Midwest Conference on Differentiated Instruction Teacher (Gr. 4-12) MC02

Midwest Conference on Differentiated Instruction
July 21, 2012 - July 25, 2012
How to Teach Reading When You’re Not a Reading
Teacher (Gr. 4-12)
Sharon Faber, Ed.D.
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C850‐MC02‐WUP‐056637.pdf Dr. Sharon Faber
Cumming, Georgia
[email protected]
How to Teach Reading When You’re Not a Reading Teacher
Let’s Begin With an Anticipation Guide!
Here are ten simple statements about reading. Decide if you agree or disagree
with each statement (A or D).
_____ 1. Content reading strategies are only useful with printed text.
_____ 2. Many students have difficulty reading aloud and comprehending at
the same time.
_____ 3. Prior knowledge is an important part of reading comprehension.
_____ 4. Reading strategies and skills should be taught systematically and
explicitly to both good and poor readers.
_____ 5. Good readers examine the structure of words and use roots and
affixes to help comprehend new words.
_____ 6. Learning to read, like learning spoken language, is a natural ability.
_____ 7. Comprehension is selective. Good readers focus on important
information in the text, and poor readers focus on their interest in the
text being read.
_____ 8. Students must know what the content specific words (academic
vocabulary) mean before they can understand what they are reading.
_____ 9. Good readers know when they do not understand what they are
reading in a text and have ―fix-up‖ strategies to help them
_____10. Only trained reading teachers can teach struggling readers to read
from grades
4-12 because it is too late to teach them how to read in their content
What Does the Research Tell Us About Effective Instruction?
 Teachers make a tremendous difference in student achievement.
 The key trait of effective teachers is they use systematic and explicit
instructional strategies that work in any content.
What is Systematic Instruction? Skills and concepts are taught in a planned,
logically progressive sequence.
What is Explicit Instruction?
 Direct explanation—stories, examples in kid friendly terms
Teacher modeling—show them what is expected to be learned
Guided practice—put them in pairs and let them think together
Independent practice—only if there are no misconceptions; use formative
Application—the information is known, understood, and useable
What the Reading Research Tells Us:
o The bulk of older struggling readers and writers (4-12) can read but
cannot understand what they read.
© Faber Consulting, 2012
Dr. Sharon Faber
Cumming, Georgia
[email protected]
o Many excellent third grade readers will falter or fail in later-grade
academic tasks if the teaching of reading is neglected in the middle and
secondary grades.
o The two most critical elements needed to learn to read are
vocabulary and prior knowledge/experience.
o It is never too late to teach a student to read!
The Big “5” Elements of Reading
Learning to Read: PreK-3
Reading to Learn: 4-12 and
There are five essential components of effective reading instruction. To ensure
that students learn to read well, systematic and explicit instruction should be
provided in these five areas:
1. Phonemic Awareness—the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate the
individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words.
2. Phonics—the understanding that there is a predictable relationship
between phonemes (the sounds of spoken language) and graphemes (the
letters) that spell words.
3. Vocabulary—development of stored information about the meaning and
pronunciation of words necessary for communication. There are four
types of vocabulary: listening, speaking, reading, and writing
4. Fluency—is the ability to read text accurately and quickly. Fluent readers
recognize words and comprehend at the same time. Fluency provides the
bridge between word recognition and comprehension.
5. Comprehension—understanding, remembering, and communicating with
others about what has been read. Comprehension strategies are a set of
steps that purposeful, active readers use to make sense of text when they
Reading is NOT a natural ability:
“That the brain learns to read at all attests to its remarkable ability to sift
through seemingly confusing input and establish patterns and systems.
For a few children, this process comes naturally; most have to be taught.”
David Sousa, 2005
The Rationale for Teaching Reading Strategies in All Subject Areas
1. Students do not automatically transfer skills they learn in reading to
content areas.
2. Teachers are the experts in their content areas. They can identify key
concepts, critical vocabulary, text features, and reading-thinking skills
needed to learn in their content.
3. Content teachers can model the skills their students need to use and
learn. They can create enthusiasm for their subjects.
4. Reading comprehension is basic to learning every content area. The
content teacher’s responsibility is to help students learn to use the reading
strategies they need to understand specific content materials and
© Faber Consulting, 2012
Dr. Sharon Faber
Cumming, Georgia
[email protected]
5. Teaching reading through content is not teaching phonics or other basic
word attack skills. It is modeling and teaching specific reading-thinking
skills that the teacher identifies as necessary for students to understand
their content.
Translating Research Into Practice
For students to ―read to learn‖ in all classes, teachers must be trained on:
1. How to create a receptive state for student learning that is risk free
2. How to make their content meaningful to students’ lives
3. How to get and maintain students’ attention
4. How to help students retain information in long term memory—brain
5. How to help students transfer learning to new situations—best practice
6. How to teach direct, explicit literacy strategies using their content—
reading research
What is Content Area Reading (Reading to Learn)?
 Content area reading means helping students make connections between
what students already know (prior knowledge) and the new information
(academic vocabulary) being presented.
 Content teachers must teach their students how to use reading and writing
as tools for thinking and learning in their specific subject.
 Content teachers do not become reading or writing specialists!
 Content teachers become teachers who teach their students how to
read and write in their specific content.
Academic Vocabulary
―Research has shown that academic vocabulary, in particular, is one of the
strongest indicators of how well students will learn subject area content when
they come to school. The relationship between academic vocabulary and
academic achievement is well established.‖
Dr. Robert J. Marzano
Learning English is Tough!
Directions: Get with a partner who has the same color of hair (or not) and
take turns reading these sentences aloud to each other.
1. The doctor wound the bandage around the wound.
2. The vegetable farm was used to produce produce.
3. The lady must polish the Polish furniture.
4. The young man could lead if he would get the lead out.
5. The soldier decided to desert his dessert in the desert.
6. A bass was painted on the head of the bass drum.
7. When the hunter shot, the dove dove into the bushes.
8. The magician did not object to the object he had to juggle.
9. The Viking oarsmen had a row about how to row.
10. The gentleman was too close to the door to close it.
11. The buck does funny things when the does are near by.
12. A seamstress and the sewer she worked with fell into a sewer line.
© Faber Consulting, 2012
Dr. Sharon Faber
Cumming, Georgia
[email protected]
13. When the artist saw the tear in the painting, he shed a tear.
14. The researcher had to subject the subject to a series of tests.
 Every content area has its own vocabulary and style of being read.
 As you teach your content, make sure your students understand the words
that you as a scientist, historian, mathematician, artist, etc. know are
important to be successful in your subject.
 ―The implication for teaching is strong: It takes more than definitional
knowledge to know a word, and we have to know words in order to
identify them in multiple reading and listening contexts and use them in
Janet Allen, 1999
Isabel Beck’s Three Levels of Vocabulary Comprehension
There are three levels of vocabulary comprehension:
1. Established: Students know the word easily and rapidly. It is part of their
prior knowledge and can be used to begin building on new word
recognition. (trip)
2. Acquainted: Students recognize the word and understand the basic
meaning. The word is partially understood but clarification is needed.
3. Unknown Words: This is a new word and the meaning is not known.
The word is not in the oral or reading vocabulary of the students, but the
new word represents known concepts. (expedition, Odyssey)
“The challenge for the content area teacher is to determine what strategies
will help students acquire the content knowledge while managing the wide
range of differences in reading achievement.”
David Sousa, 2005
If You Want Your Students to “Read to Learn” in Your Classroom, Try
These “7”
1. Anticipation Guides: (Tierney, Readence, Dishner) We did one!!!
Purpose—activate prior knowledge, encourage personal connection to the text,
require active participation with the text
 List five to seven statements that:
 Address the major topics/themes/issues of the text
 Present important generalizations
 Are worth discussing and will encourage thinking/debate (make them
 Do not have clear cut or yes/no answers
 Are experience based if possible—works best when students have some
but limited knowledge about the subject
Before reading:
 Students agree or disagree with the statements.
 Share answers with a partner.
© Faber Consulting, 2012
Dr. Sharon Faber
Cumming, Georgia
[email protected]
Ask the class with show of hands (signaling) on agree/disagree for each
 Ask students to give reasons for their opinions.
 Do not correct answers.
During reading:
 Students take notes on the topics or issues.
 They document the location (page, column, paragraph, line) of confirming
or conflicting information.
 They read critically and with a purpose.
 They try to examine the issues with an open mind/a fresh point of view.
After reading:
 Review original responses, and see if students feel the same or have
changed their thinking.
 Use the following questions to guide discussion:
o What information did we learn that we did not ―anticipate‖ before we read?
o What have we learned by reading this selection?
o What was the most interesting, surprising, or unusual information you
o Do we still have other questions about the topic/text?
o Do you trust the expertise/credentials of the author?
2. Book/chapter/section Walk: Students must learn how to use the
learning tools that they are given!
Purpose—create interest, assess or activate prior knowledge, encourage
personal connection to the text, require active participation with the text, expose
students to critical text features, develop purpose for reading, develop key
concepts, vocabulary, and general idea of text before reading
 Before students read, preview and examine the parts of a book, story,
article, chapter, or section by systematically examining the various visual
and text features.
 Show cover, opening page, first paragraph, introduction, conclusion,
graphs, charts, etc. and ask students to make predictions regarding
 Quickly walk through the text, pointing out key information in the text.
 Point out text features that make the information delivery unique for your
content—title, table of contents, introduction, summary, main headings,
bold face or italics, first and last paragraphs, charts/pictures/graphs,
source, date, author, glossary, and side bars.
 Use key vocabulary as you do the walk.
 Have students predict what the things you are pointing out will provide
them as you go along. You may choose to record predictions.
 Return to predictions after reading.
Student Sample: Reading Guide After a Book/Chapter/Section Walk
1. What is the name of your text, chapter, and section?
2. On what page does the glossary begin?
© Faber Consulting, 2012
Dr. Sharon Faber
Cumming, Georgia
[email protected]
3. What is used to help you practice problems, understand new words,
create interest as you read?
4. Name some lessons/ideas/words from this book that will be a review for
5. What is a key concept in your book?
6. Where do you find a key concept?
7. Using the Table of Contents, name three new things that you will be
3. Pre-Reading Vocabulary Charts: Rather than waste your time compiling
vocabulary lists let the kids skim the text and select their own words.
 Ask each student (or pair of students) to create a chart where he/she
writes down words of choice, and rates each one as "know it," "sort of
know it," or "don't know it at all."
 Then, on the same paper, have them write a definition or "my guess on
meaning" for the words they know and kind of know (No dictionaries!)
 Before they turn in these pre-reading charts, be sure to emphasize this is
not about "being right" but that they are providing you with information to
guide next steps in class vocabulary instruction.
 Read through them all and use the results as a formative assessment.
This data will show you which words they know, those they have some
understanding of, and those words that are completely foreign to them.
 As you teach any content, make sure your students understand the words
that you as a reader--scientist, historian, mathematician, musician, artist,
computer specialist, etc. know are important to be successful in that
Know It
Sort of Know
Don’t Know it at
4. Learning Walls—are not cute posters or letters of the alphabet. They are
intentional attempts to use the power of visualization as a part of a long term
memory for students.
 Generate a list of essential words (the verbs), concepts, formulas, or
whatever is critical that students know and remember in your content area
 Include only essential words, etc. and add information gradually
 Practice and refer to this information and how it can be used daily.
 Make sure that what you want them to know is used and spelled correctly
in their work
 Create a chart/format/list for important information
 Try using the same color for words that share the same concept and
change colors when the theme, chapter, area of study changes.
Remember: the brain research shows that the brain thinks in odd
numbers, color, location, and pattern.
© Faber Consulting, 2012
Dr. Sharon Faber
Cumming, Georgia
[email protected]
Place the information in a prominent place in your classroom. It does not
have to be a wall.
Make the Word/Learning Wall Interactive: Word/Learning Wall Activities
1. Word Hunt – Look on wall for particular words related to another
word/concept or matching given criteria.
2. Rivet – Teacher draws spaces for words, fills in one letter at a time until
students recognize the word.
3. Memory – Cover the word wall, divide class into teams. Team members
work together to see who can remember the most words in five minutes.
4. Partner Quiz – Randomly give out the letters of the alphabet. Student
groups read and define all the words on the word wall that begin with that
5. Read My Mind – Students number paper 1 to 5. Teacher gives 5 clues for
a particular word on the word wall. Students write down the word. They
may keep the same word or change to a different word led by the clues.
The winner is the student who chose the correct word on the earliest clue.
6. Telephone Game – Student at head of each row chooses a word from the
word wall and whispers the definition of the word in the ear of the next
student. This student, in turn, whispers the heard definition to the next
student. The definition is passed in this way until it reaches the last
person. This person announces the definition heard and compares it with
the correct definition.
7. Word Up! – Students choose a word from the word wall and complete the
following to be shared with the class:
Word – What it is – What it isn’t – Synonym – Antonym – How is it
8. Pass Along –Each student writes a simple phrase using a word from the
wall. He/she then passes the paper to another student who adds another
phrase using another wall word. That student passes the paper once
more, adding another phrase containing a wall word and checking the
9. Communication Game - Teacher rolls a die. If the roll is 1 or 2, a student
must act out a wall word. If the roll is 3 or 4, a student must draw, without
talking, the word meaning for the class to guess. If the roll is 5 or 6, the
student must explain the word without using the word itself or body
10. Get Moving – Students spell wall words using their bodies (mind-body
connections). Tall letters are spelled with arms straight up in the air.
Small letters are spelled with arms bent and hands on hips. Dropped
letters are spelled with hands on hips and knees bent.
11. Riddles, riddles, riddles – Have students create riddles for words such as
What has 6 letters, starts with p…?
12. Roll That Die – Roll a die. Students identify words on Word Wall having
that number of letters, giving a definition and a sentence for each
13. Word Wall Stories – Divide the class into teams. Each team writes a
creative story using as many wall words as possible.
© Faber Consulting, 2012
Dr. Sharon Faber
Cumming, Georgia
[email protected]
14. Crisscross Words- Played like Scrabble where students fit words together.
15. How Much Are Your Words Worth? – Search the wall for words that add
up to a certain pre-determined value. (a=1, b=2, c=3, etc.)
16. 20 Questions – Students take turns asking Yes or No questions about the
17. ―I Spy‖ – Have students search the wall by saying ―I spy with my eye, a
word that…..‖. Complete it with a clue such as ―is the antonym of sad‖ or
―rhymes with stop‖ or ―is a verb‖ or ―means…‖.
18. Scavenger Hunt – Search the word wall for words that fit a certain
19. Alliterative Sentences – Write a sentence using as many word wall words
beginning with the same letter as possible.
20. Fix-It – Identify words that have prefixes and suffixes.
21. Syllabicate – Choose words to divide into syllables.
22. Sentences – Choose a noun and a verb from the wall. Write a declarative,
interrogative, imperative and exclamatory sentence using the two words.
23. Context Clues – Write a sentence leaving a blank for a word wall word to
be inserted.
5. Sorts—manipulation of content and vocabulary. You can sort anything.
Sorting is a great activity to develop spelling, vocabulary, and comprehension
skills. It creates active manipulation of the content and uses the mind-body
connection as a part of the long term memory for students.
 Determine the purpose for the sort.
 Write the terms on cards or strips of paper.
 Place sets in zip-lock bags or envelopes.
 Students work in pairs or along to match or categorize them.
 Word/definition; word/antonym or synonym; questions/answers;
cause/effect; alphabetically; sequentially, chronologically; meaning; form;
function, etc.
How About a Sort on Word Parts? The Important “30”—Root Words,
Prefixes, and Suffixes
The Importance of Learning Word Parts
 Students need to connect new words to words they already know and
often that can be done by looking at word parts.
 The more roots, prefixes, and suffixes that students know, the more they
can independently analyze new words and increase their comprehension
in all content areas.
 Once students know the meanings of many roots, prefixes, and suffixes,
they can use that knowledge to figure out new words in text where there
are no context clues and in analogies when they don’t know the meanings
of some of the choices.
 Brown and Cazden (1965) said that the following 30 root words, prefixes,
and suffixes provide the basis for more than 14,000 commonly used words
in the English language:
© Faber Consulting, 2012
Dr. Sharon Faber
Cumming, Georgia
Root Word,
Prefix, Suffix
co, con, com, col,
in, im, il, ir
ance, ence, ancy,
er, or
[email protected]
away from
to, toward
together, with
away, down, out of
not, opposite
out of, formerly
in, not
back, again
not, opposite
capable of, worthy of
act or fact of doing,
state, quality
person or thing
connected with,
Full of, abounding in
without, free from
like, characteristic of
state of, quality of
action, state, result
sound, speech
to seize, take, or
to hear
vid, vis
to see or look at
spect, spec, spic
to observe, watch
across or beyond
tion, sion, xion
Example from
Your Content Area
Math: bi,
dia, iso,
per, peri,
trans, tri,
, deca,
Health &
ab, co,
dia, dys,
per, peri,
sub, trans, via, ology, astro, bio, chlor, eco
Social Studies: ab, ad, anti, arch, at, con, contra, countr, demi, epi, ethno, ex, il,
im, multi, neo, ob, omni, para, poly, pro, trans, via, vice
© Faber Consulting, 2012
Dr. Sharon Faber
Cumming, Georgia
[email protected]
6.Fix-Up Strategies—After clarifying what they don’t understand, students must
be taught what ―things‖ they can do to help them understand the information
before they ask the teacher for help
 Discuss with students what they do when they are reading and they come
to a something they don’t understand.
 Give students the Fix-Up Strategies Chart and explain each type of fix-up
and give an example of when it would be used.
 Read a text to the students and model Fix-Up Strategies using a Think
 Have students read a text and practice using Fix-Up Strategies.
Fix-Up Strategies
Ask yourself what you already know about the text. Use your prior knowledge
and make an informed guess.
Re-read the sentence with the ―clunk‖ and look for ideas.
Re-read the sentences before and after the clunk and look for clues.
Keep reading for now and ignore the confusing word or concept.
Study the bold print, headings, captions, diagrams, charts, visuals, graphs,
and pictures.
Use prefixes and suffixes to figure out the meaning of the word or phrase.
Break the word into smaller parts.
Look up key words or concepts in the glossary, thesaurus, or dictionary.
If it doesn’t make sense reading the text silently, read it out loud.
Ask someone for help.
Use at least 3 of these strategies BEFORE you ask the teacher!
7. ABC Brainstorming/Vocabulary Quilt—can be used to check background
knowledge, note key elements or information, or to create a summary or review.
 Students list letters of the alphabet down a sheet of paper (or provide
them with a sheet with the alphabet boxes).
 Students fill in words or phrases that begin with each letter (in no
particular order).
 Begin individually, then allow them to pair up
 Share answers with the class, write a summary paragraph that includes
what they think are the major points, or create a graphic organizer of what
they have learned.
© Faber Consulting, 2012
Dr. Sharon Faber
Cumming, Georgia
[email protected]
ABC Brainstorming Review
Directions: With a partner, think about what you have learned about
reading and how to teach it in your content area in today’s session and
write one word for each letter that reflects what you have learned. Are
these the same words you would have used before this session?
© Faber Consulting, 2012
Dr. Sharon Faber
Cumming, Georgia
[email protected]
Allen, Janet. (2007). Inside Words: Tools for Teaching Academic Vocabulary in
Grades 4-12. York, Maine: Stenhouse Publishers.
Beck, I., McKeown, M. & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing Words to Life: Robust
Vocabulary Instruction. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Faber, Sharon. (2006). How to Teach Reading When You’re Not a Reading Teacher.
2ND Ed. Nashville, TN: Incentive Publications, Inc.
Faber, Sharon. (2007). Reading Strategies: A Quick-Reference Resource for Helping
Students Before, During, and After Reading. Nashville, TN: Incentive
Faber, Sharon. (2010). How to Teach Academic Vocabulary So Kids Can Remember.
Nashville, TN: Incentive Publications.
Sousa, David. (2005). How the Brain Learns to Read. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin
Press, Inc.
© Faber Consulting, 2012