How to read the transcripts and use the vocabulary

How to read the transcripts
and use the vocabulary
It must be said in the beginning that organizing such a vast amount of text from seemingly short, twentyfive minute lessons, though an act of joy, proved to be a quite demanding task. From a few possible
approaches I chose the one I found the most comprehensive for the westerner’s mindset. Simultaneously I
opted for a transcription and translation method that doesn’t compromise with grammatical accuracy of
Sanskrit, the more important language for the learner.
In most cases the translation of sentences within lessons is very literal, word-for-word translation
from which the meaning of the sentence and the words can easily be deciphered. When such translation
proved to be too ambiguous or vague there is a clearer translation in the parenthesis. More information is
sometimes given in the vocabulary. Although majority of the word forms are obvious if you follow the
lesson carefully, in some cases the additional information proves to be helpful for clearer comprehension.
The verse, the saying (or whatever you want to call the subhashita), and the story (katha) are the
hardest to follow for a student. For beginner knowing every grammatical form and rule could be more of a
burden then help, so I chose not to be too technical in explanations and translations both in the transcript
and in the vocabulary part. Bare with the bits you won’t understand completely in the beginning... just
listen and pick up the words gradually, the understanding will follow soon. Especially if you try your best
to speak as much as possible, no matter how funny your pronunciation, how difficult finding the words and
the proper endings, how mind-boggling some sentences prove to be.
The lessons are designed intelligently and they provide all the necessary information for learning.
For Indians, of course, who happen to know the majority of the words, since they are the same or very
similar in their mother tongues. Westerners are often bewildered when they hear many of those basic
words. It doesn’t end there... Word orders seem awkward, long compounds take seconds to unravel (if not
minutes), many sentences seem grammatically illogical, etc. It takes time to tune into the logic of the
language. Then only you get to feel the beauty of Sanskrit. The transcript and the vocabulary are designed
for the sake of Western students, who otherwise stumbled on many problems when they listened to the
lessons without any aids.
As you advance you will get to know how any word is formed, what’s its gender, what are the
verb’s tense, number, and person, etc. Some grammatical rules are specific, though, and I’d like to make a
comment about them here in order to avoid confusion later on and repetition of extensive comments in the
transcription and vocabulary.
The first ambiguity is related to verb forms for second and third person (madhyama and uttama
purusha) – they happen to be the same. Bhavan and bhavati are followed by the third person verb forms
and actually express the meaning of the third person, but are generally used in the sense of the second
person (and are translated accordingly). In Sanskrit the verb can stand alone, but it gives only the tense and
the number; p. e.: gacchati is a sentence in itself, meaning either he, she or it goes but it can also mean you
(sing.) go. So in practice the all-encompassing translation is one person (other then me) goes, the details
are clear from the context. In English the verb has to be accompanied by a noun or a personal pronoun
(except in vocative), which can have the gender as well, as illustrated above. Though everything is usually
clear in the lessons, in some cases it’s hard to decide which translation is more appropriate – did the
teacher mean “you go” or “he goes”, “you read” or “he reads”, “You, come!” or “He should come!”.
Even if you have no knowledge of declensions, you will quickly grasp the declension patterns for
masculine words ending in –a, feminine words ending in –ä and –é and neuter words ending in –m. Just
follow the lessons carefully. When the words appear for the first time in the lesson in a different case then
nominative, the nominative form is given in the parenthesis in the vocabulary. If later on in any lesson the
same word appears again in any other declension (in case of adjectives also in other genders, in case of
verbs also in other tenses), it is not included in the vocabulary; for its meaning go back to the previous
lessons. The exceptions are some phrases and personal pronouns (when they appear in different
declensions, they are still listed in the vocabulary).
Word-for-word translation of subhashitas is given in the lesson transcripts, so the translation of
those words is not included in the vocabulary.
1
Here are some final notes:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Words in the vocabulary are arranged in order of appearance. Sections are marked with
horizontal lines both in the lesson transcript and in the vocabulary.
The sections in the vocabulary with the subhashita and the katha are put in distinct blue and red
colors.
Sanskrit words have often many meanings. The translations are chosen according to the
context.
When imperative form is used in Sanskrit it conveys the meaning of request and order. For
clarity exclamation mark was used in English translation, but not in Sanskrit unless the stress
was intended. Think of Sanskrit imperative sentences (mostly ending in -tu) as if they contained
“please”.
Usually gender and number of words are not given; it’s not difficult to figure them out from the
nominative form of the nouns. In case of exceptions the fourth column gives this information or
some other comments.
In case of compounds the two (or more) words, or the word and prefix, are written in the
parenthesis.
Words of praise like samicinam, uttamam, bahu uttamam (good, very good) etc. appear so often
I decided to drop them after lesson 4. I also omitted some other very obvious repetitions.
For a short description of Indian historical persons, cities and Gods mentioned in the lessons,
please refer to the Appendix at the end of the vocabulary. The names, explained in the
appendix, are marked in the vocabulary with superscript A.
2
Lesson 1 – vocabulary
nmae nm>
Svagtm!
ATyNtm!
srla
Éa;a
sMÉa;[m!
#t> Aip
vym!
svRe
SvLpen
àyTnen
inTyjIvne
%pyaegm!
AagCDNtu
#danIm!
A_yasm!
k…mR>
namo namaù
respects, salutations
svägatam
welcome
atyantam (ati antam)
extremely, very much
saralä
easy
bhäñä
language
sambhäñaëam
conversation
itaù api (ito ‘pi)
even more
vayam
we
sarve
all
(sarvaù)
svalpena
by very little
(su-alpaù)
prayatnena
with endeavor
(prayatnaù)
nitya-jévane
in day to day life
(nitya- jévanam)
upayogam
connection
ägacchantu
come (you all)!
idäném
now
abhyäsam
exercise
(abhyäsaù)
kurmaù
(we) do
(karoti)
mm
nam
Évt>
ikm! ?
ÉvTya>
%iÄótu
p&CDtu
%Ämm!
%pivztu
b÷smIcInm!
kwm!
pircy>
kri[y>
#it
}atvNt>
mama
my, of me
(gen. sing. aham)
näma
name
(nom. sing.)
bhavataù
of you
(masc. sing. gen.)
kim?
what?
bhavatyäù
of you
(fem. sing. gen. bhavaté)
uttiñöhatu
stand up!
(uttiñöhati)
påcchatu
ask!
(påcchati)
uttamam
good!
upaviçatu
sit down!
bahu-samécénam
very good!
katham
how
paricayaù
acquaintance, introduction
karaëéyaù
should (must) be done
iti
thus
jïätavantaù
have known
s>
k> ?
AiÉnym! k…vRNtu
vdNtu
ramk«:[>
saù
he (that)
kaù?
Who? (masc. sing.)
abhinayam kurvantu
show! (lit. “do the acting”)
vadantu
say!
rämakåñëaù
Ramakrishna
3
(lit. “respect respect”)
(lit. “than here also”)
(ägacchati)
(upaviçati)
(of people to each other)
(jïätavän)
(vadati)
A
rajeNÔàsad>
AMbefkr>
räjendra-prasädaù
Rajendraprasad A
ambeòakaraù
Ambedakara A
sa
ka ?
zarda devI
sä
she (that)
kä?
Who? (fem. sing.)
çäradä devé
Sharada devi A
tt!
)lm!
puStkm!
k«:[)lkm!
ikm! ?
tat
it (that)
phalam
fruit
pustakam
book
kåñëaphalakam
blackboard
kim?
what? (neut. sing.)
@;>
g[ez>
lLbhad‚rzaSÇI
eñaù
he (this)
gaëeçaù
Ganesha A
lal-bahädura-çästré
Lal-bahaddur-shastri A
@;a
@tt!
pu:pm!
eñä
she (this)
etat
it (this)
puñpam
flower
@km! @km!
vStu
dzRyaim
%Ärm!
%pneÇm!
k»tm!
)enkm
p[Rm!
ekam ekam
one by one
vastu
thing, object
darçayämi
(I) show
uttaram
answer
upanetram
eyeglases
kaìkatam
comb
phenakam
soap
parëam
leaf
krdIp>
c;k>
"qI
srSvtI
karadépaù
hand torch
cañakaù
glass, cup
ghaöé
clock, watch
sarasvaté
Sarasvati A
yutkm!
muom!
xnm!
k»[m!
itlkm!
krvôm!
@tavt!
pyRNtm!
yutakam
shirt
mukham
face
dhanam
money
kaìkaëam
bracelet
tilakam
face mark
karavastram
handkerchief
etävat
this much
paryantam (pari-antam)
till (now), until
4
(darçayati)
zBdanam!
k«tvNt>
%pyaeg>
AiSt
naiSt
jlm!
leonI
xnSyUt>
buiÏ>
çabdänäm
of words
(gen. pl.)
kåtavantaù
are made
(kåtavän)
upayogaù
usage
asti
is
nästi (na asti)
is not
jalam
water
lekhané
pen
dhanasyütaù
wallet
buddhiù
intelligence
AÇ
tÇ
k…Ç ?
balg¼axritlk>
AasNd>
k{Qhar>
atra
here
tatra
there
kutra?
where?
bälagaìgä-dhara-tilakaù
Balaganga-dhara-tilaka A
äsandaù
chair
kaëöhahäraù
necklace
jvinka
vayu>
svRÇ
Égvan!
àkaz>
Aakaz>
ANyÇ
imÇm!
vahnm!
puÇI
pit>
soI
pué;a>
@kÇ
%pivziNt
mihla>
javanikä
curtain
väyuù
air, wind
sarvatra
everywhere
bhagavän
God
prakäçaù
light
äkäçaù
sky, space
anyatra
elsewhere
mitram
friend
vähanam
vehicle
putré
daughter
patiù
husband
sakhé
friend
puruñäù
men
ekatra
in one place
upaviçanti
sit
mahiläù
women
suÉai;tm!
saihTye
intram!
vEi;ò(m!
suóu Éai;tm!
vcnm!
@v
Apar>
jIvnanuÉv>
subhäñitam
verse, saying
sahitye
in poetry
nitaräm
very much
vaiñiñöyam
speciality
suñöhu bhäñitam
well spoken
vacanam
speech
eva
only, certainly
apäraù
vast
jévanänubhavaù
experiences in life
5
(puruñaù)
(sahityaù)
iniht>
z&{m>
ïutvNt>
tSy
AwR>
@vm!
mnu:y>
àyÆm!
cet!
ikm! Aip
isXyit
kevlm!
#CDa>
siNt
kayRm!
blvan!
m&graj>
twaip
is<h>
Aaharm!
àaßaeit
m&g>
AagTy
Svym!
muoe
n
ptit
ikiÂt!
Aip
nihitaù
embeded
çåëmaù
we listen
çrutavantaù
have heard
tasya
his (of that, of him)
arthaù
meaning
evam
thus
manuñyaù
man
prayatnam
endeavor
cet
if
kim api
whatever
sidhyati
achieves
kevalam
only
icchäù
desires
santi
are
käryam
work
balavän
strong, powerful
måga-räjaù
the king of animals
tathäpi
despite that
siàhaù
lion
ähäram
eating, food
präpnoti
gets
mågaù
animal
ägatya
after coming
svayam
self
mukhe
in mouth
na
not
patati
falls
kiïcit
some, little
api
also
kwa
l"u
ïv[en
Éa;a_yas>
zIºm!
Évit
savxanen
@k>
kak>
t&i;t>
b÷ ippasa
jlm!
kathä
story
laghu
short, small
çravaëena
by hearing, listening
bhäñäbhyäsaù
the practice of language (bhäñä abhyäsaù)
çéghram
quickly
bhavati
(he) is
sävadhänena (sa avadhänena) with attention
ekaù
one
käkaù
crow
tåñitaù
thirsty
bahu pipäsä
a lot of thirst
jalam
water
6
(çåëoti)
(icchä)
(tathä api)
(“to be”, 3rd p. sing.)
(sävadhänam)
patVym!
ANve;[< kraeit
pZyit
A¢e A¢e
gCDit
Ëre
"qm!
b÷sNtae;>
smIpm!
%pir
ikNtu
SvLpm!
patum!
z²aeit
icNtyit
buiÏman!
izlao{fm!
Aanyit
pUryit
pun>
@vmv
b÷varm!
bih>
ipbit
AanNden
AnNtrm!
tt>
Ërm!
ctur>
olu
pätavyam
should (must) be drank
anveñaëam karoti
searches
paçyati
looks
agre agre
forward, forward (further, further)
gacchati
goes
düre
far
ghaöam
clay pot, jar
bahu-santoñaù
very happy
samépam
close (to)
upari
on (top of)
kintu
but
svalpam
very little
pätum
to drink
çaknoti
can
cintayati
thinks
buddhimän
smart
çiläkhaëòam
stone
änayati
brings
pürayati
throws
punaù
again
evam eva
just so, in the same way
bahu-väram
many times
bahiù
out
pibati
drinks
änandena
with joy
anantaram
thereafter
tataù
from there
düram
far away
caturaù
smart
khalu
indeed, isn’t it
7
(lit. in far)
Lesson 2 - vocabulary
s<Sk«tÉa;aiz][e
àaÝVy>
pUvRtn
paQe
A*
ANyen ³me[
ANye;am!
ntRkI
Aam!
AiÉneÇI
saàskåta-bhäñä-çikñaëe
for the study of Sanskrit language
präptavyaù
was attained
pürvatana
previous
päöhe
in lesson
adya
today
anyena krameëa
by other ways
(kramaù)
anyeñäm
of others
(anyaù)
nartaké
dancer (fem.)
äm
yes
abhinetré
actress
iz]k>
DaÇ>
Aixv´a
g&ih[I
izi]ka
tÙ}>
sEink>
yuvk>
çikñakaù
teacher
chätraù
student
adhivaktä
lawyer
gåhiëé
housewife
çikñikä
teacher
tantrajïaù
engineer
sainikaù
soldier
yuvakaù
young man
vaKyÖym!
yaejiyTva
AtIv
suoen
ywa
ÉvNtu
gaiyka
vE*a
bailka
k«i;k>
kmRkr>
pack>
väkya-dvayam
pair of sentences
yojayitvä
after joining
atéva (ati iva)
very much, greatly, extremely
sukhena
with happiness
yathä
as
bhavantu
(you all) be!
gäyikä
singer
vaidyä
doctor
bälikä
girl
kåñikaù
farmer
karmakaraù
worker
päcakaù
cook
va
vE*>
)enkm!
Êó>
s¾n>
srlm!
vä
or
vaidyaù
doctor
phenakam
soap
duñöaù
bad man, miscreant
sajjanaù
good, holy man
saralam
easy
8
(päöhaù)
mxurm!
sTym!
madhuram
sweet
satyam
true, truth
kSy
tSya>
kSya>
@tSy
@tSya>
kasya
whose (masc.)
tasyäù
(of) her (far)
kasyäù
whose (fem.)
etasya
his (of him) (near)
etasyäù
(of) her (near)
naiska
k[R>
SyUt>
ddatu
k…iÂka
devI
AaÉU;[m!
k{Qahar>
näsikä
nose
karëaù
ear
syütaù
bag
dadätu
give!
kuïcikä
key
devé
goddess
äbhüñaëam
ornament, piece of jewellery
kaëöùähäraù
necklace
ïImdœ ÉgvÌIta
kaVym!
ïIÉagRvra"vIym!
ASmakam!
dezSy
Éartm!
saxu saxu
êpai[
çrémad bhagavadgétä
Shrimad Bhagavad-gita A
kävyam
(book of) poetry
çré-bhärgava-räghavéyam
Shri-bhargava-raghaviyam A
asmäkäm
our, of us
deçasya
of country
bhäratam
Bharata (India)
sädhu sädhu
good, good! (congratulations)
rüpäëi
forms
leok>
miNdrm!
ngrm!
sIta
raxa
piÇka
g¼a
ÉartI
ndI
raoI
A»nI
lekhakaù
writer
mandiram
temple
nagaram
city
sétä
Sita A
rädhä
Radha A
patrikä
magazine
gaìgä
Ganga, river Ganges A
bhäraté
Bharati
nadé
river
räkhé
Rakhi
aìkané
pencil
rämaù
Rama A
daçarathasya
of Dasharatha A
putraù
son
kåñëaù
Krishna A
ram>
dzrwSy
puÇ>
k«:[>
9
(dadäti)
(aham)
(deçaù)
A
(rüpam)
vsudev>
pit>
lúm[>
éiKm{ya>
devkI
id‘I
rajxnI
lon^
%ÄràdezSy
be¼lUé
k[aRqkSy
vasudevaù
Vasudeva A
patiù
husband
lakñmaëaù
Lakshmana A
rukmiëyäù
of Rukmini A
devaké
Devaki A
dillé
Delhi A
räjadhané
capital
lakhanaü
Lucknow A
uttara-pradeçasya
of Uttar-pradesh A
beìgalüru
Bangalore A
karëätakasya
of Karnataka A
vaLmIik>
ramay[Sy
Vyas>
mhaÉartSy
izvSy
rav[Sy
me"nad>
lv>
x&traò+Sy
ÊyaeRxn>
AjuRnSy
AiÉmNyu>
r"uv<zSy
kaildas>
h;RcirtSy
ba[>
%imRlaya>
sTyÉamaya>
pavRTya>
mNdaedyaR>
rav[>
dmyNTya>
nl>
välmékiù
Valmiki A
rämäyaëasya
of Ramayana A
vyäsaù
Vyasa A
mahäbhäratasya
of Mahabharata A
çivasya
of Shiva A
rävaëasya
of Ravana A
meghanädaù
Meghanada A
lavaù
Lava A
dhåtaräñörasya
of Dhritarashtra A
duryodhanaù
Duryodha A
arjunasya
of Arjuna A
abhimanyuù
Abhimanyu A
raghuvaàçasya
Raghuvamsha A
kälidäsaù
Kalidasa A
harñacaritasya
of Harsha-charita A
bäëaù
Bana A
urmiläyäù
of Urmila A
satyabhämäyäù
of Satyabhama A
pärvatyäù
of Parvati A
mandodaryäù
of Mandodari A
rävaëaù
Ravana A
damayantyäù
of Damayanti A
nalaù
Nala A
gaNxI
-mhaedySy
ihlrI
ABÊ‘a
re[u
AmInbI
gändhé
Gandhi A
-mahodayasya
of respected, mister, sir
hilaré
Hilari
abdullä
Abdula A
A
reëu
aménabé
Aminabi A
10
(mahodayaù)
merI
-mhaÉagSy
-mhaeÉagaya>
meré
Meri A
mahäbhägasya
of respected, mister
(mahäbhägaù)
mahäbhägäyäù
of respected, lady
(mahäbhägä)
yt!
laeke
iÖivxa>
jna>
kecn
la"umnSka>
mhaTmna>
%darcirta>
jgt!
k…quMb>
†ò(a
sm¢>
àpÂ>
icNtnm!
yat
(that) which
loke
in the world
dvividhäù
two kinds
janäù
people
kecana
some
laghu-manaskäù
small minded
mahätmanäù
great souls
udäracaritäù
broad-minded
jagat
world
kuöumbaù
family
dåñtyä
by seeing
samagraù
entire
prapaïcaù
world
cintanam
thinking
11
(lokaù)
(pl. kaçcana, kaù-cana)
(dåñté)
Lesson 3 – vocabulary
oadit
pQit
iloit
hsit
³Ifit
SvIkraetu
nytu
maStu
k«pya
s'œOya>
v´Vya>
janIm>
khädati
eats
paöhati
reads
likhati
writes, draws
hasati
laughs
kréòati
plays
svékarotu
here you are!
(svékaroti)
nayatu
take!
(nayati)
mästu (mä astu)
no! don’t!
kåpayä
please
saìkhyäù
numbers
(saìkhyaù)
vaktavyäù
should be said
(vaktavyaù)
jänémaù
we know
(jänati)
@km!
Öe
ÇIi[
cTvair
pÂ
;qœ
sÝ
Aò
nv
dz
@kadz
Öadz
iv<zit>
iÇ<zt!
cTvair<zt!
pÂazt!
;iò>
sÝit>
AzIit>
nvit>
ztm!
ekam
one
dve
two
tréëi
three
catväri
four
païca
five
ñaö
six
sapta
seven
añöa
eight
nava
nine
daça
ten
ekädaça
eleven
dvädaça
twelve
viàçatiù
twenty
triàçat
thirty
catväriàçat
fourty
païcäçat
fifty
ñañöiù
sixty
saptatiù
seventy
açétiù
eighty
navatiù
ninety
çatam
hundred
xNyvad>
smy>
pÂvadnm
;fœvadnm!
dhanyavädaù
thank you
samayaù
time
païca-vädanam
five o’clock
ñaò-vädanam
six o’clock
12
k> smy> ?
kaù samayaù?
[email protected]! sapäda-ekädaça-vädanam
saxRsÝvadnm!
särdha-sapta-vädanam
[email protected]! pädona-ekädaça-vädanam
vatsa!
vTs !
@kvadnm!
eka-vädanam
dvi-vädanam
iÖvadnm!
tri-vädanam
iÇvadnm!
catur-vädanam
ctuvaRdnm!
yid
sNtuòa>
àai[n>
At>
v´…m!
daÄVym!
iàyvaKykwne
dirÔm!
k…t>
What is the time?
quarter past eleven o’clock
half past seven o’clock
quarter to eleven o’clock
boy!
one o’clock
two o’clock
three o’clock
four o’clock
yadi
if
santuñöäù
satisfied
präëinaù
animals, living beings
ataù
thus, therefore
vaktum
to say
dättavyam
should be given
priya-väkya-kathane
in pleasent speach
daridram
poverty
kutaù
from where
kaizngre
käçi-nagare
mhan!
mahän
pi{ft>
paëòitaù
AasIt!
äsét
b÷;u
bahuñu
zaôe;u
çästreñu
par¼t>
päraìgataù
smIpe
samépe
AXyynm! k…vRiNt Sm adhyayanaà kurvanti sma
Oyait>
khyätiù
às&t> AasIt!
prasåtaù äsét
ËrËrt>
düra-dürataù
ekadä
@kda
iz:y>
çiñyaù
Aagtvan!
ägatavän
guroù
gurae>
nmSkarm!
namaskäram
k«Tva
kåtvä
påñöavän
p&òvan!
bhoù
Éae>
(vatsaù)
(santuñöaù)
in the city of Kashi A
great, strong
(mahat)
scholar
was
in many
(bahu)
in scriptures
(çästram)
has studied
near (in vicinity)
(samépam)
they were studying
(sma forms past tense)
fame
wide-spread
from far, far away
once
disciple
came
of guru
(guruù)
obeisances
after doing
asked
"sir", "madam"
(an interjection or voc. particle commonly used in addressing another person or several persons = O! Ho! Hallo!)
Axenm!
adhenam
study
13
ktuRm!
#CDaim
mam!
iz:yTven
%´van!
buiÏprI]am!
tan!
àZnm!
dev>
tda
svRVyapI
àîêpe[
ïuTva
jat>
h;eR[
tm!
Aaili¼tvan!
iníyen
A¼Ik«tvan!
%i;Tva
iv*a_yasm!
AaizvaRdm!
àaÝvan!
ikl
}at>
kartum
to do
icchämi
I wish, desire
mäm
me
çiñyatvena
with “discipleship”
uktavän
he spoke
buddhi-parékñäm
test of intelligence
(parékñä)
tän
them
(saù)
praçnam
question
devaù
God
tadä
then
sarva-vyäpi
allpervading
praçna-rüpeëa
in form of question
çrutvä
after hearing
jätaù
became, turned
harñeëa
with happiness
tam
him
aliìgitavän
embraced
niçcayena
by resolution, determination
aìgékåtavän
embraced
uñitvä
after residing, staying
vidyäbhyäsam
lit. practice of knowledge
açirvädam
blessing
präptavän
he received
kila
isn't is so?
jïätaù
was known
14
(icchati)
(harñaù)
(saù)
Lesson 4 – vocabulary
s<Sk«ts<Éa;[Sy
maNye
AavZykm!
k)I
caym!
ikiÂt!
pyaRÝm!
cakleh>
AavZyk>
imóaNnm!
mxurm!
iz][m!
vôm!
tafnm!
kaelahl>
Öe;>
saàskåta-saàbhäñaëasya
of the Sanskrit conversation
mänye
respected (lady), madam
ävaçyakam
it's needed, there is need
kaphé
koffee
cäyam
tee
kiïcit
little, some
paryäptam
enough
cäkalehaù
chocolate
ävaçyakaù
needed, necessary
miñöhännam
sweet dish
madhuram
sweet dish
çikñaëam
study
vastram
clothes
täòanam
beating
kolähalaù
noise, clamour
dveñaù
jealousy
yutkm!
Astu
kez>
Awva
%dahr[m!
b÷vcnSy
dNtkUcR>
balka>
v&]>
isKwvitRka
peiqka
%TpIiQka
kªpI
yutakam
shirt
astu
all right! (let it) be!
keçaù
hair
athavä
or
udäharaëam
example
bahu-vacanasya
of plural
dantakürcaù
toothbrush
bälakäù
boys
våkñaù
tree
sikthavartikä
candle
peöikä
box
utpéöhikä
table
küpé
bottle
s¼[km!
cms>
@kvcne
pirvtRnm!
gayk>
Aap[>
saìgaëakam
computer
camasaù
spoon
eka-vacane
in singular
parivartanam
change
gäyakaù
singer
äpaëaù
shop
@kvcnvaKym!
ekavacana-väkyam
sentence in singular
15
(mänyä)
(masc. sing.)
(bahu-vacanam)
(bälakäù)
(eka-vacanam)
b÷vcnêpm!
vaKySy
pirvtRyiNt
te
ke ?
hStm!
ta>
ka> ?
icÇm!
tain
icÇai[
kain ?
@te
@ta>
@tain
bahuvacana-rüpam
plural form
väkyasya
of sentence
parivartayanti
(you all) change
te
they
ke?
who, which? (masc. pl.) (kaù?)
hastam
hand
(hastaù)
täù
they
(sä)
käù?
who, which? (fem. pl.) (kä?)
citram
picture
täni
those, which (neut. pl.) (tat)
citräëi
pictures
käni?
what, which? (neut. pl) (kim?)
ete
these (masc. pl.)
etäù
these (fem. pl.)
etäni
these (neut. pl.)
ÉartIya>
dezÉ´a>
raò+É´>
muoR>
bhäratéyaù
Indian (of Indian nationality)
deça-bhaktaù
patriot
räñöra-bhaktaù
patriot
murkhaù
stupid, fool
vnraj>
àisx>
kae=ip n
AiÉ;ekm!
s<Skarm!
SvsamWyeRn
SvàyÆen
vnSy
AaixpTym!
SvmWyRvan!
ATyuNntm!
pdm!
àaÝum!
vanaräjaù
king of animals
prasidhaù
famous
ko ‘pi na (kaù api na)
nothing, nobody, not at all
abhiñekam
ceremonial bathing
saàskäram
sacred, purifying ceremony
sva-sämarthyena
by his own ability
sva-prayatnena
by his endeavor
vanasya
of forrest
ädhipatyam
rulership
sämarthyavän
posssesing ability, power
atyunnatam
very high, the highest
padam
abode, goal
präptum
to achieve, get
Aitsrlam!
rMyam!
v&Ï>
b÷inZa´>
zi´>
jI[Rm!
zrIrm!
ciltum!
atisaraläm
very simple
ramyäm
nice
våddhaù
old man
bahu-niçaktaù
very weak
çaktiù
strength, ability
jérëam
old, worn out
çaréram
body
calitum
to walk
16
(väkyam)
(parivartayati)
(saù)
(eñaù)
(eñä)
(etat)
(prayatnam)
(ati unnatam)
buÉui]t>
æm[m! kraeit
oaidtum!
l_yte
inZyt>
%Út>
Aaraeh[m!
vanra>
%paym!
izlaoNdm!
i]pit
k…ipt>
Ax>
sNtae;e[
bubhukñitaù
hungry
bhramaëaà karoti
he wanders
khäditum
to eat
labhyate
obtain
niçyataù
down
unnataù
tall
ärohaëam
climbing
vänaräù
monkeys
upäyam
trick
çiläkhandam
stone
kñipati
throws
kupitaù
angry
adhaù
down
santoñeëa
with pleasure
17
(vänaraù)
(santoñaù)
Lesson 5 – vocabulary
AarMÉe
kayRktaR
àawRna
n&Tytu
kit ?
g[ytu
pa{fva>
kaErva>
v;eR
masa>
idnain
p]e
%dhr[m!
dNta>
ärambhe
in the begining
käryakartä
volounteer, activist
prärthanä
imperative form (request, prayer)
nåtyatu
dance!
kati?
how many?
gaëayatu
count!
päëòaväù
Pandavas A
kauraväù
Kauravas A
varñe
in year
mäsäù
months
dinäni
days
(dinam)
pakñe
in forthnight
(pakñaù)
udaharaëam
example, exercise
dantäù
teeth
d{f>
SyUt>
kae;>
vataR
Swailka
A¼‚lIykm!
A¼‚Lyam!
daëòaù
stick
syütaù
bag
koñaù
pocket
värtä
news
sthälikä
(small) plate
aìguléyakam
ring
aìgulyäm
on the finger
pÇm!
ivÄkae;>
iv*aly>
ihmaly>
magR>
siÂka
patram
(a sheet of) paper, leaf, letter
vittakoñaù
bank
vidyälayaù
school
himälayaù
Himalaya
märgaù
road, street
saïcikä
file
g&hm!
¢ame
vaiqkayam!
zalayam!
msI
mIn>
zBdÖym!
imilTva
@kkvaKym!
gåham
house
gräme
in village
(grämaù)
väöikäyäm
in garden
(väöikä)
çäläyäm
in school
(çälä)
masé
ink
ménaù
fish
çabda-dvayam
two words (a pair of words)
militvä
after meeting
eka-eka-väkyam
one sentence each
18
(ärambhaù)
(nåtyati)
(gaëayati)
(varñaù)
(mäsaù)
(dantaù)
(aìgulé)
kwyiNt
gaepal>
devaly>
Éartdeze
k[aRqkàdeze
pÂm-muOymgeR
dzm-%pmgeR
iÇtIya
Évne
sarnaw>
ibhare
Ahae !
kathayanti
talk, say
gopälaù
cowherd
devälayaù
temple
bhärata-deçe
in the country of India
karëäöaka-pradeçe
in Karnataka state A
païcama-mukhya-märge
on the fifth main street
daçama-upamärge
on the tenth side street
tritéyä
third
bhavane
in building
säranäthaù
Saranatha
bihäre
in Bihar
aho!
oh!
kda ?
zBdm!
%pyuJy
dNtxavn< kraeit
yaegasnm!
pUjam!
%pahrm!
idncrI
õan< kraeit
pU[RvaKym!
ALpahrm!
kadä?
when?
çabdam
sound, word
upayujya
after using, connecting
danta-dhävanaà karoti
(he) brushes his teeth
yogäsanam
yoga postures, yoga exercise
püjäm
puja (worship)
upäharam
breakfast
dinacaré
daily schedule
snänaà karoti
takes a bath
pürëa-väkyam
ful sentence
alpäharam
breakfast
ïutSy
mhapué;a>
ceta<is
mna<is
kdaict!
suÉai;tkar>
}atum!
çrutasya
of the heard
mahä-puruñäù
great personalities
(mahä-puruñaù)
cetäàsi
the minds
(cetaù, cetas)
manäàsi
the minds
(manaù, manas)
kadäcit
sometimes
subhäñita-käraù
writer of the subhashitam
jïätum
to know
g¼tIre
saxu>
svRda
praepkarm!
dyalu>
y>
shaYym!
õanawRm!
Avtrit
v&iík>
gaìga-tére
on the bank of Ganga
sädhuù
holy man
sarvadä
always
paropakäram (para upakäram)
(bhavanam)
benevolence, activities for welfare of others
dayäluù
kind, merciful
yaù
who, which
sahäyyam
help
snänärtham
for bathing
avatarati
he descends, goes down
våçcikaù
scorpion
19
(kathayati)
àvah>
SvÉav>
d<znm!
ÊòSvÉav>
r][Iy>
g&Ÿait
b÷varm!
dzit
Tyjit
sMyk!
tqm!
Aanetum!
ndItqm!
pZyn!
ikmwRm! ?
r]it
]uÔ>
jNtu>
SvSvÉavm!
twa
kI†z>
pravähaù
current, flow
svabhävaù
own nature
daàçanam
biting, stinging
duñöa-svabhävaù
bad nature
rakñaëéyaù
should be protected
gåhëäti
takes up, grabs, embraces
bahu-väram
many times
daçati
stings
tyajati
lets go, abandons
samyak
good
taöam
(river) bank, shore
änetum
to bring
nadé-taöam
river bank, shore
paçyan
while observing
kim artham?
what for, why
rakñati
saves, protects
kñudraù
mean, vile
jantuù
creature
sva-svabhävam
his own nature
tathä
so, thus
kédåçaù
what kind of
20
Lesson 6 – vocabulary
Éanuvasr>
saemvasr>
m¼lvasr>
buxvasr>
guévasr>
zu³vasr>
zinvasr>
bhänu-väsaraù
Sunday (Sun)
soma-väsaraù
Monday (Moon)
maìgala-väsaraù
Tuesday (Mars)
budha-väsaraù
Wednesday (Mercur)
guru-väsaraù
Thursday (Jupiter)
çukra-väsaraù
Friday (Venus)
çani-väsaraù
Saturday (Saturn)
A*
ñ>
prñ>
àprñ>
ý>
prý>
àprý>
adya
today
çvaù
tomorrow
paraçvaù
after tomorrow
praparaçvaù
the day after after-tomorrow
hyaù
yesterday
parahyaù
before yesterday
praparahyaù
the day before before-yesterday
pÂ-Aixk-;fœvadnm! païca-adhika-ñaò-vädanam five minutes past six
pÂ-%n-sÝvadnm! païca-una-sapta-vädanam five minutes to seven
àat>kle
imlam>
suàÉatm!
rÇaE
zuÉraiÇ>
ANysmye
nmSkar>
àat>
say»ale
ANyaiSmn!
nmSte
]Mytam!
k][m!
hir> Aaem!
k…zlm!
yda
Ërva[I
Swane
prätaù-kale
in the morning
milämaù
we meet
suprabhätam
good morning!
ratrau
in the night
çubha-rätriù
good evening!
anya-samaye
in some other time
namaskäraù
Good day! Respects!
prätaù
morning
säyaì-käle
in the evening
(-kälaù)
anyasmin
in another
(anyaù)
namaste
Hello! Good day!
kñamyatäm
excuse me
kakñaëam
one minute
hariù om!
Hello!
kuçalam
good, auspicious
yadä
when
düraväëé
telephone
sthäne
instead, in place of
Swapyaim
sthäpayämi
(I) put down, place
21
(milati)
(ratriù) (fem.)
(sthäpayati)
Aapi[k>
nayk>
äpaëikaù
shop keeper, salesman
näyakaù
hero, leader
vataRpiÇkam!
suNdrka{fm!
muMbEngrm!
itépiwm!
Ar{ym!
SvgRm!
purIm!
clnicÇmiNdrm!
#NÔlaekm!
patalm!
ivdezm!
mata
yanm!
värtä-patrikäm
newspaper
sundara- käëòam
sundara-kandam chapter of Ramayana A
mumbai-nagaram
to city of Mumbai A
tirupathim
to Tirupathi A
araëyam
to forrest
svargam
to heaven
purém
to Puri A
calana-citra-mandiram
to the cinema
indra-lokam
to Indraloka (heaven)
pätälam
to Patala (hell)
videçam
abroad
mätä
mother
yänam
vehicle
danm!
kr[Iym!
mhadanm!
prNtu
buÉu]a
tavt!
itóit
AxRidnm!
jIvm!
dänam
donation, giving
karaëéyam
should be done
mahä-dänam
the greatest donation
parantu
but
bubhukñä
hunger
tävat
that much
tiñöhati
stays
ardha-dinam
half a day
jévam
life
mahäräjaù
great king
pälayati sma
ruled
räjä
king
amätyaù
minister, advisor, counselor
candraguptasya
of Chandragupta A
cäëakyaù
Chanakya A
niùspåhaù
dettached, desireless
ca
and
äçä
desire, hankering
yadyäpi (yadi api)
although
sarala-jévanam
simple life
yäpayati sma
was leading
sämänya-jévanam
ordinary life
ähvayati
calls
prajäbhyaù
to people, subjects (of the King) (prajä)
dätum
to give
mharaj>
palyit Sm
raja
AmaTy>
cNÔguÝSy
ca[Ky>
in>Sp&h>
c
Aaza
y*ip
srljIvnm!
yapyit Sm
samaNyjIvnm!
Aaþyit
àja_y>
datum!
22
(svargaù)
(videçaù)
(nom. sing. of räjän)
kMblan!
ivÄr[m!
vStut>
k…qIre
vas< kraeit
nITva
raiz>
zETykal>
zyn< k«tvan!
b÷zETym!
kMpte Sm
ivna
caer>
mhaxink>
ASy
xnain
caeryam>
inÔa< kraeit
pañeR
x&tvan!
@tyae>
AaíyRm!
AÉvt!
twEv
suÝvan!
pÆI
ANt>
gTva
%Twapyit
%Tway
mhazy !
k…tUhlen
mdwRm!
dÄvan!
#t> prm!
caEyRkayRm!
skazat!
izi]tvNtaE
Ty®va
l¾a
]mam!
yact>
kambalän
blankets
vitaraëam
pass on, grant
vastutaù
actually, truely
kuöére
in a hut
väsaà karoti
he lives
nétvä
after taking
räçiù
pile
çaitya-kälaù
cold season, winter
çayanaà kåtavän
he lay down
bahu-çaityam
very cold
kampate sma
he was shaking
vinä
without
coraù
thief
mahä-dhanikaù
very rich man
asya
his, of him
dhanäni
riches
corayämaù
we still
nédräà karoti
he is sleeping
pärçve
besides
dhåtavän
wore, used for covering
etayoù
of the two of them
äçcaryam
surprise, wonder
abhavat
was
tathaiva
also, although, like that (tatha eva)
suptavän
slept
patné
wife
antaù
in, inside
gatvä
after going
utthäpayati
gets up, wakes up
utthäya
after getting up
mahäçaya !
sir! respected!
kutühalena
with curiosity
mad artham
for me, for my sake
dattavän
has given
itaù param
from now on, from here on
caurya-käryam
theft, stealing
sakäçät
from the presence of
çikñitavantau
the two (of us) have learned
tyaktvä
after abandoning, leaving
lajjä
shame
kñamäm
forgiveness
yäcataù
the two (of us) begged
23
(kambalaù)
(kuöéram)
(eñaù)
(kutühalam)
Lesson 7 – vocabulary
Smr[m!
neÇm!
àawRnm!
smaraëam
remembering
netram
eye
prärthanam
request
XvinmuiÔka
saNÔmuiÔka
#TyweR
ktRrI
p*m!
smacarpÇm!
paQ(puStkm!
b&hÖaKym!
dhvani-mudrikä
cassette
sändra-mudrikä
CD-rom
ity arthe (iti arthe)
in the meaning, it means
kartaré
scissors
padyam
poetry
samäcära-patram
newspaper
päöhya-pustakam
text book
båhad-väkyam
big, long sentence
AÚm!
paysm!
Aaè)lm!
maedkm!
pyaeihmm!
annam
rice
päyasam
sweet milk dish
ämraphalam
mango
modakam
sweet dish
payohimam
ice cream
Aitiw>
tya
sh
Anuj>
panIym!
s»aec>
%:[m!
zkRra
AavZykI
ivze;>
pUja
hae ?
ÉignI
kiSmn!
punrœ imlam>
†òvNt>
atithiù
guest
tayä
with her
saha
with
anujaù
younger brother
pänéyam
a drink, something to drink
saìkocaù
shyness
uñëam
hot
çarkarä
sugar
ävaçyaké
needed (fem.)
viçeñaù
subject matter, news
püjä
worship ceremony
ho?
oh?
bhaginé
lit. sister, miss., mrs.
respectful address
kasmin
in whose
(kaù)
punar milämaù
See you! Good bye! (Let us meet again!)
dåñöavantaù
we have seen
g[Öym!
g[>
g&hSw>
gaëa-dvayam
two groups
gaëaù
group
gåhasthaù
householder
24
(sä)
Öyae>
%½ri[ym!
ipta
kayaRlym!
prI]a
smÝa
ivSm&tvan!
)lrsm!
kalm!
dvayoù
of the two
uccaraëéyam
should be uttered, repeated
pitä
father
käryälayam
office
parékñä
exam
samaptä
finished (fem.)
vismåtavän
forgot
phalarasam
fruit juice
kälam
time
purt>
p&ót>
di][t>
vamt>
vdeyu>
AarMÉ< kraetu
Aakz>
%pir
ÉUim>
Ax>
purataù
in front of
påñöhataù
behind
dakñiëataù
right
vämataù
left
vadeyuù
they should say
ärambhaà karotu
you begin
äkaçaù
sky
upari
above
bhümiù
earth
adhaù
below, down
iv;ye
äüsUÇm!
paQyaim
Anusr
viñaye
subject, matter
(nom. sing. of pitå)
(kälaù)
brahmasütram
Brahmasutra
päöhayämi
I teach
anusara
you follow!
%pkarm!
Apkarm!
ye
te;am!
saxuTvm!
upakäram
good actions
apakäram
bad actions
ye
which (masc. pl.)
teñäm
of them
sädhutvam
goodness
suNdrm!
sevka>
k«i;ÉUim>
NyUnta
nam
inÔa
Svg&he
%pivòvan!
icNtn< k…vRn!
tiSmn!!
Aagta
sundaram
beautiful
sevakäù
servants
kåñi-bhümiù
farmland
nyünatä
shortcoming, lack
näma
indeed
nidrä
sleep
svagåhe
in his house
upaviñöavän
sat down
cintanaà kurvan
while thinking
tasmin
in that
ägatä
came
25
(viñayaù)
A
(2nd pers. sing. imper.)
(yaù)
(saù)
(saù)
mhtI
icNta
%TpNna
gayit
icNtiyTva
Xvinm!
Anusrn!
A¢e
inxRn>
iÉiÄm!
AalMBy
%½E>
gayn!
†:yte
†:Tva
@tavta
AanNden
kar[m!
àk«itm!
zaeÉte
vsNtkal>
ivksiNt
æmra>
sÂarm!
†Zyte
ANyt!
Ê>om!
AnuÉvit
suovan!
rhSym!
}anaedy>
mahaté
great
cintä
anxious thought
utpannä
risen, arose, came forth
gäyati
sings
cintayitvä
after thinking
dhvanim
sound, tune
anusaran
while following
agre
further
nirdhanaù
poor man
bhittim
wall
älambya
after leaning, supporting
uccaiù
loud
gäyan
while singing
dåñyate
reflected, was to be seen
dåñtvä
after seeing
etävatä
with this much, with such
änandena
with bliss
käraëam
cause
prakåtim
nature
çobhate
is decorated, beautiful
vasanta-kälaù
spring time
vikasanti
bloom, flourish
bhramaräù
bees
saïcäram
roaming here and there
dåçyate
is seen
anyat
another (neut.)
duùkham
unhapiness
anubhavati
experiences
sukhavän
happy
rahasyam
joy, happiness
jïänodayaù
enlightened
26
(fem. sing. of mahat)
Lesson 8 – vocabulary
#TyadInam!
@kvarm!
zkq>
vsitmiNdrm!
k…Š…r>
ityädénäm
etc. (of the following)
eka-väram
once
çakaöaù
cart
vasati-mandiram
hostel
kukkuraù
dog
àeš;ytu
icÇmiNdrm!
¢Nwaly>
cNÔlaek>
pu<il¼zBde
npu<skil¼zBde
preñayatu
send!
citra-mandiram
cinema
granthälayaù
library
candra-lokaù
Moon planet
puàliìga-çabde
in the masculine word
napuàsakaliìga-çabde
in the neuter word
%*ant>
%½E>
znE>
ïavyaim
É;it
gjRit
reLyanm!
izzu>
raedn< kraeit
zI¢m!
mNdm!
udyänataù
from the garden, park
uccaiù
loudly
çanaiù
quietly
çrävayämi
let listen (lit. cause to listen)
bhañati
barks
garjati
roars
relyänam
train
çiçuù
child
rodanaà karoti
cries
çéghram
quickly
mandam
slowly
³Ifam!
suxao{fm!
tSyE
datVym!
tSmE
smapyit
jy>
dansmye
v´Vym!
ɶ>
Évet!
kréòäm
game
(kréòä)
sudhäkhaëòam
chalk
(sudhäkhaëòaù)
tasyai
to her
(sä)
dätavyam
it should be given
tasmai
to him
samäpayati
finishes
jayaù
victory
däna-samaye
in the time of giving
vaktavyam
should be said
bhagnaù
broken
bhavet
should become
kezala»ar>
Éaejnm!
keçäläìkäraù
hairstyle
bhojanam
meal
27
(iti ädi)
(preñayati)
(udyänam)
(çrävayati)
(saù)
ÉaejnanNtrm!
raeiqkam!
lfœfukm!
maedkm!
sarm!
Kveiwtm!
lv[m!
t³m!
bhojanänantaram
after the meal
roöikäm
roti bread
laòòukam
a sweet dish
modakam
a sweet dish
säram
soup
kvathitam
stew (sambar)
lavaëam
salt
takram
butter milk
#Tyu´e
kóm!
Aatpe
jnanam!
Dayam!
kLpyiNt
prawaRy
st!-pué;a>
sMpadyiNt
inimÄm!
smj
ity ukte (iti ukte)
it is said so
kañöham
difficult
ätape
in the head
janänäm
of people
chäyäm
shadow
kalpayanti
they consider
parärthäya
for (sake of) others
sat-puruñäù
holy men
sampädayanti
carry out, accomplish
nimittam
cause
samaja
society
savaxnen
ivÖan!
Aneke;u
inîat>
àitidnm!
AXyynm!
AXyapnm!
paQnm!
paQawRm!
mhtI àIit>
@kiSmn! idne
Vyakr[m!
Nyayzaôm!
AkSmat!
Jvr>
AaE;xm!
AanItvan!
àyaejnm!
raiÇsmye
m&t> AÉvt!
mhat!
sävädhanena
with attention
vidvän
learned man
anekeñu
in many
niçnätaù
expert
pratidinam
every day
adhyayanam
self-study
adhyäpanam
teaching
päöhanam
study
päöhärtham
to study
mahaté prétiù
great affection
ekasmin dine
on one day
vyäkaraëam
grammar
nyäya-çästram
logic
akasmät
sudenly
jvaraù
fever
auñadham
medicine
änétavän
he brought
prayojanam
purpose, cause, use
rätri-samaye
in the evening time
måtaù abhavat
he died
mahat
very
28
(ätapaù)
(chäyä)
(kalpayati)
shjm!
sahajam
yain
yäni
kr[Iyain
karaëiyäni
invsiNt
nivasanti
Anu][m!
anukñaëam
SvSwane
svasthäne
paQyit
päöhayati
@k"{qapyRNtm!
eka-ghaëöä-paryantam
s<zy>
saàçayaù
pUvRidne
pürva-dine
àv&Äm!
pravåttam
ASman!
asmän
@tavNt>
etävantaù
VywR>
vyarthaù
xmR>
dharmaù
etadåçäù
@t†za>
Aasn!
äsan
ATyNt-kò-piriSwtaE atyanta-kañöa-paristhitau
SvkIym!
svakéyam
yaiptvNt>
yäpitavantaù
naturally
which (neut. pl.)
(yat)
what are to be done
they live
immediately
on his place
teaches
till one hour passed
doubt
the day before
happened
us
such, this much
(aham)
(etävat, adj.)
waste
dharma, duty
such
were
even in the most difficult circumstances
own
continued, lived on
29
(lit. spent time)
Lesson 9 – vocabulary
hadRm!
¢Nwm!
iv}anm!
km!
ba[icûm!
yÇ
Aanyaim
ivp[It>
àvhit
m&galym!
àvasm!
härdam
heartly
grantham
book
vijïänam
science
kam
whom
bäëa-cihnam
arrow
yatra
where, wherever
änayämi
I bring
vipaëitaù
from the market
pravahati
flows
mågälayam
to the ZOO
praväsam
travel
}anawRm!
ippasa
invr[awRm!
AanNdawRm!
n&Tym!
zNTywRm!
gayaim
paQnawRm!
AaE;xawRm!
AaE;xalym!
XyanawRm!
ËrdzRnm!
icikTsalym!
ÉaejnawRm!
%paharmiNdrm!
jïänärtham
for knowledge
pipäsä
thirst
nivaraëärtham
for quenching
änandärtham
for pleasure
nåtyam
dance
çantyartham
for peacefulness
gäyämi
I sing
päöhanärtham
for study
auñadhärtham
for medicine
auñadhälayam
to the hospital
dhyänärtham
for meditation
düradarçanam
television
cikitsälayam
to the hospital
bhojanärtham
for meal
upähära-mandiram
restaurant
naqkm!
tafyaim
àTy]>
iv*am!
twa Astu
näöakam
theatre play, drama
täòayämi
I beat
pratyakñaù
visible
vidyäm
knowledge
tathä astu
so be it
@eñyRm!
sm&iÏm!
AiÉv&iÏm!
sMpdm!
dae;an!
aiçvaryam
oppulence
samåddhim
fortune
abhivåddhim
prosperity
sampadam
success
doñän
mistakes
30
(kaù)
(vipaëiù)
(mågälayaù)
(vidyä)
(doñaù)
ËrI k…yaRt!
ke @te ?
kr[Iya
tNÔa
Éym!
AvSwayam!
³aex>
kaep>
AavZykta
dzRnIy>
AalSym!
tu
iv*aiwRn>
jIvne
svRiSmn! ]ne
Asmasu
kdaip n
dI"RsUÇta
ivlMb>
A*tnkayRm!
düré kuryät
is to be kept far away, given up
ke ete?
which are these?
karaëéyä
should be done
tandrä
laziness
bhayam
fear
avasthäyäm
positioned, posture
krodhaù
anger
kopaù
rage
ävaçyakatä
necessity
darçanéyaù
should be shown
älasyam
idleness
tu
but
vidyärthinaù
learners
jévane
in life
sarvasmin kñane
in every moment
asmäsu
in our
(aham)
kadäpi na
never
(kadä api na)
dérgha-sütratä
procrastrination
vilambaù
delaying
adyatana-käryam
todays work
Aaïm>
xaEMy>
mhi;R>
paQyit Sm
b÷izZya>
v&ió>
]eÇm!
jlàvah>
Aaþyit
k«i;]eÇm!
jlbNx>
nò> Syat!
invarytu
m&iÄkam!
Aixk>
#it kar[t>
SvSy
Svizr>
smIkr[m!
smyanNtrm!
Aagt>
äçramaù
ashram
dhaumyaù
Dhaumya A
maharñiù
great sage
päöhayati sma
was teaching
bahu-çiçyäù
many disciples
våñöhiù
rain
kñetram
field
jala-pravähaù
flood, flow of water
ähvayati
calls
kåñi-kñetram
field
jala-bandhaù
dam
nañöaù syät
might be destroyed
nivärayatu
correct, remove the fault
måttikäm
soil
adhikaù
great
iti käraëataù
due to the cause
svasya
his
svaçiraù
his body
samékaraëam
correction
samayänantaram
time later
ägataù
come back
31
(måttikä)
zEnm!
AanNd>
Aail¼it
smIk«Ty
pirpaln< k«tvn!
ktRVym!
smaiptvan!
Aprm!
ktRVya
prta
çayanam
lying down
änandaù
bliss, joy, happiness
äliìgati
embraces
samékåtya
after repairing
paripälanaà kåtavan
he followed
kartavyam
should be done
samäpitavän
completed
aparam
other
kartavyä
duty consciousness
paratä
supreme
32
Lesson 10 – vocabulary
àîawRka>
ikmwRm!
d{fdIp>
AixkarI
suyaeRdy>
sUyaRSt>
n&Tya_yasm!
bNxu>
àkz>
iz][m!
AaraeGym!
SvaSWym!
pakzalam!
vsit
pak< kraeit
inÔa< kraeim
àclit
mEsUéngre
praçnärthakäù
interrogatives
kim artham
what for, why
daëòadépaù
tube bulb
adhikäré
officer (authority, superintendant)
suryodayaù
sunrise
süryästaù
sunset
nåtyäbhyäsam
dancing exercises
bandhuù
friend
prakaçaù
light
çikñaëam
lesson, the act of teaching, instruction
ärogyam
health
svästhyam
health
päkaçäläm
kitchen
vasati
lives
päkaà karoti
he cooks
nidräà karomi
I sleep
pracalati
proceed
maisüru-nagare
in the city of Mysore A
gtvan!
piQtvan!
iliotvan!
k«tvan!
pItvtI
iliotvtI
gtvtI
AagtvtI
piQtvtI
³Iiftvan!
³IiftvtI
%´van!
%´vtI
Swaiptvan!
SwaiptvtI
Xyanm!
gatavän
I, he went
paöhitavän
he read
likhitavän
he wrote
kåtavän
he did
pétavaté
she drank
likhitavaté
she wrote
gatavaté
she went
ägatavaté
she came
paöhitavaté
she read
kréòitavän
he played
kréòitavaté
she played
uktavän
he said
uktavaté
she said
sthäpitavän
he placed
sthäpitavaté
she placed
dhyänam
meditation
kiít!
caEyRm!
gim:yaim
kaçcit
someone
cauryam
theft
gamiñyämi
I will go
33
(päkaçälä)
piQ:yaim
paSyaim
³Iif:yaim
vid:yaim
leio:yaim
Ôúyaim
kir:yiNt
]Irm!
}aSyaim
ne:yaim
paöhiñyämi
I will study, read
päsyämi
I will drink
kréòiñyämi
I will play
vadiñyämi
I will say
lekhiñyämi
I will write
drakñyämi
I will watch
kariñyanti
they will do (pl.)
kñéram
milk
jïäsyämi
I will know
neñyämi
I will take
sMbaexnm!
yaejyNtu
sambodhanam
vocative
yojayantu
join!
gte
zaekm!
k…vIRta
gtiv;ye
àv&Ttiv;ye
Éiv:y
ÔòVy>
Svß>
Éute
vtRmankale
Vyvhr[Iym!
SwatVym!
ivc][a>
gate
in past, in that, which has passed
çokam
sadness
kurvétä
should do
gata-viñaye
in the matter of the past
pravåtta-viñaye
in the matters that had passed
bhaviñye
in the future
drañöavyaù
should be seen
svapnaù
dreams
bhute
in the past
vartamäna-käle
in the present
vyavaharaëéyam
should be acted, performed, conducted
sthätavyam
should stand
vicakñaëäù
the learned, intelligent, proficient, skilful men
kaict!
v&Ïa
cTvar>
zura>
mt&ÉUim>
ïavyit Sm
rò+iv;ye
b÷ïÏanv>
zÇU[am!
A³m[m!
@kEk>
yuÏawRm!
àwmpuÇm!
itlkm!
xaryit
käcit
some
våddhä
old woman
catväraù
four
çuräù
brave men
matå-bhümiù
motherland
çrävayati sma
told
rañöra-viñaye
in the matter of country
bahu-çraddhänavaù
very faitful (pl.)
çatrüëäm
of enemies
äkramaëam
aggression, attack
ekaikaù (eka-ekaù)
one from each, one by one
yuddhärtham
for fighting, to fight
prathama-putram
first son
tilakam
mark
dhärayati
put on, cause to wear
34
(3rd p. sing.)
zaEyeRn
yuÏm!
vIrSvagRm!
iÖtIypuÇm!
iÇtIypuÇm!
àITya
r][m!
ÉIkrm!
¢amSta>
r[r¼I
ctuw¡ puÇm!
AiNtmasmye
r][awRm!
ktRVypalnawRm!
ma
vIritlkm!
ivxeym!
àaPy
matu>
AïUi[
AixkarI
àe;iytum!
pÂm>
bildnm!
suri]t>
çauryena
bravely
yuddham
fight, war, battle
véra-svärgam
paradise of heroes
dvitéya-putram
second son
tritéya-putram
third son
prétyä
with affection, love
rakñaëam
protection
bhékaram
bravely, ferociously, causing fear (adj.)
grämastäù
inhabitants of the vilage
raëaraìgé
on the battlefiled
caturthaà putram
fourth son
antimä-samaye
in the last hour
rakñaëärtham
for protection
kartavya-pälanärtham
??? for protection
mä
no (emphasized) – don't!
véra-tilakam
heroic mark
vidheyam
duty
präpya
after attaining
mätuù
mother's, of mother
açrüëi
tears
adhikäré
the elder
preñayitum
to send
païcamaù
fifth
balidanam
offering, sacrifice
surakñitaù
protected
35
(gen. sing. mätä)
Lesson 11 – vocabulary
´vtuàTyayaNtanam!
àaÝvNt>
àit
yaega_yasm!
Aals>
Sm&tvan!
ôIil¼e
ktavatu-pratyäyäntänäm
the words ending with the ending “-vat”
präptavantaù
(they) got, attained
prati
towards
yogäbhyäsam
the practice of yoga
älasaù
an idle, lazy person
småtavän
he remembered
stré-liìge
in feminine (gender)
gItvtI
leioka
nqI
gétavaté
sang
(fem. sing.)
lekhikä
writer
(fem.)
naöé
dancer
(fem.)
AyR
æata
ke ke
A¢j>
A¢ja
iptamh>
matamhI
iptamhI
Anuja
ikm! ikm!
kdlI)lm!
arya
respected teacher
(voc.)
bhrätä
brother
(m. sing. nom.)
ke ke
who among all
(kaù kaù)
agrajaù
elder brother
agrajä
elder sister
pitämahaù
grandfather (father’s father)
mätämahé
grandmother (mother’s mother)
pitämahé
grandmother (father’s mother)
anujä
younger sister
kim kim
what of the various things
kadalé-phalam
banana
kam! kam!
kÚdÉa;am!
ihiNdÉa;am!
ANGlÉa;am!
#it
ïv[m!
³Ifnm!
paQnm!
g*m!
nmaim
ceÚEngrm!
%¾Einngrm!
†òvan!
k…bilngrm!
xgvrngrm!
käm käm
to whom among all
kannada-bhäñäm
Kannada (the official language in Karnataka – India)
hindi-bhäñäm
Hindi
angla-bhäñäm
English
iti
thus
çravaëam
listening
kréòanam
playing
päöhanam
studying
gadyam
prose
namämi
I respect, I pay obeisances, homage
cennai-nagaram
Chennai A
ujjaini-nagaram
Ujjaini A
dåñöavän
(I, he, she) saw
kubali-nagaram???
dhagavara-nagaram???
36
(fem. sing. acc.)
kaeLktngrm!
kolkata-nagaram
Kolkata A
At>
#Nxnm!
clit
iv}anI
s<zaexnm!
pirïmm!
A»an!
mým!
Aasi´>
}anm!
s<padyaim
@tdœ
ANym!
éG[>
pUryiNt
bir???
gItam!
mÙI
kyaR³m>
jnsMmdR>
Aar]k>
isÏ>
ANya ka
sÉa¼are
dEvÉ´m!???
Aixkm!
%Tsv>
%Tsuka>
nvvôm!
xriNt
pcit
pUjyaim
ataù
thus, so
indhanam
fuel
calati
goes
vijïäné
knowledgable (clever) person
saàçodhanam
correction
pariçramam
endeavor
aìkän
marks
mahyam
to me
äsaktiù
diligence (devotedness)
jïänam
knowledge
saàpädayämi
accomplish
etad
this
anyam
another
rugëaù
ill
pürayanti
finish
na[km!
@v
dezsevm!
Aa}am!
palyaim
iv*akle
prI]akale
(acc. sing.)
bari???
gétäm
song (acc. sing. fem.)
mantré
minister
karyäkramaù
function, programme, festival
jana-sammardaù
gathering of people
ärakñakaù
policeman
siddhaù
promoted, perfected
anyä kä
who else, which else
sabhäìgäre
in the auditorium
daiva-bhaktam???
devoted to God
adhikam
a lot
utsavaù
festival
utsukäù
restless, anxious
nava-vastram
new clothing
dharanti
(they) wear, dress
pacati
cooks
püjayämi
I worship
näëakam
coin
eva
only
deça-sevam
patriotic activity
äjïäm
commands
pälayämi
I observe, protect, follow
vidyä-kale
in the time of learning???
parékñä-käle
in the time of the exam
37
(fem. sing.)
mXyaûe
madhyähne
at noon
k…Çaip n
kuträpi na
nowhere
ïutvan!
nUtnm!
saxytu
ivnZytu
çrutavän
heard
nütanam
new
sädhayatu
heed
vinaçyatu
perish
àdzRyaim
†òœva
zrIrma*m!
xmRsaxnm!
jE
jvan!
iksan!
shsa
ivdxIt
i³yam!
Éariv>
pirÇa[ay
saxUnam!
ivnazay
Ê:k«tam!
xmRs<SwapnawaRy
sMÉvaim
yuge yuge
pradarçayämi
I show
dåñövä
after seeing
çaréra-mädyam
through the body
dharma-sädhanam
religious duties
jai
victory
javän
soldier
kisän
farmer
sahasä
rashly, without thinking
vidadhéta
may, should perform, do
kriyäm
must do
bhäraviù
Bharavi A
pariträëäya
for the protection
sädhünäm
of the good
vinäçäya
for the destruction
duñkåtäm
of evil-doers
dharma-saàsthäpanärthäya for reastablishment of dharma
sambhavämi
I appear, am born
yuge yuge
from age to age
g&hkayRm!
zuÉm!
ÉUyat!
gåha-käryam
homework
çubham
good, beautiful
bhüyät
should,must be
%ÄmkayRktaR
Vyvharm!
Éiv:yTkale
gu[a>
Avgu[a>
siÚihtm!
Anu][m!
in[Rym!
izòm!
uttama-kärya-kartä
very good worker
vyavahäram
bussiness
bhaviñyat-käle
in the future
guëäù
virtues
avaguëäù
vices
sannihitam
(placed) near
anukñaëam
momentarily
nirëayam
decission
çiñöam
remaining
38
(3rd pers. sing.)
Lesson 12 – vocabulary
SvraJym!
jNmisÏ> Aixkar>
@ka¢tya
Öarm!
ipdxatu
Jvalytu
%dhr[awRm!
Aàyaejk>
kóm!
vd
izZym!
xEyRm!
saxnm
Jyeóa>
ïaNta
%pin;dœ
cr
k«yazIl>
padm!
à]alytu
svaräjyam
independece
janma-siddhaù adhikäraù
ones birthright???
ekägratayä
with (one pointed) concentration
dväram
door
pidadhätu
shut!
jvälayatu
light!
udaharaëärthaà
for practice
aprayojakaù
good for nothing
kañöùam
difficult
vada
Speak!
(verb. 2nd p. sing. imp.)
çiçyam
pupil
(çiçyaù)
dhairyam
courage (patience, fortitude)
sädhanam
means
jyeñöhäù
elders
çräntä
tired
upaniñad
UpanishadA
cara
practice!
kriyäçélaù
active
pädam
foot
prakñälayatu
should wash!
clnicÇm!
Aip
}atm!
raegI
calana-citram
movie
api
also
jïätam
understood
rogé
sick person
³Ifapqu>
rciyÇI
kréòä-paöuù
athlete
racayitré
authoress (writer, compositor)
kitcn
rcyiNt
vE}aink>
calk>
AXyapk>
ym!
icÇkar>
Êòa
AiSm
katicana
few
racayanti
complete, construct, compose
vaijïänikaù
scientist
cälakaù
driver
adhyäpakaù
teacher, instructor
yam
whom
citrakäraù
artist, painter
duñöä
bad woman
asmi
(I) am
39
(verb 3rd p. sing. imp.)
(verb. 2nd p. sing. imp.)
(yaù)
Sm>
ÉrtIy>
Éaepalt>
k…ziln>
ËrÉa;m!
@vm!
smaù
(we) are
bharatéyaù
Indian
bhopälataù
Bhopala A
kuçalinaù
fine
dürabhäñam
on the phone
evam
really
yid
tihR
Évaim
Vyaº>
tda
xavaim
ñasnm!
ïavyaim
sMpadyaim
àisx]eÇm!
àcar< kraeim
%Út-AXyaynm!
tjRyit
Aazyaim
vaKyÖym!
àvatRytu
sSyain
Aaraepytu
ziNtm!
vedm!
yadi
if
tarhi
then
bhavämi
I am
vyäghraù
tiger
tadä
then
dhävämi
I run
çväsanam
sleep
çrävayämi
recite
sampädayämi
I acquire, attain
prasidha-kñetraà
famous place
pracäraà karomi
I spread, propagate
unnata-adhyäyanam
the highest study
tarjayati
scolds
äçayämi
I retreat
väkya-dvayam
a pair of sentences
pravärtayatu
turn on (set in motion)
sasyäni
crops
äropayatu
grow
çantim
peace
vedam
Vedas
v[Rmalayam!
t†;m!
mÙay
yaeGym!
AhRiNt
varëa-mäläyäm
in the alphabet
tadåñam
that kind
manträya
for a mantra
yogyam
use
arhanti
useful
iÉ]aycnm!
jIvn< kraeit
suv[Rk»[m!
Aþyit
"ae;n< kraeit
siNmilta>
"ae;yit
inxRn>
àÉUtm!
bhikñäyacanam
begging
jévanaà karoti
earns living
suvarëa-kaìkaëam
golden bracelet
ahvayati
calls
ghoñanaà karoti
makes a speech
sanmilitäù
gathered
ghoñayati
says
nirdhanaù
the poorest person
prabhütam
immense
40
ySy
y*ip É
%pir
Aa³mn< kraeim
@eñym!
}anaedy>
l¾ya
yasya
whose
yadyapi
although
räjyasya
of kingdom
äkramanaà karomi
I make aggression
aiçvaryam
oppulence, wealth
jïänodayaù
increase of knowledge, enlightenment
lajjayä
with shame
41
(yadi api)
Lesson 13 – vocabulary
A<zm! ???
tp>
mae]m!
ATyuÄmm!
aàçam ???
part ???
tapaù
penance
mokñam
liberation
atyuttamam
very good, excellent
jlpan< kraeit
ANy ANy
)eäirmast>
meYmaspyRNtm!
"mRkal>
ìtm!
ka]a
SpxaR
kNyk…marIt>
kiZmrpyRNtm!
ihNÊmhasagrt>
ihmalypavRtpyRNtm!
jalapänaà karoti
drinks water
anya anya
some other
febrari-mäsataù
from the month of February
mey-mäsa-paryantam
till the month of May
gharma-kälaù
hot season
vratam
vow
käkñä
lesson
spardhä
competition
kanyakumärétaù
from KanyakumariA
kaçmira-paryantam
to KashmirA
hindu-mahä-sägarataù
from Indian ocean
ïImn!
#yt! tv ???
Aaist
Aasam!
bih>
Agtu ???
SvCDta< k«tvan!
tt>
pirzIiltvan!
tÚam
Éaejnivram>
he
ivharm!
nEv
A*ara_ya
pidzIliyZyaim???
pir]aya< kraeim
dzRyis
%*aegt>
in:kazyaim
çréman
mister
iyat tava ???
from then to now????
äsit
It was
äsäm
I was
bahiù
outside
(acc. sing.)
himälaya-pärvata-paryantam to the mountains of Himalaya
agatu ???
svacchatäà kåtavän
(I) was cleaning
tataù
from that (time on)
pariçélitavän
checking
tannäma
so
bhojana-virämaù
break for the meal
he
oh
vihäram
leisure
naiva
ceartainly not
adya äräbhyä
beginning from today
padiçérayiçyämi???
I will ????
paricayaà karomi
I will get familiar
darçayasi
show
udyogataù
from (your) job
niñkäçayämi
I will fire
42
(ati uttamam)
ÉvTsu
AvZym!
ñ> Aar_y
Tyjaim
StaeÇm!
@kvrm!
bhavatsu
who of
avaçyam
certainly
çvaù ärabhya
from tomorrow on
tyajämi
I give up
stotram
hymn
ekavaram
once
AjuRnSy k«te
kayaRnm!
yCDiNt
iqPp[Im!
sUcnam!
%paynm!
sNdezm!
vaTsaLym!
nvnItm!
"&tm!
õehm!
³Ifnkm!
àItIm!
É´Sy k«te
@[email protected]>
AazIvaRdm!
vrm!
#òawm!
k«pam!
paÇm!
)lpu:pm!???
padk{fUkm!???
sOya> k«te
arjunasya kåte
to Arjuna
kär-yänam
car
yacchanti
give (pl.)
öippaëéà
note
sücanäm
instruction
upäyanam
present
sandeçam
message
vätsalyam
tenderness
navanétam
butter
ghåtam
ghee (clarified butter)
sneham
love
kréòanakam
toy
prétém
affection
bhaktasya kåte
to the worshiper
eka-ekaù
each of you, one by one
äçérvädam
blessing
varam
blessing
iñöärtham
anything desired
kåpäm
grace, mercy
pätram
vessel, pot
phalapuñpam???
(loc., lit.: who in)
flowers???
päda-kaëòukam ???
football ???
sakhyäù kåte
to the friend
ywa
twa
izr>
Sp&ztu
k{fªyan< kraetu
ÉIm>
yathä
as
tathä
so
çiraù
head
spåçatu
touch!
kaëòüyänaà karotu!
Scratch (yourself)!
bhémaù
Bhima A
taTpyRm!
ÊjRna>
ivcar>
va[I
AacriNt
tätparyam
meaning
durjanäù
bad people
vicäraù
thoughts
väëé
speech
äcaranti
they behave, act
43
smana>
l]nm!
samänäù
same
lakñanam
symptom, characteristic
44
Lecture 14
k…MÉk[R>
bIj>
A»‚r>
An"a
AasIt!
jvhlRl! neheé
àxanmÙI
SvtÙs'œ¢amkale
k> k>
suÉíNÔ baese
ÉgiTs'œ">
HNsIra[IlúmIÉE
vlÉÉE ptel!
itturi[ cNdm
laekm{y itlK
izvijin
%pjuJy
kincn
k{yk…marayam!
ivvekanNd>
mwurayam!
ïIk«:[>
AayaeXyangre
xarangre
Éaejaraj>
mdte
dyalu>
gtsÝahe
ivvah>
vi;RkaeTsv>
iv³m>
Éaejraj>
Aasn!
Öapryuge
kiv>
nq>
kumbhakarëaù
Kumbhakarna A
béjaù
seed
aìkuraù
sprout
anaghä
inocent
äsét
he, she was
javaharlal neheru
Javaharlal Nehru A
pradhäna-mantré
prime minister
svatantra-saìgräma-käle
in the time of the battle for independence
kaù kaù
who (of )?
subhaç-candra bose
Subhash Chandra Bose A
bhagatsiìghaù
Bhagat Singha A
jhanséräëélakñmé bhai
Jhansirani Lakshmi Bhai A
valabhabhai patel
Valalbha Bhai Patel A
tituraëi candama???
Titurani Candama ??? A
lokamaëya tilak
Lokamanya Tilak A
çivajini
Shivajini??? A
upajujya
using
kanicana
some
kaëyakumäräyäà
in Kanyakumari
vivekänandaù
Vivekananda A
mathuräyäà
in Mathura A
çrékåñëaù
Shri Krishna
äyodhyä-nagare
in Ayodhya A
dhärä-nagare
in the city of Dhara A
bhojäräjaù
Bhoja A
madate???
in Madata A
dayäluù
mercyful, kind
gata-saptähe
last week
vivähaù
wedding
varñikotsavaù
anniversary celebration
vikramaù
Vikrama A
bhojaräjaù
king Bhoja A
äsan
they were
dväpara-yuge
in Dvapara-yuga A
kaviù
poet
naöaù
dancer (masc.)
mNtk>
ntRk>
mantakaù
???
nartakaù
dancer (masc.)
45
kIta>
Aitwy>
b÷jna>
Çetyuge
guék…lain
jlazye
vne
g&ta>
kétäù
worms
atithayaù
guests
bahujanäù
many people
treta-yuge
in Treta-yuga A
gurukuläni
gurukulas (tradititional schools for young boys)
jaläçaye
in the ocean
vane
in the forrest
gåtäù
???
zunk>
ivdezIy"qI
rajtpaÇm!
suv[Rhar>
xenu>
pUjag&hm!
kpaiqka>
yÙai[
pi][>
kMbla>
çunakaù
dog
videçéya-ghaöé
foreign watch
räjata-pätram
silver vessel
suvarëa-häraù
golden necklace
dhenuù
cow
püjägåham
prayerhall
kapäöikäù
wardrobes, cupboards
yanträëi
devices
pakñiëaù
birds
kambaläù
blankets
Aasm!
mhraò+e
gtvzeR
äsam
I was
maharäñöre
in Maharashtra A
gata-varñe
last year
vtRmankale
ÉUtkale
%iÎZy
buiÏmtI
cqula
cÂl>
SwUl>
vartamäna-käle
in present tense
bhüta-käle
in past tense
uddiçya
after saying
buddhimaté
inteligent (fem.)
caöulä
kind
caïcalaù
restless
sthülaù
fat
AaSm
praxIna
Ê>iota
in>z´>
ÊbRl>
äsma
we were
parädhénä
subservient
duùkhitä
sad
niùçaktaù
weak
durbalaù
weak
%drvedna
dI"Rm!
ñsaeCDœvasm!
SvSw>
ApraŸe
udara-vedanä
stomach pain
dérgham
long
çvasocchväsam
breathe in and out
svasthaù
healthy
aparähëe
in the afternoon
46
(atithiù)
àarBxm!
guilka>
Éva†za>
pramzRm!
AaE;xsevnm!
Apay
krm!
prärabdham
began
gulikäù
pills
bhavädåçäù
like you
parämarçam
prescription
auñadha-sevanam
application of medicine
apäya
danger, injury, harm
karam
done
iÉn iÉn
maipka
ibfal>
g[kyÙm!
bhina bhina
different
mäpikä
liner
biòälaù
cat
gaëakayantram
computer
sMpU[R}anàaiÝsmye
àkarctuòyen
pun> pad Éagm!
Sv AXyaynen
stI
ivcarivinmyen
icNtnen
sMpU[Rm!
sampürëa-jïäna-präpti-samaye in the thime of acquiring perfect knowledge
raygfÊgRm!
izvij mharaj>
palnm!
]Iriv³y[m!
ANxkarat!
smaPy
k…vRtI Aaist!
ivlMb> jat>
ANxkar> jat>
ÖarsmIpm!
ipihtm! AasIt!
r]kaÉq>
%˜aqytu
inrak«tvan!
àaiwRtvtI
dÄVym!
idGæaNta jata
ANve;[m!
AiqtvtI
izitla
AaêFvtI
prakära-catuñöayena
by four types
punaù-päda-bhägam
the next part
sva adhyäyanena
his own study
saté
???
vicära-vinimayena
by exchanging thoughts
cintanena
by thinking
sampürëam
full
räya-gaòa-durgam
fortress of Raya Gada
çivaji mahäräjaù
by King Shivaji
pälanam
protection
kñéra-vikrayaëam
sell milk
andhakärät
from dark
samäpya
after finishing
kurvaté äsét
she did???
vilambaù jätaù
delay arose, happened
andhakäraù jätaù
the night, darkness arose
dvära-samépam
to the gate
pihitam äsét
was closed
rakñakäbhaöaù
watchman
udghäöayatu
open!
niräkåtavän
denied
prärthitavaté
begged (fem.)
dattavyam
needs to be given
digbhräntä??? jätä
perplexion arose
anveñaëam
search, investigatino
aöitavaté
roamed, walked
çitilä
slack, loose, unfastened
ärüòhavaté
climbed
47
(lit.: was born)
pñeR
zakam!
g&ihTva
k…Lyam!
%iÄyR
ÊgaRt!
Aa÷tvan!
k[Ryae>
³Ndnm!
ïUyte Sm
pairtae;km!
parçve
near by
çäkäm
branch
gåhitvä
after holding
kulyäm
the ditch, channel
uttirya
after climbing, crossing
durgät
from the fortress
ähutavän
called (masc.)
karëayoù
in the (two) ears
krandanam
crying
çrüyate sma
heard
päritoñakam
gift, reward
48
(dual. loc.)
Lesson 15 – vocabulary
viqkayam!
³Ifa¼[e
ngyaRm!
SpzRm!
vaöikäyäm
in the garden
kréòäìgaëe
on the playground
nagaryäm
in the city
sparçam
touch
k»qm!
kezàsaxnm!
mjRn< kraeim
k{fukm!
bala>
kaìkaöam
comb
keça-prasädhanam
combing the hair
marjanaà karomi
I wipe
kaëòukam
ball
bäläù
children
cuirka
ktRyaim
mapnm!
tal>
mala
Al»ar< k…mR>
curikä
knife
kartayämi
cut
mäpanam
measurment
tälaù
lock
mälä
garland
alaìkäraà kurmaù
we decorate
dvIR
pirve;[< kraeit
majRnI
majRyam>
Ôae[I
darvé
ladle
pariveñaëaà karoti
serves
märjané
duster
märjayämaù
we wipe
droëé
bucket
klz>
mStkm!
dNtxvn< kraeit
AcRk>
Al»raeit
laekyanm!
iÖci³ka
iÇci³ka
sÂar< k…vRiNt
sicva>
ivmanm!
naEka
kalaçaù
water pot
mastakam
head
dantadhavanaà karoti
brushes [his] teeth
arcakaù
priest
alaìkaroti
decorates
lokayänam
bus
dvicakrikä
bicycle
tricakrikä
autoriksha
saïcäraà kurvanti
they travel
saciväù
ministers, conselors
vimänam
airplane
naukä
boat
dezaNtrm!
kªcR>
deçäntaram
abroad
kürcaù
brush
49
(fem. nagaré)
%”»nyÙm!
%”»[< kraeim
kagdm!
A]rai[
àya[< kraeim
tUla
taelyaim
uööaìkana-yantram
typewriter
uööaìkanaà karomi
I type
kägadam
paper
akñaräëi
letters
prayäëaà karomi
I travel
tülä
scale
tolayämi
I weigh
Vyax>
ba[>
maryit
laehkar>
muÌr>
sÂriNt
saEick>
velnI
gda
zÇum!
v[Rkar>
ijþa
éicm!
AaSvadyiNt
vyädhaù
hunter
bäëaù
arrow
märayati
kills
lohakäraù
blacksmith
mudgaraù
hammer
saïcaranti
travel
saucikaù
tailor
velané
rolling pin
gadä
club
çatrum
enemy
varëakäraù
painter
jihvä
tounge
rucim
taste
äsvädayanti
relish
Ky
bNxva>
Aaluken
VyÃnm!
ku:ma{fen
Kviwtm!
mrIicka>
kqu>
ÉjRnm!
dalm!
"&ten
mya sh
kya
???, what
bandhaväù
friends
älukena
with potato
vyaïjanam
side dish (curry)
kuñmäëòena
with pumpkin
kvathitam
sauce (sambar)
marécikäù
peppers
kaöuù
pungent
bharjanam
frying
dälam
dhal soup
ghåtena
with ghee
mayä saha
with me
VyvhatRVym!
ATyixkm!
mULym!
vyavahärtavyam
behaving
atyadhikam
very much
mülyam
worth
kil¼dezm!
Azaekmharaj>
ivharawRm!
kaliìga-deçam
land Kalinga
açoka-mahäräjaù
king Ashoka
vihärärtham
for relaxation
50
(bandhuù)
(ati adhikam)
bih>
kiÂt!
baEÏiÉ]um!
padarivNdyae>
Aaraect
c³vtIR
maEnm!
kaincn
AtItain
AjSy
m<sap[m!
Zmzanm!
m&t>
iv³Iy
m<sÉ]k>
³Itvan!
Al»ariày>
inrazya
inveidtvan!
danêpe[
yavdœ
tavdœ
mhTvm!
jIvÉave
VywRm!
jIivtkale
ïeóanam!
AaizvaRdm!
sawRkm!
smaiht> AÉvt!
bahiù
outside
kaïcit
some
baudha-bhikñum
Budist beggar
pädäravindayoù
lotus feet (dual)
ärocata
appealed
cakravarté
emperor
maunam
silence
känicana
some
atétäni
passed
ajasya
goat’s
maàsäpaëam
meat store
çmaçänam
cemetary
måtaù
dead
vikréya
after selling
maàsa-bhakñakaù
meateater
krétavän
bought
alaìkära-priyaù
who liked such decorations
niräçayä
with hopelessness
niveditavän
reported
däna-rüpeëa
by the form of donation, gift
yävad
as long
tävad
so long
mahatvam
greatness
jévabhäve
in continuity of life
vyartham
useless
jévita-käle
lifetime
çreñöhänäm
of the best
äçirvädam
blessing
särthakam
meaningful
samähitaù abhavat
became convinced
51
(acc. sing. kam cit)
Lesson 16 – vocabulary
tafyit
zakam!
oadnm!
sSym!
gufen
täòayati
punishes
çäkäm
vegetable
khädanam
food
sasyam
plant
guòena
with sugar candy
k[aR_yam!
neÇa_yam!
pada_yam!
hSta_yam!
sNgItam!
ved"ae;m!
karëäbhyäm
with [two] ears (dual)
neträbhyäm
with [two] eyes (dual)
pädäbhyäm
on [two] feet (dual)
hastäbhyäm
with [two] hands (dual)
sangétäm
music
vedaghoñam
recitation of the Vedas
palyit
shnya
pae;yit
É´>
ÉTya
nmit
k«;k>
kòe[
dya
ké[a
%Tshen
¬ezen
gidtm!???
vynm!
ïÏya
s¼Ita_yasm!
klh< kraeim
pälayati
defends, protects
sahanayä
with patience
poñayati
rears, raises
bhaktaù
devotee
bhatyä
with devotion
namati
pays respect
kåñakaù
farmer
kañöeëa
with difficulty
dayä
compassion
karuëä
mercy
utsahena
with enthusiasm
kleçena
with trouble
gaditam???
speech???
vayanam
weaving
çraddhayä
with confidence
saìgétäbhyäsam
musical practice
kalahaà karomi
I quarrel
ken sh ?
ccaR
bNxug&hm!
kena saha?
with whom?
carcä
concern
bandhu-gåham
relatives’ house
tElen
ivna
dIp>
Jvlit
tailena
with oil
vinä
without
dépaù
lamp
jvalati
shine
52
Aahre[
AzKym!
jIivtum!
Jvalyam>
ähareëa
with food
açakyam
impossible
jévitum
to live
jvälayämaù
we light
yda
tda
AnaraeGym!
ivram>
iv*ut!
sUyaeRdy>
kmlm!
"{qanadm!
vpiNt
vxRNte
#CDa
kayR³m>
naq(m!
saihkal>???
oed>
Aaßaeit
sUyRSt>
yadä
when
tadä
then
anärogyam
sickness
virämaù
holiday
vidyut
electricity
süryodayaù
sunrise
kamalam
lotus
ghaëöänädam
bell
vapanti
they sow
vardhante
grow
icchä
desire
käryakramaù
festival
näöyam
dance
sähikälaù???
???
khedaù
saddness
äpnoti
gets
süryastaù
sunset
mhTvm!
kiSm<iídœ
ivzalÉUim>
Apara-jns'œOya
smwRm!
mahatvam
importance
kasmiàçcid
in which
viçäla-bhümiù
huge land
apära-jana-saìkhyä
inumerable population of people
samartham
ability
g&hSw>
pÆI
taE ÖaE
klh< k…ét> Sm
@ten
pñRg&hSwa>
yaegIñr>
às&ta
%phsiNt
inmILy
ÉÔe !
icNta< n kraetu
pirharm!
idVym!
gåhasthaù
householder
patné
wife
tau dvau
the two of them
kalahaà kurutaù sma
the two of them quarrelled
etena
by this, due to this
parçva-gåhasthäù
nearby housholders
yogéçvaraù
yogic master
prasåtä
(she) spread
upahasanti
they ridicule
nimélya
after closing
bhadre!
Gentle lady!
cintäà na karotu
don’t worry
parihäram
avoid
divyam
divine
53
Aagmnat!
patum!
zKyte
AnuÉviNt Sm
Svaimn!
mNdhaspUvRkm!
mya
samNyjlm!
pUriyTva
krtafnm!
ïeyan!
ägamanät
before
pätum
to drink
çakyate
can be done
anubhavanti sma
were pleased
svämin
lord
manda-häsa-pürvakam
mildly smiling at first
mayä
by me
sämänya-jalam
ordinary water
pürayitvä
after filling
kara-täòanam
clapping
çreyän
superior
54
Lesson 17 – vocabulary
Ameirkdezm!
nyagjRnpawm!???
me"a>
myUra>
xavit
kaeikl>
jNmidnm!
tEldIpm!
amerika-deçam
America
nayägarjana-pätham???
???
meghäù
clouds
mayüräù
peacocks
dhävati
runs
kokilaù
cuckoo bird
janmadinam
birthday
taila-dépaà
oil lamp
izraevedna
A*tn
àxanmÙI
ñStn
paEra>
ýStn
g&hpaQm!
çirovedanä
headache
adyatana
today's
pradhäna-mantré
prime minister
çvastana
tomorrow's
pauräù
citizens
hyastana
yesterday's
gåhapäöham
homework
AyRvtR>
aryavartaù
Aryavarta A (India’s previous name)
narendraù
Narendra A (Vivekananda’s previous name)
nreNÔ>
gautama buddhasya
Gautama Buddha's A
gaEtm buÏSy
siddhartaù
Siddharta A
isÏtR>
bombai
Bombay A
baeMbE
madras
Madras A
mÔs!
#danINtn
idänéntana
present
svR]eÇe;u
sarva-kñetreñu
in all fields
rajzasnm!
räja-çäsanam
kingdom, rulership of a king
VyyIk…vRiNt
vyayékurvanti
they spend
äraëyanäçaù
deforrestation
Aar{ynaz>
yÙSy
yantrasya
mechanical device
zuÏvayu>
çuddha-väyuù
clean air
s<Sk«tiz][pQit??? saàskåta-çikñaëa-paöhati??? ???
Aaxuinkiz][m!
ädhunika-çikñaëam
modern teaching
gt
shaedr>
y]gnm!
ihÔbdœ-ngrm!
Aagaim
Éiv:yit
gata
last
sahodaraù
brother
yakñaganam
yakshagana A
hidrabad-nagaram
Hyderabad city A
ägämi
next
bhaviñyati
will be
55
dIpvil
cNÔlaekm!
gim:yit
ÊgaRpUja
invaRcnm!
s<Sk«tpi{fta
AiSmn!
jNmin
dépavali
Dipavali A (one of a few New Year’s celebrations)
candra-lokam
moon planet
gamiñyati
will go
durgäpüjä
Durgapuja A
nirväcanam
election
paëòitä
scholar (fem.)
asmin
in this
janmani
in life
Sm
gta
spRm!
i³yapdm!
baLye
xarngrm!
zasnm!
%pdez< kraeit
sma
indeclinable participe expressing past tense
gatä
passed, went
sarpam
snake
kriyäpadam
verb
bälye
in the childhood
dhära-nagaram
the city of Dhara
çäsanam
rule
upadeçaà karoti
explains
ASmaiÉ>
cNdnlepnen
Éaejnkr[en
AiÉmanen???
àaPyte
asmäbhiù
by us
candana-lepanena
sandalwood ointment
bhojana-karaëena
with food
abhimänena???
good measure???
präpyate
attained
Ah»arI
sENym!
AavZykta
v&wa
xnVyy>
yuÏkale
pae;nawRm!
hain>
dXm>
bhv>
dÄm!
Aivvekm!
ahaìkäré
egocentric
sainyam
army
ävaçyakatä
need, necessity
våthä
futile
dhanavyayaù
expenditure
yuddha-käle
in the time of war
poñanärtham
for maintaining
häniù
waste
dadhmaù
we give
bahavaù
many
dattam
is given
avivekam
imprudence
56
(sarpaù)
Lesson 18 – vocabulary
%pir k…vRNtu
%paharg&he
Éa;n< kraeit Sm
vÂn< kraeit Sm
upari kurvantu
rise!
upähära-gåhe
in the restaurant
bhäñanaà karoti sma
he was speaking
vaïcanaà karoti sma
he was cheating
sevk>
AÉvt!
]t>
sevakaù
servant
abhavat
was
kñataù
scar
raJyaeTsv>
SvatÙ(idncr[m!
SvtÙ>
dzxa???
Ap"at>
Plitkdn> ???
píaÄap>
àyaeg> kr[Iy>
tv
räjyotsavaù
state formation aniversary festival
svätantrya-dina-caraëam
independence day celebration
svatantraù
independent
daçadhä???
tenfold???
apaghätaù
accident
platikadanaù ???
???
paçcättäpaù
regret
prayogaù karaëéyaù
use
tava
your
kadMbrI
%pNyasm!
leom!
#Tyaid
kvlm! ???
kivtam!
kädambaré
Kadambari A
upanyäsam
novel
lekham
article
ityädi
etc.
kavalam ???
???
kavitäm
poem
caeirtvan!
nItvan!
É&tvan!
àei;tvan!
naiztvan!
coritavän
stole
nétavän
took
bhåtavän
carried
preñitavän
sent
näçitavän
lost
gTva
piQTva
k«Tva
%®va
ilioTva
oaidTva
³IifTva
pitTva
gatvä
after going
paöhitvä
after reading
kåtvä
after doing
uktvä
after reciting
likhitvä
after writing
khäditvä
after eating
kréòitvä
after playing
patitvä
after falling
57
(imp. pl.)
ïuTva
çrutvä
after listening
mhapué;>
ÊguR[m!
Ty®va
mahäpuruñaù
great man
durguëam
bad qualities
tyaktvä
after giving up
dyapU[Rm!
inrtm!
ihte
ta†zSy
kle>
àÉav>
dayä-pürëam
full of mercy
niratam
engaged
hite
for benefit
tädåçasya
such
kaleù
of time, age
prabhävaù
influence
ïÏpUvRkm!
iÉ]uk>
iÉ]qn< kraeit
iÉ]am!
deih
puratnvôm!
xmRzalayam!
vasn< kraeit
taèpaÇm!
kalanNtrm!
ivñnawSy
dzRnm!
pu{ym!
àvaskr[t>
milnm!
àwmm!
ivñas>
iskta>
gtRm!
àsaryit
v[R>
%paym!
izvil¼m!
iniíNttya
icNta naiSt
yaiÇk>
pxtI
inmaR[m!
smaÝm!
Sven k«tm!
çraddha-pürvakam
faithfully
bhikñukaù
beggar
bhikñaöanaà karoti
wanders around begging
bhikñäm
alms
(bhikñä)
dehi
give
(voc. 2nd pers. sing.)
purätana-vastram
old clothes
dharma-çäläyäm
home for mendicants
väsanaà karoti
lives
tämra-pätram
copper pot
kälänantaram
later
viçvanäthasya
Vishvanatha’s (Shiva’s)
darçanam
darshana, audience, seing
puëyam
piety
praväsa-karaëataù
due to traveling
malinam
dirty
prathamam
first
viçväsaù
reliance
sikatäù
sand, dunes (pl.)
gartam
hole
prasärayati
spreads
varëaù
colour
upäyam
remedy
çiva-liìgam
Shiva lingam
niçcintatayä
by so deciding
cintä nästi
nothing to worry about
yätrikaù
pilgrim
padhaté
custom
nirmäëam
forming
samäptam
over
svena kåtam
made by himself
58
nòm!
laek>
gtanugitk>
parmaiwRk>
sEkt>
nañöam
lost, destroyed
lokaù
public, world
gatänugatikaù
the one who goes and follows
päramärthikaù
ultimate reality
saikataù
dune
59
Lesson 19 – vocabulary
Éjn< kraeit
$†z
t†z
s¼It!
Éaejnaly!
AapiyTva
nIljn< k«Tva
nTva
àsad!
bhajanaà karoti
worships
édåça
such
tadåça
that kind
saìgétam
song
bhojanälayam
restaurant
äpayitvä
after obtaining
nélajanaà kåtvä
natvä
bowing
prasädam
prasadam, sanctified holly food
bNxuvackzBdan!
jnkSy
da]ayin
pvRtrajSy puÇI
liúm>
smuÔrajSy
#iNdra
kaEzLya
pa{fumharajSy
paEÇ>
"qaeTkc>
paEÇI
ÉrtSy
yuixiór>
zUpRnoa
Ê>zla
bandhu-väcaka-çabdän
words expressing family ties
janakasya
Janaka's A
däkñäyani
Dakshayani A
parvata-räjasya
Parvata's A
lakñmiù
Lakshmi A
samudra-räjasya
Samudra's A
indirä
Indira A
kauçalyä
Kausalya A
päëòu-mahäräjasya
king Pandu's A
pautraù
grandson
ghaöotkacaù
Ghatotkaca A
pautré
granddaughter
bharatasya
Bharata's A
yudhiñöhiraù
Yudhishthira A
çürpanakhä
Shurpanakha A
duùçalä
Duhshala A
puratn
nUtn
har>
purätana
old
nütana
new
häraù
necklace
ikiÂtœ
b÷
smuÔe
kiïcit
a little
bahu
a lot
samudre
in the sea
ÿSv>
dI"R>
r¾u>
ve[I
hrasvaù
short
dérghaù
long
rajjuù
rope
veëé
braid of hair
60
gjSy
zu{fa
zaiqka
gajasya
elephant's
çuëòä
trunk
çäöikä
sari
SwUl>
k«z>
bkasur>
sthülaù
stout
kåçaù
lean, thin
bakäsuraù
Bakasura A
icNtnixkœ???
icNtn³m>
cintana-dhik???
thinking???
cintana-kramaù
manner of thinking
icÇklam!
p&nait
ivze;t>
àak«iÄkicÇm!
#òm!
pvRtSy
pirt>
leonsam¢I>
suNdritya
#tae=ip
AavZyk>
lepyit
Ôòum!
pdm!
†Zym!
oat>
me;pal>
#t> pr<
pit:yit
àTyuTpÚmitTvm!
naiztvan!
ÉIt ÉIt
ANtr¼e
xEyRm!
ta†zàs¼e
ASmakm!
]aMytu
samaNy>
purSkarm!
AiÉniNdtvan!
AaSwanm!
sTk«tvan!
citra-kaläm
painting
pånäti
(he) is fond of
viçeñataù
in particular, especially (indecl.)
präkåttika-citram
images of nature
iñöam
was liked
parvatasya
of the mountain
paritaù
on all sides
lekhana-sämagréù
painting equipment
sundaratiyä
beautiful??
ito ’pi
wherever
ävaçyakaù
necessary
lepayati
pastes, applies
drañöum
to see
padam
step
dåçyam
view
khätaù
ditch
meñapälaù
shepherd
itaù param
after that
patiñyati
will fall
pratyutpannamatitvam
quick witted action
näçitavän
he destroyed
bhéta bhéta
with a lot of fear
antaraìge
within
dhairyam
resolution, firmness, courage
tädåça prasaìge
in that occasion
asmäkam
our
kñämyatu
excuse me!
sämänyaù
ordinary
puraskäraà
award
abhinanditavän
congratulated
ästhänam
assembly room
sat-kåtavän
hosted
61
(itaù api)
(gen. pl. aham)
tyae>
àaeTsahnm!
àeirtvan!
tayoù
of the two of them
protsähanam
encouragement
preritavän
urged
62
Lesson 20 – vocabulary
ibNËnam!
%ÄrIym!
paQzala
bindünäm
of points
uttaréyam
scarf
päöhaçälä
classroom
%Út>
vamn>
unnataù
tall
vämanaù
small
v[Rvackanam!
zuk>
hirt>
pIt>
semNtIpu:pm!
k«:[>
ñet>
r´>
SvaÊ)lm!
r´m!
nIl>
iÉÄe>
raò+Xvj>
kazay>
c³m!
h<sSy
nIlk{qSy
zIlSy
varëa-väcakänäm
words expressing colors
çukaù
parrot
haritaù
green
pétaù
yellow
semanté-puñpam
white rose
kåñëaù
black
çvetaù
white
raktaù
red
svädu-phalam
apple
raktam
blood
nélaù
blue
bhitteù
of the wall
räñöra-dhvajaù
national flag
käçäyaù
brownish red
cakram
wheel
haàsasya
swan’s
nélakaëöasya
Nilakanta's (Shiva’s)
çélasya
stone’s
$†z
ta†z
kI†z
kip>
kSyaip
mkRq>
édåça
this kind
tädåça
that kind
kédåça
what kind
kapiù
monkey
kasyäpi
who else’s
markaöaù
monkey
pÂailka
A]re
k[Rk…{flm!
païcälikä
doll
akñare
in Aksharam
karëakuëòalam
earring
ikmwRm!
³Iiftum!
piQtum!
kimartham
what for
kréòitum
to play
paöhitum
to study
63
oaidtum!
}atum!
v´…m!
patum!
gNtum!
AagNtum!
%Twatum!
%pveòum!
ktuRm!
ïaetum!
datum!
Ôòum!
ANyivxa_yasm!
calyit
caliytum!
AaÉr[m!
xtuRm!
àdzRyit
àdzRiyyum!
gatum!
khäditum
to eat
jïätum
to know
vaktum
to say
pätum
to drink
gantum
to go
ägantum
to come
utthätum
to stand up
upaveñöum
to sit down
kartum
to do
çrotum
to listen
dätum
to give
drañöum
to look
anya-vidhäbhyäsam
another kind of practice
cälayati
drives
cälayitum
to drive
äbharaëam
ornament
dhartum
to wear
pradarçayati
shows
pradarçayiyum
to show
gätum
to sing
%dar†ò(a
matr>
#Tyev
baønam!
sMpdœ
kya
pre;m!
#v
Vyvhar>
m&Êtya
ïeótya
svRàai[iÉ>
†iò>
ivzala
ta†z>
%Cyte
udära-dåñöyä
by broad vision
mätaraù
mothers
ityeva
just like
bähünäm
of arms, hands
sampad
riches
kayä
with what
pareñam
of others
iva
like
vyavahäraù
behaviour, acting
mådutayä
with gentleness
çreñöhatayä
with excellence
sarva-präëibhiù
with all the living entities
dåñöiù
vision
viçälä
broad
tädåçaù
such
ucyate
wise
sTpué;>
s'Ϣhm!
iÉ]at[v&Åya
tp> kraeit
satpuruñaù
holy man
saìgraham
collecting
bhikñätaëa-våttyä
by collecting alms
tapaù karoti
he does austerities
64
tda tda
mns>
s<Skar>
kar[t>
zuxm!
siÅvkm!
Aagta
àÉaven
ANySya>
Éav>
Aays>
k…qIrm!
Svaimnm!
yjman>
Tvra< kraeit
SvamI
Aa¢h< kraeit
g&Ÿit
Aa¢hkar[t>
ivxSpNdnm!
nyit
k{Qe
bNxnm!
bih>
gmn
ÉvdIya
k…tiít!
caeirta
Mlan< Évit
ivkar>
smapn>
"aeóm!
caEyRm!
mhtI
sNdÉeR
buiÏ> %TpÚ
SvaTmn>
A¼Ikraeit
àTypRyaim
tadä tadä
in all those times
manasaù
of the mind
saàskäraù
impression
käraëataù
from the cause
çudham
pure
sattvikam
sattvic
ägatä
(she) came
prabhävena
by the impact
anyasyäù
of other people
bhävaù
disposition
äyasaù
weary
kuöéram
hut
sväminam
householder
yajamänaù
person who performs the sacrifice
tvaräà karoti
hastes (away)
svämé
owner, master
ägrahaà karoti
insists
gåhëati
takes
ägraha-käraëataù
because of insistance
vidha-spandanam
pulsation
nayati
leads
kaëöhe
around neck
bandhanam
rope
bahir
outside
gamana
going
bhavadéyä
your
kutaçcit
somewhwere
coritä
stolen (fem.)
mlänaà bhavati
withers
vikäraù
change
samäpanaù
took place
ghoñöham
shed
cauryam
theft
mahaté
great (fem.)
sandarbhe
in this context
buddhiù utpanna
thinking sprang up
svätmanaù
his own
aìgékaroti
accepts
pratyarpayämi
I give back
65
Appendix
Personalities:
AMbefkr>
(ambeòakaraù) Ambedakara – (April 14, 1891 — December 6, 1956) was an Indian jurist,
scholar, Bahujan political leader and a Buddhist revivalist
AiÉmNyu> (abhimanyuù) Abhimanyu – a character from Mahabharata, the son of Arjuna
AjuRn> (arjunaù) Arjuna – a character from Mahabharata, one of the five Pandavas, hero of Bhagavad-gita
#iNdra (indirä) Indira – the name of Nehru’s daughter
%imRla (urmilä) Urmila – the wife of Rama's brother Lakshmana
kaildas> (kälidäsaù) Kalidasa – probably the most famous Indian poet and dramatist
k…MÉk[R> (kumbhakarëaù) Kumbhakarna – Ravana’s brother, character from Ramayana
k«:[> (kåñëaù) Krishna – the speaker of Bhagavad-gita, the most recent incarnation of Vishnu, God
kaEzLya (kauçalyä) Kaushalya – Rama’s mother, the eldest wife of Dasharatha, character from Ramayana
g[ez> (gaëeçaù) Ganesha – elephant headed divine personality, son of Shiva, protector, lord of the
gaNxI
begining and giver of opulence; a deity very much favoured all over India
(gändhé) Gandhi – (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) major Indian political and spiritual leader
of India and the Indian independence movement
gaEtm buÏ> (gautama buddhaù) Gautama Buddha – Buddha, the historical founder of Buddhism
"qaeTkc> (ghaöotkacaù) Ghatotkaca – Bhima’s son, ferocious warrior on Kurukshetra war
ca[Ky> (cäëakyaù) Chanakya – (c. 350-283 BC) sage, known for political and moral sayings, advisor to the
cNÔguÝ>
first Maurya emperor Chandragupta
(candraguptaù) Chandragupta – (c. 340-293 BC) the emperor who brought together most of the
Indian subcontinent, the first unifier of India
jnk> (janakaù) Janaka – Sita’s father, character from Ramayana
jvhlRl! neheé (javaharlal neheru) Jawaharlal Nehru – (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) political
leader of the Indian national congress, a pivotal figure in the Indian
independece movement, the first prime minister of India
HNsIra[IlúmIÉE (jhanséräëélakñmé bhai) Jhansirani Lakshmi Bhai – one of the leading warriors of the
India's first struggle of independence; she is a symbol of bravery, patriotism and honor
itturi[ cNdm (tituraëi candama) Titurani Candama ??? – ##
dmyNtI (damayanté) Damayanti – character from Mahabharata, the wife of Nala
dzrw> (daçarathaù) Dasharatha – Rama's father, character from Ramayana
da]ayin (däkñäyani) Dakshayani – Daksha’s daugther and Shiva’s first consort
Ê>zla (duùçalä) Duhshala – Duryodana’s sister, daughter of Dhritarashtra, character from Mahabharata
devkI (devaké) Devaki – Krishna's mother, character from the Puranas and Mahabharata
xaEMy> (dhaumyaù) Dhaumya – ?preceptor of the Pandavas
x&traò+> (dhåtaräñöraù) Dhritarashtra – the blind king of Kauravas, Duryodhana’s father,
ÊyaeRxn>
character from Mahabharata
(duryodhanaù) Duryodhana – threcherous chief of 100 sons of Dhritarashtra,
character from Mahabharata
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nreNÔ> (narendraù) Narendra – Vivekananda’s previous name
nl> (nalaù) Nala – ##
pa{fu (päëòu) Pandu – Second son of Vichitravirya and Ambalika who succeeded to the throne of
Hastinapura on his father's death, father of the Pandavas, a character from Mahabharata
pvRtraja (parvata-räjä) King Parvata – king of mountain
pavRtI (pärvaté) Parvati – Shiva’s second consort, daughter of Parvata, king of Himalaya
bkasur> (bakäsuraù) Bakasura – a voracious demon killed by Bhima
balg¼axritlk> (bälagaìgä-dhara-tilakaù) Balaganga-dhara-tilaka – (Bal Gangadhar Tilak, July 23,
1856 – August 1, 1920) Indian nationalist, social reformer and freedom fighter,
ba[>
the first popular leader of the Indian independence movement
(bäëaù) Bana – (also Banabhatta) 7th century Indian writter, court poet of King Harshavardhana,
ÉgiTs'œ">
Ért>
the author of Kadambari
(bhagatsiìghaù) Bhagat Singha – (September 28, 1907 – March 23, 1931) Indian freedom
fighter, one of the most famous revolutionaries of the Indian independence movement
(bharataù) Bharata – legendary king in Hindu mythology, the first to conquer all of Greater India,
which was named after him as Bharatavarsha
Éariv> (bhäraviù) Bharavi – (6th century CE) Sanskrit poet known for his epic Kiratarjuniya
ÉIm> (bhémaù) Bhima – second of the five Pandava brothers, character from Mahabharata
mNdaedrI (mandodaré) Mandodari – Ravana's wife, character from Ramayana
me"nad> (meghanädaù) Meghanada –Ravana’s son, character from Ramayana
yuixiór> (yudhiñöhiraù) Yudhishthira – the eldest of the five Pandava brothers,
rajeNÔàsad>
characther from Mahabharata
(räjendra-prasädaù) Rajendra Prasada – (December 3, 1884 – February 28, 1963)
the first President of India, independence activist with
prominent role in Indian independence movement
ram> (rämaù) Rama – hero of Ramayana, incarnation of Vishnu and the greatest and most righteous king
ramk«:[> (rämakåñëaù) Ramakrishna – (February 18, 1836 – August 16, 1886) Indian religious teacher and
an influential figure in the Bengal Renaissance of the 19th
rav[>
century, whose main disciple was Swami Vivekananda'
(rävaëaù) Ravana – principal antagonist of Rama from Ramayana, king of Lanka who kidnapped
Rama's wife and took her to Lanka
rivvmaR (ravivarmä) Ravivarma – (1848 - 1906) a world famous Indian painter
éiKm[I (rukmiëé) Rukmini – Krishna's most favoured wife
lúm[> (lakñmaëaù) Lakshmana – Rama's brother, the eldest of the remaining three
liúm> (lakñmiù) Lakshmi – Goddess of fortune, Vishnu’s wife
lLbhad‚rzaSÇI (lal-bahädura-çästré) Lal Bahadur Shastri – (October 2, 1904 - January 11, 1966) the third
prime minister of independent India and a significant
figure in the Indian independence movement
lv> (lavaù) Lava – Rama's son
laekm{y itlk! (lokamaëya tilak) Lokamanya Tilak – othe name of Bala Gangadhara Tilaka
vlÉÉE ptel! (valabhabhai patel) Valabhabhai Patel – (Vallabhbhai Patel, October 31, 1875 – December 15,
1950), a political and social leader of India who played a major role in the
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country's struggle for independence and guided its integration into a
united, independent nation.
vsudev> (vasudevaù) Vasudeva – Krishna's father, character from Puranas and Mahabharata
vaLmIik> (välmékiù) Valmiki – the author of Ramayana
iv³m> (vikramaù) Vikrama – legendary king of Ujjaini
ivvekanNd> (vivekänandaù) Vivekananda – (January 12, 1863 – July 4, 1902) famous Indian filosopher and
spiritual leader of Vedanta and Yoga, disciple of Ramakrishna and
founder of Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission
Vyas> (vyäsaù) Vyasa – accredited as writer of the Vedas and the Puranas as well as Mahabharata
zarda devI (çäradä devé) Sharada devi – (1853 – 1920), also known as the Holy Mother, wife and
izv>
spiritual counterpart of Ramakrishna
(çivaù) Shiva – also known as Mahadeva, Great God, and by many other names; he is worshipped
all over India and favoured by many as powerful Divine personality
izvijin (çivajini) Shivajini??? – ##
zUpRnoa (çürpanakhä) Shurpanakha – Ravana’s younger sister, important character from Ramayana
srSvtI (sarasvaté) Sarasvati – goddess of knowledge and learning, Brahma's wife
sTyÉama (satyabhämä) Satyabhama – Krishna's second wife
smuÔraja (samudra-räjä) King Samudra – king of ocean
isÏtR> (siddhartaù) Siddharta – Buddha’s previous name
sIta (sétä) Sita – Rama's wife, kidnapped by Ravana, character from Ramayana
suÉíNÔ baese (subhaç-candra bose) Subhash Chandra Bose – (January 23, 1897 –August 18, 1945),
generally known as Netaji (lit. "Respected Leader"), one of the most
prominent and highly respected leaders of the Indian Independence Movement
Books:
%pin;dœ
(upaniñad) Upanishad – philosophical Vedic scriptures, they form the core spiritual thought of
Vedantic Hinduism
kadMbrI (kädambaré) Kadambari – one of the best romantic fictions of seventh century by Banabhatta
äüsUÇm! (brahmasütram) Brahma-sutra – also known as Vedanta-sutra or the conclusion of all the Vedas
ÉgvÌIta
mhaÉart>
written in extremely short aphorisms or sutras
(bhagavadgétä) Bhagavad-gita – probably the most famous book from the entire Vedic corpus,
the Song of God, Krishna, a part of Mahabharata
(mahäbhärataù) Mahabharata – the biggest eppic of India about the history of the family of
Bharatas it includes Bhagavad-gita
r"uv<z> (raghuvaàçaù) Raghuvamsha – a famous Kalidasa's book
ramay[> (rämäyaëaù) Ramayana – the wellknown epic telling the story of Rama
ïIÉagRvra"vIym! (çré-bhärgava-räghavéyam) Shri-bhargava-raghaviyam – Kalidasa’s book
suNdrka{fm! (sundara-käëòam) Sundara-kandam – the chapter from Ramayana that is considered as
h;Rcirt>
very auspicious to recite and read
(harñacaritaù) Harsha-charita – one of the most famous writings by Kalidasa
Geographical units:
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AyRvtR> (aryavartaù) Aryavarta – India’s previous name
AayaeXya (äyodhyä) Ayodhya – a town in north east India, Rama’s ancient capital
%¾Ein (ujjaini) Ujjaini – the capital of Madhya Pradesh in central India
%Äràdez> (uttara-pradeçaù) Uttar-pradesh – one of India's northern states that covers the major part of
Ganges walley
k[aRqk> (karëäöakaù) of Karnataka – one of India's southern states
kNyk…marI (kanyakumäré) Kanyakumari – the souternmost tip of India
kiZmr> (kaçmiraù) Kashmir – one if India’s northernmost states
kaiz> (käçiù) Kashi – famous Shiva's city in Uttar-pradesh, also known as Varanasi
kaeLktngrm! (kolkata-nagaram) Kolkata – the capital of West Bengal, formerly Calcutta
g¼a (gaìgä) Ganga, river Ganges – probably the most famous river that flows from Himalaya through
the Ganges walley to the Bay of Bengal in the East
ceÚEngrm! (cennai-nagaram) Chennai – the capital of Tamil Nadu in South India, previously Madras
itépiw> (tirupathim) Tirupathi – famous pilgrimage place in Southern India; 20 kms away is Tirumala
the home of Venkateshvara, Balaji
id‘I (dillé) Delhi – New Delhi, Dilli, Nava Dehali are all names of India's Capital city
purI (puré) Puri – famous pilgrimage city in Orisa state on the Eastern Coast, 500 km south of Kolkata, the
home of Jagannatha, the Lord of the Universe
be¼lUé (beìgalüru) Bangalore – The Capital of Karnataka South India state
baeMbE (bombai) Bombay – old name for Mumbai
Éartm! (bhäratam) Bharata, India – the name for the country of India after king Bharata
Éaepal> (bhopälaù) Bhopal – a city in central India, the capital of Madhya Pradesh
mwura (mathurä) Mathura – Krishna’s birthplace close to Agra in Uttar Pradesh
mÔs! (madras) Madras – old name for Chennai, the capital of Tamil Nadu
muMbEngrm! (mumbai) Mumbai – one of the biggest cities in India, previously Bombay, lying on the
western coast in Maharashtra
mEsUéngrm! (maisüru) Mysore – the old capital of Karnataka, nowadays still culturally important city
lon^ (lakhanaü) Lucknow – the capital of Uttar-pradesh
ihÔbdœ-ngrm! (hidrabad-nagaram) Hyderabad city – the capital of Andhra-pradesh in central India
Other terms:
Çetyuge (treta-yuge) in Treta-yuga – the second age
Öapryuge (dväpara-yuge) in Dvapara-yuga – the third age, it ended till approximately 5000 years ago
when the present age, Kali-yuga began
dIpvil (dépavali) Dipavali – one of a few New Year’s celebrations
ÊgaRpUja (durgäpüjä) Durgapuja – festival dedicated to worship of Durga
y]gnm! (yakñaganam) yakshagana - classical folk art from Karnataka, a kind of opera
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