How To Gold Leaf Effeetively Gold Leaf gilding is an ancient art that has remained popular through modern times. Covering a surface to give the appearance of metal goes back to antiquity and continues as a desired decorative method. Gilding with gold leaf is a process in which tissue-thin sheets of real or imitation gold are applied to a surface. This may be as a complete covering, a strip or an ornamental design. Gilding is easy to do - if it's done the right way, but if the gilder is careless, or forgets' to follow the basic rules, it can cause headaches for him and his customers. too. SURFACE GILDING - Surface gilding is the name applied when gold leaf is laid on the outside or "reading" surface instead of on the back, as in glass gilding. It applies to all such jobs. whether exposed to the weather or not, except truck or wagon lettering. On all surface gilding jobs, the feasibility of gold leaf in rolls should be considered, sincethe speed and ease of roll application can result in great time savings. (Surface preparation is the Same for roll and book.) Surface Prep- Preparing the surface properly, as suggested elsewhere, is particularly important with surface gilding that is to be exposed to weather. As a final preparation just before sizing, smooth the sign surface down with sandpaper. The chief difference between surface gilding and glass gilding is in the size used. For surface gilding "slow" size should be used whenever practicable. Depending on atmospheric and surface conditions, Slow Drying Oil Size, excellent for this...type of gilding, is usually ceady for gilding (n 10 to 12 hours. It holds its tack for many hours thereafter. Application of Gold Size may be by brush, spray or roller. Full, even coverage is necessary. Any skips or misses will leave open spots where leaf will not adhere. Japan color may be added to size when background is needed. Size is applied to the prepared surface with the same brushes and in the same manner used when applying paint. After you have applied size, and after it has become dry enough to be gilded, it should possess a barely perceptible sticky fe.eling. Test the tack with a knuckle. You have the proper tack when the size does not stick to your knuckle, yet when you feel a slight pull and hear a slight "tick" as your knuckle is pulled away. If gold leaf is applied to size that is too wet, the gold will be drowned and the burnish killed. The burnish of gold depends largely upon the accuracy with which tack is judged. When proper tack has been reached, lay the gold leaf, and make certain that all sized surfaced are well covered. When the letters are all covered, and when all spots or cracks. caused by broken places in the leaf have been patched, the sign is ready to be rubbed down and burnished. First, batten down with cotton to insure the gold sticking evenly before you wipe off surplus gold and burnish. To burnish. rub the gold briskly and lightly with absorbent cotton until all laps and wrinkles are removed. OUTSIDE GILDING - To re-gild signs in place. or to gild in places where it may be windy, proceed as in ordinary surface gilding. with this exception: Use gold leaf in rolls or "patent" gold leaf. Trying to gild with loose gold in outside locations is apt to be unsatisfactory and cause an undue loss of gold leaf. Each leaf of patent gold is adhered to a thin sheet of paper which you can handle with your fingers. Lay the gold from the paper, smoothly and evenly. Before removing the paper, rub the back of it to make sure the gold is thoroughly adhered to the size. After laying, burnish with absorbent cotton and finish as usual. Where the job is 60 small that it would be too costly to wait for slow size to dry; where there is a good deal of dust; or when the likelihood of inclement weather makes it inadvisable or impracticable to use "slow" size, Quick-Drying gold size may be used instead. This will dry to a tack in from 2 to 3 hours. The addition of a few drops of castor oil will slow up the drying according to amount used. Always remember, however, it is much easier to obtain a good burnish with a slow size, which is also more durable on exterior work. On a fairly good-sized job where it is necessary, for one reason or another: ·to· use quick size, it is advisable to burnish the first letter; gild the third letter and then burnish the second, gild the forth and burnish the third, and so on. . Quick Rubbing Varnish is a quality varnish. This material can also be used as a size when quick surface guilding is desired Tack time for this material is approximately 10 to 30 minutes on average. Except where it will be subject to abrasion through much washing or other causes, 23K gold leaf needs no. protective covering. 00 not, therefore, varnish over the gold in surface gilding, it dulls the brilliance. Where gold leaf is to be varnished ovaL asJnJr.ucUe..Uering"u_S!La quick, hard-drying size. TRUCK LETTERING - The method of gilding on truck bodies varies somewhat, depending upon the type of "paint job" on the truck. Methods that are satisfactory with a varnish job, for example, are not so suitable as others with a synthetic finish. No wax, grease or oil should be on a surface to be sited. Wax that may have been polished with a mechanical buffer is very difficult to remove with solvent. The only sure method of obtaining a clean surface in this case is to sand the entire panel before application of the size. Polish can be removed by gasoline or benzine but great care must be taken to be sure-the-polish has been removed and not just smeared around. It is best to go over the surface several times, using a clean rag each time. It is usually possible to determine the presence of wax or polish by rubbing a finger on the finish. A streak will show up if grease is present. Always use a quick, hard-drying size where the lettering is to receive a protective coating. On modern finishes, best results will be obtained by using a size designed for this use, such as Quick Drying Size. If no protective coating is to be applied, either a quick or Slow-drying size may be used. As in all exterior surface work greater durability will be obtained with the slower size. Remember, using Gold leaf on Rolls can save time on many jobs. Never apply a protective coating over leaf until the sizing is hard dry. The best assurance of long life is when the panel has been sanded to a clean surface to receive the size and leaf. For this surface a clear coating or varnish compatible with the finish of the panel must be used. When lettering, applied to a highly finished panel, is pencil varnished, it is also advisable to use a varnish for clear coater similar to the liquid used as the base in the panel finish. Satisfactory results can be obtained by using a long oil exterior type varnish, providing it is not brushed out too thin. A flow coat or even two coats are advisable to prevent early breakdown. SOME SURFACES NEED SPECIAL PREPARATION Gold leaf of good grade is one of the very few sign materials, which, by its very nature, cannot contribute to the premature breakdown of sign or lettering work. When breakdown occurs, with its consequent dissatisfaction, the trouble is always found in one, or both of two causes: (1) improper or insufficient preparation of the surface, or (2) faulty methods of laying. Of the two, particularly in outside work, improper preparation is by far the more common - and serious. Adequate preparation of the proper kind is absolutely essential to good gold. work. It is the basis of everything. Without it, signs cannot hope to stand up or look well. The following suggestions will help you to start your signs right. Galvanized Iron or Zinc - Put one-half ounce, each, of copper chloride, copper nitrate and sal ammoniac in a glass jar. Add one quart soft water. Stir with wooden paddle until dissolved. Then add, slowly, one-half ounce of muriatic acid. Apply to metal surface with a broad flat brush. When the first tone, black, has changed to gray, the metalis ready for the priming coats. This treatment will kill corrosion and keep it from working through the paint and gold leaf. I! wil! atso.remnze anv traces, 0.1nre<!SE GL1..1b",-P__ metal. ' Apply one coat of red lead, brushing out well. Then apply one or, better still, two coats of white or yellow lead. Allow each coat of lead to dry thoroughly before sizing and laying. There are many new synthetic lacquers and primers suitable for the above work, but in any case these surfaces should be prepared in exactly the same manner as you would for a permanent paint job. NOTE:Some sheet metals require special treatment as a preparation for painting. When working with any "trade name" sheet metal, there.fore, you shoutd get the advice of ·the manufact--urer ordealer as to whai treatment is necessary to insure good results. lead - All lead surfaces should be washed with a very weak solution of muriatic acid d~ sand blasted to give it "tooth." Apply slow oil size directly to the lead. Gild when proper tack is reached. Aluminum - Cast aluminum letters and plaques should be coated both front and back. Satisfactory results may be obtained with any good commercial metal primer as a first coat and one or two coats of white lead and oil paint. Slow-drying oil size is to be applied to the well dried final coat. Utmost precaution must be taken during sanding to preserve primer and finish coat on sharp edges and points. Wooden Surfaces and Wooden letters - The essential object here is to seal the wood thoroughly so that moisture cannot get in from any direction. If moisture gets into the wood, it will not only shorten the life of the wood itself but will work under the paint and gold and literally "push them off." To prepare a wooden surface, prime it with 1-3 coats of burnish sealer. Avoid shellac, ~ except to seal ble~ding knots. Allowing plenty of time for drying between coats and sandpapering between coats, apply one coat of good spar varnish and, when thoroughly dry, gild with slow size. It is vitally important that all surfaces be painted this way. It is just as important to paint the back of wooden letters as it is the front. Stone or Marble - It is necessary to stop the suction before sizing this type of material. Do this with one or two coats of shellac or varnish. Then, put on one coat of quick, hard-drying color. Size with "slow" oil size and gild the same as you would any other surface work. GILDING ON GLASS - One of the most important steps in gilding on glass is to make sure that the glass is perfectly clean. Any traces of oil or grease. or even of a finger print, may prevent the gold leaf from adhering properly and may produce blisters. To make certain that glass is perfectly clean, wash with alcohol and then follow with Whiting and water. Then polish the glass with tissue paper. Exercise care to make certain everything else connected with the job is keot clean. Water Size - The first step in gilding on glass is to prepare a water size. The most popular water size is made by dissolving two or three No. 00 gelatine capsules in distilled water. The capsules should be separated and boiled for several minutes in a half pint of distilled water. After the capsules have thoroughly dissolved, another half pint of distilled water is added, and entire pint is boiled another minute or two. The resultant size should then be strained through a folded piece of clean cheesecloth, unbleached muslin or blotting paper. Size can be greatly improved by adding a few drops of grain alcohol or ether. This will help clear the size and help secure a better burnish and a clearer gild. . _~App!-y-w.a.t.er_siZ€-,.excep.twhen-woLking in direct sunlight, while it is hot. Be sure that your size bucket and brush are thoroughly clean and free from grease. Both bucket and brush should .always be boiled before using. Some sigri men prefer to make their water size with Russian Isinglass or Fish Glue. A piece of isinglass about the size of a quarter, or an equivalent amountot glue, is all that is needed to make a pint of size. First boil in a half pint of distilled water, then add another half pint after isinglass or fish glue is thoroughly dissolved. Method Of Procedure - The next step in gilding on glass is marking or laying out the job. Plain white cHalk can beused for this purpose if the glass is first rubbed over with a damp chamois. However, a grease pencil is more reliable and will always show a distinct line. If a pounce pattern has been made for the job, the layout is pounced on with a small bag of whiting. A perforated pattern has a real advantage over marking with pencil or chalk - for after a space has been gilded, you can pounce the pattern backward on the back of the gold where you can see the layout perfectly without having to look through the gold. After laying out the job on the outside of the glass, the next step is to clean the inside of the glass. This must be done thoroughly in order to remove all oil, grease and finger prints. The entire inside surface covered by the layout should then be flooded with water size. This surface must be kept wet constantly (except the portion you have gilded) until the application of the gold has been completed This is absolutely essential. If size is allowed to dry in spots, the result will be a poor gild with the gold showing a streaked, spotted appearance. Start gilding at the upper left-hand corner. (If the workman is left-handed, this rule should be reversed.) This is done to prevent size running down over leaf already laid, also to avoid obscuring with your arm the completed work. Cut a strong piece of cardboard the exact size of the gold leaf book, and place this cardboard under the book to strengthen it while the leaves are being cut. Fold back the first sheet of paper to expose the gold. Next. using the folded paper as a guide, cut the leaf by running your fingernail across the gold. Now you apply this piece of gold leaf to the glass. First draw a Gilder's Tip across your hair. Then with the Tip pick up the gold and lay it on the glass lightly. The gold adheres to the water size. 00 not allow the tip to touch the size or the glass. Oil from the tip will cause the water size to creep away from the affected parts and produce a condition that destroys the lustre of the gold. Continue this process of cutting and tipping the gold to the glass until the entire design is covered with leaf. Allow each piece of gold to overlap the preceding piece about one-eighth of an inch. When the entire work is gilded, wait until it is perfectly dry before attempting to "Burnish." As the gold is drying, the dry parts will present a bright appearance, while the parts that are still wet will be dull and without any lustre whatsoever. , Work that has been gilded but not finished should never be allowed to freeze. Frost and window sweating will completely destroy the adhesive qualities of the size. Consequently, the gold will come off when you burnish. When the work is tl:l.oroughly dry, rub the entire surface with absorbent cotton or velvet plush. Rub briskly, but very lightly. This is done to remove the surplus or scrap leaf that did not .adhere. At the.same.time it bumtsbes the g.old_·__ and causes it to shine. After the leaf has been burnished, it is ready for the second coat, ar what is called the patching process. Regardless of the care taken in applying the first coat of gold, it is seldom possible to make a perfect job on the first gild. Burnishing the leaf reveals numerous small holes and imperfections in the leaf. These must be patched before the work can be backed up. Make certain that your burnishing cotton is soft and free from any dust or foreign matter. Small bits of grit will scratch the gold and ruin the job. While hospital cotton is slightly more expensive than ordinary absorbent cotton, it is absolutely tree of all foreign matter, and is should be used to get the best results. To patch the job, the entire surface must again be covered with the size. When doing so draw the brush lightly and quicklyoverthe gold so as not to damage the gild already made. Most sign men dilute their size slightly at this point. This is to make sure the second sizing will not lift the gold already laid. Small pieces of gold should now be applied to the parts that need touching up or patching. When this operation has been completed, and the work is again dry, the gold should again be burnished lightly with cotton. The job is now ready for washing. Washing is the process employed to give the gold a very brilliant burnish. For this purpose use clear water heated to the boiling point. Apply the water while hot and use the same technique you did when preparing the gold for patching -light, quick strokes. A second or third washing will do no harm and often adds to the clarity and brilliance. Repeated washings will cause laps and cloudiness to disappear. After thoroughly drying the qold, you have it now ready to be backed up. Backing The Gold-Iflthe layout has been made on the outside of the glass, it should be plainly visible through the gold. If a pounce pattern has been used, it can be turned over, face to the glass, and pounced with powdered charcoal right onto the gold. This is recommended fo~ small designs, trademarks, etc. The layout is now easier to see and will enable you to doa better and more exact job. Gold should be lettered exactly as you would letter directly on the glass, the only difference being that the' letters are all backward or reversed. The backing up color, or paint, must dry very hard and firm. It must not contain oil of any kind. The slightest trace of oil in your backing-up color will penetrate the gold leaf and spoil the job. There are several good mixtures that can be used for this backing-up process. The most popular is lamp black ground in japan mixed with either gold size or quick rubbing varnish. It is highly important that backing-up colors be thinned very sparingly, as the turpentine used for this purpose has a tendency to flat the color and to render it brittle and easily chipped. For a quick job, brushing lacquer can be used. Lacquer dries in less than ten minutes, and will give a fairly satisfactory job. Yellow lacquer is best but black or green can also be used. Quick Rubbing Varnish is a quality varnish designed to increase the vehicle content of Japan Color. When mixed with Japan Color the resultant coating is tougher and more resistant to clean up after backing up gold or to backup gold leaf applied on glass when no outline color is specified and fast clean up is desired. Clear Overcoat Varnish is the first choice for a long lasting clear coat for use over wood, metal or...gl.ass. Be.YilJ.irg a traditional automotive product this materiai offers excellent protection from water and chemicals. It is also recommended as the final back-up coat for gold leaf applied on glass. After the shade or outline is complete Clear Overcoat provides final protection. Silver Leaf - Silver leaf, except for a few minor changes in the finishing, is laid in exactly the same manner as gold leaf. Method OfProcedure - The new thin, silver leaf can be laid with the same strength water size. However, this leaf must be backed-up with a heavier, non-porous backing material. For this purpose, we recommend a mixture of Ghrome Yellow medium-injapan. To thismixture add a small amount of Prussian Blue in japan and stir into gold size. Mixture should be thinned sparingly with turpentine to a fairly heavy consistency. This backing-up material is chemically neutral and is considerably tougher than the mixture used for gold. Black, which contains a high content of carbon, should never be used, as the carbon tends to have a chemical reaction on the leaf and in time may cause the silver to tarnish. Silver leaf should never be used over varnish for mat centers, as varnish also has a tendency to set up a chemical reaction that will make the leaf tarnish. In gilding mat centers on a silver job, use aluminum leaf for the centers. Instead of varnish for the centers some sign men prefer to use stale beer. To prepare beer for this purpose they allow it to stand overnight in an open pan. Gilding is done in the usual manner, but is backed-up in outline only. These sign men then flood the centers with stale beer in the same manner as water sizing. The leaf is laid into the beer while wet. Mat centers of silver leaf laid into stale beer have been known to stand up with no signs of tarnishing for 25 years. centers with slow oil size to which a little as in cross hatching. EFFECTS IN GLASS GLIDING varnish has been added. Allow the job to stand Try this as well on contrast mat center glass Two Tone Gilding - Chalk or pounce the layout overnight or for several hours. Then gild from work. Apply the leaf to the tacky dead center as usual. Then lay the XXDeep gold with water the book as in surface gilding, using Pale or varnish and proceed as if you were working on size and back-up in outline only. Clean off Lemon gold. After rubbing down the gold very gold size. The effect will show up through the superfluous gold with cotton saturated with lightly with cotton, take a small piece of velvet glass and varnish from the reading side. whiting and water. or chamois and with it form a ball between the GoldLeafFaceShading - This is a very striking Fill in the centers of the lettering with a fingers. Bear down against the back of the gold and rich effect and has the added merit of being mixture of quick rubbing varnish and turpentine. with a light pressure and twist the chamois or easily and quickly obtained. Just before laying If applied thin, it will tack up quickly. Now gild velvet around in a rotary motion. Go all over the the gold leaf, lay in the shading you desire with a the centers with either Lemon or Pale gold, direct centers in this manner. (But do not press or twist small pencil and clear, quick-drying varnish. from the book as in surface gilding, by laying the too hard. Begin lightly until you acquire the The shading may consist of elaborate scrolls, gold right into the tacky varnish center. The knack of handling.) The job is then backed-up lines, or other patterns. Add a little burnt umber lettering may now be outlined or shaded with and varnished in the usual way. to the varnish so that you can see what you are color if desired. However, many high-class jobs BlendedGoldand Silver -'Gold leaf is applied to doing .. Or you can avoid this by pouncing lightly are plain two-tone letters with no outline or the glass in the ordinary manner, except that with whiting. When the varnish is dry, lay the shade. Where you use no outline or shade, it is only the upper half or three quarters of the letter gold leaf as usual and burnish it. The parts best to paint the back of letters with aluminum is gilded. Patch and burnish the gold as usual. To covered with the varnish will remain mat, thus or bronze mixed with varnish. When dry, accomplish the blending use a flat brush that giving you the shading you desire. varnish the whole job carefully with a good has been. cut down about a one-quarter inch Cleaning Raised Wood Gilded LettersUse outside spar or coach finishing varnish. bristle. nothing stronger than mild so ad suds. Apply the Instead of Lemon or Pale gold for the centers, Draw brush across the letters, beginning at soapy water with a soft sponge and do not rub many sign men prefer to use XXDeep gold. The the bottom and continuing up to about three so hard as to injure the surface of the leaf. Be varnish will prevent XXDeep gold from burnishquarters the height of the letter. sure and rinse with clear water before the soapy ing while the outline will have its usual brilliant This will scratch the gold. The lower portion of water has had a chance to dry. bumisfl. . -;the.gold--slwuld be..almost entirely. removed. Strong solutions musLbe avoided as" any__ Imitation Embossingor Mat GoldFinish - This is Reduce the pressure of the brush as you go up to damage to the undercoat will kill the brilliance of one.ot the most striking effects that can be take off less and less of the qold, until you blend the leaf. obtained but it takes somewhat, longer to do. into the solid gold near the top of the letter. If the soap and water treatment does not give You pounce the layout in the usual mannerqild The object of this scratching is to give you an satisfactory results it is time to re-gild. the job and burnish it. You back-up only in opportunity to unite the gold and silver with an TYPE OF GOLD LEAF TO USEOutline all parts of the lettering, serous ()rimperceptible joint. You now lay silver leaf over Specification of Gold Leaf In Packs - The designs that are to be embossed. When backing the lower portion of the letter and overlap all standard size of all leaf in packs, unless otheris dry, remove superfluous gold by cleaning in parts of the gold that have been scratched. You wise indicated, is 3% by 3% inches. It is packed the usual manner. This leaves the parts to be then back-up and varnish the job in the usual loose between roughed tissue in books containembossed clear glass. Fill in the centers with manner. in.!! 25 leaves, the smallest unit.The standard Damar varnish to which a few drops of quic]; Glazing - For glazing gold lettering use only unit, a "pack" contains 20 books of 25 leaves ,ruboing varnish have been. added. Because transparent colors. Glazing colors sh.ould be each, a total of 500 leaves. A"owing for normal Damar varnish sets very quickly.but never d-ries mixed only with high-grade, light japan and laps and waste, a book (25 leaves) will cover very hard, the addition of quick.rubbirig varnish thinned until colors are quite faint and indistinct. approximately 1% sq. ft.; a pack (20 books) will b!!ps to mHkelb~ Damar dry hard - at the same Apply glaze with a camel hair brush, and when cover approximately 30 sq. ft. time keepsyow- backing.:upcorot from-crac - - the glaZe is-tmmmgmy-dry;-gttd with'water size= ~~-petlfitation..""O:-Gold-l:eaNn·Rolls--GG-Id·be·a.f..i-A ing. As soon as the varnish shows a strong tack in the usual manner. rolls, sometimes called ribbon-gold or roll gold, it is ready for stippling. PL~STER - It is of utmost importance that is 22 or 23 Karat XX Gold Leaf slightly adhered to Stipple with the stub of a bristle brush or with the plaster be thoroughly seasoned, dry, hard tissue rolls from which it releases to the size on a stipplinq brush. The brush may be held at an and free from alkali. It should then be firstslight pressure. Standard rolls are YBt04 inches exact right angle to the varnished surface. coated with a standard make of pigmented wall wide, 69 feet long. Each inch of width of leaf in Continue this stippling until varnish shows the primer and sealer. When this coat is dry, slowrolls will cover about 5Y2sq. ft. desired embossed effect. When the varnish is drying oil gold size may be applied and the leaf Howto Select the Proper Gold Leafdry (and that will take quite some time because laid when the gold size has reached the proper 23 Karat XX Gold Leaf in Packs - 23 Karat XX of the slow drying qualities of Damar)', water tack. . Gold Leaf, sometimes called XX, Deep, Surface, size, regild and finish as usual. For this second Special Effectsin Gilding - We have had a great Loose, or Board Gold is even purer than 23 Karat. gilding you can use XXDeep gold, but Lemon or many requests for information as to how various Its rich, true gold appearance is not found in Pale gold will heighten the embossed effect. striking and unusual effects can be obtained in imitations and will not tarnish even on exterior 00 not use a quick drying color for backing-up gold leaf work. The following effects were those applications. For package size and coverage, Jhere Damar hasf2.eell'Used;B~_a guicki1£ying __ asked formost frequently. To <!yoid re~UQf!J!. see '~pe~fications." - _ _ _ color may ha ve a tendency to crack the lettering. is assumed that the reader is already familiar Recommendeduses: For a exterior surface Pock Marking - Another,method used to get a with the method of gilding ordinary signs; the applications and painted surface such as raised rough or pock-marked center is to brush the following descriptions, therefore, deal only with letters, flat signs, picture frames, statuary, cleaned off centers with Damar varnish towhich variations and additions to usual methods by domes, truck bodies, etc. a little quick rubbing varnish has been added. which the effects may be obtained. Goldand Metallic Leaf Specification Then spray water over the varnish from an Engine Turning - Engine-turning or "swirling" Sheet - Preparation and Application: Undercoatatomizer. The water will bead and will give the is particularly effective when a protective coat ing; a smooth non porous surface, such as varnish a rough, pock-marked effect. When is used. All transparent coatings detract someburnish sealer. Do not use a protective coating gilded with Pale gold, the centers will have a what from the lustrous surface of the leaf; and a over 23K Gold Leaf unless the surface is to be very striking appearance. . reflecting value, on part of each letter on a whole subjected to abrasion or hard rubbing. Macaroni Scroll - This very popular center is line of lettering. may be obtained by disturbing Wherever time permits use a slow drying oil made by mixing ten parts of Damar varnish with the flat surface of the leafed portion in regular size for best results, except for lettering over one part Balsam or Fir, three parts quick rubbing design. This is accomplished through the use of which a protective coat is to be applied, in which varnish and a pinch of powdered pumice. Fill in velvet plush padded to the desired bulk with case use a synthetic quick drying size. the clear centers with this mixture. When this cotton. When the surplus gold has been skewed 23 Karat XX Gold leaf in Ro"s varnish reaches a strong tack, take a small from the surface immediately after being laid, Recommendeduses:For all surface applications wooden wedge - or the pointed end of a letterthe plush pad is held against the leaf and turned where the area is large and the surface is not too ing brush handle - and scratch scrolls or with a twist of the wrist. Successive twists irregular. Since the speed and ease of roll fernlike designs in the varnish. When the should overlap, and twists in successive lines application can result in great time savings, the varnish is thoroughly dry, water size and gild should be staggered. feasibility of Gold Leaf in Rolls should be with Lemon or Pale gold. Back-up and finish Designs and novel effects can be produced by considered for a" surface gilding jobs. the job in the usual manner. masking out portions of letters with paper, using Preparationand application: Same as for various Spiralled or Spun Centers -XXDeepgold is laid the plush pads in straight strokes on the types of leaf described under respective and backed-up in outline only. You fill in the unmasked portion. Proceed with various angles headings. Usually applied with a special gilding 1 wheel or brush. 23 Karat XX Glass Gold Leal - 23 karat glass gold leaf, also called window gold, may also be used with great satisfaction on any surface. Specially selected leaf which is free from joints, patches or other minor blemishes which might show up in glass gilding but not in surface gilding. Rich, brilliant appearance. For package size and coverage, see "Specifications." Recommended uses: For all lettering and designs on glass. On many jobs, time can be saved by using gold leaf in rolls. Preparation and application: Heat fresh gelatine and water size for each job, consisting of about two 00 gelatin capsules per pint of water, and use hot. More or less gelatine may be used to suit personal taste but the weaker the size, the more brilliant the burnish. Burnish with colton or velvet plush when gold is dry. Backing should be tough, elastic and have some gloss. Varnish over entire letter surface with edge extended beyond backing to seal against moisture. 23 Karat XX PatentGold Leaf 23 Karat Patent Gold Leaf,sometimes known as transfer gold, or outdoor gold. Each leaf adhered to white tissue paper to make handling in wind or air currents easier. Can be ordered more tightly or loosely adhered to the tissues than the standard medium adhesion. For package size and coverage, see "Specifica-tions." Recommendeduses: Same uses as 23 Karat XX Gold Leaf except that it is easier to handle for outdoor work or in air currents. On many jobs, time can be saved by using gold leaf in rolls, and their use should .be considered on all jobs requiring patent leaf. Preparation and application: Sizing and undercoating same as for 23 karat XX gold leaf. 12 Karat White GJ!!dLeaf - ~ White Gold Leaf is alloyed with silver to give it almost the whiteness of silver but retain the ease of application of Gold Leaf. . Recommendeduses: Desirable for lettering and designs on glass when a silver color is wanted. Preparation and application - The same' as preparation and application for 23 Karat Gold Leaf except that a protective coating should always be used. to prevent discoloration due to the silver alloy. LemonGold Leaf -18 karat. This leaf, because it contains more alloy than XXDeep, is lighter and more greenish in color. This color is not permanent, as the silver with which this leaf is alloyed will eventually tarnish when exposed to the weather. This leaf is primarily a glass gold, and it is generally used with XXDeep for contrasting centers and backgrounds. Pale Gold leaf - 16.7 karat. This gold is still lighter in color than Lemon gold, as it contains more alloy. Its use carries the same limitations as Lemon gold. Silver Aluminum and Composition Leaf . Imported Silver Leaf - Imported Silver is 33/, inches square. Allowing for normal laps and waste, it covers approximately 1.85 sq. ft. per book (25 leaves) and 39 sq. ft. per pack (20 books) Recommended uses: Should only be used for burnish work on glass where it is hermetically sealed. It will tarnish upon exposure to air. When silver effect is required on surface work use Aluminum Leaf. Preparation and application Imported Silver Leaf is laid exactly the same as gold leaf except that, as Silver Leaf is heavier, the size should be twice as strong and the backup heavier. . Aluminum leaf - Aluminum leaf if 5112 inches square, and allowing for normal laps and waste will cover approximately 4.3 square feet per book (25 leaves); 86 square feet per pack (20 books). Recommendeduses: For all interior and exterior decorating and truck lettering. Preparation and application: Use a slow oil size. Will oxidize unless protected with clear coating. Composition leaf - Imported Composition Leaf, sometimes called Imitation Gold or Dutch Metal. Standard leaf is 51f2 inches square. Covering capacity same as Aluminum Leaf. Recommended uses: For interior decoration. Under no circumstances should this leaf be used outdoors. . . Preparation and application: Use a slow oil size. Will tarnish most readily unless protected with clear coating. Aluminum and Composition Leaf in Rolls - Same as Gold Leaf in rolls. Standard rolls are 6 inches wide, 152 feet long but can be cut into narrower widths on request. Recommended uses, preparation and application same as Aluminum and Composition Leaf. WHEN & HOW TO USE GOLD LEAF IN ROLLSMORE and more gilders find that the use of genuine gold leaf and aluminum leaf in rolls offers important advantages where a large area is to be gilded and the surface is not too irregular. Surface·Gilding - The speed and ease of roll application can effect substantial time savings on virutally all surface gilding jobs .. Outside Gilding - Gold leaf in rolls is an effective answer to the problems of re-gilding signsin place or of gilding in places where it may be windy. (Trying to gild with loose gold in outside locations is apt to be unsatisfactory and to cause an und ue loss of gold teat) Striping -If much striping is to be done, gold leaf in rolls up.to 1" wide is most economical.It _ can be handled much the same as a snap line, and can be laid in lengths up to IS" at a time. (Some gilders use wider widths in shorter lengths.) This technique is also used when gilding glass. Application of gold leaf in rolls is fast and relatively easy. Traditionally, a gilding shell is used, but some gilders achieve excellent results with a brush; or with a paint roller of the proper width in all other respects application is the same as that for the same leaf in sheet form. Gold leaf in rolls covers 51f2 square feet of surface per 1" of width. Genuine gold leaf in rolls is available in widths up to 4" imitation gold or aluminum in widths to 6". "No-Nos" 1. Don't fail to prepare the surface properly. 2. Don't fail to have everything absolutely clean. 3. Don't let gold leaf come in contact with anything oily before use. 4. Don't let the tip touch the wet glass. 5. Don't use water size either too weak or too strong. Too weak . ..a water size will not allow "washing:' and the gold will come off. Too strong water size will produce a "cloudiness" which will prevent gelling a good burnish. Don't use water size left from yesterday - make fresh size each day. 6. In glass gilding, don't let the size dry on the glass: it will streak and spot the gold. Keep the glass thoroughly wet with size until all the gold leal is laid. 7. Don't let size run down over the part of the glass that has been gilded. B. Make sure your burnishing conon is soft and free from any foreign mailer: a small piece of grit or anything hard will scratch the gold and ruin the job. Hospital cotton. while slightly more expensive, is entirely free from all foreign particles. 9. Don't try to gild at temperatures near or below freezing. 10. Don't try to gild a window when it is sweaty or steamy. Frost. sweat, or steam will completely destroy the adhesive properties of water size and the gold will come off when you try to burnish it. 11. Don't use rnuch'thinner in your backinq-up color: use as lillie as possible. Thinner tends to "flat" the color and make it brittle and easily chipped. This is particularly important 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. when using Damar or other varnishes. Thinner destroys the elasticity of the varnish and when the glass contracts or expands, the letters are apt to chip and peel. Don't use a quick'drying backing of any kind over Damar varnish. While Damar "sets up" very quickly. it really dries very, very slowly. If a quick-dryinq backing is used, it may crack the mat center. Don't do more than three or four letters at a lime when using Damar varnish for stippling. "Damar "sets up" very quickly and if it gets too hard, it will not stipple well. Don't use a "quick" size if the job you are doing will permit' the use of a "slow" size. The laller will give better results in every respect. The slower the size, the better the burnish. Don't wait to finish laying leaf before burnishing, when using quick size. or you may find the gold wrinkling. It is much better to burnish almost as soon as you gild. Don't fail to brush out slow size evenly. If it is too thick in spots, it will break through the gold when you try to burnish. In surface gilding, don't try to lay the gold before the size has reached the proper "tack:' It will drown the gold and kill the burnish. Don't expect to get a good job with anything but the best gold leaf. Don't use silver leaf except for glass work, it will tarnish. Use aluminum leaf instead. However. use aluminum leaf for mat centers. Don't use chrome yellow in size when using aluminum leaf.
© Copyright 2019