Telematics Digital Convergence – How to Cope with Emerging Standards and Protocols

Telematics Digital Convergence –
How to Cope with Emerging
Standards and Protocols
http://www.bmw.williamsf1.com/
Agenda
• The Automotive Market Overview
• In-Car Bus Networks Overview
– Body Control & Under-the-hood
– Entertainment & Driver Information Systems
– Advanced Safety Systems
• Reconfigurable Electronics
• Multimedia Design Example
• Conclusion
Automotive Busses Training 2
Automotive Semiconductors
“It is now estimated that the cost of the electronics
in a new car rises by 9 - 16 % each year. In the
2001 model year, electronics accounted for 19 % of
a mid-sized vehicle's cost. In the year 2005, it may
be 25 % for mid-sized cars and possibly 50 % for
luxury models. ”
Source: http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/WEBONLY/publicfeature/apr02/ecar.html Apr 12th, 02
Automotive Busses Training 3
Automotive Market Dynamics
• Car manufacturers desire HW/SW platforms that are flexible
– By model (5-series BMW vs. 7-series BMW), By Geography, By Option
purchased, etc.
• Networking comes to the vehicle
– Interfacing to multiple control networks remains a challenge (CAN, FlexRay)
– Providing high-speed media interfaces (MOST, IEEE1394, etc.)
• Unprecedented data processing and bandwidth demands
– Video (MPEG-2, MPEG-4), wireless technologies (Bluetooth, 3G, DAB,
DVB-T), DSP (Software Defined Radios, etc.), and connectivity (PCI, etc.)
• Time-to-market pressures and cost sensitivity remain drivers
• ASICs are inflexible and ASSPs don’t address the functionality
needs
http://www.xilinx.com/esp/automotive/index.htm
Automotive Busses Training 4
In-Car Networks
> DRIVER ASSITANCE SYSTEMS
> X-BY-WIRE
Automotive Busses Training 5
Advanced Safety Systems
Body Control and Under-the-hood
• CAN (Controller Area Network)
– Developed in the mid-1980’s by Bosch
– High-integrity serial data communications bus for real-time applications
– Operates at data rates of up to 1 Megabits per second
• Low speed with sleep mode 125 kbps
• High speed 1 Mbps
– Has excellent error detection and confinement capabilities
– Was originally developed by Bosch for use in cars
– Is now being used in many other industrial automation and control
applications – even telecoms (Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) and Mobile
Switching Centers (MSC)
– Is an international standard: ISO 11898
– Details at: http://www.can.bosch.com/
Automotive Busses Training 6
Body Control and Under-the-hood
• LIN (Local Interconnect Network)
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Low cost body electronics network based on UART SCI data format
Single master to multiple slave concept, single wire 12V bus
Transmission speed: 20kbit/s
Serial bus used for distributed electronic systems in vehicles
Used for smart sensors and actuators where the bandwidth and versatility
of CAN is not needed
Conceived in 1998
Consortium members include: Audi, BMW, Motorola, DaimlerChrysler, VW
and Volvo (plus tool maker ICT and Motorola semiconductor)
Open source (i.e. - no license)
Typical applications: smart sensors, actuators or illumination in vehicles e.g.
door control, steering wheel, seats, climate regulation, lighting and rain
sensors
Also used in machine control as a sub-bus for CAN in industrial applications
www.lin-subbus.org
Automotive Busses Training 7
LIN Applications
Automotive Busses Training 8
Entertainment and Driver Information Systems
• Media Orientated System Transport (MOST)
– Designed for relatively low cost high-speed multimedia applications
– Optimized fir use with low cost plastic optical fibre and supports data rate >24.8 Mbps
– Ease of Use
http://www.mostnet.de/
• Simple connectors
• Plug-n-Play – Self identifying devices & scalable
– Wide Application Range
• Supports synchronous and asynchronous data transfer
• Supports multiple masters
• Supports up to 64 devices
– Robust
• High degree of data integrity
– Endorsed by: BMW, DaimlerChrysler, Harman/Becker and OASIS SiliconSystems
– Implemented in telematics units from Motorola for use in BMW and Audi cars
– MOST network used by Harman Becker in BMW 7 series
Automotive Busses Training 9
MOST Automotive
Applications
Automotive Busses Training 10
In-Car Network - Overview
CAN
LIN
MOST
Automotive Busses Training 11
Entertainment and Driver Information Systems
• Bluetooth
– Short range
• Up to 10 meters typically
– Modest performance (721Kbps)
– Dynamic configurability
• i.e. ad hoc networking/roaming
– Low power
• Well suited to handheld applications
– Support for both voice and data
– Chrysler group uses Bluetooth to connect cell phone to in-car multimedia system
– Advantages
•
Easy upgrade of in-car accessories without disturbing wiring or internal fittings,
– Disadvantages
• Concerns over security of silicon supply over the life of the vehicle, reliability of software and
hardware over and above other Bluetooth applications, ability to work in a noisy electrical
environment and extended temperatures, specific automotive features are ‘still in development’
Automotive Busses Training 12
Bluetooth On the Road
Car Audio System
PDA
Cell Phone
Headset
Pay Phone
& Access Point
MP3
Player
Laptop
Automotive Busses Training 13
Hotel Phone
& Access Point
Entertainment and Driver Information Systems
• D2B (Digital Data Bus)
– Unshielded twisted pair (Smartwire) and Optical data bus for data and control information
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
between in-car multimedia products
Open system architecture – so extra devices can be added to the network simply and
easily
Can be used for OEM or aftermarket products
Data through put of up to 11.2 Mbps
Domestic ‘infotainment’ bus introduced in passenger cars by Mercedes-Benz
Semiconductor devices (Physical layer and transceiver) produced by C & C Electronics in
the UK (JV of Matsushita & Philips www.candc.co.uk)
Over 6 million nodes in vehicles world wide, users include Mercedes Benz, Jaguar, Yazaki,
Visteon, Nokia, Blaupunkt, Denso, Temic and Delphi Advantages: Is already being used in
production vehicles (proven technology), can be optical and twisted pair and is easily
added to
Advantages: Self adapting on start up to what ever is on the network (so new devices can
be added at any stage), will be backwards compatible, one wire only (so reliable, fewer
external components/connectors and reduced system weight)
Disadvantages: Semiconductor support is limited
http://www.candc.co.uk/
Automotive Busses Training 14
Advanced Safety Systems
• FlexRay
– FlexRay is a communication system that will support the needs of
future in-car control application with speeds up to 10Mbps
– Key consortium members: BMW, DaimlerChrysler, Motorola, Philips
–
–
–
–
–
Semiconductors, Bosch and GM , associate members include: Ford,
Fiat and Mazda (Audi and VW have also been considering FlexRay)
One of the many Time Triggered Protocols but is not yet fully verified
Suits different applications: X-by-wire, power train, next generation
engine control and other high speed communication applications
Complements CAN, LIN and MOST
Supports redundancy and fault tolerant distributed clock
synchronisation
Allows synchronous and asychronous data transmission
http://www.flexray.com/index.php
Automotive Busses Training 15
Advanced Safety Systems
• Time Triggered Protocols (TTP)
– TTA Group is the governing body : www.ttchip.com
– Xilinx Joined TTA consortium 29/8/02, members include: Audi, PSA, Renault,
–
–
–
–
NEC, TTChip, Delphi & Visteon
Used in safety critical parts first e.g. X-by-wire and it is envisaged that it will
eventually works it way into traditional CAN type applications
Mature network solution: Silicon since 1998
2nd generation silicon supports speeds up to 25 Mbits/s
Advantages
•
•
•
•
•
Already used and proven in aerospace and train applications
Fault tolerant
Time triggered vs. event triggered
Real time operation (fast)
TTA IP is free of charge
– Disadvantages
• Limited silicon support
Automotive Busses Training 16
From the Lab to the Road Multimedia Platform Design
Prototype
• Develop system
• Integrate functionality /
new standards
• Evaluate operation
Automotive Busses Training 17
Production
• Flexible and field
•
•
•
•
upgradeable
Single platform, multiple
manufacturing variations
Customized look & feel
New features, functions
Requires extended
temperature operation
Car Multimedia System
32-bit CPU
SDRAM
SDRAM
RF
Tuner
External
Controls
Speakers
DVD
AC97
Codec
Drive
Unit
Automotive Busses Training 18
Processor Interface
TFT LCD
DDR Memory
Controller
VGA Controller
Filtering &
Formatting
PCI Bridge
MOST Entertainment
User Interface
CAN 2.0B
Controller
Body
Electronics
AC 97 I/F
PCMCIA
ATAPI / IDE
Discrete CLK
Logic DLLs
Network
Plug-in Card
Automotive IP Cores
Automotive Specific
CAN (Controller Area Network)
• Memec Design
Engine Management
• CAST
• Zionix
• Zylon
• Robert Bosch
LIN (Local Interconnect Network)
•Intelliga (Plus LIN to CAN bridge)
Microprocessor and Peripheral
Microprocessor
Peripherals
•FIR filters, DA FIR, FFTs, MAC, Sine Cosine, etc.
Base arithmetic functions
•Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Division, Square-root
Memory functions
•Asynchronous FIFOs, Synchronous FIFOs,
•Block memory modules, Frame Buffers, CAMs,
•Shift-Registers, Flip-Flops
Basic logic functions
•Gate modules, multiplexers, decoders, accumulators,
•comparators, counters
Compression
•DCT/IDCT, Motion Compensation/Estimation
•DWT
•MPEG-4, MPEG-2, JPEG2000 CODEC
• UART, SPI, Timers, DMAs
Memory Controllers
•SRAM: ZBT, QDR
•SDRAM: SDRAM, DDR
•Flash: CompactFlash, MMC, SD Card, MemoryStick,IDE
•PCI, PCI-X, CAN, Rapid I/O
DSP functions
Encoding/Decoding
• 8, 16, 32-bit soft processors
System Interfaces
DSP
Color Space Conversion
•RGB2YCrCb, YCrCb2RGB, RGB2YUV, YUV2RGB, etc.
Forward Error Correction
•Reed-Solomon, Viterbi, Convolutional
Encryption/Decryption
AES (Rijndael), DES, TDES, RSA, MD5, Blowfish, SHA
http://www.xilinx.com/ipcenter
Automotive Busses Training 19
, etc.
Soft Processor IP Cores
• Soft processor cores can be ‘owned’ by the customer
and used across many projects – never going obsolete!
• Peripheral can be added to make up only the functions
that are required – no wasted peripherals or logic gates!
• Code and peripheral ‘banks’ can be built up and used
across many projects over time
• Legacy code is not wasted saving time and money
http://www.xilinx.com/ProcessorCentral
Automotive Busses Training 20
< $8
The FPGA and CPLD Automotive
Solutions Landscape World’s Lowest
Cost FPGA
CPLDs
Starting < $1
$0.50
System Gates
6.4 K
Automotive Busses Training 21
Device Family Features
FPGAs
Starting @ $2.55
Design Complexity
Cost per Functional Block ($)
Wireless Baseband
Video Processing
MP-3 Codec
IEEE1394, USB2.0
32-bit µ P (MicroBlaze)
Display Controller (VGA)
Content Protection
Error Correction
10/100 Ethernet MAC
FlexRay Controller
CAN 2.0B Controller
Encryption (AES, TDES)
PCI, Cardbus
MMC/SD Card I/F
Memory Controller
PCMCIA, CF, IDE I/F
Smart Card Controller
8-bit µC (PicoBlaze)
LED, Keypad Controller
UART, I2C, SPI, PWM
Glue Logic, ASIC Fix
12K 40K 200K
Max Family Density
600K
5000K
CarCube™ – A Programmable
Telematics Platform
The Xingu Architecture
Next Platform
More functionality
Lower Cost
Customize Software
Customize Hardware
HMI
Voice Recognition
Video Codecs
Etc.
Support various
• Peripherals
• Car Bus Connectivity
• Memories (Flash,
SRAM, SDRAM
• Displays
Hardware Acceleration
DSP for SDRs
More Info: www.xilinx.com/esp/reference_boards
Automotive Busses Training 22
Zionix FPGA Engine Management Solutions
Spartan-3 with Zionix Engine Management IP
DRAM
Controller
Flash
Controller
Inte rrupt
Controlle r
MicroBlaze
Soft
Processor
Core
with
Instruction /
Data
Cache
UART
SPI
GPIO
J1850 /
ISO-9141
CAN
ADC
Controlle r
On-Chip Peripheral Bus (OPB)
Zionix Engine Manage ment Bus (ZEM B)
Engine
Position
Tracking
Crank Cam
Port /
Dire
Port
/ ct
Port
/Fuel
Direct
Injection
Port
/Fue
Dire
ct l
DireFue
ct lction
Inje
Fue
Inje lction
Inje ction
Pe ak Hold
Spark
Spark
Spark
Spark
Spark
Currently Av ailable from Zionix
Currently Av ailable from Xilinx
Unde r De ve lopme nt by Zionix
**Custom IP Av ailable from Zionix**
Automotive Busses Training 23
Knock
De te ction
Position
Position
Trigge rs
Triggers
Position
Position
Trigge rs
Trigge rs
Trigger
PWM
PWM
PWM
PWM
PWM
Spe ed
Spe
ed
Measure
Meed
asure
Spe
Spe
Meed
asure
Me asure
Spee d
Quad
Decode
A
B
Z
Contact Zionix - 210.269.4667 - [email protected]
San Antonio, TX USA
Conclusion
• There are numerous emerging in-car bussing
systems meeting different connectivity needs and
speeds
• OEMs are backing many standards to reduce
risks
• Reconfigurable electronics modules could help
reduce risks further – in design and right through
to production and beyond
Automotive Busses Training 24
`