SCIENTIFIC WRITING Prepared by: Violeto P. Bello,Ph.D Research Director Colegio de Kidapawan Kidapawan City, Philippines Adapted by: Camilo A. Andi, Jr. MIT Dean,Information Technology Education Colegio de Kidapawn, Kidapawan City, Philippines SCIENTIFIC REPORT written report of a research study objective presentation of the facts about the research culmination of the research process uses simple and precise statements with correct grammar must be accurate, objective and brief Part of a Research Report 1. Preliminary Pages: Title Page, Table of Contents, List of Tables and Abstract 2. Body of the Report: Introduction Review of Related Literature, Methodology Results and Discussion Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation INTRODUCTION Background of the Study – nature and scope of the problem, starts from general ideas to specific ones Objectives of the Study : general objective and specific objectives Significance of the Study: importance of the study, significant contributions such as new knowledge, policy implications, technologies, new gadgets, etc. Hypothesis of the Study: null or alternative hypothesis REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE (RRL) Possible sources: books, journals, magazines, encyclopedias, thesis, reports Purposes: gives an idea on how extensive studies have been done related to your topic, gives a general background of your research, source of methods, helps avoid duplication of studies, helps build theoretical or conceptual framework Studies reviewed must be about 10 years back Format (please refer to separate sheet) METHODOLOGY Source of samples Preparation of samples Treatments Data to be gathered and procedures (analytical procedures) Research design Data analysis RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Organize and classify data Present in a textual, tabular and if possible, graphical manner Discuss using past tense except when referring to tables and figures Relate your findings with the results of other researchers (studies found in your RRL) SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION Summary –objective, method, highlights of findings Conclusion –generalizations, implications Recommendation – may be for further studies to verify findings, Guidelines in Writing the Summary: It must include the main purpose of the study, period of the study, methods used, research design and analysis and important findings of the study Findings must be lumped together Must be in textual presentation only (do not refer to tables and graphs anymore) Include only highlights of your findings which are not elaborated anymore Do not introduce new data. Guidelines in Writing the Conclusion: are inferences, implications or generalizations based upon the findings. must appropriately answer the specific objectives of the study. must be stated briefly, must be worded as if they are 100% true and correct. Avoid words like perhaps and may be. should not be repetitions of any statement anywhere in the body of the research report. They should be worded differently but convey the same information. STYLE AND MECHANICS STYLE – suggests and aesthetic quality of the paper There are different styles but generally, a common style is adapted by a school What matters is consistency in all parts of the research paper Depicted in spacing between the main and sub-headings STYLE TITLE OF CHAPTER (Bold and all caps, center) 2 single spaces First Main Heading (bold, center) 3 single spaces First Side Heading (Bold) 2 single spaces Indented side heading. Start paragraph here 3 single spaces Second Main Heading 3 single spaces TENSES AND PERSON Introduction – present tense but may be in the past tense in cases where some ideas are cited from other researchers or authors RRL - appropriately written in the past tense as it focuses on the findings of studies in the past Methodology Written in the future tense in the proposal stage Written in the past tense if already conducted TENSES AND PERSON Results and Discussion Written in the past tense when referring to the findings Written in the present tense if referring to tables and graphs The research report is written in the 3rd person. The use of “I” and “you” must be avoided. If you want to refer to you as the author, speak of “the writer” or “the author”. ABBREVIATIONS Abbreviations may be necessary to save space. A term to be used must be spelled out first time it is used. Then, its abbreviation is enclosed in a parenthesis. Whatever abbreviation is used, it must be based on the standard. EXAMPLES: gram (g) kilograms (kg) minutes (min) sodium hydroxide (NaOH) versus (vs) Use of Foreign Words and Scientific Names Foreign words and scientific names must be Italicized. Exceptions are per cent, per se, per capita, status quo and visa among others. Numbers and Numerals five millilitres (mL) 10 years 3 to 5 samples Less than 10 – spell out 10 or more – numerals Series - numerals Statistical Tables and Graphs/Figures Data are systematically grouped and arranged. Data are more easily read and understood. Captions of tables are on top, only the first letter is capitalized with 2 single spaces before the table. Captions of graphs and other figures are placed at the bottom and must have a legend. Presentation of the Data textual tabular graphical PRESENTATION OF THE DATA Have sub-headings. Present textual presentation 1st.. Tables and graphs are placed after the pages they are first mentioned. Type of graph must suit the purpose: linear if explaining trends and pie graph if composition or percentage. Bar graphs and pictographs are also used. Discuss only the highlights of your data in the table. Do not present all the data or else, there is no more need of a table. Paper Size, Margins and Paging Standard paper is 8.5 x 11 inches, white book paper (substance 20) In the preliminary pages, the page number is written in small Roman numeral at the center bottom and starts with iii (3rd page) Page in the body of the paper is at the upper right had corner written in Arabic with invisible page at the start of each chapter. Left and upper margin = 1.5 inches Right and bottom margin = 1.2 inches Documentation Use reference-cited format In the text, referring to a reference materials is author(year) system. Example: According to David (2009), the ... Literature Cited must include only references actually cited in the research paper Sample of a Literature Cited From a Research Journal: Bello, S.A. & S.P. Ocreto. 2006. Quality of ribbed smoked sheets coagulated with glacial acetic acid substitutes. USM R & D Journal. 14(1):87-101. From an Internet Source: Miller, W. 2008. Postpartum depression. Posted at ww.Expectangmothersguide.com. Date Retrieved: October 13, 2009. LITERATURE CITED From a Thesis: Bello, Samuel Anthon P. Characterization of Oil from Rubber Seeds of Different Varieties. Undergraduate Thesis. Bachelor of Science in Chemistry. University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, Cotabato. 55 pp. From a Book: Calderon, Jose F. & Expectacion C. Gonzales. 1993. Methods of Research and Thesis Writing. 125 Pioneer St., Mandaluyong City, Philippines: National Book Store. 263 pp. PRESENTING THE RESEARCH RESULTS 4 R’ s R1- Respond to the material Researcher must be interested in communicating his paper to other people. R2 – Restructure (reword from written to oral form). R3 - Rehearse – fascinating part in giving an oral presentation Fit the time of your oral presentation to the time allowed. Support your presentation with audio-visual aids. Practice talking before an imaginary live audience. Adjust and correct your oral presentation. All the needed equipment and materials must be ready. R4 – Relax (breath, move, support) Listen carefully, organize thoughts before giving your answer. Use clear, simple and correct English. If the question is in English, answer in English. If you do not know the answer be courageous and honest to say so. Don’t bluff. Formulate your answer in your mind. Don’t be in a hurry to respond.
© Copyright 2020