"MY FIFTH SUPERBOWL ' HOW TO BE LUCKY IN '84 , :e !' WHAT'S ALL * THE FUSS ABOUT CAFFEINE? 3384 115 , Matt desperately wanted to end his nightmare, but it seemed so hopeless! Then Todd told him about . . . TheMiracle Judith McClerren Torvik att looked at his half-empty suitcase open on the bed and the neat stack of laundry beside it. My bus leaves in less than an hour, he told himself. Reluctantly he arranged his clothes in the bag, noticing how simply the packing went. A lot different than it was at home a few weeks ago, he mused. But then just about everything seemed less complicated here. Matt had come to love these summer visits with his dad. Once he had accepted his father's marriage, he had come to love his new family too. There were people here he could talk to, who really listened, and there was space enough to be alone when he needed it. At home it was just Matt and his mother, and she wasn't really around much, or so it seemed. When she did want to talk, it was usually after she had been drinking for several hours. Her speech was garbled, and she did all the talking. He remembered how angry and frustrated he became during those sessions and how guilty he felt for feeling that way. She would look so helpless and frail, and he'd put her to bed. The next morning she wouldn't remember much about the night before. Her eyes avoiding his, she would offer the same tired apology. "I'm sorry, son, I really am. I didn't mean to hurt you. Can you understand?" Sometimes it was easier for him to withdraw into his room and escape those evenings. It wasn't much of a life, that's for sure. Probably that's why Dad left, he realized. But somehow Matt felt responsible; after all, somebody had to look after her. He questioned how well he was doing at the job. It had been three years now, and things didn't seem to be getting much better. Until recently he had thought no one else in the world shared his problem. Matt sat down on the bed, and his thoughts im drifted back to that afternoon early the previous spring when he had noticed a flyer with bold yellow letters posted on the door of his school's counseling office: DO YOUR PARENTS HAVE A DRINKING PROBLEM THATS CAUSING YOU A PROBLEM? The flyer stated that weekly Alateen meetings offered help to young people whose parents abused alcohol. Last names were not used, it said. Matt copied the information and went to his first meeting a few days later. What he learned that night came as a bitter surprise. The Alateen group told him he could do nothing to control his mother's drinking. The truth was, they said, he was powerless. Anger welled up inside him. How desperately he wanted to end his nightmare, and now it seemed so hopeless! He felt cheated and betrayed and wondered why he had come in the first place. Leaving the meeting, Matt felt a strong hand on his shoulder. He turned around to see a short, athletic fellow wearing an' orange football shirt that didn't hide his enormous biceps. "It's Matt, isn't it?" Matt half nodded. "Just wanted to welcome you to the group. My name's Todd. Coming back next week?" "I doubt it," Matt admitted. "There doesn't seem to be any answer here for me." "Yeah. I hear what you're saying. I saw you look kind of puzzled when Jerry said we're powerless over our parents' drinking." Todd placed his heavy load of books on the table. "But we really are powerless, you know. There's nothing we can do to stop them." He paused and looked squarely in Matt's eyes, "But miracles do happen in this program." "Miracles?" Matt asked. "What do you mean?" Todd's smile broadened. "I mean that your mom can stop drinking." LISTEN • January 1984 • 3 M ail frowned, wondering if this guy had left his brains in the weight room. "I thought you said I'm powerless. Now you say she can stop." "It's like this. The day your mom decides she wants to stop drinking is the day you'll see a miracle." Todd's eyes were sparkling now. "It happened to my dad." "And in the meantime I just hang around and watch her destroy herself?" "Negative. The other half of the miracle has something to do with you. You see, the day you begin to believe she will make that decision to get better, you'll be helping her miracle become a reality." "Sounds kind of weird to me," Man murmured. "First, just believe that it works. Because it does. You see it happen around here all the time. Keep coming back and you'll see." Todd slipped a piece of paper into Matt's unwilling hand. "If you want to talk more, call me." Matt pulled the hood of his sweatshirt over his head and pushed open the door. The damp April air felt fresh and soothing. He started to jog the few blocks home. This stranger, Todd, and his tale of miracles had unleashed a great anger inside Matt. It was a shock to come across the childish notion of miracles now at sixteen. The days of Mom and Dad and birthday parties were gone forever. He knew he couldn't climb back into that kind of fantasy any more than he could climb back into his size eight Little League uniform. The rain began, and Matt was relieved. Any passersby wouldn't see the tears he could no longer hold back. He pulled down the soggy hood of his sweatshirt and raced the rest of the way home, his agile step in rhythm with the sad song of the wind. Matt was breathless when he reached his house. He leaned his head against the back door and gripped the knob tightly without turning it. For what seemed like hours he stayed outside, his sobs competing with the thunder. The phone rang long and hard inside the house. He turned the knob, let himself in, and grabbed the wall phone in the kitchen. "Matt? Glad I caught you! This is Todd. You know, we met at the Alateen meeting tonight." "Oh, yeah." Matt wondered what this guy wanted now. "I thought you'd like to know we're getting a group together at Jerry's house on Saturday to watch the Chicago Blitz play the Michigan Panthers. Wanna join us?" "No. Can't make it. I'll watch it here at home." "If you change your mind, give me a call. We're planning a great time. Jerry's dad used to play with the Bears, and he sure adds a lot to the event." "This Jerry. Is— I mean— does his dad have a problem? I mean, does he drink?" Matt was surprised his question slipped out. "Used to. Matter of fact, Jerry's mom did too. They haven't for a long time now. Probably four or five years I guess." "The truth is, I—" Matt ventured cautiously, "I've got to stay close to home. Saturday's sometimes a bad day for my mom." There was a silence on the other end. "Sure." Todd went on, "If you change your mind, though, you have my number." Man felt the conversation about to end. "Uh, Todd, you said something tonight," Matt drew a long breath, "about miracles." "About what?" "Miracles." Matt could feel his heart beating faster. "Didn't you say something about miracles?" "Oh! Miracles!" Todd said. "Sure! Happens all the time. In the program, I mean." "Well, I've been thinking about that. But I don't know much about them. Only thing I remember is Matt walked into the living room and found his mom just as he had left her earlier that evening-horizontal on the couch, sound asleep with a half-empty glass balanced in her hand. He stood over her limp, frail body and surveyed this stranger who was his mother. what a teacher I knew once told me." "What did she say?" "It was a long time ago. But I think she said something about looking beyond." "Looking beyond and seeing good?" Todd asked. "Yeah! That's it. Seeing good." Matt was relieved that this fellow on the other end knew what he was trying to say. "That's it." Todd continued. "See, it's easy to look at your mom's problem and get all caught up in it. If you get stuck in how bad it looks, you can't see any possibility that it will get better. Your mom picks up on your attitude; she buys your hopelessness. It's just a crazy merry-go-round. "I understand how you feel responsible too," he continued, "but that doesn't help you or your mom." 4 • LISTEN • January 1984 LISTEN (ISSN 0024-435X) is printed monthly by Pacific Press Publishing Association, P.O. Box 7000, Mountain View, CA 94039 U.S.A. Second-class postage paid at Mountain View, California. For the U.S.A.: one-year subscription, package plan, $24.00. To countries outside U.S.A.: one-year subscription, package plan, (US) $25.00. January 1984. "What do you mean by that?" "I mean you've got to let your mom's problem be her problem. Before she can let go of it, she's got to know she owns it. If you're carrying her problem around for her, she will never get the impact of it for herself." "That's what you mean about powerlessness, about my being powerless?" "Right. But remember the miracle. You play a part in that. The day you totally let go, the day you begin to see beyond her problem to the possibility of her getting well, that's the day you help your mom's miracle become a reality." "I'm not sure I know how to do that." Matt felt his enthusiasm wane in its infancy. "Just think back," Todd encouraged. "Hasn't there ever been someone in your life who saw through your mistakes? Somebody who knew you could succeed when you felt like a failure?" Matt remembered how his dad had helped him overcome his fear of trying out for the baseball team. "Sure. My dad helped me with something important once." "Whatever it was, I bet he didn't do it for you. But he probably helped you see how you could do it for yourself." "Yeah," Matt said. "You're right about that." Matt knew he would never forget how excited he was when he risked enough to try. That spring he had made pitcher. Deep inside, he knew it happened because his dad knew it could happen. "It works, Matt," Todd assured him. "Remember that. It works." Matt placed the receiver on the hook. He walked into the living room and found his mom just as he had left her early that evening—horizontal on the couch, sound asleep with a half-empty glass balanced in her hand. He carefully slipped the glass from her hand, pulled the afghan over her, and gently tucked a pillow under her head. He stood over her limp, frail body and surveyed this stranger who was his mother. "If I ever needed to believe in miracles," he whis- pered to his mother's sleeping form, "if s now. But how can I see anything other than what I see in you now? How can I believe that you'll ever be well? They tell me I've got to look beyond your hopelessness now and see you getting better. That will take a miracle. If these miracles really do exist, though, I want one. I really do want to believe in you again, Mom." A quick tap at the door intruded on Matt's reverie and brought him back to his father's house. He zippered his bag, noticing the clock. "Wow! Got to go!" The door swung open and Amy, his stepsister, plopped onto the twin bed opposite Matt. "Sorry to barge in like this, Matt, but I just found out I can't go with you to the station. Mrs. Cony needs me to watch the baby while she takes Stacy to the doctor." Amy smiled at Matt, but with sadness in her eyes. She was a pretty girl. Just now she looked a lot like her mother with her dark auburn hair pulled up in a pony tail. "Dad's waiting for you in the driveway." She reached for Matt's hand. "I'm going to really miss you, Matt. Everyone will. I wish you could stay with us always." Matt and his father said their good-byes at the station. As he watched his dad drive slowly away, Man knew his father shared the sadness of his leaving. He stood quietly at the gate where his bus was to arrive any moment. He had ambivalent thoughts about returning home. Yet he had a tiny bit of peace deep within. His mom's problem had ceased to overwhelm him. He had a little bit of hope now. Suddenly, he heard his name shouted over the crowd. He turned toward the gate entrance and saw Amy running toward him waving something in her hand. "Matt! Matt! A letter came for you! I was afraid you'd be gone before I got here!" Matt noticed the return address on the letter; it was from his Aunt Laurel in Minnesota. He tore open the letter and gazed intently at the words. His mother had been admitted to a hospital for treatment of alcoholism. She would be there for six weeks. Aunt Laurel and Uncle Rob had made the arrangements. Then he read the last line, the most important: "Your mother wants to do something about her illness, Matt. She has made a decision that she wants to get well." "Is everything all right, Matt? Are you OK?" Amy studied her stepbrother earnestly. Matt looked at her, his eyes sparkling. "Do you know about miracles, Amy? Let me tell you about one!" LISTEN • January 1984 • 5 You can have "LUCK"GALORE in'84 Why do some people have all the luck? Take Mark for instance. He's a big, good-looking high-school senior. Mark drives a Chevy and always has money in his pocket. Pure luck. Or is it? Sometimes what we call luck is school goals for himself. He has vantage of opportunities because really a combination of things planned a good future and is they have been preparing themthat add up to success. Things like working hard at accomplishing selves all along for the chances setting goals, being ready, workthose plans. He knows he'll have they felt could come their way. to do his homework and listen in ing hard, and taking chances. My brother Mike got lucky at If you investigate these areas class, but he is willing to pay the his job—or so it appeared. The and apply them to your own life, price for the future objectives that boss gave Mike the most soughtyou could have the same kind of he has laid down. after job in the hydraulics-machinluck Mark has. Do you think Norm's going to be ery assembly shop even though luckier than Bill this year? I do. he was there the shortest amount • Set Goals. One reason Mark and many othOf course, we should also set of time. ers like him have what they have is goals for other areas of our lives Lucky? Not really. Mike studied because they set goals. They plan such as work, athletics, and famevenings two days a week at ily. to get what they get. They're not home. No one asked him to. No just lucky, although it may look Without goals, a person may one paid him to. He prepared that way to a casual observer. say, "I'll do some exercise." Howhimself for the job so that, when it Anyone who wants to get someever, he never does any because he was available, Mike was ready. thing out of life has to sit down doesn't have specific plans for Smart! and plan realistically what he his exercise. You too can be ready for opporwants to do and what he can acI have another friend, Ken, who tunities that may come along. Do complish. sets goals for the amount of exeryou play football? Are you ready Several years ago Mark knew he cise he wants to get by running and in case the quarterback gets inwould want to own a car when he swimming. Ken says, "I'll run fifjured and can't play out the seaturned sixteen and obtained his teen miles a week and swim twenty son? Do you play baseball? Are driver's license. So he planned laps a week." He has specific, mea- you practicing your pitching in ahead of time to save his money. surable goals. Then he follows case Fastball Freddy slips on the He figured out how much a year through each week to be sure to mound and breaks his leg? he would have to bank in order to meet the goals that he has set. Be ready. buy that Chevy. Ken's neighbors look out their • Work Hard. His planning ahead worked out, windows and say, "Isn't Ken lucky Another way to be successful because today he is driving into have the time to go jogging." (but seem lucky) is to dig in and stead of bumming rides like many Then they turn back to the TV set work hard. There are too many of his friends do. and complain that they're so out people who don't know what that Setting goals is exciting, and it of shape. means. They think that good We know Ken's luck is really a can work in all areas of our lives— things come to others by chance. commitment to fulfill his goals. If even school! Sometimes we do Not so! Anyone who has done anyyou set goals, you'll begin to acpoorly in school because we don't thing important and lasting has set goals for the grades we want or complish those important things had to put forth extra effort and the classes we want to take. in life that you thought only the hard work. My friend Bill never sets any lucky people could do. Liz entered college this fall. She goals. He takes whatever grades • Be Ready. always looks nice because she are given to him (usually poor One way to be a lucky person is dresses well and is happy about ones) instead of setting goals for to be ready for any opportunity being in college. Some people think earning good grades that will that could come along. Many sucthat Liz is lucky. I know better. Colmake him eligible for better cessful people seem to be "at the lege wasn't given to Liz. She's a classes and, later on, a good job. right place at the right time." They hard worker and has what she has On the other hand, Norm has seem to be lucky. In reality, most because she's worked for it. taken the time to set realistic of these people are able to take adFor several summers before en6 • LISTEN • January 1984 tering college Liz worked at a Mister Donut as a waitress. She slipped out of bed at 4:30 a.m. every day in order to arrive at work for the 5:00 a.m. shift. Now at college, about seventy-five miles from home, Liz pays her tuition out of the money she saved from rising early and working hard. And she earns her spending money by doing the same thing— waitressing at a donut shop. If you want to get ahead in life, you too have to make up your mind that you'll work hard. Working hard is a habit that can be learned. Don't fight it! Learn the habit and reap the benefits. Another friend of mine, Scott, at age twenty owns a big motorcycle and a sleek Firebird. Others may accuse Scott of being lucky, but I know why he has what he has: hard work. Scott worked summers and weekends at a fish plant near his home. He banked most of the money he earned the hard way— by sweat and perseverance—when most of his friends were lazing around at the beach or sleeping late at home. Scott outworked the competition and kept his job when economic hard times sent many of his seniors to the unemployment lines. People who work hard seem to have all the luck. • Take Chances. Go out on a limb. Try something new. Don't be afraid to fail. Luck comes to those who dare to try something new and risky. Take chances. My brother Mike owned and operated a successful service station when he was only nineteen years old. Many of his friends thought he was crazy, at his age, to take on all the responsibilities of hiring help, buying supplies, finding business, and working long hours. The station had compiled a terrible history of failure through the previous managers. The oil company leased him the building with the idea that he could do no worse than those who went before. The company was surprised and thrilled at his success. Did Mike have any doubts when he started? Of course! Did he know that his age was against him? Of course! He realised his chances of survival were slim, but after planning it out on paper, he realized that he had at least a chance of making it. So he signed on the dotted line. He never regretted it. Don't be afraid to fail. Failure is always a possibility, but some people let that possibility tie them to a secure—but unfulfilling—life. Recently I saw a show on TV which featured a female disc jockey who had become the rage in her city. Different? Not if she were twenty-five years old. But this woman was sixty-five! She had been invited to do a show and, of course, she could have failed. Sixty-five-year-old disc jockeys haven't always been the rage. But she tried. She didn't let the fear of failure stop her from at least trying something new and different. We can all learn something from this Grandma D.J. Don't be afraid of failing. It's always a possibility that we will get fired or put down or lost or hurt. But if we let that fear stop us from getting involved, we'll never know the joy and rewards of succeeding. Let's face it, there's no such thing as luck. What looks like luck is a combination of many things including setting goals, being ready, working hard, and taking chances. Do these things and you'll have "luck' galore in '84. MARV WOLFMAN: NOT .111.17 MOM" • GARY B. SWANSON• At first it was just another assignment. When Mary Wolfman's boss at DC Comics in New York City asked him to write a series of comic books that would show readers the harmful effects of using drugs, Mary took on the project with little further thought. "Prior to this assignment," he says, "I knew almost nothing about drugs. I wasn't interested; I didn't take them, so I didn't care. Since then I've learned an awful lot about drugs, and this knowledge has affected me greatly." Mary Wolfman is one of DC Comics' many staff writers. DC Comics produces those superheroes that appeal to kids and adults alike—in forty different comic books a month. Their popularity is unquestioned. The Superman comic books, for example, are published in forty countries around the world. This kind of popularity is what the President's Drug Awareness Campaign was looking for when it first proposed that its war on drugs might use comic books as a weapon. It seemed like a natural place to begin. What better medium could you find to reach kids with the message that drugs are dangerous? Furthermore, comic books have an unusually high "pass-along" rate. "Each comic book," Mani points out, "is read by six to ten people." For that reason Dr. Carlton Turner, special assistant to the President for drug-abuse policy, contacted DC Comics to see whether they would be interested in undertaking such a project. He asked for the production of three books, one each for fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade readers. And DC Comics took up the challenge. "Back about 1968 we had a comic book that featured a superhero named Speedy, who had given up the use of drugs," Mary recalls. Speedy was also a member of a group of teenaged superheroes called the Teen Titans. So DC decided to use the 8 • LISTEN • January 1984 Teen Titans as the characters for the books that the government was asking for. In the past three or four years, Teen Titans has become the company's hottest-selling line of comic books. "They outsold Superman, Batman, and Wonder Woman, and that's part of the reason the Teen Titans were chosen for the drug books," Mary says. "Their popularity, plus the fact that they're teenagers, cause young readers to relate to them better in the stories." So Mary Wolfman began to research the topic of drug abuse. First he visited Carlton Turner's office in Washington, D.C. Dr. Turner showed him lots of material, saying that it contained the information he wanted the kids to have but that none of the material had accomplished its purpose. "This material had been sent out to kids in the past," Mary says, "but the problem has been that kids just wouldn't read it. The government wanted us to produce a book that a kid would want to read. Kids naturally enjoy comics with their exciting stories and pictures, and you can give a good message along with it." Next Mani visited the psychiatric ward of a hospital, where he spoke with young people ranging in age from eleven to twenty-three who were hospitalized because of drug abuse. "It was a heartbreaking situation," Mani recalls, "because some of the kids there had their lives totally ruined." He visited a detoxification center and a meeting of Straight, Inc. [a rehabilitation program for drug users] and listened to as many as 300 young people tell about how drug abuse had affected their lives. "I got the information and the language and the emotions," Mary says, "and then I started work on the book. I tried to put all this material together in terms of an exciting story, because if the story isn't read, it doesn't matter how much information I give. I didn't want to give percentages and cold, hard facts, saying 'Don't do this.' " The stories in the books are taken directly from the experiences of young people Mary interviewed. "One of the main stories is about a girl who had to take drugs to go to her brother's funeral," he says. "This was based on the experience of one of the kids that I spoke to." In fact his research uncovered some new information for Marv. "I don't take drugs and never have," Mary says. "The only knowledge I had of drugs was based on how they were pictured in the media. Most of those pictures were wrong, as I found out. When the assignment was first given to me, I expected to feature a kid going through withdrawal, screaming and ranting and raving. "But we found out that the drugs that most of the kids were taking do not cause those kinds of withdrawal symptoms. My perception of drugs was that they drive you crazy and make you jump off a building. That's what is often shown on TV shows. Most of the clichés I'd heard were incorrect. So it didn't make for an easy story to write." He pointed out that it is difficult to show visually in a comic book such things as biological effects, disinterest, and lethargy. As a professional writer, however, Mary sees such effects as disinterest and lethargy as extremely dangerous. "I'm completely against drugs because I have to be in tune with my own mind and cannot allow my mind to be distracted by anything. I'm appalled by anything that alters your mind or makes you think slower. "From the writers I've seen who have taken drugs I would say that drugs are anything other than imagination enhancing. Most of those people have no imagination at all, it seems to me." The need for imagination is clearly evident in producing a comic-book series that will help to prevent kids from taking drugs. "What we're hoping with these books," Maw says, "is not so much to approach the kids who are already on drugs, but to approach the ones who don't take them and to try to convince them not to start. "What I've done," Maw says, "is to use each book as a concept. The first one, for fourth graders, pictures kids by themselves and how they relate to each other. The second book, for sixth graders, is kids and school and how the drug situation affects them in school. The third book will be family oriented, and that's for the fifth grade." Each of the three books is intended for classroom use. A teaching guide and poster is included in the total package, as well as a Certificate of Heroism for each student who participates in the campaign and signs a pledge not to use drugs. Although these three books were originally planned to appeal to fourth through sixth graders, Mary feels that they will appeal to teenagers and adults as well. "The thought that comics are purely i& t KEEBLER COMPANY AM 441. PRESENTS DC COMICS' Superheroes fight drug abuse in The New Teen Titan comic book, written especially for fourth, fifth, and sixth graders. for young kids is wrong," Maw says. "The majority of the mail that comes into Teen Titans comes from high-school-age, college-age, or older. The comics that I write tend to be for older teenagers and up." If these first three books are successful, Mary suggests that ultimately there may be up to ten books, ranging in appeal up through senior high school. "If we do this," Maw says, "we would have to change the orientation of the material somewhat. A lot of high-school teenagers have more knowledge than I would concerning drug taking." And the books do seem to have become immediately popular. Two million copies have been printed of the book for fourth graders. They were sent initially to 35,000 randomly selected schools in the United States. The fifth- and sixth-grade books have been available for only a couple of months, so it's too early to assess their impact. No matter what the impact of these books is on the millions of fourth through sixth graders across this country, however, it has been keenly felt by Mary Wolfman himself and those who know him. "My wife and I joined a group to combat drug use in one of our local schools," he says. "This project 0 has come to mean a lot to me." LISTEN • January 1984 • 9 LISTEN interviews Patricia Mutch,R.D.,Ph.D. What kind of substance is caffeine? Caffeine, known chemically as a methylxanthine, is a very frequently consumed drug. Probably the most common sources of caffeine for human consumption are coffee, soda pop, tea, and cocoa or chocolate. Many young people take it also in stay-awake pills and headache-relief tablets. How does caffeine act upon the human body? Caffeine is a stimulant. It acts upon the central nervous system and results in an increased wakefulness or aroused state, making the person feel more awake or have a more excited frame of mind. It does not, however, improve mental function. Caffeine has other effects on the body. For starters, it is a cardiac stimulant. That is, it makes the heart beat faster and stronger. It also stimulates the stomach to secrete more acid and thus can be irritating to the stomach. In addition, it has a diuretic effect, which means it causes a larger-than-normal loss of body water through the kidneys so that a person who drinks a caffeine drink may excrete more liquid than he consumes. So caffeine has a somewhat dehydrating effect on the body. Caffeine also increases the levels of glucose (sugar) and free fatty acids in the blood, which cause a surge of energy, making the user feel like he can do more. But this feeling is at the expense of the reserves of these nutrients that the body normally draws upon for activity. There are some other things that caffeine has been associated with in certain research studies that warrant mentioning. Caffeine is what is known as a mutagenic agent. That means it can alter the genetic material in ways that are usually not positive. Because of this mutagenic property, it has been speculated that caffeine may increase the risk of cancer. Certain types of cancer such as bladder cancer have been linked with caffeine consumption, most notably in animal studies but also somewhat in human studies. In addition, concern is mounting regarding the effect of caffeine during pregnancy. The March of Dimes has warned all pregnant women to avoid consuming caffeine in large quantities, and the Food and Drug Administration has encouraged pregnant women to quit consuming it altogether during pregnancy because caffeine intake has been linked with birth defects in animals. Then you'd say that caffeine affects many or maybe even most of the systems of the body? Yes. It has a much wider impact than just on the central nervous system. And while those people who are marketing caffeine-containing products are not willing to admit that there might be a relationship between caffeine and these problems, I think the person who's trying to live a healthful life-style will avoid a drug which is coming under as much suspicion as is caffeine. Let's take a closer look at some of these effects. You said at the beginning that caffeine has a stimulating effect. Can't this be helpful? On the surface that would seem to be the case. Studies have shown that caffeine's stimulating effect does improve the performance of people performing manual tasks. It does not improve mental performance though. In addition, caffeine drains the body's energy reserves. And after the caffeine has been metabolized or broken down there is usually a letdown period in which the user is more tired than he was before, because he used a crutch to get over being tired or needing sleep in the first place. Itake it then that you don't advise the use of stayawake pills for students preparing for exams? Beyond keeping a person awake, caffeine adds nothing positive to the preparation for exams. To the contrary, there is one side effect which has been shown repeatedly to accompany caffeine use which many students aren't aware of, and that is that it causes a general state of anxiety along with the stimulation. The caffeine causes a person to feel more anxious and more nervous. So a student who has used caffeine to study for an exam and who is already worried about the exam may become even more worried because of having taken caffeine And you say that caffeine adds nothing to a person's mental sharpness or memory? All the research indicates that caffeine does not improve memory, comprehension, or the ability to function on a test. Some students think that if they use caffeine to stay up late and study, they will remember the material they have gone over. But many times when they go to actually take the test, their general anxiety blocks their remembering things that they learned. So they would have been better off to have gotten a good night's sleep and let their bodies rest so that the next day they could remember what they had learned. Patricia Mutch is currently professor of nutrition and director of the undergraduate program in dietetics at Andrews University in Berrien Springs, Michigan. She obtained her Ph.D. in nutrition from the University of California at Davis in 1972 and is a member of the Michigan Statewide Nutrition Commission and a registered dietitian with the American Dietetic Association. You mentioned that caffeine is found in a number of drinks. How prevalent is this drug? Caffeine is found in so many things that people consume that it is getting to be something you have to look for to avoid. Besides being found in coffee and tea, it is found in many soft drinks as an additive. How much caffeine are we talking about here? The amount of caffeine in coffee and tea depends on the way they're made. Coffee made with an automatic drip method will have about 180 milligrams in a six-ounce cup, which would be a normal cup. If it's percolated it will contain about 125 milligrams, and if it's instant coffee it will contain about fifty-four milligrams. Similarly, tea that has been brewed for only a minute will have about twenty-eight milligrams in a sixounce cup. But if it's gone for three to five minutes it will have about forty-five milligrams per cup. So the strength of the brew influences how much caffeine is there. The amount of caffeine found in a twelve-ounce can of soft drink is about the same amount that would be obtained in a cup of instant coffee or a cup of tea, between thirty-three and fifty milligrams. Soft drink manufacturers have added it to give people a little lift, and many soft drinks contain it. You have to look on the label to know whether it's there or not. Aren't a number of soft-drink companies beginning to shy away from adding caffeine to their soft drinks? Yes. Because of the research that is being done on caffeine and the undesirable side effects which it has, there has been a trend on the part of knowledgeable consumers to avoid caffeine drinks and to purchase soft drinks which do not have caffeine added. As a result, some of the manufacturers have made a point of saying in their advertising that a drink does not contain caffeine and never has contained it. Other manufacturers are bringing out new drinks that are caffeine-free. You mentioned a moment ago that caffeine is also in cocoa. How does the amount of caffeine in cocoa compare with that in coffee? There's a much smaller amount of caffeine present in cocoa products. A cup of hot cocoa as it's usually made will contain only about ten milligrams of caffeine. A one-ounce portion of chocolate candy or baking chocolate would contain thirty to forty-five milligrams of caffeine, depending on the other ingredients. That's about the same as a caffeinated soft drink. I think the concern with chocolate products would be more with the quantity that's consumed. A person who's a "chocoholic," as we call them, could be consuming a significant amount of caffeine. 12 • LISTEN • January 1984 Let me ask a rather practical question. If a student regularly drinks caffeinated soft drinks and then, come exam time, takes a caffeine pill to stay awake, would that pill do the job or would he have to take several pills to have the same effect? In other words, does the body develop tolerance to or get used to caffeine's effects? Yes. People who consume caffeine regularly develop a tolerance to it so that they don't recognize its effect on them. Only when they stop drinking caffeinated drinks do they notice its effect. Caffeine seems to be addictive, but whether that addiction is due to a person's desire to repeatedly feel the effect it produces or whether there is an actual chemical addiction isn't clear. But there are definite withdrawal symptoms in the individual who is no longer getting the caffeine he's used to. Do you feel that a person drinking only soft drinks could become dependent? I would think so, because if he drinks very many of these soft drinks in a given day, he could easily get enough caffeine to become dependent. It's not uncommon for a teenager—especially one on a diet and consuming diet pop—to consume six or more cans of his favorite soft drink in a day. Caffeine causes a person to feel more anxious and more nervous. So a student who has used caffeine to study for an exam and who is already worried about the exam may become even more worried because of having taken caffeine. What are the symptoms of caffeine withdrawal? For one thing, people have a hard time staying awake because they've become accustomed to staying awake as a result of the stimulation of the caffeine. I have known individuals who have been given decaffeinated coffee unknowingly who were not able to finish out the workday because they could hardly hold their heads up after being accustomed to drinking regular coffee. They've become so dependent on that stimulus to keep the body moving that without it they become sluggish and find it difficult to function. Another withdrawal symptom is headache. The headache goes away when the sufferer drinks a caffeinated beverage. What's the best way for a person to kick his caffeine habit? First, he should recognize that there are going to be withdrawal symptoms, although they are not severe symptoms such as what one has with smoking or narcotic drugs. He should accept that he's going to have headaches and plan to get rid of his headaches with aspirin or other traditional means. He should realize that he's going to be sleepy and should plan to quit his habit at a time when he can rest, such as on a holiday or over a weekend. He should allow twenty-four to forty-eight hours for his body to metabolize the caffeine that's present in it. Drinking six to eight glasses of water or juice a day would also help to flush the caffeine out of his system. What relationship does caffeine have to other drugs? If a person uses caffeine, will he be attracted to other drugs as well? In my research I've been pursuing the possibility that caffeine increases the desire to drink alcohol. There is a fair amount of evidence that people who smoke and drink also consume more caffeine than the average person, so that the consumption of nicotine and alcohol goes along with caffeine consumption in many cases. But we don't have concrete evidence that there's a causal relationship, that is, that the caffeine consumption causes a person to consume other drugs as well. Studies conducted with rats do show that some rats seem to be susceptible to caffeine—that when they are given caffeine they increase their voluntary intake of alcohol. In my laboratory we're trying to discover what the effect of caffeine is on the brain that would create an increased desire for alcohol, because normally animals will not drink alcohol voluntarily. Among the many theories for the causes of alcoholism is one which says that certain individuals have pathways in the brain which predispose them to become addicted to alcohol. We think there may be a relationship between caffeine's effect on those pathways and a subsequent desire for alcohol in the person who has a predisposition. That would explain why some animals show a willingness to drink alcohol while others do not. I would say that a person who knows that he is susceptible to alcohol might do well to avoid caffeine. There are alcohol treatment centers which do not give the patients caffeine-containing beverages while they are in the treatment phase. Does a person who consumes both caffeine and alcohol increase the possibility of her child being born with birth defects? We know that alcohol is a factor in birth defects because there's a collection of birth defects known as the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome that occurs in some cases where pregnant women have drunk alcohol in the early stages of their pregnancy. Because caffeine is also suspected to cause birth defects, I think the possibility that the two consumed together would have a greater impact on the fetus is a very important consideration. I've been doing some research on this, and my studies seem to indicate that the effect of the two drugs together may be synergistic; that is, when combined, their effects are multiplied rather than just added. Is there a relationship between caffeine and nicotine? So often coffee and cigarettes go together. They certainly are consumed simultaneously in many cases. But I'm not familiar with any research that has been done to show that one stimulates the other. It may be that people who are nervous smoke cigarettes to calm their nerves, and the nervousness may have been created in part by the caffeine they're drinking. So there could be a relationship there. What do you think of decaffeinated drinks? Decaffeinated coffee and decaffeinated tea still contain other substances which are still a matter of concern. However if a person feels he must have a hot beverage and wants to drink something that is commonly available, then a decaffeinated beverage would be preferable to caffeinated. But I think he would do even better to stick with fruit juice and water and not consume either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee or tea. In summary, Dr. Mutch, what would you advise teenagers regarding caffeine and caffeinated drinks? If they are going to consume soft drinks, they should read the label. There are brands which don't contain caffeine. I think substituting fruit juices for soft drinks would be good not only because of the caffeine problem but also because fruit juices contain more nutrients than soft drinks. Soft drinks contain empty calories that don't do anything positive for the body. Plain water is also a very good beverage. I don't see any reason to consume either caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee and tea. A person in a social situation today almost always has an alternative to those beverages. Finally I certainly feel it's wise to avoid using caffeine as a stimulant to stay awake, especially for the student, because what the body really needs is rest, and giving yourself a good night's sleep is likely to yield better results than going in with shaky hands because of artificial stimulation and a lack of sleep. Just one other point here. Drinking coffee or tea is a social custom in most places. Do you feel that this is one area in which the teenager should make up his own mind for his own good rather than following custom? Yes. I think young people today are giving a lot more attention to their health than ever before and are realizing that they are responsible for their own bodies. As a result, social custom is changing. Caffeine is a drug, a fact many young people aren't aware of. Because of research now being published, many people are deciding against using caffeine. They're asking for juice or some soft drink without caffeine instead. So you no longer need to feel all by yourself and out of it if you don't have coffee. If this trend continues, that may soon be the customary or social thing to do. O LISTEN • January 1984 • 13 SIIMONTHSONVII, 714e,464 RICK LANNING It has been six months and one day since I took my last drink. Six months! During that period (it seems like six years) I have been more aware of colors, family, nature, friends, and myself than ever before. For the first time since I started drinking, I am aware of how really good food tastes. Spaghetti and garlic bread. Salads. Hot apple pie with ice cream. Before, in the haze of my alcohol-fogged hours and days, I wasn't aware of eating. I must have eaten—you have to, to live, don't you?—but I wasn't aware of it. We were in Phoenix when I went on my last drunk. I still remember parts of it, although I'm sure I'll never remember all the crazy, dumb things I did while under the influence. It started at the Press Club, where I went to have "one with the boys." At least that's what I told my wife when I called her from the newspaper office. She knew better. She realized that the "one" would turn into many. And it did. From the Press Club we traveled to a nightclub. There the entertainment was riotous (a comedian), and there was more drinking. Wine. Beer. A shot on the rocks. We stopped at one other place. A country-andwestern joint, I think. And then somewhere along the way I got sick. I don't know how I got home that night. My friend Dave was driving, and fortunately for us we weren't stopped by the local authorities. If we had been, neither of us could have passed the Breathalizer. Why did we do it? The hangover the next day was monumental. I was sick, literally, for two days and recovering for two more. And for what? A couple of hours of elevated feeling. Too expensive, friend. Much too expensive a price to pay. Experts on drinking and alcoholism know about the damage drinking does to the human system—the liver, the kidneys, the heart, even the lungs. And especially the brain, not to mention the stomach. I was damaging my heart and other vital organs. Taking a chance on being killed in a traffic accident or arrested for drunk driving. For what? A few hours of elevation. 14 • LISTEN • January 1984 One of my good friends in Phoenix is a physician who also runs marathons. He's quite a runner, he and his lovely wife. They believe that exercise leads to good health. Neither of them drinks or takes drugs. "Running is a high," he likes to say. "By staying in good physical condition and running on a regular basis, you'll elevate your consciousness to a high you had never thought possible." I decided to test that theory. To me it was a theory. To him, of course, it was a reality since he had been doing it and proving it for years. About thirty days after I took my last drink (thanks to Alcoholics Anonymous, a caring pastor, and my own self-determination) I started running, half a mile a day. Then I increased it to a mile a day. Finally I got up to three miles a day. At the same time I started working out in a local health spa and gym. Two or three times a week I would go down to the health center and go through a dozen exercises to strengthen my legs, chest, arms, and upper torso. Today I'm no Charles Atlas or Rocky—who is?—but I feel ten times better than I did when I was drinking. Make that twenty times better. I never used to be able to look myself in the eye when I was shaving. I felt too guilty, I guess. I'd shave in the shower, and I don't have to tell you fellows that I suffered a few skin nicks in the process. There is no more of that. I look in the mirror these days, and I like what I see. The guy looking back is smiling, confident, whistling a tune. He is loved by his children and his wife, and in return he can love them, because he first learned to love himself. Six months and one day of sobriety. I still go by the old bars. They don't have the old allure anymore. The shine has gone out of them. I see them for what they are: tinseled hellholes, destined to take a person to the depths of his soul, promising him the world and giving him instead an empty bottle that must be filled and refilled and refilled. My friends see me at work. "Still not drinking," they say, smiling. Some try to make me break my resolution. "Just have one after work for old time's sake." I say, "Thanks but no thanks." I remember those old times. They aren't worth remembering. I guess the best advice of all came from my uncle. When I was a kid, Uncle Ott told me, "Don't develop bad habits. Habits are hard to break." He knew. He had developed some in his youth and had finally shaken them, but they had taken their toll. My uncle was right about habits. The only ones worth developing are the good ones. Work habits. The habit of being honest. The habit of being dependable. My son is twelve years old; my daughter, eight. I marvel at their clear eyes, their clear skin, their openness, and the affectionate ways we have as a family. We're not afraid to express our feelings to one another, because we care. After my last drinking escapade, I remember my kids asking me—begging me—not to drink again. I wasn't bad to them when I drank, but they saw what it was doing to me. Their "Please don't drink, Daddy" and "If you love us, you won't drink" had an effect on me. They made me want to bring out the best in myself. When a person has a drinking problem, his entire life centers on booze. If he isn't drinking it, he's thinking about it. Even when he feels good, he knows that he can feel better just by taking one little drink. It's a lie, of course. Demon Rum tells the lie, and the imbiber believes it. Six months and one day. In another six months it will be a year. It doesn't sound like much, does it? But believe me, it is. Each morning when I get up I tell myself, "Today is the first day of the rest of my life." I intend to live without alcohol. For the rest of my life.0 „„.tynt FIFTH. 16-4L • 4*. r AT elr 1- 4 *4 v itOwill iw Francis A. Soper talks to Football Great From memories of his many encounters on the football field, Carl sees comparisons he can make to his present life. Not many football players can boast of a record that includes All Pro five times, six pro bowls, nine conference championships, and four super bowls. This is the professional record of Carl Eller, who also was All American twice as a university player, Rookie of the Year as he began his professional career, and twice his league's Most Valuable Lineman. For fifteen years he played as a Minnesota Viking, a member of the team's famed "Purple People Eaters." Many descriptive words can be applied to the career of this defense specialist on the gridiron— spectacular, successful, brilliant, unparalleled. Think up some more—they'd fit. All this is in the past. Now Carl is in the midst of a second career, as it were. This one is not as spectacular in physical action. It is not covered widely by television cameras. It doesn't hit the headlines every week, nor does it attract millions of fans. His second career has come about because of his participation in "my fifth super bowl," as he calls it, a struggle against chemical addiction, which led to a personal victory for him. Much publicity these days is being given to the use of drugs by athletes. Reports appear frequently of drugs being used by athletes either to enhance their performance or for other reasons. Speculation is that half of the players on some professional teams are drug-involved or drugdependent. Carl Eller's "fifth super bowl" has inspired him to provide help for those facing the same problems which brought him such trouble or, if possible, to help them avoid these problems in the first place. Carl is special consultant to the National Football League on alcohol and drug abuse, a position which assumes greater importance as the sports world comes to grips with drug problems. He also is director of the National Institute of Sports and Humanities, which develops programs for schools, communities, and businesses on these same problems. "Phase One of my program," says Carl, "is to help the troubled person and if necessary get him into treatment. Also we want to provide the methods whereby people in responsible positions can identify the symptoms of drug use and know what needs to be done." Phase Two of Carl's second career has to do with primary prevention. "We are trying to get people to avoid these problems simply by making proper decisions in their own lives. We think the basis for this is to develop a balanced lifestyle in which they show concern for all areas of their lives, not just getting involved with chemicals." In using the expression "balanced life-style," Carl refers to several major aspects of life, such as family relationships; choice of career, especially for young adults; mental care and development; spiritual concerns; the earning of money and its management; and physical care for the body in terms of weight, exercise, nutrition, chemical use or nonuse—in other words, basic health. Speaking from his own experience that eventually led to his "fifth-super-bowl" struggle, Carl Eller stresses that it's difficult for a young person, even an adult at times, to look beyond the present and to put his life into perspective for the future. "This is what I see particularly in athletes," he says. "Because they put so much emphasis on developing themselves physically in an effort to become professional in ability, they tend to forget other very important areas of their lives." And this principle applies not only to athletes, but also to youth in general. On this, Carl observes, "I would say that they have to realize that there's not just one area in life to be concerned LISTEN • January 1984 • 17 "There were many times I made bad decisions, and of course I suffered from those decisions because I didn't exercise good judgment." with. For example, they may concentrate on having friends and being popular or on enjoying a good time. But there are other areas they have to be responsible for, and knowing they can handle all these well is what brings the true joy and excitement of living." From memories of his many encounters on the football field, Carl sees comparisons he can make to his present life. He doesn't hesitate to compare the big forward line of the opposing team to some of the challenges he faces today. The question comes to his mind now as it did then, Am I going to be able to compete successfully and to meet that challenge and do it well? All of which requires preparation beforehand. How does a player get ready for the big game? "I prepared myself all during the week. I had to know I'd done everything necessary in order to be ready. It's not something you can do as you go into the game." How about getting ready to lose? No, says Carl. "You never prepare yourself for losing. You don't think about it. You should never go into anything with the idea you're going to lose. Just that attitude prevents you from doing everything you can to win." Carl knows, however, that in sports there are always losses as well as victories. In the four superbowls his Viking team played, they always came up on the short end. "Losses for me were always hard to bear, but I think they helped me prepare for the next encounter. Even in defeat, if you know you've done your best and have given your all, there are no excuses needed for that." Also out of his own experience and his gradually increasing involvement in drugs during his playing days, Carl Eller recalls some of the effects on himself and his playing ability. "Some of these effects were in my relations with my teammates, and these were rather sporadic. The physical effects came later in my career. I lost strength; I was not able to do the things I had done in the past. My performance on the field really suffered." He's not sure that he could tell a difference in playing ability between a drug user and a nonuser based on any one game, but, Carl says, 'There was a difference if you looked at them consistently. Sometimes the guys who were using 18 • LISTEN • January 1984 played well and sometimes they didn't. I know that was true in my case. The guys I knew on my team and around the league who didn't use were consistently better performers, whereas my performance was more up and down." A life characterized by drug use, Carl recalls, is a life increasingly based on feelings. "If I wanted to feel good, drugs helped me do that. But I began to feel that things were OK when actually they weren't. I came to the place where I could ignore things when they didn't go well. In other words, I lived for the moment. What was most important was how I felt now. And if I didn't feel well now I'd just take a chemical to bring that feeling back." A frequently held opinion by drug users regarding the negative effects of drug use is that "it can't happen to me." Carl developed this feeling as he achieved some success as an athlete. "I began to see myself as someone different and unique, and that nothing was going to happen to me. I avoided those possibilities as long as I could, until eventually they had happened. Then I could deny them no longer. There were many times I made bad decisions, and of course I suffered from those decisions because I didn't exercise good judgment." In his drug experience Carl remembers exactly what he started out with. His "drug of entry" was alcohol, and he says that with this drug it is much easier to get involved with other drugs. "I CARL ELLER SAYS: "When I started out, I used chemicals because I chose to. It was a decision that I made on my part. I used chemicals because I thought that they would make me feel better, that they'd get rid of my problems, that I could fit in with my peers—all these things. "Eventually, using chemicals was the only way I knew to cope. I was at a point where I had to use chemicals. I didn't have any choice. I had to use chemicals just to live with myself. "As I began to learn about what I had been going through, what had been happening to me, I also learned that the chemicals had not solved my problems. In fact, they created a lot of problems I never would have had otherwise. And the chemicals didn't make me feel good anymore. Instead they were bringing me tremendous amounts of pain. Instead of fitting in with my peers, I ended up terribly alone. At this point, the choice was either to go to treatment or to end up dead. I certainly believe that. "I believe that the chemical dependency disease is progressive; it's primary; it's chronic; and I believe it's fatal." think it starts at the alcohol level, which is generally associated with young people, because it's accessible and inexpensive. They begin to feel they can handle it, and they move on to other drugs. Finally they're willing to try some of the real hard stuff." Why do people use drugs? Carl says it's usually to be sociable, at least at the beginning. However, the more drugs used and the deeper a person gets into drug use the more lonely he feels and detached from other people. "The reason for this is simply that the relationship is with the drug, not with other people. You can lose family, you can lose friends, but you still have the relationship with the drug. You rely more and more on the drug until eventually it's just you and the chemical." In his own experience Carl ended up feeling "terribly alone." He knew that drugs had not solved his problems; in fact, they created a lot of problems he wouldn't have had otherwise. "At this point," he recalls, "the choice was either to go into treatment or end up dead." An important part of that recovery process, Carl says, had to do with what he calls the "spiritual dimension" of life. Here's how he describes it: "I became quite successful. I began to rely on the fact that I could do all things myself. Well, there came a point in my life where there were problems I couldn't handle. I didn't know where to go. "I came to the realization that there's a power greater than I am, and that power was able to handle my drug problem. By myself I couldn't turn around and walk away from my chemical use. "I think that as long as we hold ourselves re- sponsible for everything that happens to us or for anything that happens outside, we're setting ourselves up for tremendous frustration. We have to accept the fact that there is something greater than ourselves. To me that's the spiritual essence." Carl Eller makes it plain that he doesn't want to be involved in another "fifth super bowl." Once that victory has been won, he wants no repeat of the struggle. "It was really painful for me. The last thing I want is to go back to that. For a time I had an occasional desire to use drugs, but not anymore. The reason is that I'm enjoying my life now. I'm receiving the benefits of being sober. I don't need chemicals." When asked the question as to how he celebrates success without drugs, Carl is quick to answer, "I feel good every day basically. I'm grateful for the things that maybe didn't mean so much to me before. "You know, it's something to be alive and to be healthy. That to me is worth celebrating. I have my family—that means I have people who love me and care about me. I've also learned to share myself. I can give of myself to them, and they do the same to me. "I'm able to share some of my unfortunate experiences with other people in the hope they will benefit from them. I feel like a good person. I don't feel like I'm deceiving people. I don't feel like I'm cheating or that I'm lying, as I was doing when I was using drugs. I just feel that I have a place in the world and that I'm fulfilling it." So Carl Eller, super-bowl hero, sums up, "I remember my first super bowl, but I also remember my last super bowl, which was my victory over chemicals. This enables me now to be a whole person and to celebrate just being alive. 'For me that is my greatest victory. That's why I call it 'My Fifth Super Bowl.' " ;ATH SUPER BOWL Chemical DependencyA Disease Primary Progessiee Chronic Fatal Types o Ch cats HAPPY "MY 5th SUPER BOWL"-THE FILM Carl Eller is making his vital message to athletes and highschool students especially graphic in a new thirty-threeminute, full-color film entitled My 5th Super Bowl. Available also on videocassette, the film was produced before a live audience. Carl tells of his own experience, describing how his chemical dependency began by drinking with highschool friends and developed into a thousand-dollar-perweek habit that nearly destroyed him. This film helps people recognize the symptoms of chemical dependency in friends, teammates, and loved ones and offers hope to anyone involved in this serious health problem. For information on prices and how to order the film, write to Carl Eller, My 5th Super Bowl, 428 Oak Grove Street, Minneapolis, MN 55403. LISTEN • January 1984 • 19 THEBADGE A COP'S-EYE VIEW OF DRUGS 20 • LISTEN • January 1984 "Probably the worst drug of all is marijuana. This is true in many ways, though maybe not physically or emotionally. But most of our young people are smoking grass with the opinion that it's harmless. Now, I'm talking about grammar-school kids who are smoking. They think it's an innocuous drug that doesn't do anything to you, that makes you feel good." Speaking is Deputy Inspector Donald White, commander of the Nassau County, New York, Narcotics Squad. Inspector White and his officers work hard to stem the flow of illegal drugs into this Long Island suburb of New York City. It is a war they know they cannot fully win—only a fraction of what comes into the county is seized by police—but they keep working anyway. They labor not only to lock up pushers but also to help people caught in the web of drug abuse. At fifty-three, Inspector White is a grandfather and veteran of thirty years in police work, fifteen in narcotics. One of his undercover officers is Eddie, thirtythree, a veteran of twelve years in police work, mostly in narcotics. No pictures of Eddie are allowed so drug dealers can't identify him as a cop. His youthful looks have often helped him to pose as a drug abuser and make drug buys leading to arrests. Narcotics work is full of frustrations, with only occasional rewards. Says Eddie, "Frustration is a neverending problem. Many of our youth today grow up in a drug-oriented atmosphere. This hinders their growth both physically and mentally, so much so that many of them don't survive to see their twenties. Many of them die in automobile accidents from taking drugs. Families are torn apart by drug problems. So I view narcotics as the menace of our society." Inspector White's feelings are very similar. "I'm frustrated because I go back to the days of the sixties when a bust for a nickel bag of marijuana in Nassau County was a decent arrest. Now we're buying pounds and kilos of it, including kilos of cocaine. "We do get rewarded, however, in several ways. For Eddie and many of the guys that work with him, making a good case or taking down a big pusher is a reward. Maybe the courts don't sentence him forever, but we hurt him because we took his drugs away and it cost him financially." Inspector White speaks fondly of one success involving a buddy's sister who became a heroin addict and prostitute at eighteen. "We got her into a program. She ended up not only kicking the habit but also getting her master's degree and teaching. I went to her wedding. She is raising a family. She's turned out to be a beautiful, normal kind of lady. If she had continued in her way, she would have been dead from an overdose or from all kinds of different diseases that go with drug abuse." Both officers see parents as part of the problem. Parents often are confused about drugs, and when their kids see the confusion, the kids know they can get away with their drug use. For this reason the police try to work with schools, PTAs, and parent groups to educate parents about drugs. An additional complicating factor is parents who either are or have been abusers themselves. Says Eddie, "The kids from the sixties are heads of families now where the use of marijuana and soft drugs is almost acceptable to them as parents. It is creating tremendous problems for law enforcement." Undercover work can be dangerous. Eddie knows it, and so does his wife. She knows what goes on and has to deal with the fear that one night her husband might not come home. "I've been in the hospital a couple of times from being assaulted," Eddie says. "One particular time a guy ran me over with a car on a fivepound marijuana deal. He was arrested for twentytwo felonies. He rammed an Old Westbury police car and put me in the hospital. He got three year's probation." Eddie describes some undercover operations. "I had an investigation of a particular bar. I walked into the bar and noticed a line at the back of the bar near a table. Two women were selling cocaine openly, right out on a table in the back of the bar. So I got at the end of the line. When it was my turn I said, 'I'd like a gram of coke.' They opened up their pocketbook. No one knew me in this bar. It was like one big, happy family. These people would come in, and half the bar would line up with fifty- and twenty-dollar bills in their hands. These people were there only to sell cocaine. This went on for approximately two months until I had gained their confidence. We ordered up a package. They were very prompt people. They came right back to the bar. We weighed it up, money was exchanged, and they were arrested." Eddie says that was an unusual case, that you don't often walk into a bar and find people selling cocaine openly. Leads on suspected drug dealers come in various ways. Some investigations can be made in person. Others have to be made using various observations in- "One particular time a guy ran me over with a car on a five-pound marijuana deal. He was arrested for twentytwo felonies." cluding court-ordered wiretaps and other sophisticated surveillance techniques. As the drug dealers have become more careful, the police have had to become more adept at investigating. Eddie tells of a man who was selling cocaine from his place of business. "In the midst of selling certain objects he would stop, and we would go into his office where I would buy drugs. As the investigation es- LISTEN • January 1984 • 21 calated, he was locking me in a bathroom, then slipping the drugs under the door. I would knock on the door, and he would let me out. Then I would exchange the money. In that particular case we got to where we were making ten-thousand-dollar drug buys, and it culminated with two arrests. There the people were much smarter. They inquired a lot more. I had to have a good story." Inspector White says the dangers that police will get hurt are real, not so much because they are police but because the drug dealers are afraid of being robbed. "I have ten thousand dollars; you have ten thousand dollars' worth of drugs. Each of us is para- "What we have to do is band all the young people together that are antidrug and have them use peer pressure on the ones that are using, instead of vice versa." noid about being ripped off. After all, it's very difficult for you to go to the police if you have ten thousand dollars' worth of cocaine and somebody steals it from you." He further states that many larger dealers have their own surveillance people for protection. Some organized criminal elements involved in drug trafficking have people who specialize either in setting up other drug dealers for rip-offs or in killing those who ripped them off. The police get caught in the middle. Some drug busts require months of hard work; others come easily. Eddie tells of two patrol officers who responded to a complaint concerning a suspiciouslooking man leaning on a fence. "He told them he had birdseed in a paper bag he carried. The two uniformed officers went a little further with their investigation, and the net result was an individual with fiftyfour ounces of pure cocaine. Now, that cocaine can be whacked—cut or increased—to at least double the fifty-four ounces. You're talking $500,000. And that's for cocaine that could be as low as 12 to 15 percent pure. It fluctuates between 15 and 33 percent until you get to the major dealers, and then you are talking pure cocaine, up to 89 or 90 percent pure. That basically is as pure as you see it—just like it comes off the boat." With cutting, Eddie says the enticement to deal in cocaine is great. "The profit margin is tremendous and, unfortunately, the risk of apprehension and incarceration is small. That's the problem in a nutshell." 22 • LISTEN • January 1984 Besides cocaine, both officers see major problems in the use of other drugs, in particular quaaludes, especially mixed with alcohol. "They're made in clandestine laboratories, mainly down in South America," says Eddie. "They're not made under laboratory conditions; they're not sanitary. They come up here, and you'll have teenage girls and boys take one or two on a Friday night. They'll drink some wine; they'll drink some beer; they'll forget how many they took; they'll take two or three more; and it will kill them." Inspector White describes quaaludes manufactured for prescription use as containing a precise amount of methaquaalude. However, illicitly produced pills are seldom so carefully made. "We had a case in which we confiscated big vats of quaalude powder of varying potency that was all mixed up together. Instead of getting a one-third dose, a young person could get a full tablet or one with nothing in it at all." Police seized over 900 pounds of the powder—enough to make millions of tablets. "The legal maker stamps the number 714 on the pills for identification," White adds. "However, the number 714 on the pill is no guarantee of getting a pure product." Both officers work hard on the enforcement end of the narcotics problem but feel the real solutions lie in the home and school. Says White, "The chances of a habitual marijuana smoker using another drug is probably 100 percent. Somebody who smokes marijuana on a daily or weekly basis is going to try another drug, and that leads to more. I think it is very hard for our young people, particularly with peer pressure, to avoid using drugs. They have to be strong. Drug users become their own group. The young people that don't use drugs are by themselves. "But we're seeing a trend now, according to surveys," he continues, "where marijuana use is going down in our schools. I think what we have to do is band all the young people together that are antidrug and have them use peer pressure on the ones that are using, instead of vice versa." Eddie sees involvement by parents with school projects and other activities as effective deterrents. "I think the basic problem lies with our family system today. The majority of individuals we are coming across in our investigations are coming from divorced, separated homes. I think if parents put more time in with their kids during the early teen years—fourteen, thirteen, twelve—keep them involved in sports, keep them involved in programs, and spend time with them, that it will have a lot of effect on what we get in the later teens. "Children that are heavily involved in sports, Boy Scouting, 4-H, and extra-curricular activities in schools—we really don't get those people, for some reason. We usually don't get the family that is active in the community with their youth. I really believe that if parents spent a bit more time with their kids, even if they became good listeners, a lot of the problems and the individuals that we come across would be averted."0 Ask a friend JACK ANDERS I'm a high-school senior who's been going steady with the same girl since we were both in ninth grade. Most of the time it's been great, and we've talked about getting married. But lately I've been wondering what it would be like to date someone else. I want to break up, but I don't want to hurt her. And what if I decide to come back and she won't have me? As personal as your problem feels to you, thousands of people like you are facing the same decision. I can't tell you what to do. I don't have to live with your decision. But I can help you look at the problems and possible solutions, so that you can choose the solution that has the best chance of working and is not too costly nor painful. If you break up with your girl friend you are both in for a lot of pain. After four years you have probably become "addicted- to each other. There is just no way for you to avoid your own pain and grief, nor to avoid giving your girl friend pain and grief, which in this case will be worse than your own because she is feeling abandoned by you and has no backup boyfriend to substitute for you. Sometimes we stay in relationships that don't make us happy or actually are destructive because we want to avoid the pain of separation. Even though you are wanting out, you know what you have in this relationship, you don't know what a new one will be like. So you will tend to stay in your "comfort zone" because it's risky to try something new. Life is a constant push/pull cycle in regard to risks. We look outside our comfort zone and are pushed toward something new and attractive, but when we move out, fear of the unknown pulls us back to where we know what to expect. Sometimes we make some very costly decisions that we wish we hadn't made. You are probably thinking now that deciding to go steady at fourteen and staying with it for four years wasn't such a wise decision. And, if you break up, it may well be that she won't take you back. It's possible that she may realize, as you have, that she has outgrown the relationship. Although she may feel abandoned now, once she gets over that feeling she may be as relieved as you to get out of the relationship and into something new which fits" her better. Then you will feel abandoned. The four years during which you have been going steady are the most change-packed years of life. You may not realize it, but you are both drastically different from what you were when you first began dating. Physically, you both look different. Mentally, you are deciding on a career, how and where you want to live—vastly different thoughts from a freshman's thoughts of the future. Spiritually, the values you held or rebelled against at fourteen are different now. Socially. you should now be more comfortable with yourself and not so dependent on one special person to tell you that you are OK. So the girl you fell for four years ago is not the same girl you now know, any more than you are the same guy. Suppose you were going to buy a new suit, and you stopped at the first clothing store you saw and bought the first suit you tried on. Now imagine that that was the only suit you could ever have! No matter how much you grew or changed your likes and dislikes, that was your suit. What a mess! Relationships are a lot like a new suit. They are exciting to acquire. They make us feel good about ourselves—more attractive and admired, and they feel like a perfect fit—at first. (Sometimes the fit - stays good.) But usually, especially during adolescence, our growth makes the fit uncomfortable, and we end up wanting a new -suit" (relationship). This is as close as I will come to giving you advice. Now is the time to try on a few relationships to see just which one fits you best. Maybe the one you now have is the best. Great. If it also is best for your friend, don't worry about getting back together—you will. Probably you will find a new relationship(s) which fits the changed you better. What is happening to you is part of the growing-up process. It might be good for both of you to have a little time and space to figure out how changed you are. I have a feeling you will find a way to do this and avoid giving your friend unnecessary pain. I suggest you get together and talk about your feelings and some of the ideas expressed here. Focus your energies on solving the problem rather than on feeling bitter and misunderstood from just talking about how awful the problem is. Have a question about friendships, family relations, drugs and health, or other teenage concerns? Ask a friend—Jack Anders, parent, grandparent, counselor, and social worker from Silver Spring, Maryland. Address your question to "Ask a Friend" LISTEN Magazine, 6830 Laurel Street NW, Washington, DC 20012. We're sorry, but Jack cannot answer letters personally. LISTEN • January 1984 • 23 *With these two pages Listen introduces a new feature, called "Graffiti," that we think you will enjoy. Each month it will include several samples of the writings that our editorial office receives through the mail from our teenage readers. We're looking for short, well-written, thoughtprovoking manuscripts—poetry and prose—that we can share with all of our readers. If you enjoy writing, send us a copy of something you have written. We'll try to make room for it. The subject may be anything that interests teenage readers and writers. Listen magazine will pay $10 for poems (no longer than twenty lines, please) and $15 to $20 for stories and essays (300 to 500 words). Address your submissions to Gary B. Swanson, Associate Editor, Listen Magazine, 6830 Laurel Street, NW, Washington, DC 20012. Always include a self-addressed, stamped envelope with your submission so we can return your manuscript if we aren't able to use it. CMSleni. 04 memmovininenie Delicate smooth silky fluffy feathery . . . Inebriation— sip nectar broth elixir sodden mellow plush . . Nature! Desperate soggy spongy flimsy Intoxication— flabby . . . gulp liquor chaser delirium sot maudlin plastic . . . Man-made! —Shan Loughry Front Royal, Virginia arme FRisoNER,, I lie here on this hospital bed. I cannot move. I cannot speak. Nourishment is pumped into my veins intravenously. My family and friends come here to see me, and I cannot communicate with them. My body is a prison from which my mind longs to roam free. On a fateful night three years ago, I was on my way home from a party, perhaps a little drunk. Another car collided head-on with mine. I can remember vaguely the ambulance and the numb sensation in my body. When I awoke, everything was numb. I couldn't move an inch. My family stood over me gazing down in pity. I have been here, on this bed, since that awful night. How can I describe my state? It is like being forced by your mother to lie still and take a nap when you're not really sleepy. I want to get up! I want to run, to jump, to read a good book, to sit by the fire on a cold December evening, to sit in the shade and have a soft drink in the heat of summer. I long to feel the touches and caresses of my loved ones. But most of all, I would like to speak. I am imprisoned in my own body. It is worse than death. I would gladly kill myself, but I can't. Sometimes my mind wanders far away from my earthbound body. I have written epics and novels, composed symphonies in my mind, but what good is that? I have no one to share them with, and I soon forget. I just want to die. And sometimes I think of all the time I wasted while I was well. I should have savored every moment, made every second count. But I wasted my time because I didn't think my days of freedom were numbered. I never speculate about freedom, because I know I'll never be free again. —Rick Moyers Churchville, Virginia ,rei7-A ptcer-v9eyeelpypo IT ? As I waited after school to catch the Friday bus home, classmates invited me to Tom's-Big-Basement-Friday-Night-Drinking Party. "I'm skiing tomorrow," I explained. "You're missing out; better get in on the fun," Jan advised. "I've got to rest up," I said. "It wouldn't hurt you," Jan challenged. Those words were enough to give a sober person a hangover! It's criminal for people who know so little about alcohol— or skiing—to give advice or make dares. Several in the crowd chimed in. "Everybody does it." "'Everyone does it' is an insidious slogan," I maintained. "Abstinence is far more distinctive and dynamic than that!" When I reached Snoqualmie next morning, an early morning snow had left the ski lift cables looking like ropes of white yarn stretching up the mountain. I went up on the first gondola, skied across the gap, and began my climb to the summit—my skis in rhythm: scrish, scrish, kerplunk; pause. My heart sang to the beat. Music is inherent in the exhilarating sweep of the glaciered Cascades. Far below, the outline of Highway 90 spread before my eyes. My mind returned to the times I had traveled from Wapato to Seattle with my parents and caught a glimpse of skiers coursing the Snoqualmie slalom. I remembered the hundreds of falls it had taken before I dared ski from this height. To the east skiers moved up and down mountains like fairies skating on marshmallows. Below, where hemlocks hugged the foothills, friends waited. I arrived at the summit. Challenge— there it was: that facing up to untamed reality by the lone, vulnerable self. Survey. Review. Altitude, like alcohol, gives a false sense of power and poise. One not aware of this phenomenon may react in the high places like a fool. The secret of a good start can make the difference. I reset my binding for downhill, placed my legs close to the wand, and planted my poles in firm snow. Then, heart in mouth, I hung like a fixed star at the edge of space, heaved a sigh, and willed my feet over the edge. Skis began humming in silent snow. Aaaaah, uuuuuh, 00000h! Skiing this high is like riding on the moon! At full throttle the rattle at the tips of the skis moves into your boots, into your knees, all through you. Your whole body is involved in the effort, straining, fighting. Vibrations shake like a wild mustang. The mind blurs with the lightness of a nightmare. You stand, stand; or your body is torn like a varmint on the highway. Mountain silence changes into tornado roar inside your helmet. Skis splinter silence into rainbow ribbons of sound. One wonders, one questions: "What if— ?" No longer are you a speck suspended in space, but an earthling, clinging to her mother—loving life and moving at a speed fast enough to make your life flash before your eyes. The steep grade levels out. Almost imperceptibly you draw out of your tuck. Cheering human sounds blend with the singing skis. The camaraderie is unparalleled. It makes one feel as great and as acceptable to self as the unbelievable surroundings. My limbs are limber as a drunk. Wobbly, I reel. It will be awhile before I can be sure that my arms and legs will obey my directions. Without abstinence, this story—and the other best stories of my life—could never have been! —Melisa Ann Burke Wapato, Washington A BIRD IN THE JUNKYARD IS WORTH TWO DOBERMAN PINSCHERS Apparently there is something ing—a hubcap here, a radio for the seven-foot bird and antenna there. Then Oscar, a meaner than a junkyard dog. shipped him home to Lambert. 300-pound ostrich, stepped seFletcher Haynes, the owner of a And Haynes's pilfering probdately into Haynes' life. At an junkyard in Lambert, Missislems were immediately exotic animal auction Haynes sippi, was getting ripped off all stopped. Nothing has been attended last spring, he spotted the time, so he bought two Domissing from his junkyard the four-year-old bird pecking berman pinschers. He thought since. "No one's been brave at whoever came near him. his problems would be over. enough to go in there at Haynes promptly spent $450 But things still kept disappearnight," Haynes laughs. 26 • LISTEN • January 1984 AN IDEA YOU CAN BANK ON Jeanne Yates, a Wellston, Oklahoma, third-grade teacher noticed one day that her students were getting bored during social studies class. So she decided to do something about it. Because the class was studying banking, she took the whole group—twenty-nine in all—to the local bank, where they applied for a loan of ten dollars. The third graders didn't really have much in the way of collateral—a few dolls, a lamp, a box of candy, and a bottle of perfume—but the bank decided to take a chance on the young investors. The students purchased forty petunias with the money, sold the plants, doubled their money, paid off the loan—including sixteen cents interest—and went back to the nursery for more petunias. Within a couple of weeks the pintsized entrepreneurs had made a profit of $227, which they donated to the Statue of Liberty Restoration Fund in New York. EVEN PELICANS CAN GET HOOKED Pelicans may be able to fly gracefully and dive like a torpedo into the water, but in some ways, at least, they are just plain dumb. Too often they clamp their beaks on fish that are attached to fishermen's hooks. And this lack of discriminating taste usually leads to a pelican's death. But there is hope for the pelicans of Biscayne Bay in Florida. Harry and Darlene Kelton, who live on a houseboat, dip the wounded birds out of the water and take them to a nearby veterinarian who donates his services, stitching up the hapless birds. Then the Keltons take the birds home to recuperate in the bathroom or in outdoor pens with children's wading pools. In the two and a half years the Keltons have been rescuing the pelicans, they have returned more than 300 to their natural environment. Most were the victims of fishhooks. CAN YOU RIDE A STRAIGHT LINE? New Jersey is really getting tough with drunk drivers. Michael Tehan, a college sophomore from Somerville, was found guilty of drunken driving—on a bicycle of all things. Tehan had been arrested for disorderly conduct, resisting arrest, and drunken driving. He pleaded guilty to the first two charges but, with the aid of an attorney, contested the drunken-driving charge. The court found Tehan guilty, fined him $550, and sentenced him to thirty days in the county jail, to be served on weekends. Tehan's defense attorney said, Z7 "It's an issue never [before] brought before the court." He said that his client would not appeal the decision. "It's an interesting case—interesting, but not worth spending $1000 to overrule," he said. "The presence on the roadways of intoxicated persons on bicycles may not entail the same degree of danger as the presence of drunken drivers of automobiles," Superior Court Judge Arthur S. Meredith wrote. "However, the drunken operator of a bicycle may create situations endangering both himself and others on the roads." LISTEN • January 1984 • 27 DEAD BULBS? People who say something turns them on Nearly drive me out of my skin! How can they always be turned on When they're not even plugged in! —Ruth M Walsh RHYME TIME Martha J. Beckman The answers to the following definitions all rhyme. "I take it you're new to figure skating, Miss Tudgely?" SPACED-OUT WORDS Evelyn Mayfield Can you find forty words in the puzzle below that are associated with space? They may run backward, forward, vertically, horizontally, or diagonally but always in a straight line. Circle each word as you find it. The remaining letters will spell two things: the name "Star Trek" fans give to outer space, and the name of the first female astronaut. S C A U R B S E E S G U D S N N T E L L P P H E R C N G U T N S L R M A R M R C A D E M R N A E N U T L N U A T K Y W H S E U T J U R C E S U E E S F E S U N T L A S P L F R T E 0 X N R G M H P N S Y S T E K A G E D M T A C L B U E R N N T Y U E T T F L P N G H E L C E N 0 E T U L N B E S R R B R L E S T U C H U L D P B Alien, Andromeda, asteroid, astronaut, Big Dipper, black hole, comet, cosmic ray, Earth, galaxy, gas, infinity, Jupiter, launch, light year, Mars, Mercury, meteor, Milky Way, moon, NASA, nebula, Neptune, orbit, Oreol*, planet, Pluto, robot, satellite, Saturn, Sirius, solar, space, star, sun [not in the word Venus], universe, Uranus, vast, Vega, Venus (*A communications satellite) 28 • LISTEN • January 1984 1. A pair of horses 2. Five hundred sheets of paper 3. A ray of sunshine 4. Thick milk 5. A crafty or secret plot 6. A vision in the night 7. The main subject or topic 8. The line where two pieces of cloth sewn together meet 9. Shine 10. Water heated above the boiling point 11. To think it necessary 12. Too much 13. A loud cry one makes when frightened 14. A body of water flowing along the ground 15. To buy back; to atone for STIRRED WORDS Ida M. Pardue The four words below are really eight others—well stirred. Can you unscramble and respell these words so there are four new words across and four more down? (Hint: The first word across is scar; the first word down is sled.) CLAN ROSE SAND TREE PUZZLE ANSWERS Answers to "Rhyme Time" waapai .91. MOM bl WE9.13S awa.J1 weep . 1.1. weals •OG weel6 '6 weas .g awalf weeip .9 maps .9 WE0.10 17 wag .£ WE0.1 •Z Weal Answers to "Spaced-Out Words" @P!H Alias ;JaguoJj leu!J all Answers to "Stirred Words" 1N30 S 0 }:1 3 NV1 EIVOS isten News Canadian Ski Team Blasted For Deal With Tobacco Company A coalition of Canadian health groups has attacked the Canadian Ski Association for accepting a five-year, multimillion-dollar sponsorship deal from RJR-Macdonald Inc., the Canadian branch of R. J. Reynolds Industries and maker of Canada's secondmost-popular brand of cigarettes. The coalition, which includes the Canadian Cancer Society, the Canadian Council on Smoking and Health, and the Nonsmokers' Rights Association, wants CSA to cancel its deal with RJR and find support money elsewhere because the deal would use skiing "to promote disease." RJR would sponsor the alpine jumping, freestyle, and Nordic teams. The cross-country and biathalon teams have refused to accept the tobacco company's sponsorship. The crosscountry division, however, has decided to accept Carling O'Keefe Breweries of Canada as its sponsor. CSA's deal with RJR has also been attacked by the medical team that cares for CSA's alpine team. Dr. David Stewart, spokesman for that group, said, "to associate a disease-producing agent like smoking with a health-producing agent like skiing is terribly unfortunate." But CSA's executive director, Greg Hilton, defended the deal, stating that RJR was the only major company prepared to underwrite the national championships. "Our job," said Hilton, "is to run competitions. In order to do that, we're dealing with a legal company that employs 1,500 Canadians and pays a great deal of taxes. It happens to be offering funds at a time when money is hard to come by." Responding to Hilton's statement, Dr. David Nostbaken, director of public education for the Canadian Cancer Society, declared: "Any fitness organization that is prepared to walk hand in hand with the tobacco industry in the 1980s has lost sight of its responsibility to all young Canadians and is out of touch with public opinion." Beer Sales Level Off After Twenty Years' Growth Beer sales in the United States failed to go up in 1982, the first time in twenty years such a thing has happened. And beer sales are unlikely to go up in the future, according to brewingindustry analyst Robert Natale, quoted in USA Today. The reasons he cites for that are stiffer drunk-driving penalties, higher legal drinking ages in many states, reduced population growth, and the older average-age level of the U.S. population. Cigarette Sales Take a Dive After Cigarette Tax Doubled The brewing industry isn't the only one whose future prospects are dimming. Cigarette sales in the first quarter of 1983 dropped by 5 percent as the direct result of Congress's doubling the cigarette tax in 1982, from eight cents a pack to sixteen cents. According to the Addiction and Substance Abuse Report, the tax increase may prove to be an important health measure. McDonald's Decides Not to Serve Alcohol The franchise owner of a McDonald's fast-food outlet in Mammoth, California, has decided to withdraw application for a beer and wine license. Issuance of the license would have made the restaurant the only one of 6,000 McDonald's outlets in the United States to serve alcohol to customers, although McDonald's restaurants in Europe have served beer and wine for some time. Because of the unique adult customer base of the Mammoth resort area, the owner, Whitey Andres, had requested an exception to McDonald's Corporation policy not to serve alcoholic beverages in its restaurants. But the announcement that Andres' outlet intended to serve alcohol aroused the opposition of Mammoth officials and residents because it was to be located only two blocks from a local high school. Tom Henry, superintendent of the Mammoth Unified School District, said that parents were concerned that teenagers would be employed in the restaurant and that as many as 400 high-school students would eat lunch there each day. "As a result of local opposition, Andres withdrew his application to serve alcohol," McDonald's Vice-president Richard Starmann stated. "Our franchisee decided it was not consistent with the interest of the community to serve beer and wine. We respect and support his decision." More Pregnant Women Quit Drinking Than Quit Smoking Pregnant women are more likely to give up drinking than cigarette smoking, according to a survey sponsored by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the National Center for Health Statistics. "One might have expected a greater reduction in smoking than drinking," reported the epidemiologists who conducted the survey, "given the duration and magnitude of media messages mounted in the past two decades about the deleterious effects of smoking while pregnant, compared with the more recent and modest messages against drinking while pregnant." Says Henry Malin of NIAAA's Division of Biometry and Epidemiology, "this has shown that, for some people, it is . . . far more difficult to give up nicotine than it is to give up drinking." LISTEN • January 1984 • 29 January 1984 Vol. 37, No. 1 1.151111 Editorial The "Me" Complex Someone commented the other day that the three most overused words in the English language are I, me, and myself. The decade of the 1970s has been called the "me" era, when people put their own self-satisfaction ahead of all else, a time of rebellion against the ethic of self-denial. Obviously this era hasn't ended yet. Undoubtedly various factors contribute to the development of an era like this. To put it on a more personal basis, such an era is nothing more nor less than a massive collection of individual "me" complexes. Right here we suggest that one of these causative factors, perhaps a major one in some instances, could well be the prevalence and widespread use of dependence-producing drugs. There's no doubt that the longer a person is involved in drugs, the more introspective he becomes and the more he tends to develop a "me" complex. The deeper he drops into dependence on drugs, whatever those drugs might be, the more self-oriented he becomes. Of course, people can develop a "me" complex without the use of drugs. And the more closely they are related to this "me" syndrome, the more troubles they may encounter and the less happy and successful they may be in life. But with drugs in this picture the process may well be accelerated and made worse. Take the example of a person who is drinking more and more and is perhaps on his way to alcoholism. The more such a person drinks, the more he expends time, effort, and money on himself, becoming all the time less aware of people around him, such as family, friends, neighbors, or business associates. Such a person puts himself and his wants—and needs, as he becomes more addicted—before the needs and comforts of others. He spends his money for himself rather than for home and family; he orders his time schedule without regard to those around him. Literally, he has to "do his own thing." Business time is wasted, family finances are thrown away. Increasingly life centers around himself and his requirements. Indeed, he has a "me" complex. There are many reasons to avoid becoming involved with drugs. These reasons may have to do with health, economics, work, or family. However, one of the strongest and most effective reasons of all is this trend toward selfishness and the shutting out of other people as the drug habit develops. Editor Francis A. Soper Associate Editor Gary B. Swanson Assistant Editor Barbara Wetherell Audio Services Sherrie Thomas Editorial Secretary Gloria Meyers Office Editor Juanita Tyson-Flyn Art Director Howard Larkin Design Ed Guthero Circulation Manager Donald Laing Customer Relations Henry Nelson Art and Photo Credits Cover and pages 17, 27, Ed Guthero/Nery Cruz; pages 2, 5, Jack Pardue; page 7, Ed Guthero; page 9, DC Comics; page 10, Tim Mitoma; page 15, H. Armstrong Roberts; page 16, Bruce Reedy; page 19, Cheryl Johnston Communications; page 20, Darrel Tank; pages 24, 25, Nery Cruz/Ed Guthero; page 26, Donna Lang; page 28, George Shane; page 31, Joan Walter. Editorial Consultants Jack Anders, A.C.S.W., L.C.S.W.; Winton Beaven, Ph.D.; Carolyn Burns; Don Cooper, M.D.; Robert DuPont, M.D.; Bruce Freeman; Mervyn Hardinge, M.D., Ph.D.; Rudolph Klimes, Ph.D.; Donald Mashburn, M.D.; Glen Oetman, M.B.A.; Irma Vyhmeister, Dr.P.H.; Albert Whiting, M.D.; DeWitt Williams, Ph.D. Editorial Office 6830 Laurel Street NW, Washington DC 20012. Publication Office Pacific Press Publishing Association, P.O. Box 7000, Mountain View, CA 94039. All editorial inquiries should be addressed to the Editorial Office in Washington, D.C. Inquiries regarding subscriptions should be addressed to the Pacific Press. Subscription Rates—per year When purchased in U.S.A., $24.00 (U.S.) package plan, mailed to addresses in U.S.A.; $25.00 (U.S.) package plan, mailed to addresses outside U.S.A. When purchased in Canada, $29.75 (Can.) package plan, mailed to addresses in U.S.A.; $30.75 (Can.) package plan, mailed to addresses in Canada or overseas. LISTEN monthly journal of better living (twelve issues a year), provides a vigorous, positive, educational approach to the problems arising out of the use of tobacco, alcohol, and narcotics. It is utilized nationally by Narcotics Education Inc., also by many organizations in the field of rehabilitation. Second-class mail privileges authorized at Mountain View, California. Form 3579 requested. Litho in the United States of America. This publication is available in microform from Xerox University Microfilms, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106, (313) 7614700. Write for complete information. /1/24x-fx ' 7 e/tY ; - 1 ,./1 Moving? If you're moving, please let us know at least six weeks in advance. Attach your label from the back cover of this issue. Write your new address in the blanks. NEW ADDRESS (Please print) Name Address City State Zip Mail to LISTEN, Pacific Press Publishing Association, P.O. Box 7000, Mountain View, CA 94039. Copyright © 1983 by Narcotics Education, Inc. TheJeweler On life's strand of gold We thread the days, Fake gems of false brilliance Or rainbow pearls Exquisite beyond duplication. —Bernice C. Heisler At least six weeks before changing address. please return this label with new addr You've seen them. The frosted bottles, the bubbling brew, the beautiful people in city elegance or the rugged outdoors. Whether a sophisticated night on the town or a postgame celebration— alcohol is always there. Today's advertising often implies liquor and good times are synonymous. But that's just not the whole picture. They don't tell you that alcohol was a factor in half of the 55,000 deaths on American highways last year. Or that approximately 50 percent of the adults who drown are under the influence of alcohol, drugs, or both. They don't mention the broken homes and lost paychecks. Young people today are faced with critical deci- sions in a society where alcohol and drug use is often viewed in a glamorous light. LISTEN magazine gives the facts on alcohol and drugs through informative articles and positive alternatives that can help teenagers make important decisions. If someone you know is making some important decisions, LISTEN can help. LIST€11 • Full-year subscription rates, Package Plan: When purchased in U.S.A. and mailed to addresses in U.S.A. $24.00. Outside U.S.A. $25.00. Send check or money order to LISTEN, P.O. Box 7000, Mountain View, CA 94039. Prices subject to change without notice. • Ideal for classroom use: Teacher's Guides available—inquire.
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