# Analytical & Logical Reasoning

```Analytical & Logical
Reasoning
Set - A
Directions for questions 1 to 5:
Compare XYZ Ltd., started a project with 12 stages, A through L.
The following table gives the time required to complete each stage,
and the necessary stages that should be completed before that
stage can be started.
Stage
Stages necessary to be completed
before starting the stage
Time required to complete the
stage (in days)
A
None
5
B
A
16
C
A
12
D
C
10
E
B, D
3
F
B
4
G
F
6
H
E
8
I
D
10
J
G, H
18
K
H, I
12
L
K
8
Any stage, once it is started, is implemented till is completion
without any stoppages in between. However, it is possible that
more than one stage is under implementation simultaneously.
The Project is said to be completed only when all of the above
listed 12 stages are completed. Assume that the day on which the
project is started is the 1st day.
1. After completing stage E, at least how many more
days are required to complete the project ?
(1) 20
(2) 24
(3) 28
(4) 32
(5) None of the above
2. Stage J cannot be started before the
(1) 26th day.
(2) 27th day.
(4) 39th day.
(5) 40th day.
(3) 32nd day.
3.If the project is to be completed in the least
possible number of days, then after the
completion of stage F, at least how many more
days are required to complete the project ?
(1) 20
(4) 26
(2) 22
(5) 33
(3) 24
Additional information for question 4 and 5:
After completing the above project, the company was
awarded another two project, both exactly identical to the
above project. However, the company had a constraint that
there was only one team for each stage of the project, because
of which no stage could be implemented simultaneously in both
the projects.
4. What is the least time required, from the start of these new
project, to complete stage G in both the projects ?
(1) 36 days
(2) 38 days
(3) 43 days
(4) 45 days
(5) 47 days
5. What is the least time required, from the start of these
new projects, to complete the implementation of
stage E both the projects ?
(1) 42 days
(4) 43 days
(2) 40 days
(5) 46 days
(3) 35 days
Solutions for questions 1 to 5:
Let us tabulate the number of days required to complete the project stage wise.
Stage
Earlier Stage
Time form the beginning
A
-
5
B
A
21
C
A
17
D
C
27
E
B, D
30
F
B
25
G
F
31
H
E
38
I
D
37
J
G, H
56
K
H, I
50
L
K
58
1. Number of days required = 58 – 30 = 28 days.
Choice (3)
2. J depends upon G and H, among which 38 days is the longest
time taken (i.e., by H).
.·. J can start on 39th day.
Choice (4)
3. The least possible number of days taken by the project is 58.
Hence, F should have been completed by the most 34 days.
Hence, 24 more days are needed.
Choice (3)
4. The least time required is 47 days as shown below.
Stage
A
B
C
D
Implementation Days
Project – 1
Project – II
1 to 5
6 to 10
6 to 21
22 to 37
22 to 25
38 to 41
26 to 31
42 to 47
Choice (5)
5. The least time required is as shown below.
Stage
A
B
C
D
Implementation Time
Project – I
1 to 5
6 to 21
6 to 17
18 to 27
Project – II
6 to 10
22 to 37
18 to 29
30 to 39
E
28 to 30
40 to 42
It takes a total of 42 days.
Choice (1)
Set - B
Directions for question 6 and 7:
Each question contains six statements followed by four groups of
three statements each. Find out the group(s) in which the three
statements are logically related.
6. A.
B.
C.
D
E.
F.
All letter are alphabet.
Some letters are characters.
No letter is a number.
Some alphabet are characters.
No alphabet is a number.
Some characters are numbers.
(1) DFA
(4) ACE
(2) BCF
(5) FAB
(3) DEF
Sol.
DFA :BCF :DEF :ACE :-
This is not a valid group as the total number of
terms is more than three.
This is not a valid group as exactly one of the
statements is negative.
This is not a valid group as exactly one of the
statements is negative.
This is a valid group as none of the rules is
violated and here C is the conclusion drawn A
and E.
Choice (4)
7. A. All players are stars.
B. Some players are artists.
C. All artists are actors.
D. Some stars are artists.
E. Some artists are not starts.
F. No actor is a star.
(1)
(4)
EFA
DCF
(2)
(5)
CEF
(3) CBA
More than one of the above
Sol. EFA :- This is not a valid group as the term ‘starts’ is
present in each of the statements.
CEF :- This is a valid group as none of the rules is
violated and here E is the conclusion drawn
from C and F.
Choice (2)
Key
1.
2.
3.
4.
3
4
3
5
5.
6.
7.
1
4
2
Analytical & Logical
Reasoning
Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.
The following table gives the production capacity of the five refineries – P, Q, R, S and T – of
the oil company SPCL, the demand at the company’s four outlets – A, B, C and D – and the
transportation costs involved in transporting – and the transportation costs involved in transporting
– and the transportation costs involved in transporting the oil from different refineries to different
outlets.
Transportation cost (in rupees/kilolitre)
Refinery (Production
capacity in
kilolitres/day)
Outlet (Demand in
kilolitres/day)
A (40)
B (30)
C (10)
D (20)
P (30)
500
300
600
200
Q (10)
600
400
400
100
R (30)
300
400
700
400
S (20)
200
300
400
200
T (10)
400
300
600
100
In the above table, the number given in the brackets alongside each
refinery gives the production capacity (in kilolitres per day) of that refinery and
the number given in the brackets alongside each outlet. The number given in
the brackets alongside each outlet gives the demand (in kilolitres per day) at
that outlet. The number given in the cell corresponding to a refinery and an
outlet, gives the transportation cost (in rupees per kilolitre) incurred for
transporting oil from that refinery to that outlet.
For example, the production capacity of refinery P is 30 kilolitres/day and
the demand at outlet A is 40 kilolitres/day and the cost of transporting one
kilolitre of oil from refinery P to outlet P to outlet A is Rs.500.
Assume that the company currently operates only the refineries and outlets
mentioned above and that the production at the refineries on any day is
transported to the outlets such that the demand at all the outlets is met.
1.The daily of transportation of oil to all
the outlets is at least
(1) Rs.24,000 (2) Rs.26,000
(3) Rs.28,000 (4) Rs.29,000
Solution : The lowest cost of transportation occurs when the
oil is transported along the cheapest routes available, which
are shown below.
T – D  10 kl  10 x 100 = Rs.1000
Q – D  10 kl  10 x 100 = Rs.1000
P – B  30 kl  30 x 300 = Rs.9000
S – A  10 kl  10 x 200 = Rs.2000
R – A  30 kl  30 x 300 = Rs.9000
S – C  10 kl  10 x 400 = Rs.4000
Total
= Rs.26,000
Choice (2)
2. If due to a disruption in the supply lines to some of
the outlets, refinery P can supply oil to only outlets
A and C then the daily cost of the transportation of
oil to A and C, then the daily cost of transportation
of oil to all the outlets is at least
(1) Rs.29,000
(3) Rs.33,000
(2) Rs.30,000
(4) Rs.34,000
Solution: As P can be used for supplying only to A or C,
the minimum cost of transportation in this case
would be
P – C  10 kl  Rs.6,000
P – A  20 kl  Rs.10,000
Q – D  10 kl  Rs.1,000
T – D  10 kl  Rs.1,000
R – B  30 kl  Rs.12,000
S – A  20 kl  Rs.4,000
Total
= Rs.34,000
Choice (4)
Currently, the daily cost of transportation of oil to all
the outlets is the outlets is the least possible.
3. The daily cost of transportation to all the outlets
would increase by the maximum amount, if there is
a disruption (blockage) in the supply line
connecting.
(1) P and B
(3) Q and C
(2) S and D
(4) T and B
Solution: The cheapest supply lines were already
determined in the first question of the set. Now we
have to determine in the supply line whose
disruption would cause the transportation cost to
increase by the maximum amount. Choices (2),
(3) and (4) can be straight away ignored as they
are not part of the cheapest route. Hence, the
increase in transportation cost would be highest, if
the supply line P – B is distributed.
Choice (1)
4. If the company plans to decrease the daily
cost of transportation of oil to all the outlets by
doubling the production capacity of exactly
one of the refineries, which refinery should it
select so as to reduce the transportation cost
by the maximum amount?
(1) S
(2) Q
(3)
R
(4) P
Solution: As far as the cost of
transportation at each of the outlets is
considered, most of the outlets receive
the oil at a low transportation cost from
the refinery S, hence if the capacity of
refinery S is doubled, the saving in the
expenditure will be more.
Choice (1)
Question - Eight county teams – Kent, Essex, Somerset, Durham, Hampshire, Yorkshire,
Derbyshire and Lancashire Participated, Yorkshire, Derbyshire and Lancashire
participated in a Twenty20 tournament held in London.
In the first round, these eight teams were divided into two groups of four teams
each. Each team has to Play two matches against each of the other teams in its
group. The teams with the highest and the second Highest number of wins in both
the group will move to the next round, i.e., semi-finals. It is known that, Essex,
Yorkshire, Lancashire and Derbyshire reached the semi-finals.
It is also known that, in the first round
(i) No match ended in a tie and in each of the groups, each of the four teams won
a different number of matches.
(ii) Yorkshire lost both its matches against Derbyshire.
(iii) Kent won the same number of matches that by Lancashire.
(iv)In its group, Somerset lost both of its matched against all the other teams, except
Durham, which in turn, won at least one match against each of the other teams,
except one.
5. Which team won the highest number of matches in the first round?
(1) Yorkshire
(2) Derbyshire
(3) Essex
(4) Cannot be determined
6. What was the total number of matches won by Durham in the first round?
(1) Hampshire
(2) Somerset
(3) Durham
(4) Cannot be determined
7. What was the total number of matches won by Durham in the first round?
(1) 4
(2) 3
(3) 2
(4) 1
8. Which team/s lost at least one match against Kent in the first round?
(1) Only Hampshire
(2) Only Yorkshire
(3) Only Yorkshire and Hampshire
(4) Only Hampshire and Derbyshire
Solution: Given that, Essex, Yorkshire, Lancashire and Derbyshire reached the semi finals.
Hence, Kent, Somerset, Durham and Hampshire are eliminated in the first round.
It is also given, Yorkshire played against Derbyshire. Hence, Yorkshire and Derbyshire
must be the two of one group.
.ˈ. Lancashire and Essex must be the two teams of the other group.
As Kent has same number of wins as Lancashire, they must be in different groups.
.ˈ. Kent and Hampshire are the losing teams in the group from which Yorkshire and Derbyshire
qualified and Durham and Somerset are the eliminated teams in the group from which Essex
and Lancashire qualified.
The groups can be classified and follows:
Qualified for Semis
Lancashire Essex
Yorkshire Derbyshire
Eliminated in 1st round
Somerset Durham
Kent Hampshire
Total number of matches in each group = 12
Given, each of them has a different number of wins, so the possibilities are as follows.
Number of wins
Qualified teams
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
Eliminated teams
Highest
2nd
highest
6
4
2
0
6
3
2
1
5
4
2
1
5
4
3
0
3rd highest 4th highest
As Kent, which is eliminated has the same number of wins as Lancashire, which qualified,
the only possibilities
That can be considered are (ii) and (iv).
In the group of Kent, Yorkshire must have lost only the matches against Derbyshire i.e. it must
have won 4 matched. Derbyshire must Have won both the matches against Yorkshire, both
against Hampshire and one against Kent.
Kent won both the matches against Hampshire and one against Derbyshire and Hampshire lost
all the matches.
In the group of Lancashire,
Essex won all the matches, Lancashire,
Essex won all the matches, Lancashire won both the matches against Somerset and one
against Durham. Durham
Won one against Lancashire and one against Somerset and Somerset won against Durham.
5. Essex won the maximum number of matches in the first round.
6. Hampshire has the least number of wins.
7. The number of matches won by Durham is two.
Choice (3)
Choice (1)
Choice (3)
5. Hampshire and Derbyshire lost at least one match against Kent.
Choice (4)
Key
1. 4
2. 2
3. 1
4. 1
5.
6.
7.
8.
3
1
3
4
THANK YOU
qcfinance.in
COMPARISON OF RANKS, BLOOD
RELATIONS, FAMILY TREE AND
CONDITIONS & GROUPINGS
qcfinance.in
COMPARISON OF RANKS
COMPARISON OF RANKS





The term ranks may include various objects such as age, height,
marks, salary, weights, etc.
A set of information is given in the questions. Solutions of such
questions requires ranking of objects either in ascending or
descending order, depending upon their characteristic.
Position of one person is given:
From both ends of the row or ranks from top and bottom are given
and total number of persons is asked.
Sometimes the position is altered by interchanging the seats of
two persons, or some third person is seated between the two.
Gap
before
Rank
Gap after
A
17
18th
9th
8
COMPARISON OF RANKS
Example: Monica is at 25th place from one end in group of 35
students. What is her position from the other end?
Solution:
25th position means 24persons are before Monica, 1 position is
occupied by herself and 10 people will be left behind her, as total
are 35 students.
So, 24 + 1 + 10 =35 (total persons)
Monica
24
25th
11th
10
Shortcut….
(Total person + 1) – Position from one side = Position from other
side
(35 + 1) = 25 or means 36 – 25 = 11th,
So, the answer is 11, her position is 11th from other end.
COMPARISON OF RANKS
Example: If position is 13th from the last. If there are 21 students
in all in his class, what is his position from the beginning?
Solution:
(Total + 1) – position from one side.
(21 + 1 ) – 13  22 – 13 = 9th
qcfinance.in
Question: Kanmani ranked sixteenth from the top and twenty ninth from the
bottom among those who passed an examination. Six boys did not participate in
the competition and five failed in it. How many boys were there in the class?
A. 35
B. 45
C. 50
D. 55
Number of boys who passed = (15 + 1 + 28) = 44
Total number of boys in the class = 44 + 6 +5 = 55.
Question: Murugan is sixth from the left end and Prasanna is tenth from the
right end in a row of boys. If there are eight boys between Murugan and
Prasanna, how many boys are there in the row?
A. 21
B. 23
C. 24
D. 25
Clearly, number of boys in the row = ( 6 + 10 + 8) = 24.
Question: In a row of girls facing North, Reena is 10th to the left of
Pallavi, who is 21st from the right end. If Malini, who is 17th
from the left end, is fourth to the right of Reena, how many girls
are there in the row?
A. 37
B. 41
C. 43
D. 49
Pallavi is 21st from right and Reena is 10th to the left of Pallavi.
So, Reena is 31st from right.
Malini is 4th to the right of Reena.
So, Malini is 27th from the right.
Also, Malini is 17th from the left.
Therefore number of girls in the row = ( 26 + 1 + 16 ) = 43.
Question: In a queue, Viji is fourteenth from the front and Jack is seventeenth
from the end, while Mary is in between Viji and Jack. If Viji be ahead of Jack
and there be 48 persons in the queue, how many persons are there between Viji
and Mary?
A. 5
B. 6
C. 7
D. 8
Number of persons between Viji and Jack = 48 - (14 + 17) = 17.
Now, Mary lies in middle of these 17 persons i.e., at the eighth position.
So, number of persons between Viji and Mary = 7.
Question: Murugan is sixth from the left end and Prasanna is tenth from the
right end in a row of boys. If there are eight boys between Murugan and
Prasanna, how many boys are there in the row?
A. 21
B. 23
C. 24
D. 25
Answer: C. Clearly, number of boys in the row = ( 6 + 10 + 8) = 24.
Question: In a row of girls, Nithya and Suganya occupy the ninth
place from the right end and tenth place from the left end,
respectively. If they interchange their places, then Nithya and
Suganya occupy seventeenth place from the right and eighteenth
place from the left respectively. How many girls are there in the
row?
A. 22
B. 24
C. 26
D. 28
Answer: C. Since Nithya and Suganya exchange places, so Rita’s
new position is the same as Monika’s earlier position. This
position is 17th from the right and 10th from the left.
Therefore Number of girls in the row = (16 + 1 + 9) = 26.
Question: In a queue of children, Arun is fifth from the left and
Suresh is sixth from the right. When they interchange their
places among themselves, Arun becomes thirteenth from the left.
Then, what will be Suresh's position from the right?
A. 8th
B. 14th
C. 15th
D. 16th
Answer: B. Since Arun and Suresh interchange places, so Arun’s
new position (13th from left) is the same as Suresh’s earlier
position (6th from right).
So, number of children in the queue = (12 + 1 + 5) = 18.
Now. Suresh’s new position is the same as Arun's earlier position
fifth from left.
Therefore Suresh’s position from the right = (18 - 4) = 14th.
Question: In a class of 35 students, Kamal is placed seventh from
the bottom whereasa Sunil is placed ninth from the top. Manoj is
placed exactly in between the two. What is Kamal’s position from
Manoj?
A. 7
B. 9
C. 10
D. 12
Answer: C. Number of students between Kamal and Sunil = 35 - ( 7
+ 9) = 19.
Clearly, there are 9 students between Kamal and Manoj, as well
as Manoj and Sunil. So Kamal is 10th from Manoj.
Question: Vimal is 7 ranks ahead of Sathish in a class of 39. If
Sathish’s rank is seventeenth from the last, what is Vimal’s rank
from the start?
A. 11th
B. 13th
C. 16th
D. 18th
Answer: C. Sathish is 17th from the last and Vimal is 7 ranks ahead of
Sathish. So, Vimal is 24th from the last.
Number of students ahead of Vimal in rank = (39 - 24) = 15.
So, Vimal is 16th from the start.
Question: Ram ranked ninth from the top and thirty–eighth from the
bottom in a class. How many students are there in the class?
A. 44
B. 45
C. 46
D. 47
Answer: Clearly, number of students in the class = ( 8 + 1 + 37 ) = 46.
Question: Kiran is taller than Sameer but shorter than Pramod. John
is taller than Urmila. Sameer is taller than John. Who is the tallest
in the group?
a)Kiran
b)Sameer
c)Pramod
d)John
Question: Prabir remembers that his father's birthday is between
thirteenth and sixteenth of May whereas his sister remembers that
their father's birthday is between fourteenth and eighteenth of May.
On which day of may is their father's birthday?
a)15th
b)16th
c)14th
d)Seventeenth
Question: The coach arrived at the playground at 8.35. Rakesh arrived
45 minutes later and was 15 minutes late for the training. By how
much time did the coach come early than the scheduled time?
a)
35 minutes
b)
45 minutes
c)
15 minutes
d)
None of these
Question: Five children were administered psychological tests to know
their intellectual levels. In the report, psychologists pointed out that
the child A is less intelligent than the child B. The child C is less
intelligent than the child D. The child B is less intelligent than the
child C and child A is more intelligent then the child E. Which child
is the most intelligent ?
a)
A
b)
B
c)
D
d)
E
Question: Five boys participated in a competition. Rohit was ranked
lower than Sanjay. Vikas was ranked higher than Dinesh. Kamal`s
rank was between Rohit and Vikas. Who was ranked highest?
A. Sanjay
B. Vikas
C. Dinesh
D. Kamal
E. None of These
Question: Ramesh is taller than Vinay who is not as tall as Karan.
Sanjay is taller than Anupam but shorter than Vinay. Who among
them is the tallest?
a)Ramesh
b)Karan
c)Vinay
d)Cannot be determined
BLOOD RELATIONS
RELATIONS





Questions on Blood Relationship are related to our day to day life.
We are bound by our kith and kin through a chain of
relationships.
The examiner defines the simple relationships by using rather
complicated set of definitions and expects from us to comprehend
these definitions rather quickly.
In order to solve these problems, analyse the given statements
carefully and systematically. For examples :
(i) My father's only child means I (Myself).
(ii) Ritu's husband's father-in-law's only daughter means Ritu
(Herself).
You should have a sound knowledge of the blood relation in order
to solve these questions.
To remember easily, the relations may be divided into two sides
as given below:
1. Relations of Paternal side
2. Relations of Maternal side
RELATIONS
1. Relations of Paternal side:
 Father's father → Grandfather
 Father's mother → Grandmother
 Father's brother → Uncle
 Father's sister → Aunt
 Children of uncle → Cousin
 Wife of uncle → Aunt
 Children of aunt → Cousin
 Husband of aunt → Uncle
2. Relations of Maternal side:
 Mother's father → Maternal grandfather
 Mother's mother → Maternal grandmother
 Mother's brother → Maternal uncle
 Mother's sister → Aunt
 Children of maternal uncle → Cousin
 Wife of maternal uncle → Maternal aunt
RELATIONS FROM ONE
GENERATION TO NEXT:
RELATIONS





Pay particular attention to the information given in the question
itself without your personal biases and conceived notions and
assumptions coming to the fore.
While attempting questions on Blood Relationship, first read all the
pieces of information as quickly as possible and then point out the
two persons between whom relationship is to be established.
Finally, try to co-relate the given relationships.
While concluding relationship between two persons be careful about
the genders of the persons involved. Majority of the students tend to
define or derive relationship without caring for gender of the persons.
It is not possible to define relationship between two persons without
knowing their gender. Consider the following illustration:
Example:
A is the child of P and Q.
 From this statement can we conclude that P is the father of A. No, it
is not possible. Without knowing the gender of either P or Q, it is not
possible to conclude that P is the father of A. What we can conclude
from the above statement is that P and Q are parents of A. Thus, we
see that the knowledge about the gender of persons is necessary to
conclude relationship between the two persons.
TYPES OF RELATIONS


In these tests, the success of a candidate depends upon the
knowledge of blood relations.
Here we will discuss 3 types of relations:
Type 1: Deciphering jumbled up descriptions
 Type 2: Relation puzzle
 Type 3: Coded Puzzles

TYPE 1: DECIPHERING JUMBLED
UP DESCRIPTIONS

Type 1: In this type of questions, a round about description is
given in the form of certain small relationships and direct
relationship between the persons concerned is to be deciphered
Example1: Pointing out to a lady, Rajan said, “she is the daughter
of the woman who is the mother of the husband of my
mother.”.Who is the lady to Rajan?
Solution: The relations may be analyzed as follows:
Mothers husband-Father, Fathers mother-Grandmother,
Grandmothers daughter-fathers sister; fathers sister-Aunt.
So the lady is Rajan’s aunt
TYPE 1: DECIPHERING JUMBLED
UP DESCRIPTIONS
Example2: Pointing to a man in the photograph, Asha said “His
mothers only daughter is my mother.”How is Asha related to that
man?
Solution: Asha’s mother’s mother is man’s mother I.e. Asha’s
mother is man’s sister or Asha is man’s niece.
Example3: Pointing to an old man, Kailash said, “his son is my
son’s uncle”, how is the old man related to Kailash?
Solution: Kailash’s son’s uncle – Kailash’s brother. So , the old
man’s son is Kailash’s brother I.e. the old man is Kailash’s father.
TYPE 2: RELATION PUZZLE

In this type, mutual blood relations or other information's of more
than two persons are mentioned and information about any two is
mentioned.
Example1: A and B are brothers. C and D are sisters. A’s son is D’s
brother. How is B related to C?
Solution: Clearly B is the brother of A; A’s son is D’s brother. This
means D is the daughter of A. Since C and D are sisters, C is also
the daughter of A. So B is the uncle of C.
Example2: A is B’s sister. C is B’s mother. D is C’s father. E is D’s
mother. Then how is A related to D?
Solution: A is the sister of B and B is the daughter of C. So , A is
the daughter of C. Also , D is the father of C. So , A is the
granddaughter of D.
TYPE 3: CODED PUZZLES


Here the relationships are represented by certain codes or
symbols such as +,-,* etc.
Then relationships between certain persons, given in the form of
these codes are to be analyzed.
Example1: If A+B means A is the sister of B;
A-B means A is the brother of B;
A*B means A is the daughter of B
Which of the following shows the relation that E is the maternal
uncle of D?
a)
b)
c)
d)
D+F*E
D-F*E
D*F+E
D*F-E
Solution: Clearly , E is the maternal uncle of D means D is the
daughter of the sister of E, i.e. option c) D*F+E
TYPE 3: CODED PUZZLES
If, A+B means A is the son of B
A-B means A is the wife of B
A*B means A is the brother of B
A/B means A is the mother of B
A=B means A is the sister of B
Example2: What does P+R-Q mean?
Solution: Clearly, P+R-Q means P is the son of R who is the wife of
Q, i.e. Q is the father of P.
Example3: What does P*R/Q mean?
Solution: P*R/Q means P is the brother of R who is the mother of
Q, i.e. P is the uncle of Q.
qcfinance.in
1. Introducing a girl, Santhosh said, “Her mother is the only daughter of my
mother-in-law”. How is Santhosh related to the girl?
(1)
Uncle
(2)
Husband
(3)
Brother
(4)
Father
(5)
None of these
Solution: (4) Only daughter of mother-in-law  wife i.e. girl’s mother is
Santhosh’s wife. Santhosh is the father of the girl.
2. Pointing to a lady a man said, “the son of her only brother is the brother of my
wife”. How is the lady related to the man?
(1)
Mother’s sister
(2)
Grandmother
(3)
Mother-in-law
(4)
Sister of the Man’s father-in-law
(5)
None of these
Solution: (4) Brother of wife  brother-in-law. Son of lady’s brother is his brotherin-law. So the lady’s brother is man’s father-in-law i.e. the lady is the sister of
man’s father-in-law.
3. Pointing to an old man, Kailas said, “his son is my son’s uncle”. How is the old man
related to Kailas?
(1)
Brother
(2)
Uncle
(3)
Father
(4)
Grandfather
(5)
None of these
Solution: (3) Old man’s son is Kailas brother. So old man is
Kailas father.
4. Pointing to a lady on the platform Geetha said, “she is the sister of the father of my
mother’s son”. What is the lady to Geetha?
(1)
Mother
(2)
Sister
(3)
Aunt
(4)
Niece
(5)
None of these
Solution: (3) Mother’s son  brother, My brother’s father  my father
My father’s sister  my aunt
So the lady is Geetha’s aunt.
5. Pointing to a lady a girl said, she is the only daughter-in-law of
the grandmother of my father’s son”. How is the lady related to
the girl?
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Sister-in-law
Mother
Niece
Mother-in-law
Cousin
Solution: (2) My father’s son  my brother
Grandmother of my brother  my grandmother
Only daughter-in-law of my grandmother means my mother. So the
lady is the girl’s mother
6. Q's mother is sister of P and dauhter of M. S is daughter of P and
sister of T. How is M related to T?
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
Father
Grandfather
Grandmother
Either grandfather of grandmother
None of these
Solution:
(4) Q's mother is sister of P. (gender of P is not clear).
Q's mother is daughter of M. (gender of M is not clear).
S is daughter of P and sister of T. (The gender of P and T is not
clear)
M's Children : Q's mother and P.
P's children : S (female) and T.
Therefore, M is either grandfather or grandmother of T.
Five persons are sitting around dinning table. - K, L, M, N and O - K is the
mother of M, who is the wife of O. N is the brother of K and L is the husband
of K.
Ex.7. How is L related to O?
(1) Father
(2) Mother-in-law
(3) Brother-in-law (4) Father-in-law
(5) Niece
Ex.8. How is K related to O?
(1) Sister
(2) Mother
(3) Mother-in-law (4) Brother-in-law
(5) Aunt
Ex.9. How is N related to L?
(1) Son
(2) Cousin
(3) Brother
(4)Brother-in-law
(5) Uncle
Ex.10. How is M related to L ?
(1) Aunt
(2) Niece
(3) Daughter
(4) Daughter-in-law
(5) Mother
Solution:
 K is the mother of M. M is the wife of O. So, K is the mother-in-law of
O, who is the husband of M. N is the brother of K. L is the husband of
K.
 Therefore, N is the brother-in-law of L. L is the father-in-law of O. M
is the daughter of L and K.
7. (4) L is the father-in-law of O
8. (3) K is the mother-in-law of O
9. (4) N is the brother-in-law of L
10. (3) M is the daughter of L
11. If A + B means A is the mother of B; A x B means A is the father
of B; A \$ B means A is the brother of B and A @ B means A is the
sister of B then which of the following means P is the son of Q?
(1) Q + R @ P @ N
(2) Q + R * P @ N
(3) Q x R \$ P @ N
(4) Q x R \$ P \$ N
Solution:
(D) Q x R = Q is the mother of R [-Q, ±R]
R \$ P = R is the brother of P [+ R, ±P]
P \$ N = P is the brother of N [+ P, ±N]
Therefore P is the son of Q.
qcfinance.in
FAMILY TREE
FAMILY TREE



The very basics to solve the family tree problems are to know the
various relations between the family members.
The actual problem is when simple relation is defined in a typical
way.
So to make yourself able to deal with, study some common
relations and the manner in which they may be presented, given
next.
SOME COMMON RELATIONS
Sibling:
Person having one or both parents in common with another.
Sibling can either be:
 Brother
 Sister
First Cousin:

First cousins are commonly known as cousin. Can be defined in
following ways:
 Child of one's aunt or uncle.
 A relative descended from a common ancestor, such as a
grandparent, by two or more steps in a diverging line.
Second Cousin:



Child of one's first cousin.
Child of a first cousin of one's parents.
SOME COMMON RELATIONS
Grandparent:

The father of one's mother or father is called grandfather/grandpa.

The mother of one's mother or father is called grandmother/grandma.
Uncle:

The brother of one's mother or father.

The husband of one's aunt.
Aunt:

The sister of one's father or mother.

The wife of one's uncle
Nephew:

Son of one's brother or sister.
Niece:

Daughter of one's brother or sister.
SOME COMMON RELATIONS
Brother-in-law



The brother of one's spouse.
The husband of one's sister.
The husband of the sister of one's spouse.
Sister-in-law



The sister of one's spouse.
The wife of one's brother.
The wife of the brother of one's spouse.
CHARACTER NOTATIONS


Relations are endless and to understand them properly, family
trees need to be build with certain notations.
It is always better to solve these questions diagrammatically and
to do the same, you can use below mentioned notations.
First Level




Denoting a Male (rectangle) and a female (circle) separately
Denoting a Husband-Wife relationship with a single line
Denoting a Brother-Sister relationship with double lines
Denoting a parent and child relationship in a T structure ( using
a circle to denote a female child and rectangle for a male child)
CHARACTER NOTATIONS
First Level
CHARACTER NOTATIONS
Second Level (Multiple Generations)



Denoting a Grand Parents relationship with their grandchild is only a
repetition of the above structure (parent-child)
Now here we can see three generations of the same family, A is the son of
X and Y, B is the daughter-in-law of X and Y, C is the grandchild, E is
the maternal aunt of C.
Grandfather X and grandmother Y with son A, who in turn is husband
(A) to wife B and child C.
CHARACTER NOTATIONS
Example:
B is F’s daughter in law. D is A’s only grand child . C is D’s only
uncle. A has only 2 children F and C, one of them is male and
another is female. E is the father of C.
Solution:
CHARACTER NOTATIONS
qcfinance.in
Question2: M, N, O, P, Q and R are two sets of triplets, not necessarily in the
order given.
(i) None of the six is married to a sibling or to someone of the same sex.
(ii) Four of the six are male and two are female.
(iii)Neither set of triplets contains 3 siblings of the same sex.
(iv)M and P are married to each other.
(v) N is Q’s only brother.
1. Who cannot be sister and brother?
a)
M and Q
b)
O and R
c)
P and R
d)
R and Q
Answer: d. R and Q
From conditions (II) and (III), we can definitely say that one set of siblings has 2
males. From condition (V), N should be a male. Therefore, one set of sibling
must contain N and Q and a female either M or P. Hence, option (a) is false.
(b) is false as both O and R belong to the second set. (c) is false as P and R
may both belong to the second set. But R and Q cannot be brother and sister
as they are of different sets. Hence, option (d) is the correct choice.
2. R must be a female if :
a)
M and Q are siblings
b)
P and Q are siblings
c)
O is P’s sister in law
d)
O is P’s brother in law
Answer: d. O is P’s brother in law
Option (a) is false since it does not conclusively determine R’s sex. Option (b) is
false since they do not conclusively determine R’s sex. Option (c) is false as it
establishes O as a female and since we know that only M or P can be the
other female, hence option (d) is the correct choice.
3. Which of the following statements must be false?
a)
O is P’s sister in law
b)
Q is P’s sister in law
c)
N is P’s brother in law
d)
Q is P’s brother in law
Answer: b. Q is P’s sister in law
Option (b) is false as in the second set, we have established that Q is a male.
4. If Q and R are married to each other, which of the
following must be true?
a)
b)
c)
d)
O is a male
R is a male
M is a female
N is a female
Answer: a. O is a male
If Q and R married, it implies that R is a female in one of the sets.
We know that Q is a male. Hence, option (b) is false. Option (a) is
the only option which must be true as one of the sets has R as a
female and, therefore, the other two (either O, M or P) are males.
There is a family of six persons P, Q, R, S, T and U. they are
Engineer, Doctor, Teacher, Salesman, Manager and Lawyer.
(i) There are two married couples in the family.
(ii) The manager is the grandfather of U, who is an Engineer.
(iii) R, the Salesman, is married to the lady Teacher.
(iv) Q is the mother of U and T.
(v) The Doctor S, is married to the Manager.
1. How many male members are there in the family?
A. Two
C. Four
B. Three
From the information given in the question, it is clear that there is a
family tree of three generations.
I
II
III
P
(Manager)
R
S
(Doctor)
Q
(Salesman)
(Teacher)
(Engg.)
(Lawyer)
U
T
It is clear from the information that two married couples will be (P – S)
and (R – Q). Gender of U and T cannot be determined from the
information.
The gender of U and T cannot be determined. Therefore, we cannot how
many male members are there.
2. How P is related to T?
A. Father B. Grandfather
C. Mother D. Grandmother
From the information given in the question, it is clear that there is a family tree of
three generations.
I
P
S
(Manager)
(Doctor)
II
R
Q
(Salesman)
(Teacher)
III
U
T
(Engg.)
(Lawyer)
It is clear from the information that two married couples will be (P – S) and (R – Q).
Sex of U and T cannot be determined from the information.
(b) : P is the grandfather of T.
3. What is the profession of P?
A. Lawyer
B. Lawyer or Teacher
C. Manager D. None
(c) : P is the Manager.
4. Who are the two married couples in the family?
A. PQ and SR
B. RU and ST
C. PT and SR
D. PS and RQ
Answer: PS and RQ
(d) : Two married couples are (P S) and (R Q).
Question1: In a family of six, there are three men L, M and N and
three women R, S and T. The six are Architect, Lawyer, C.A.,
Professor, Doctor and Engineer by profession but not in same order.
(i) There are two married couples and two unmarried persons.
(ii) N is not R’s husband.
(iii) The Doctor is married to a lawyer. R’s grandfather is professor.
(iv) M is not L’s son, nor he is an Architect or Professor
(v) The Lawyer is T’s daughter in law.
(vi) N is T.’s son and the Engineer’s father.
(vii) L is married to C.A.
1. Which among the following is the correct pair of married couples?
A.
LS and NT
B.
LR and NM
C.
LT and NS
D.
SM and NR
Answer: C. LT and NS
2. Who among the following are two unmarried persons?
A.
B.
C.
D.
LS
LM
LT
RM
3. Who is an Architect?
A.
B.
C.
D.
R
M
N
T
qcfinance.in
CONDITIONS & GROUPINGS
INTRODUCTION





Selecting a part out of whole.
Infer from the statements without Assumptions
Apply condition and select.
Conditions are given based on which the action takes place.
There are four basic conditions. Based on them the decisions are
CONDITIONS

Based on this conditions the groups are formed.

If A occurs then B also will occur

If A occurs then B will not occur

If A has not occurred then B will occur

If A has not occurred then B also will not occur
qcfinance.in
Question:
From a group of six boys M, N, O, P, Q, R and five girls G, H, I, J, K
a team of six is to be selected. Some of the criteria of selection are as
follows:
M and J go together
O cannot be placed with N
I cannot go with J
N goes with H
P and Q have to be together
K and R go together
1. If the team consists of two girls and I is one of them, the other
members are?
a) GMRPQ b) HNOPQ
c) KOPQR
d) KRMNP
2. If four members are boys, which of the following cannot constitute
the team?
a) GJMOPQ
b) HJMNPQ
c) JKMNOR
d) JKMPQR
3. If the team has three girls including J and K, the members of the
team are?
a) GHNR
b) MNOG
Question:
Final year students plan to go for project which consist of 5 members ( 3 from A
group and 2 from B group) based on the condition. There are two groups,
group A consist of 6 members M N O P Q R and group B consist of 5
members V W X Y Z. conditions for selection are,
i)
M does not come , Z & O should come
ii)
X and Y remains together
iii)
R and V cannot go together
iv)
N is always go with Z
v)
Q always go with W
vi)
O can go with V
vii)
O and P are together
1. If M is not there in the team, the team consist of?
a) X & Y
2. If Q is there, who cannot be there in that team?
a) X & Y b) R & V c) V & W
Answer: a) X & Y
Question:
From a group of 6 boys A,B,C,D,E,F and 5 girls L,M,N,O,P a group
of 6 is to be selected based on the following conditions:
1.O and P have to be together
2.C cannot go with O
3.A and D have to be together
4.D cannot go with L
5.C and M have to be together
6.Band N have to be together
7.B and E cannot be together
1. If the team consists of four girls the members of the team are:
i) BELNOP
ii) EFLNOP
iii) BFLNOP
Answer: D and A cannot be there. So (iii)BFLNOP
2. If the team consist of 5 boys and 1 girl that girl would be:
i)
L
ii) M
iii) N
iv) O
Answer: If B is selected, you cannot select E, without E you cannot
form 5 boys team. So reject B, then you have A, C, D, E, F. If C is
selected M will be there in that team. ii) M.
Question:
Coach Balkishan is trying to put together a team of four players for
a tennis tournament. He has seven players available: males A, B, C
and females M,N, O and P. All players are of equal ability, and
there must be at least two males in the team. For a team of four, all
players must be able to play with each other player. Player B cannot
play with player M, player C cannot play with player P, player M
cannot play with player O.
If player O is selected and player B is rejected, the team will
consist of which foursome?
Answer: A, C, O and N.
1.
2.If
player M is in the team, which other players must be in the team
as well?
Answer: A, C and N.
Question:
Mr. Pict must accommodate seven tour group passengers in two four –
person cabins on the S.S. Gallia. Each passenger in a cabin must be able to
converse with at least one passenger, though not necessarily in the same
language
A, an Etruscan, also speaks Gothic and Hittite
B and F are Hittites and speak only that language
C, an Etruscan also speaks Gothic
D and G are Goths and speak only Gothic
E, an Etruscan also speaks Hittite
Hittites refuse to share rooms with Goths
1. Which combinations of passengers in one of the cabins will result in a
rooming arrangement that satisfies all conditions for both cabins?
a. B, C, F
b. D, E, G
c. C, D, E, G
d. B, D, F, G
Answer: c. C, D, E, G
2. How many different combinations of cabin mates satisfy all conditions?
a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 5 e. 6
Question:
2 collectors, Frank and Gloria are each selecting a group of three
wildlife prints from a group of 7 prints T, U, V, W, X, Y and Z. No
print can be in both groups. The selections made by Frank and
Gloria are subject to the following restrictions.
a)If
U is in Frank’s group, W must be in Gloria’s group
b)If X is in Frank’s group, Z must be in Gloria’s group.
c)T and Z cannot be in the same group.
d)W and Y cannot be in the same group.
1. If X is in Frank’s group, of the following could be in Gloria’s group
except
a) T
b) U
c) V
d) W
e) Z
2. Which of the following pairs of groups selected by Frank and
Gloria conform to the restrictions?
a) Fr – TUV Gl - WXY
b) Fr - TUZ Gl – VWX
c) Fr – UXZ Gl – TWY
d) Fr – VWX Gl – UYZ
Answer: d) Fl – VWX Gl – UYZ
3. If U is in Frank’s group, which of the following is true?
a) T must be in Frank’s group
b) Y must be in Frank’s group
c) Y cannot be in Frank’s group
Answer: b) Y must be in Frank’s group.
Question:
There are five men A, B, C, D and E and six women P, Q, R, S, T
and U. A, B and R are advocates; C, D, P, Q and S are doctors
and the rest are teachers. Some teams are to be selected from
amongst these eleven persons subject to the following
conditions;
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
A, P and U have to be together
B cannot go with D or R.
E and Q have to be together
C and T have to be together
D and P cannot go together
C cannot go with Q.
1.
If the team is to consist of two male advocates, two lady doctors
and one teacher, the members of the team are?
Answer: A B P U S
2.
a)
b)
c)
If the team is to consist of one advocate, two doctors, three
teachers and C may not go with T, the members of the team
are?
AEPQSU
AEPQTU
BEQSTU
Answer: b) A E P Q T U
3.
If the team is to consist of one advocate, three doctors and one
male teacher, the member of the team are?
Answer: D E Q R S
qcfinance.in
THANK YOU.
qcfinance.in
INTRODUCTION:
Analytical Reasoning represents judgments made
upon statements that are based on the virtue of the
statements own content.
No particular experience beyond an understanding of
the meanings of words used is necessary for analytical
reasoning.
These days analytical reasoning has become an
important part of any competitive exams.
So today we will discuss the most important and
interesting topic of analytical reasoning that is sitting
arrangement.
Sitting Arrangement can be explained under two
categories:
1. Circular
2. Linear
As the name indicates circular arrangement means we
have to arrange given number of persons in circular
order.
Whereas in linear arrangement in a single line or
parallel lines.
HOW TO SOLVE SITTING
ARRANGEMENT PROBLEMS?
Sitting arrangement or seating plan is just a diagram or
a set of written instructions that determines where
people should take their seats.
This is one of the crucial and promising sections of
banks and other competitive exams.
Sitting arrangement is not any new word which
directly invented /introduced for competitive exams.
Its just picked up from our daily life. We follow this
strategy in formal dinners, weddings, theaters etc to
avoid chaos and confusion upon entrance.
But in competitive exams we should arrange given
people in specific shape. Most widely asked shapes are
circular, parallel lines etc.
Generally as soon as seeing the question people tend
to draw the shape mentioned in the question and
latter put dots or lines according to the given details.
Its not good practice because it ruins your valuable
time and often leads to extra confusion.
So better use straight lines instead of circles and
shapes.
Drawing straight lines instead of circles also make it
easier to find who is sitting opposite to whom.
Lets have a look at below diagram for detailed
understandings.
Assume that you have been asked to draw a circular
arrangement of six people:
A
B
A
B
C
F
F
C
E
D
E
D
In the above mentioned figure the simpler and easier
way to assign is to draw through lines.
Drawing circle and then assigning places accordingly
will be time consuming.
so the simpler way is to draw lines as mentioned in
second figure and then assign places to persons
instead of drawing shape and then assigning.
NOW TRY TO REMEMBER SOME
IMPORTANT POINTS:
1. If A is sitting immediate left of B, that means B is on
immediate right of A.
2. To avoid confusion of left and right in circular and other
shapes seating arrangement problems you should assume
that all people are facing to the center.(unless and until
they specify the direction)
3. Its always better idea to assume you are one among them so
that it will be easier for you to get an idea of the
arrangement.
4. If you are unable to get the idea from a line then better
skip that line and go to next line. You can revisit to the
skipped line after getting another clue.
Now lets have a look at some problems on seating
arrangement so that you will get the concept clear:
QUE: 6 persons A,B,C,D,E and F are sitting around a
circular table, B sitting to the immediate right of E. C
is not sitting next to F, F is sitting opposite to B and D
is sitting opposite to E.
Who is to immediate left of D?
SOL: Its given that there are 6 people sitting around
the table, 6 persons that means you should represent 6
points, That means 3 lines.
Now its given that B is sitting to the immediate right of
E, so we shall start with E , just choose any of the end
of the line and mark it as E. And B is sitting immediate
right to E , so put B at the right side of F.
Now arrangement will look like the figure shown in
next slide:
Draw 3 lines as shown in below figure :
A
B
E start from here
Later its given that C is not sitting next to F . We don’t
have any idea about this statement at present , so skip
to next statement that is F is sitting opposite to B .
We know where B is , so mark F to opposite to B.
Its also given that D is sitting opposite to E, so mark D
as opposite to E.
Now the arrangement will look like:
B
E
D
F
So only A and C are available , now go to the previous
statement which we have skipped. C is not sitting next
to F. With this statement its clearly known that we
can’t place C besides F, so we can place A there. And
now there is only one gap between D and B.
We can place C there. So the final arrangement of
seating will be appear like this:
C
D
F
B
E
A
QUE: 8 persons P,Q,R,S,T,U,V and W are sitting
around a circular table. S is to the immediate right of
W. V is not next to either R or T
W is to the immediate right of T who is sitting
opposite to R.
U and W are sitting opposite to each other.
SOL: Here are 8 persons, that means 4 lines.
Given that S sat immediately right of W, so start with
W. V is not next to either R and T (no clue about this
statement so skip it)
W is to immediate right of T, who is sitting opposite to
R. We know where W is, given that it is immediate
right of T. That means T should be immediate left of
W. Now from the above statement we came to know
that T is sitting opposite to R .
So place R opposite to T, now the arrangement will
appear like this:
R
S
W
T
Now check the skipped statement V is not next to
either R or T. That means we can’t place V neither on
both sides of R nor at the single side of T.
So the only vacant place remaining was opposite to S.
U and V are sitting opposite to each other , so just
place U opposite to W. Now there are 2 vacancies and 2
people (P and Q) are pending.
There is no specific clue to find their exact places so
there are equal chances for them to place any of the
side . Usually they leave blanks like this to make you
confused.
In these cases its better to write P/Q (P or Q) at both
sides, in fact they won’t ask question about P/Q
because they left them clueless.
So finally the arrangement will appear like this:
P/Q
R
S
U
W
V
P/Q
T
QUE: A) Who is sitting opposite to S?
1. V
2. R
3. T
4. U
5. NONE OF THESE
ANS: V
B) Who is sitting 2 places to the right of W?
1.P
2. S
3. V
4. Can’t Say
5. None of these
ANS: Can’t say
C) If R and V interchange their places then who is
opposite to T?
1. P
2. S
3. R
4. V
5. None of these
ANS: V
D) If V is to the immediate left of P, then who is to the
immediate left of R?
1. U
2.P
3.Q
4. Can’t say
5. None of these
ANS: Q
So these were question based on circular
arrangement.
Now let us discuss about linear arrangement
As the name indicates it includes arrangement
linearly where single or parallel lines are given on
which arrangements have to be done.
Lets understand it through example:
QUE: A) A, P, R, X, S, and Z are sitting in a row . S and Z
are in the center. A and P are at the ends.
R is sitting to the left of A. Who is to right of P?
1. A
2. X
3. S
4. Z
SOL: X
Given S and Z are in the center and A and P are at the ends
but the question lies which amongst A and P are at the
right and left end.
But if we read ahead then its given that R is sitting to
left of A, that means A is to extreme right, and P to
extreme left. That means arrangement is like:
P X
S
Z
R
So the answer is X.
A
QUE: A, B, C, D, E are sitting on a bench, A is sitting
next to B, C is sitting next to D, D is not sitting with E
who is on the left end of the bench. C is on the
second position from the right. A is to the right of B
and E. A and C are sitting together , in which position
A is sitting?
1. Between B and D
2. Between B and C
3. Between E and D
4. Between C and E
ANS: Between B and C
Now in this question its given C is sitting next to D, and D is not
sitting with E which is at the left,
C is on the second position from right, so it can be represented
as:
E C D
now A is to right of B and E that means
E B C D
Also given A and C are together so finally it can be framed as:
EBACD
So answer is Between B and C.
So this was all about the discussion on sitting
arrangement
including
circular
and
linear
arrangement.
To conclude with in both the arrangements its very
necessary to analyze the given conditions and plan
arrangements accordingly.
Take the best possible clue from the question and try
to arrange them as quick as possible to complete on
time with accuracy.
THANK YOU
STATEMENT AND
ARGUMENTS,
PASSAGE AND
CONCLUSION,
STATEMENT AND
COURSE OF
ACTION
STATEMENT AND ARGUEMENTS
Here in such type of topic each question consists
of statement followed by arguments.
 By arguments we mean an exchange of diverging
or opposite views, or a support or set of reasons
given in support of an idea, action or theory.
 So after analyzing the given arguments you have
to decide which of the arguments is a strong one
and which is a weak.

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
Lets understand with an e.g.:
Statement:- Should India encourage exports
when most things are insufficient for internal use
itself.
Arguments:
1. Yes, we have to earn foreign exchange to pay
for our imports.
2. No, even selective encouragement would lead
to shortages.
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Answer: Option 1, Clearly India can export only
the surplus and that which can be saved after
fulfilling its own needs, to pay for its imports.
Encouragement to exports cannot lead to
shortages as it shall provide the resources for
imports.
So only argument 1 holds.
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
Lets consider another e.g.:
Statement:- Should all the drugs patented and
manufactured in western countries be first tried
out on sample basis before giving license for sale
to general public in India.
Arguments:
1. Yes, many such drugs require different doses
and duration for Indian population and hence it
is necessary.
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2. No, this just not feasible and hence cannot be
implemented.
Answer: Option 1, Clearly health of the citizens is
an issue of major concern for the government. So
a product like drugs must be first studied and
tested in the Indian context before giving license
for its sale.
So only argument 1 holds strong.
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PASSAGE AND
CONCLUSION
Here in this type of question a passage is given
followed by several possible inferences which can
be drawn from the facts stated in the passage.
 You have to examine each inference separately
in the context of the passage and decide upon its
degree of truth or falsity.
 Lets understand through an e.g.:

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Passage:
In the absence of an integrated sugar-field to sale
policy, the Indian sugar industry has become a victim
of surplus production and price mismatch of
sugarcane and finished sugar.
Despite a lower estimated sugar production at around
12.8 million tones for 1996-97 against 16.7 million
tones in the previous year, the total availability is put
to 20.8 million tones including
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a carryover stock of 8 million tones from the
previous year.
Of this the domestic consumption may not exceed
13.5 million tones, though the industry could
export 10.5 million tones to different countries
during 1995-96, this years export policy existing
norms and international market conditions may
bring down the export quality to half a million
tones.
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Conclusion 1: India need not import sugar during
the next few years.
Answer: If the inference is probably true though
not definitely true in the light of facts given.
Explanation: Since there has been surplus
production of sugar, hence it is likely that India
will not require to import sugar during next few
years.
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Conclusion 2: There may be a fall in the sugar
price during 1997-98.
Answer: If the inference is definitely true i.e. it
properly follows from the statement of facts
given.
Explanation: Conclusion speaks of probability of
the fall in price for the year 1997-98. It is given
in the passage that there has been surplus
production in the year 1996-97.
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Conclusion 3: India’s export policy has made the
sugar price non competitive in the international
market.
Answer: The data are inadequate i.e. from the
facts given you can say whether the inference is
likely to be true or false.
Explanation: Data given in the passage is not
adequate to say anything about the conclusion.
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STATEMENT AND COURSE OF ACTION
Here in such kind of situation question follows a
statement with courses of action.
 You have to assume everything in the statement
to be true and on the basis of the information
given in the statement, decide which of the
suggested courses of action logically follows for
pursuing.
 Lets understand from an e.g.:

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Statement: A large number of people in ward X of
the city are diagnosed to be suffering from a fatal
malaria type.
Course of Action:
1. The city municipal authority should take
immediate steps to carry out extensive
fumigation in ward X.
2. The people in the area should be advised to
take steps to avoid mosquito bites.
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Answer: Both 1 and 2 follows.
Explanation: Clearly, prevention from mosquitoes
and elimination of mosquitoes are the two ways
to prevent malaria.
So both the courses of action follows.
Lets consider another e.g.:
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Statement: Severe drought is reported to have set
in several parts of country.
Courses of Action:
1. Government should immediately make
arrangement for providing financial assistance to
those affected.
2. Food, water and fodder should immediately be
sent to all these areas to save the people and
cattle.
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Answer: Option 2 follows
Explanation: In the break out of a natural
calamity the basic duty of the government
becomes to provide the basic amenities essential
to save the lives of people and cattle, providing
financial assistance to all would put undue
burden on country’s resources.
So only 2nd course of action follows.
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REFERENCE
www. indiabix.com
 Exam2win.com

qcfinance.in
SYLLOGISM,
STATEMENT
AND
CONCLUSION,
STATEMENT
AND
ASSUMPTION
SYLLOGISM
A syllogism is a logical argument composed of 3
parts:
 Major premise
 Minor premise
 Conclusion
 Each part is composed of 2 categorical terms
linked in the form “SOME/ all A is / are[not] B”
 Each of the premises has 1 term in common with
conclusion.

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The major term in the major premise which
forms the predicate of the conclusion.
 The minor term in the minor premise which
forms the subject of conclusion.
 The categorical term in common in the premises
is called the middle term.
 For e.g.: major premise: All birds are animals.
 Minor premise : All parrots are birds.

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Conclusion: All parrots are animals.
 In this e.g. “animal” is the major term and
predicate of the conclusion ,” parrot” is the minor
term and subject of the conclusion, and “bird” is
the middle term.
 The premises and conclusion of a syllogism can
be any of 4 types, which are labeled by letters as
follows:

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All subjects are predicate is denoted by "a”
 No subjects are predicate is denoted by ”e”
 Some subjects are predicate is denoted by “ I”
 Some subjects are not predicate is denoted by “o”.
 Letter “a” is called universal affirmatives.
 Letter “ e” is called universal negatives.
 Letter “I” is called particular affirmatives.
 Letter “ o” is called particular negatives.

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Now consider a following e.g.
Statement:
All harmonium are instruments.
All instruments are flutes.
Conclusion:
All flutes are instruments.
All harmonium are flutes.
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Now to solve this we have to prepare Venn
diagram:
FLUTE
INSTRUMENT
HARMONIUM
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From above we can conclude that all
harmonium are flutes.
But all flutes are not instruments because from
the diagram it is clear that all instruments are
flute and some flute are instruments.
So only conclusion 2 follows.
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Considering another e.g. :
Statement: Some mangoes are yellow
Some twigs are mango
Conclusion: Some mangoes are green
Twigs is a yellow
Now to solve this again we have to make
Venn diagram:
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Twigs
Mango
Yellow
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Now in the above Venn diagram according to the
statement we have made the relationship.
 Now conclusion can be drawn that some mangoes
are yellow, but its given some mangoes are green
which is not followed.
 Then next some mangoes are twigs, but its given
that twigs is a yellow which is false.
 So from above Venn diagram no conclusion
follows, both are false.

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STATEMENT AND
CONCLUSION
Statement conclusion refer to situation where we
are provided with a statement followed by
conclusion.
 Assuming everything in the statement to be true
consider both the conclusion together.
 Then decide which of them logically follows
beyond a reasonable doubt from the information
given in the statement.

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
Now understand through an e.g.:
Statement:
In a one day cricket match the total runs made
by a team were 200. Out of those 160 runs were
Conclusion:
1. 80% of the team consists of spinners.
2. The opening batsmen were spinners.
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Ans is none follows
 According to statement 80% of total runs were
made by spinners so, first conclusion does not
follow.
 Nothing about the opening batsmen is mentioned
in the statement so second conclusion also does
not follow.

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Statement: The old order changed yielding place
to new.
Conclusion: Change is the law of nature.
Discard old ideas because they are old.
 Here first conclusion follows as clearly it is
mentioned that old ideas are replaced by new
ones, as thinking changes with the progressing
time .
 So second conclusion does not follow.

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STATEMENT AND
ASSUMPTION
Assumption which means a thing that is
acceptable as true or as certain to happen
without proof
 Similarly statement assumption refer to a
situation where statement followed by
assumptions
 You have to consider the statement and following
assumption and decide which of the assumption
is implicit in the statement.

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Let us understand with an e.g.:
 Statement: It is desirable to put the child in
school at the age of 5 or so.
Assumption: At that age the child reaches
appropriate level of development and is ready to
learn.
The schools do not admit children after 6 years of
age.

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Now here in given assumption first follows as
statement talks of putting the child in school at
the age of 5.
 It means that the child is mentally prepared for
the same at this age, so first assumption is
implicit.
 But nothing about admission after 6 years of age
is mentioned in the statement, so assumption 2 is
not implicit.

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
Lets take another e.g.: Statement: If you trouble
me, I will slap you- A mother warns her child.
Assumption:
With the warning the child may stop troubling
her.
All children are basically naughty.
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Here in this case assumption first is implicit.
 The mother warns her child with the expectation
that he would stop troubling her, so first
assumption is implicit.
 Whereas the general nature of children cannot be
derived from the statement.
 So second assumption is not implicit.

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REFERENCE
www.wikihow.com
 en.wikipedia.org
 www.indiabix.com

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THANK YOU
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Answer the questions on the basis of the information given below.
The following table gives the production capacity of the five refineries – P, Q, R, S and T – of the oil
company SPCL, the demand at the company’s four outlets – A, B, C and D – and the transportation costs
involved in transporting – and the transportation costs involved in transporting – and the transportation
costs involved in transporting the oil from different refineries to different outlets.
Transportation cost (in rupees/kilolitre)
Refinery (Production
Outlet (Demand in kilolitres/day)
capacity in kilolitres/day) A (40) B (30) C (10) D (20)
P (30)
500
300
600
200
Q (10)
600
400
400
100
R (30)
300
400
700
400
S (20)
200
300
400
200
T (10)
400
300
600
100
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In the above table, the number given in the brackets alongside each refinery gives the production
capacity (in kilolitres per day) of that refinery and the number given in the brackets alongside each
outlet. The number given in the brackets alongside each outlet gives the demand (in kilolitres per day)
at that outlet. The number given in the cell corresponding to a refinery and an outlet, gives the
transportation cost (in rupees per kilolitre) incurred for transporting oil from that refinery to that
outlet.
For example, the production capacity of refinery P is 30 kilolitres/day and the demand at outlet A is
40 kilolitres/day and the cost of transporting one kilolitre of oil from refinery P to outlet P to outlet A
is Rs.500.
Assume that the company currently operates only the refineries and outlets mentioned above and
that the production at the refineries on any day is transported to the outlets such that the demand at
all the outlets is met.
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1. The daily of transportation of oil to all the outlets is at least
(1) Rs.24,000
(2) Rs.26,000
(3) Rs.28,000
(4) Rs.29,000
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Solution : The lowest cost of transportation occurs when the oil is transported along the
cheapest routes available, which are shown below.
T – D  10 kl  10 x 100 = Rs.1000
Q – D  10 kl  10 x 100 = Rs.1000
P – B  30 kl  30 x 300 = Rs.9000
S – A  10 kl  10 x 200 = Rs.2000
R – A  30 kl  30 x 300 = Rs.9000
S – C  10 kl  10 x 400 = Rs.4000
Total
= Rs.26,000
Choice (2)
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2. If due to a disruption in the supply lines to some of the outlets, refinery P can supply oil to only outlets
A and Cm then the daily cost of the transportation of oil to A and C, then the daily cost of transportation
of oil to all the outlets is at least
(1) Rs.29,000
(3) Rs.33,000
(2) Rs.30,000
(4) Rs.34,000
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Solution: As P can be used for supplying only to A or C, the minimum cost of transportation in this case
would be
P – C  10 kl  Rs.6,000
P – A  20 kl  Rs.10,000
Q – D  10 kl  Rs.1,000
T – D  10 kl  Rs.1,000
R – B  30 kl  Rs.12,000
S – A  20 kl  Rs.4,000
Total
= Rs.34,000
Choice (4)
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Currently, the daily cost of transportation of oil to all the outlets is the outlets is the least possible.
3. The daily cost of transportation to all the outlets would increase by the maximum amount, if there is a
disruption (blockage) in the supply line connecting.
(1) P and B
(3) Q and C
(2) S and D
(4) T and B
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Solution: The cheapest supply lines were already determined in the first question of the set. Now we
have to determine in the supply line whose disruption would cause the transportation cost to
increase by the maximum amount. Choices (2), (3) and (4) can be straight away ignored as
they are not part of the cheapest route. Hence, the increase in transportation cost would be
highest, if the supply line P – B is distributed.
Choice (1)
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4. If the company plans to decrease the daily cost of transportation of oil to all the outlets by doubling the
production capacity of exactly one of the refineries, which refinery should it select so as to reduce the
transportation cost by the maximum amount?
(1) S
(2) Q
(3) R
(4) P
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Solution: As far as the cost of transportation at each of the outlets is considered, most of the outlets
receive the oil at a low transportation cost from the refinery S, hence if the capacity of refinery
S is doubled, the saving in the expenditure will be more.
Choice (1)
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Eight county teams – Kent, Essex, Somerset, Durham, Hampshire, Yorkshire, Derbyshire and Lancashire
Participated, Yorkshire, Derbyshire and Lancashire participated in a Twenty20 tournament held in London.
In the first round, these eight teams were divided into two groups of four teams each. Each team has to
Play two matches against each of the other teams in its group. The teams with the highest and the second
Highest number of wins in both the group will move to the next round, i.e., semi-finals. It is known that,
Essex, Yorkshire, Lancashire and Derbyshire reached the semi-finals.
It is also known that, in the first round
(i) No match ended in a tie and in each of the groups, each of the four teams won a different number of
matches.
(ii) Yorkshire lost both its matches against Derbyshire.
(iii) Kent won the same number of matches that by Lancashire.
(iv) In its group, Somerset lost both of its matched against all the other teams, except Durham, which in
turn, won at least one match against each of the other teams, except one.
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5. Which team won the highest number of matches in the first round?
(1) Yorkshire
(2) Derbyshire
(3) Essex
(4) Cannot be determined
6. What was the total number of matches won by Durham in the first round?
(1) Hampshire
(2) Somerset
(3) Durham
(4) Cannot be determined
7. What was the total number of matches won by Durham in the first round?
(1) 4
(2) 3
(3) 2
(4) 1
8. Which team/s lost at least one match against Kent in the first round?
(1) Only Hampshire
(2) Only Yorkshire
(3) Only Yorkshire and Hampshire
(4) Only Hampshire and Derbyshire
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Solution: Given that, Essex, Yorkshire, Lancashire and Derbyshire reached the semi finals.
Hence, Kent, Somerset, Durham and Hampshire are eliminated in the first round.
It is also given, Yorkshire played against Derbyshire. Hence, Yorkshire and Derbyshire
must be the two of one group.
.ˈ. Lancashire and Essex must be the two teams of the other group.
As Kent has same number of wins as Lancashire, they must be in different groups.
.ˈ. Kent and Hampshire are the losing teams in the group from which Yorkshire and Derbyshire
qualified and Durham and Somerset are the eliminated teams in the group from which Essex and
Lancashire qualified.
The groups can be classified and follows:
Qualified for Semis
Lancashire Essex
Yorkshire Derbyshire
Eliminated in 1st round
Somerset Durham
Kent Hampshire
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Total number of matches in each group = 12
Given, each of them has a different number of wins, so the possibilities are as follows.
Number of wins
Qualified teams
Eliminated teams
Highest
2nd highest
3rd highest
4th highest
(i)
6
4
2
0
(ii)
6
3
2
1
(iii)
5
4
2
1
(iv)
5
4
3
0
As Kent, which is eliminated has the same number of wins as Lancashire, which qualified, the only possibilities
That can be considered are (ii) and (iv).
In the group of Kent,
Yorkshire must have lost only the matches against Derbyshire i.e. it must have won 4 matched. Derbyshire must
Have won both the matches against Yorkshire, both against Hampshire and one against Kent.qcfinance.in
Kent won both the matches against Hampshire and one against Derbyshire and Hampshire lost all the matches.
In the group of Lancashire,
Essex won all the matches, Lancashire,
Essex won all the matches, Lancashire won both the matches against Somerset and one against Durham. Durham
Won one against Lancashire and one against Somerset and Somerset won against Durham.
5. Essex won the maximum number of matches in the first round.
Choice (3)
6. Hampshire has the least number of wins.
Choice (1)
7. The number of matches won by Durham is two.
Choice (3)
5. Hampshire and Derbyshire lost at least one match against Kent.
Choice (4)
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Key
1.
2.
3.
4.
4
2
1
1
5.
6.
7.
8.
3
1
3
4
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