dr. Alex Stone, Dept. of Horticulture
What is Organic Agriculture?
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Organic Fertility
The production of crops and animals without the use of
synthetic pesticides or fertilizers.
Soil and soil management is the foundation of
organic production.
Organic growing systems are soil based, care
for the soil and surrounding ecosystems, and
provide support for a diversity of species while
encouraging nutrient cycling and mitigating soil
and nutrient losses.
“An organic farm, properly speaking, is not one that
uses certain substances and avoids others; it is a farm
whose structure is formed in imitation of the structure
of a natural system.” - Wendell Berry
IFOAM Norms, 2002
Fundamental Principles
from Stockdale et al, 2001 Advances in Agronomy 70
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...To the maximum extent feasible, Organic Farming
Systems rely on crop rotations, crop residues, animal
manures, legumes, green manures, offoff-farm organic
wastes, and aspects of biological pest control to maintain
soil productivity and tilth, to supply plant nutrients, and to
control insects, weeds and other pests. (USDA)
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Maintaining longlong-term
soil fertility by
maintaining SOM
levels, fostering soil
biological activity, and
careful mechanical
intervention
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Nitrogen selfself-sufficiency through the use of
legumes and biological N fixation, as well as
effective recycling of organic materials, including
crop residues and livestock wastes
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Weed, disease and pest control relying
primarily on crop rotations, natural
predators, diversity, organic manuring,
manuring,
resistant varieties, and limited thermal,
biological, and chemical interventions
Supplementing crop nutrients, where necessary, by
using nutrient sources which are made available to
the plant indirectly by the action of soil
microorganisms and chemical reactions in the soil
The extensive management of livestock, paying full
regard to their evolutionary adapations,
adapations, behavioural
needs, and animal welfare issues with respect to
nutrition, housing, health, breeding, and rearing.
from Stockdale et al, 2001 (Advances in Agronomy 70)
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Careful attention to
the impact of the
farming system on
the wider
environment and the
conservation of
wildlife and natural
habitats
photo courtesy of the Wild Farm Alliance
What’
What’s science got to do with it?
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Hand out soil samples
Reganold et al, 2001. Sustainability of three apple production
systems. Nature 410:926-929
(organic, integrated, and conventional apple production in WA)
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Soil Fertility and Biodiversity in
Organic Farming
Organic Management
Improves Soil Quality
Mäder et al, 2002 (Science 296:1694)
Mäder et al, 2002
Reganold et al, 1987
and 2001
Andrews et al, 2002
Bullock et al, 2002
Drinkwater et al, 1995
and more…
more….
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VERY WELL
DOCUMENTED
Biodynamic
21 year systems trial: Therwil,
Therwil, Switzerland
Biodynamic/organic, conv,
conv, conv + FYM
Winter wheat, potato, grass/clover rotation
Yields: WW (90% of conv),
conv), potato (58(58-66% due
to K fert and late blight), grass/clover (equiv)
Nutrient input 3434-51% lower in org
Energy required to produce crop dry matter unit
was 2020-56% lower in organic
Conventional
The soils were different….
Mäder et al, 2002
Mäder et al, 2002
Impact of longlong-term conventional and organic farming on
the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.
Organic matter increases,
nitrogen is conserved
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AMF spore abundance and species diversity
higher
Glomus spp similarly abundant in both systems
Acaulospora and Scutellospora more abundant in
organic (esp
(esp// A. paulinae and A. longula)
Oehl, F.; Sieverding, E.; Mäder, Paul; Dubois, D.; Ineichen, K.; Boller, T. and Wiemken, A. (2004) Impact of long-term
conventional and organic farming on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Oecologia(138):pp. 574-583.
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Use of Manure
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Raw manure requires an interval of 120 days between application
and crop harvest, where the edible portion of the crops destined for
human consumption are in contact with soil, and 90 days for crops
crops
whose edible portion does not have direct contact with the soil
surface or soil particles.
Impact of organic crop
management on food quality:
Secondary Metabolites
To meet organic standards and harvest within this interval, animal
animal
manure must be composted by the process specified in the NOPS.
The process includes an initial Carbon:Nitrogen ratio of between
25:1 and 40:1, and temperatures between 131°
131°F and 170°
170°F for
three days in the case of inin-vessel or static aerated pile system or
for 15 days in the case of windrow composting system, during which
which
period the materials must be turned a minimum of five times (7 CFR
CFR
Part 205.203 (c)(2)).
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Quercetin
From Wikipedia,
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Quercetin is a flavonoid.
flavonoid. Quercetin has demonstrated significant antiantiinflammatory activity because of direct inhibition of several initial
processes of inflammation.
inflammation. For example, it inhibits both the manufacture
and release of histamine and other allergic/inflammatory
allergic/inflammatory mediators.
mediators. In
addition, it exerts potent antioxidant activity and vitamin CC-sparing
action.
Quercetin also shows remarkable antianti-tumour properties. A recent study
in the British Journal of Cancer shows that when treated with a
combination of quercetin and ultrasound at 20 KHz for 1 minute duration,
skin and prostate cancers show a 90% mortality within 48 hours with no
visible mortality of normal cells.
Quercetin may have positive effects in combating or helping to prevent
cancer,
prostatitis, heart disease,
disease, cataracts,
cataracts, allergies/
allergies/inflammations,
inflammations, and
cancer, prostatitis,
respiratory diseases such as bronchitis and asthma.
asthma.
Recent studies have supported that quercetin can help men with chronic
prostatitis,
prostatitis, possibly because of its action as a mast cell inhibitor.[2]
inhibitor.[2]
http://www.seedalliance.org/uploads/pdf/ProceedingsPapers.pdf
What is organic milk?
Quercetin suppresses viral disease
Why is there a boycott against Horizon milk?
Why should anyone care?
ml-1
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At 5 ug
caused 70% inhibition of local
lesion development of tomato ringspot
virus in Chenopodium quinoa
Interferes in viral life cycle
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Malhotra et al 1996
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grazing during the entire growing season, but not less
than 120 days, and providing a minimum of 30% dry
matter intake during the growing season
any cattle brought onto a certified organic dairy
operation will have been managed organically from the
last third of gestation
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Jon Bansen,
Bansen, Double J Jerseys,
Monmouth, Oregon
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http://cookingupastory.com/?s
=jon+bansen
http://cookingupastory.com/?s=
Herd Health (Hardeng and Edge, 2001)
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Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording data sets
Matched three conv:
conv: one org herd
(based on size and region: 31 org, 93 conv)
conv)
Org herds typified by lower intensity production and
lower use of concentrates, more varied feedstocks,
feedstocks,
longer spring calving, older cows, access to the
outdoors, more complex breeding composition
Organic : conventional odds ratios
„ Mastitis, ketosis and milk fever incidence were all lower
on organic farms
„ Low disease incidence in organic herds has been
reported previously (e.g. Weller and Bowling, 2000)
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Organic Diets Significantly Lower
Children’
Children’s Dietary Exposure to
Organophosphorus Pesticides
These differences in composition are related to grazing, or forage-based diets
Antioxidants, could protect against mastitis
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Research supported by the EPA
Work conducted by Lu et al.:
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Conjugated linoleic acid, linked to reduced risk of obesity
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Dept of Environ and Occupational Health,
Emory University
Dept of Environ and Occupational Health Sci,
Sci,
Univ. of WA, Seattle
National Center for Environmental Health,
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
Atlanta.
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Organic Diets and OP Exposure
MDA = metabolite of malathion
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23 elementary school students
Substituted organic foods for 5 days
Collected firstfirst-morning and prepre-bedtime urine samples
Analyzed for OP residues
Levels of specific metabolites of malathion and
chlorpyrifos were significantly lower while children were
eating organic foods
Conclusion: “an organic diet provides a dramatic and
immediate protective effect against exposures to OP
pesticides that are used in ag production…”
production…”
TCPY = metabolite of chlorpyrifos
Secondary Metabolites
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„
„
„
„
Quercetin
From Wikipedia,
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Quercetin is a flavonoid.
flavonoid. Quercetin has demonstrated significant antiantiinflammatory activity because of direct inhibition of several initial
processes of inflammation.
inflammation. For example, it inhibits both the manufacture
and release of histamine and other allergic/inflammatory
allergic/inflammatory mediators.
mediators. In
addition, it exerts potent antioxidant activity and vitamin CC-sparing
action.
Quercetin also shows remarkable antianti-tumour properties. A recent study
in the British Journal of Cancer shows that when treated with a
combination of quercetin and ultrasound at 20 KHz for 1 minute duration,
skin and prostate cancers show a 90% mortality within 48 hours with no
visible mortality of normal cells.
Quercetin may have positive effects in combating or helping to prevent
cancer,
prostatitis, heart disease,
disease, cataracts,
cataracts, allergies/
allergies/inflammations,
inflammations, and
cancer, prostatitis,
respiratory diseases such as bronchitis and asthma.
asthma.
Recent studies have supported that quercetin can help men with chronic
prostatitis,
prostatitis, possibly because of its action as a mast cell inhibitor.[2]
inhibitor.[2]
http://www.seedalliance.org/uploads/pdf/ProceedingsPapers.pdf
6
Quercetin suppresses viral disease
„
„
„
Ecological agriculture is
constantly evolving
At 5 ug ml-1 caused 70% inhibition of local
lesion development of tomato ringspot
virus in Chenopodium quinoa
Interferes in viral life cycle
Malhotra et al 1996
“The best way to farm
hasn’
hasn’t been invented. I
reserve the right to change
my mind tomorrow.”
tomorrow.”
-- Dick Thompson,
Boone, Iowa farmer
http://cornucopia.org/index.php/who-owns-organic/
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Interesting Questions
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Should there be a GMO buffer requirement for
an organic farmer growing corn, and if so, what
should it be?
You are a cotton farmer in 1) Texas and 2)
Africa. Weigh the benefits and risks of growing
your crop using 1) a GMO cultivar and 2) organic
methods.
Why are WalWal-Mart, McDonalds, and other
multinationals offering organic products?
Would you feed your children organic food?
Why or why not?
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