Parameter Genitourinary Hepatobiliary Gastrointestinal Cardiovascular

Urine Test Strip Parameters
And Possible Pathologies
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
System
Parameter
Genitourinary
Hepatobiliary
Renal Dysfunction
Hyponatremia in hepatic
cirrhosis
• Renal failure
1
Specific Gravity
• Tubulointerstitial disease (edema,
infiltrate, fibrosis) except when
nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is
present (e.g., in sickle cell disease, toxic
nephritis, pyelonephritis,
nephrosclerosis)
Gastrointestinal
Nausea and
vomiting-induced
dehydration may alter
urine concentration
Cardiovascular
Hyponatremia in
congestive heart failure
Hypertension
Hormonal, Metabolic,
and Other Systems
Environmental
(Diet, Drugs, Stress)
Clinical disorders of water and
sodium metabolism (e.g. hypernatremia,
dehydration, nephrogenic diabetes
insipidus, hyponatremia, water excess,
syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion,
toxemia/eclampsia of pregnancy)
Diabetes mellitus
Protein malnutrition
Collagen disease
Diuretic-induced functional tubular
impairment
Radiographic dye injection
Up in:
• Alkalosis (metabolic, respiratory)
Up in:
• Diet high in vegetables, citrus fruits
• Alkalizing drug use (sodium
bicarbonate, acetazolamide)
• Functional tubular impairment (e.g. in
nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, Fanconi’s
Syndrome, osmotic diuresis, diureticinduced potassium deficiency,
hypercalcemia)
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Urine pH
Up in:
• Pyloric obstruction
• Vomiting
Up (<pH 6) in:
• Renal failure
• Bacterial infection
(e.g., Proteus bacteriuria)
• Renal tubular acidosis
Down in:
• Acidosis (metabolic, respiratory,
diabetic)
• Pulmonary emphysema
• Dehydration
Down in:
• Diarrhea
• Malapsorption
Down in:
• Diet high in meats or other protein,
cranberries
• Starvation
• Acidifying drug use (ammonium chlo ride, methanamine mandelate therapy)
Leukocytes
Renal infection/inflammation
• Acute/chornic pyelonephritis
• Glomerulonephiritis
• Urolithiasis
• Tumors
• Lower urinary tract infection (cystitis,
urethritis, prostatitis)
Phenacetin-induced nephritis
Nitrite
Bacteriuria
• Urinary tract infection (cystitis,
urethritis, prostatitis, pyelonephritis)
Congestive heart failure
Gout
Hypokalemia
Pre-eclampsia
Severe febrile infection
Nephrotoxic drugs
Protein
Renal/glomerular/tubular disease
• Glomerulonephritis
• Glomerulosclerosis (e.g. in diabetes)
• Nephrotic Syndrome
• Pyelonephritis
• Renal tuberculosis
Myocardial infarction
Diabetes mellitus
Hemochromatosis
Hyperthyroidism
Cushing Syndrome
Pheochromocytomas
Sudden shock or pain
Steriod therapy
Glucose
Renal glycosuria
(e.g., during pregnancy)
Renal tubular disease
(e.g., in Fanconi’s Syndrome)
Decreased renal glucose threshold
(e.g., in old age)
Vomiting
Diarrhea
Diabetic ketosis
Glycogen-storage disease
Eclampsia
Acute fever
Weight-reducing diet
Ketogenic diet
(e.g., anticonvulsant therapy)
Starvation
Note: May be negative
with inhibition of
intestinal flora by
antimicrobial agents.
Sickle cell anemia
Hemolytic disease
• Pernicious anemia
Leptospirosis
Ketones
Liver cell damage
Chronic liver stasis
Cirrhosis
Dubin-Johnson Syndrome
Note: May be zero or down
in biliary dysfunction
Uribilinogen
•
•
•
•
Bilirubin
Blood
Erythrocytes
(Hematuria)
Hemoglobin
Renal infection/inflammation/injury
• Renal tuberculosis
• Renal infarction
• Calculi (urethral, renal)
• Polycystic kidneys
• Tumors (bladder, renal, pelvis,
prostrate)
• Salpingitis
• Cystitis
Renal intravascular hemolysis
Acute glomerulonephritis
Color
Compensation
Pad
Biliary dysfunction
Gallstones
Obstructive jaundice
Hepatitis (viral toxic)
Dubin-Johnson Syndrome
Cirrhosis
Hemolytic disease
Leptospirosis
Colon tumor
Diverticulitis
Bacterial endocarditis
Blood dyscrasias
•
Hemophilia
•
Thrombocytopenia
Sickle cell anemia
Disseminated Lupus Erythematosus
Malignant hypertension
Hemolytic disease
Plasmodium (malaria)
Clostridia (tetanus) infection
Hemorrhagenic drugs
(e.g., enticoagulant, salicylates)
Nephrotoxic agents
Internal injury or foreign body
Vitamin C or K deficiency
Overexertion
Exposure to cold
Incompatible blood transfusion
Drug-induced hemolysis
System “subtracts” background color, enhancing accuracy by reducing false positives.
For more information or a distributor near you, call 1-800-428-2336.
Technical Support: 1-800-428-4674.
© 2002, Roche Diagnostics Corporation. All rights reserved. 311-15613-0502
*Reagent strip detection of an abnormal urine constituent or concentration characteristic of disease, e.g., glycosuria in diabetes mellitus, may provide a useful screen or monitor but requires confirmation by other laboratory and clinical evidence.
This construction is representative of all strip types. Some strip types do not include all the pads shown here.
Adapted from: 1. Conn, HF and Conn, RB (eds): Current Diagnosis 5, WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1977. 2. Davidson, I and Henry, JB (eds): Todd-Sanford Clinical Diagnosis by Laboratory Methods. Ed 16, WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia, 1974. 3. Raphael, SS, et al” Lynch’s Medical Laboratory Technology, ed. 3, WB Saunders Co.,
Philadelphia, 1976. 4. Wallach, J: Interpretation of Diagnostics Tests, ed. 2, Little, Brown & Co., Boston, 1974. 5. Widmann, FK: Goodales Clinical Interpretation of Laboratory Tests, ed. 7, FA Davix Co., Philadelphia, 197. 6. Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, Volume I, General Medicine, Fifteenth Edition, 1987, Ch. 146, Clinical
Evaluation of Genitourinary Disorders. Pg. 738-9, 741, 1025. Information compiled by John Wilson, PhD, Department of Clinical Pathology, William Beaumont Hosptial, Royal Oak, MI.
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