SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES

American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Infectious Disease Committee Manual 2013
SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES
Animal
Group(s)
Affected
Found in
many
African nonhuman
primates.
Macaques
susceptible.
Transmission
Clinical
Signs
Severity
Treatment
Prevention
and Control
Zoonotic
Mainly
horizontal
through
sexual contact
and bite
wounds.
Clinical
disease occurs
in only a
minority of
infected
individuals.
Severe and
fatal in nonnatural host
Test collection and
determine risk
to benefit of
introductions
to naïve
animals.
Vertical
transmission
reported by
virus-infected
milk
When
pathogenic,
disease
depends on the
nature of the
organ and
opportunistic
infections.
None
specific
although
same
treatment
options
for HIV
could be
used
Infection should
be considered a
zoonotic disease
since many SIV
species can
grow in human
cell lines in
vitro.
Fact Sheet compiled by: Sam Rivera; updated by Natalie Mylniczenko
Sheet completed on: 1 June 2011; updated 10 September 2013
Fact Sheet Reviewed by: William Switzer; Karen Strait
Susceptible animal groups: Natural host can be susceptible to disease and older animals may succumb to
AIDS-related disease. Non-natural host infections can be fatal. Asian macaques are highly susceptible to fatal
infection.
Causative organism: SIVagm, SIVasc, SIV bkm, SIVblu, SIVcol, SIVcpz, SIVdeb, SIVden, SIVdrl, SIVgor,
SIVgsn, SIVl’hoest, SIVmnd 1 and 2, SIVmon, SIVmus, SIV olc, SIVrcm, SIVschm, SIVsmm, SIVstm,
SIVsun, SIVsyk, SIVtal, SIVwrc.
Zoonotic potential: The virus should be considered a zoonotic disease. Many SIV species can grow in human
cell lines in vitro. HIV-1 originated from SIVcpz and SIVgor; HIV-2 from SIVsmm.
Distribution: Natural infections occur in Africa. Infection in captive non-human primates occurs worldwide.
Cross species viral ‘jumping’ has been reported but appears relatively rare.
Incubation period: Strain and host dependent, as short as a few weeks in non-natural host or as long as several
decades in natural host.
Clinical signs: Clinical disease does not usually present in natural hosts. However, when disease occurs,
common findings are lymphadenopathy and diarrhea. Other signs may include wasting, malabsorption, and
weight loss. Cardiac disease, arteriopathies, transient cutaneous erythematous maculopapular rash, and CNS
involvement can be observed. Secondary infections can be due to immunodeficiency and
hypergammaglobulinemia can be observed.
Post mortem, gross, or histologic findings: Lymphoid organs may be hypertrophied. Other findings depend
on affected organ systems: encephalitis, cardiac necrosis, myocarditis, coronary or systemic arteriopathy,
glomurulosclerosis, pneumonia, follicular hyperplasia and fragmentation in lymphoid tissues, extramedullary
hematopoiesis in lymph nodes and follicular and paracortical hyperplasia, epididymitis, prostatitis, urethritis,
malignant lymphomas.
Diagnosis: Serology (ELISA, Western blot), PCR, virus isolation. If positive on serology, SIV genotyping is
recommended to identify natural reservoirs that are often African non-human primates. Screening is typical
with ELISA testing, but confirmation should be completed with Western blot or PCR. It should be noted that
American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Infectious Disease Committee Manual 2013
SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES
highly divergent SIVs may not react completely with HIV and SIVmac antigens used in commercial assays.
Viral isolation efficiency is highly variable.
Material required for laboratory analysis: Whole blood, serum/plasma, body fluids, tissues
Relevant diagnostic laboratories:
Pathogen Detection Laboratory
California National Primate Research Center
University of California
Road 98 & Hutchison
Davis, California 95616
(530) 752-8242
Fax: (530) 752-4816
[email protected]
VRL-San Antonio
P.O. Box 40100
7540 Louis Pasteur, Suite 200
San Antonio, Texas 78229
877-615-7275
Fax: 210-615-7771
Zoologix Inc.
9811 Owensmouth Avenue, Suite 4
Chatsworth, California 91311-3800
818-717-8880
Fax: 818-717-8881
[email protected]
zoologix.com/primate/index.htm
Primate Diagnostic Services Laboratory (PDSL)
Washington National Primate Research Center
University of Washington
Seattle Washington 98195-7330
[email protected]
Treatment: None
Prevention and control: Identify status of animals in collection. Determine risk to benefit of maintaining a
closed population in the face of population needs.
Suggested disinfectant for housing facilities: 70% ethanol, formalin, 10% household bleach (sodium
hypochlorite), most lipophylic detergents, quaternary ammonium chloride, and Lysol can be used.
Notification: None at this time.
Measures required under the Animal Disease Surveillance Plan: None at this time.
Measures required for introducing animals to infected animal: Determine current status of both groups of
these animals then determine risk to benefit of introducing negative individuals to positive individuals. It is
important to remember that natural reservoirs of particular SIV variants exist.
Conditions for restoring disease-free status after an outbreak: Life-long infection results in inability to
restore disease free status.
Experts who may be consulted:
American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Infectious Disease Committee Manual 2013
SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES
William M. Switzer, MPH
Retrovirus Surveillance Activity Leader, Laboratory Branch
Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, NCHSTP
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
1600 Clifton Rd.
Atlanta, Georgia 30333
[email protected]
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American Association of Zoo Veterinarians Infectious Disease Committee Manual 2013
SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES
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