Document 218413

THE
BIBLE
AND
HOW
REV.
TO
READ
Genesis
I.
URQUHART.
AUTHOR
The
Biblical
New
"Modern
The
and
OF
"
"
;
Discoveries
Inspiration
Member
Guide
and
of
the
Accuracy
Society of
Associate
IX.
"
JOHN
IT.
of
The
What
the
and
of
are
the
we
to
Believe?
Bible;'''
Holy
Scriptures ;"
Biblical
Archceology
Victoria
Institute.
,
XonDon:
MARSHALL
BROTHERS,
lo,
"
Paternoster
Row,
E.G.
"""
E.
The
Goodman
and
Phcenix
Son,
Printing
Works,
Taunton.
CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTORY.
THE
BOOK
OF
GENESIS"
pages
1"2.
THE
PLAN
OF
GENESIS"
pages
3"5.
SECTION
I.
BEGINNING.
THE
GENESIS
CHAPTER
Contents
The
The
5
History
Genesis
It
the
teaches
same
life upon
the
and
i. has
the
Gunkel's
the
of
earth
taught
entire
matter,
is due
objections,
of
that
to
"
the
the
matter
material
21
History.
Scientific?
History
non-eternity
always
that
kind
Herr
3.
II.
Creation
and
Driver's
Dr.
II.
II.
"
CHAPTER
the
Creation
"
Pages
Is
i"
I.
Section
the
of
I.
It
11
has
been
creative
act
of
created,
been
has
that
Creation
universe,
physical
universe
teaches
The
"
the
God,
made
presence
25.
13
17
"
"
of
of
Contents.
iv.
CHAPTER
III.
Darwinism
Paradise
and
Huxley
Lost, 31
of
foundations
The
Genesis.
and
Misleading statements,
"
Darwinism,
33
unlimited, 38
of
Law
held
Selection
Natural
Has
(3)The
"
its
foundations
endless, 37
disappeared,36" (i)Variabilitynot
not
The
"
Heredity
place ?
48
(2) The
"
of
trace
"
have
mistake,
a
No
"
32
time
44
"
(4)
ment,
develop-
58.
CHAPTER
The
This
World
to
as
which
the
to
Professor
and
Created
was
opposed
IV.
i.
Genesis
of
thought
Huxley
Stages.
antiquity,60"
Genesis
on
ii. 3 and
"
Successive
in
i.,62
science
stone
Glad-
Mr.
Seventeen
"
points
in agreement,
are
62-
64.
CHAPTER.
The
The
Babylonian
explanation,65
the
by
The
"
the
Creation.
of
Cosmogonic
"
day," 64
of
Scripture uses
History
Creation
defined
Days
V.
in
the
Scripture,72
Two
"
and
"evening"
of
sense
The
The
and
Earth
the
of
bodies
was
CHAPTER
The
Creation
The
in
of
"
place,"93
one
of
Creation
earth
dry
full
land
"
of animal
the
and
A
expanse,
87
life,
96
"
of
The
mandment;
Com-
of
Science.
with
a
a
unity, 76
fluid,79
"
The
"
troduction
in-
light,83.
VII.
with
period
of
that
Accord
water,
sense
fourth
the
constitute
creation
The
"
Its
"
in
73.
Accord
full
heavenly
force, 80
71
Used
"
VI.
in
of matter
first condition
"period,"
"morning,"
History
Creation
word, 67
objections:
CHAPTER
The
the
untenable
An
"
and
the
Science
The
"
(Continued).
separation
gathering of
vegetation previous
Creation
of the
the
in
seas
to the
our
into
duction
intro-
heavenly bodies,
Contents.
104
There
"
followed
was
of
were
114
The
by
period of
of
creation
iii
cattle, 115
A doctrine
which
work,
provided, 121
The
"
baffle
to
Trinity in
OF
IV.
habitation, 129
banishment
The
135
The
"
"
"
The
chapters in
the
"
The
and
there
"
I.
The
meaning
The
Garden
Paradise, 133
is become
as
"
Two
"
the
founded
style,147.
The
"
The
curse
the
The
"
for man's
Fall, 131
upon
us," 136
126
"
earth,
opening
"
upon
II.
Accounts
of
Creation
"documents,"
its inconsistencies, 140
Critical troubles, 143
from
Thol^doth,
prepared
130
of
one
of
story of humanity, 138.
critics and
argument
HEAVENS
26.
CHAPTER
Are
THE
of woman,
creation
from
man
"
7, 127
"
tion
explana-
An
"
Contents.
battle, 125
is told in ii. 4
^What
"
EARTH.
CHAPTER
"
117
122.
man,
THE
The
man,
life,
II.
II. 4"
great critical
thought, 120
OF
AND
of
bird
Man.
in
GENERATIONS
A
creation
Reptiles
118.
SECTION
THE
of
This
"
VIII.
Trinity
appears
of the
Some
"
The
"
life,106
introduction
CHAPTER
The
animal
108
The
"
of the creative
cessation
marine
Reptile Period,
a
huge dimensions,
The
"
first a
was
v.
One
"
The
139
"
in
Dillmann's
alleged two
critical blunder
language, 146
"
scheme
accounts,
corrected, 145
Dr.
Driver's
?
Genesis
142
"
"
The
argument
vi.
Contents.
CHAPTER
The
The
change
150
They
in the
The
"
Divine
Divine
of
meaning
Names.
name,
149
Confessed
"
Elohim,
always regarded
were
III.
as
151
words
of
"
critical
Jehovah,
takes,
mis152
"
differingin signification,
154CHAPTER
The
universe
The
the
Fall, 158
the
160
statements,
of
Primitive
"
Narrative.
the
for man,
made
of
History
Truth
IV.
156
Science
"
rejection
opposed
not
neither
man
Driver's
Dr.
"
to
semi-ape nor
a
the
a
of
Bible
savage,
162.
SECTION
"THE
BOOK
III.
THE
OF
GENERATIONS
OF
ADAM."
V.
I"
VI.
8.
CHAPTER
The
The
simplicityof
character
169
"
of
story
The
the
of the
the
Contents.
Selections,
Divine
critical division
Patriarchal
"giants"
I.
of Genesis, 166
religion,168
(nephilim),171
Enoch's
reform,
to
heritageof
the
man,
"
The
record
evolutionists,176
177.
"
"
The
120
"
"
The
alleged
The
spiritual
Sons
of God,"
years,"
173.
II.
Translation
175
"
The
"
CHAPTER
The
165
"
of
Enoch.
of
Enoch's
Belief
in
translation
concerting
dis-
immortality the
vii.
Contents.
III.
CHAPTER
The
Driver
Dr.
Longevity
aside
sets
the
Scripture statements,
rejectionof them, 178
mann's
life not
impossible,179
Patriarchs.
the
of
Such
"
OF
IX
9"
The
generations,"186
the
192
ark,"
waters,
the
earth's
"
The
the
the
CHAPTER
Some
The
200
arrestingof
Dr.
"
Drivers
between
J
unclean
the
Incidents
and
animals
cloud,
ark, 198
note
P,
202
known
The
"
208
"
the
201
ancient
the
Curse
home
prophecy,
Why
"nests
in
flood,
of
abating
the
Narrative.
the
Mistaken
"
the
dates,
distinctions
between
peoples,204
clean
The
"
and
bow
in
205.
Noah's
evident
The
"
his
The
"
consistency of
The
"
CHAPTER
Armenia
ark, 190
distinction
to the
The
in
ark, 196.
in
vii. 3,
on
Perfect
II.
Recorded
the
the
saved, 193
from
passing out
"
"
corruption, 187"
to enter
of
preparedness
195
Sections, 184
command
The
188-
The
"
The
"
I.
Contents,
of
completeness
NOAH.
29.
CHAPTER
The
human
IV.
GENERATIONS
VI.
of
Dill-
"
researches, 180.
SECTION
THE
extension
an
Weismann's
"
177
207
burden
of
"
What
was
III.
and
the
Blessing.
vine, 206
was
"
Noah's
threatened
laid upon
Canaan,
by
209
words
Ham's
"
The
an
sin,
pro-
viii.
Contents.
fulfilled
phecy
of
Elohim
the
Shem,
in
dwelling
in
subjection
The
211
Canaan,
of
Shem,
there
of
vi.
contention
The
admissions,
of
knowledge
what
told
is
"documents"
The
criticism,
by
J,
Are
vi,
The
alleged
vii.
and
i
"
5,
229
vii.
"
ix.
7
29?
vi.
"
9
by
The
241
diflQculties,
geological
Recent
"
discovery,
240"
and
vii.
the
244.
Flood
and
5"8
vi.
13
9
Genesis
in
"
13,226
16, 233
"
vi.
"
18
"
The
theory
"
tablets,
Babylonian
22
of
237.
VI.
Deluge
How
J,
(Continued).
CHAPTER
The
to
22''.
the
of
"
repetitions,
disproved
"documents"
9
assigned
parts
a
V.
Accounts
two
there
parts
implies
P
"
"
CHAPTER
The
"
218
independent,
not
"
"
215
The
219
Dillmann's
213
independent,
not
"
Genesis
in
disagreements,
P
217
his
and
?
29
higher
"
P,
to
the
Flood
the
ix.
9"
Critical
214
assigned
221
of
Japheth,
IV.
Accounts
two
of
Jehovah-
211.
CHAPTER
Are
The
210"
enlargement
"
tabernacles
the
of
a
did
testimony,
the
Fact,
predatory
242
Recent
"
animals
live
Babylonian
?
READ
TO
HOW
place assigned
THE
of
we
understand
is to
awake
a
know
be
have
we
the
to
do.
Scripture,
into
reveal.
the
We
in
mark
how
after
another
how
the
God
which
science
made
spectators
and
of
wasteness
by
furnished,
another,
crown
the
beneficent
the
is
of
the
till
can
which
of
words
man
work.
and
of
the
creation
of
behold
our
emptiness.
We
added
one
are
of
how
is created
Thus
wholly
bosom
universe
hand
look
out-
the
We
and
of
end
never
of
earth.
the
glories
first
from
are
primeval
the
clear, comprehensive
spring
earth
to
a
time
the
life succeeds
have
past
We
its
these
are.
with
and
here, in
must
we
and
us,
shall
we
what
source
whole
duty
then
and
the
If
hear
to
our
of
resolve,
around
are
if
call
the
education
are
we
and
;
come,
also
we
see
heavens
world
we
And
that
eternity.
of
whence
which
things
duty
ardent
understand
must
those
of
response
of
if
;
the
beginning.
its
by
that
strung
so
clearly
We
call
in
Bible
the
destiny
our
the
distinctness
being
to
GENESIS.
is illustrated
race
our
to
are
with
OF
BOOK
THE
BIBLE.
THE
we
the
Creator
one
form
in the
;
of
image
understand
B
The
2
the
universe.
we
live,
had
We
and
Whom
such
some
than
kings
of
achieving.
It
has
other
no
revealed
have
the
looked
which
away
and
light
the
we
see
The
seen
nothing
glory
of
light.
has
the
Bible.
we
a
God
carry
It
reveals.
words
of
perfectness
has
God
lifted
been
This
erase.
might
dreamed
ever
has
to
up
they
approached.
and
can
men
simple
with
vail
;
lift
few
done
Him
themselves.
have
been
hand
and
these
literature
of
which
of
have
trust.
to
and
whom
We
Love
we
from
in
us
past.
and
written
world
for
more
the
which
been
the
being.
Whom
in
in
God,
our
Power
ground,
of
something
know
we
have
and
have
Genesis.
:
the
vantage
done
more
of
books
Many
of
and
move,
worship,
we
has
do
disclosure
a
see
Book
:
impressions
is
the
In
work
God's
we
PLAN
THE
this
read
TO
natural
great,
first
that
chapters.
*
story of
Beginning."
of which
each
of."
It
bears
will
be
of
understanding
off in their
where
1.
THE
2.
THE
us
section
are
no
means
"
follow
as
;
the
THE
BOOK
OF
THE
GENERATIONS
...
THE
GENERATIONS
...
Chapters
OF
Chapter
See
the
introductory
i.
These
ii. 3.
i"
HEAVENS
volume
ii. 4
iv. 26.
"
v.
OF
vi. 8.
I"
vi. 9
ix. 29.
"
THE
OF
NOAH
6.
lines,
NOAH
OF
GENERATIONS
THE
begins.
the
mark
GENERATIONS
Chapters
5.
to
EARTH
Chapters
THE
divisions,
will
THE
OF
ADAM
4.
the
"
Generations
readers
next
Chapters
3.
all, an
firmly, drawn
Chapters
THE
of
slight help
a
eleven
History
ten
it is
"
GENERATIONS
OF
first
The
:
if the
and
ends
in
arranged
follow
heading
BEGINNING
AND
Then
Book
rightly
Creation
the
the
Bible
have,
Bibles, by neatly, but
one
divisions
by
it is
the
giving
The
the
We
Introduction,
"
GENESIS.
of
Book
notice
to
necessary
OF
x.
SONS
i
OF
xi. 9.
"
SHEM
xi.
10
Brothers,
(3s. 6d., Marshall
London),
pp.
195-200.
"
10,
26.
Paternoster
Row,
The
4
7. THE
Plan of Genesis.
GENERATIONS
TERAH
OF
xi. 27
Chapters
8. THE
THE
9.
OF
GENERATIONS
xxv.
OF
ISAAC
Chapters
THE
10.
GENERATIONS
OF
THE
GENERATIONS
word
OF
study.
the
"How
ordinary
Notes
a
and
xxxvi.
dictionary,fails
to
introduction
to
grasp
the
the
see
is
a
disclosure
Bible
the
As
for the
to
a
student, is
not
to
He
overwhelmed
the
has
What
trees.
object
of
and
reading ;
essential
proverb
tionary,
dic-
A
as
tive,
attrac-
who
wants
by
the
cannot
reallyneeds,
Book,
and
clear, and, therefore, easily understood, outline
the
course
of
this will be my
has
certain
thus
thought.
constant
been
questions to
furnish
To
aim.
ask.
the
But, when
explained,the
There
reader
are
a
as
tude
multi-
a
it,he
he
a
say
Genesis, for example,
and
of
be, in
student.
as
easy,
26.
l.
"
not, in the first
Scripture.
of
Book
of
an
i.
commentary.
a
would
quite
the
to
details.
wood
term,
2
will not
for continuous
form
whole, is disheartened
of
the
though
commentary,
xxxvii.
"
method
our
indispensableaid
an
adapted
means
to
as
Bible"
the
20.
xxxv.
"
i
xxxvii.
the
words
helpfulto
though
no
of
sense
verses
upon
instance, be
by
Read
to
ig
JACOB
here
said
be
fitly
may
18.
"
ESAU
Chapters
A
12
xxv.
Chapters
11.
11.
ISHMAEL
Chapter
GENERATIONS
xxv.
"
a
of
reader
with
the
ture
Scrip-
will have
parts of the
Plan of Genesis.
The
narrative
others
some
thrown
brief
few
I
been
portions,
furnish
to
been
of
repliesin
explanationof
explanation of
will,
the
a
the
text,
frequently
that
on
valuable
most
our
will
Hebrew
these
differ from
sometimes
have
the Word
upon
main
the
from
that
and
given,
are
given.
literal translations
be
the
that, in the
add
may
other
are
present attack
chapters,after
has
section
There
queries I hope
these
There
investigation has
recent
light.
of in the
To
God.
linger.
to
which
or
present difficulties,
again,which
use
desires
which
upon
welcome
made
he
which
on
5
account,
Authorised
Version.
BEGINNING.
THE
(Gen. i. i
ii. 3.)
"
CHAPTER
The
Contents
Section
the
of
I.
The
"
Creation
History.
WE
other
struck, at the outset, by
are
literature.
the past and
as
the
a
small
words
skill,are
Scripture from
distinguishesthe
which
The
Bible
the future
window
of the
put
into
:
does
not
it makes
us
suffices to reveal
Scripture,chosen
small
characteristic
a
compass.
merely
see
a
all
describe
them.
And
largeprospect,
with
We
marvellous
mark
this
THE
Genesis"
6
BEGINNING"
characteristic
here, as well
those
pages.
sacred
of
and
the
mankind
again :
it
words
there
within
it
deep,
and
face
All
The
As
earth
its
was
existence
The
?
also.
question
Its
it,and
of
there
God
was
face
the
upon
Spirit
ness
empti-
and
wasteness
moving
in blackness
; but
no
of
life
the
the
upon
there
Spiritof
The
now
fall upon
the ear,
; and
ask
we
:
its present, condition
there
primal waste
good.
of
this abode
was
into
this
darkness
words
reply,that
was
heavens
the
God
hope.
was
moving
was
face of the waters.
and
first,
to
God
light.
And
six
were
?
great
of
God
are
told,in
from
steps
that
beauty.
light:
said, Let
And
lay between
We
and
of the
think
we
What
the present fulness
creation
And
condition
life upon
there.
it is
i. The
did these
waters.
was
these
as
created
was
no
wrapped
the
God
what
earth
the
the
of
Lord
upon
as
"
:
first called
and
"
was
ask
We
whence
"
world,
our
:
the
"
the first
anticipated
are
And
In
was
has
Scripture
next
of
earth.
when
ours,
already noticed,
universe.
answer
beginning
the
ask
from
is the
the
and
material
asked
Here
In
We
entire
has
?
come
been
spectators of the advent
made
are
we
everywhere throughout
as
has
As
I." II. 3.
God
there
saw
divided
be
the
between
light, and
light
that
the
there
it
was
light and
The
between
And
Days'Work.
darkness.
the
light Day,
Six
the
and
evening
And
God
darkness
called
called
He
morning
and
was
7
was
the
Night.
Day
"
one
(verses3-5).
That
Light
is the
way
The
revealed.
is
ii. The
And
God
of
under
the
were
above
God
called
was
and
Here
desolate
the
are
and
namely,
"
of
expanse
our
iii. The
with
and
it
"Day
as
the
version
of
has
dry land
rendered
is
now
the universe
consider.
the
"
ancient
"
both
Hebrew
is
while
Mean-
two
Jonathan,
the
was
parts. What
translations
of
meaning
evening
which
mass
that
Jewish-Chaldee
And
so.
(verses6-8).
into two
note
were
which
was
two
fluid
the
made
And
shall afterwards
and
the
waters
primal historyof
Onkelos
it divide
which
Heaven.
that the
interestingto
in
God
in the
"
which
told
was
let
the
:
expanse
expanse
an
is divided
the
"
see,
waters
from
expanse
indicated, we
Targums
by-and-bye
empty
physicalfact
it is
the
And
the
expanse
morning
we
bare, and
be
and
waters.
divided
the
ness
empti-
:
there
waters,
the
and
expanse,
here
the
from
waters
shall
firmament
said, Let
midst
and
is made
we
work.
is to follow.
of the
making
Divine
wasteness
need
being prepared,as
for all the life which
the
the
forth, and
streams
are
of the
commencement
those,
give
word,
firmament."
formed, and
is clothed
vegetation :
And
God
said, Let
the
waters
be
gathered
Genesis"
8
from
THE
under
let
the
God
the
dry
that
the
it
earth
become
:
and
forth
tender
it
after
was
iv. We
God
expanse
of
day
and
the
and
for
them
to
light
and
lights
the
made
And
rule
over
divide
the
the
and
saw
after
its
seed
is
that
saw
and
it
morning
divide
between
for
days
years;
and
of
heaven
and
them
and
day
the
that
morning
was
was
"
and
good.
earth,
four
And
the
smaller
expanse
the
let
so.
made)
night,
the
Day
the
the
the
was
lights,
(He
in
over
light
it
it
and
day,
signs
for
the
and
:
great
;
the
and
two
night
the
be
earth
the
in
them
expanse
the
heavenly
lights
let
set
of the
be
give light upon
between
God
the
:
and
rule
to
to
after
brought
whose
was
to
the
God
heaven
herb
upon
seed
God
there
in the
upon
rule
to
earth
creation
Let
night,
light
stars.
was
for
God
greater
the
heaven
the
give light
And
and
said.
seasons
be
the
(verses9-13).
their arrangement
And
the
and
Let
fruit
itself
fruit
saw
grass,
bearing
kind:
witness
now
bodies,and
herb
evening
three
Day
"
its
said,
in
be
And
so.
And
good.
will
ing
gather-
God
producing
producing
tree
itself
was
was
grass,
kind, and
in
seed
the
tender
fruit-tree
whose
earth
with
green
seed,
kind,
God
And
so.
and
Seas,
And
good.
was
was
and
Earth,
called
he
it
and
place,
one
and
;
land
dry
waters
yielding
its
appear
the
I." 11. 3.
into
heaven
land
called
of
BEGINNING"
and
and
the
of
to
to
darkness
:
evening
(verses14-19).
Genesis"
lo
THE
for its destined
And
guests
God
living
BEGINNING"
its
wild
the
kind, and
and
according
heaven,
the
every
the
earth.
earth, and
the
of
a
food
;
and
to
fowl
every
living
was
had
is
every
tree
seed
the
heaven,
the
upon
made,
And
God
green
the
saw
and, behold, it
thing,
all
of
is the
fruit
shall
be
for
earth,
and
to
to
thing
every
which
herb
the
said.
face
it
you
earth
and
green
the
and
master
God
which
of
beast
soul, every
so.
to
ful
fruit-
living thing
every
in
God
Be
sea
And
upon
every
of
creepeth
that
which
him,
And
every
you
His
He
them,
earth.
to
upon
in
man
the
of
earth,
creepeth
to
of
the
yielding
tree
all the
earth, and
and
given
seed
yielding
fish
upon
I have
Behold
He
the
moveth
which
said
them
fowl
the
them.
He
it
man
let
created
fill the
and
that
and
and
God
God
heaven,
the
of
of
kind,
make
us
that
to
ground
saw
created
created
; and
God
sea,
thing
the
upon
cattle, and
image
subdue
it, and
the
God
multiply
and
it
the
them
blessed
fowl
and
female
and
male
of
the
in
image,
fish
God
their
to
likeness,
our
And
cording
ac-
according
said. Let
God
And
earth
and
:
earth,
so.
according
kind
creeping
and
the
the
cattle, and
the
was
creepeth
after
the
subdue
that
And
image
our
of
cattle
its
to
good.
in
a
the
of
beast
it
forth
bring
its kind,
to
And
beast
thing
every
was
kind.
occupied :
gloriously
earth
wild
and
their
to
the
according
creeping thing,
made
is at last
"
said, Let
creature
I." II. 3.
for
has
food
in
:
and
everything
which
good
exceed-
was
it
The
And
ingly.
six
Day
concerned,
the
followed
of
evening
story does
also with
and
was
II
morning
was
"
These
Creator.
God
hands.
own
rejoicesin
them.
followed
creation, but
stages
were
forgetthe
not
live
times
the time
the
six great
does
They
The
by
with
only
not
there; for the Scripture
end
not
another.
by
His
Days'Work.
(verses24-31).
vii. The
is
Six
before
Him
of creation
of Divine
work
are,
He
:
fore,
there-
satisfaction
and
rest.
the
And
heavens
all their
and
by
had
made
the
;
from
all
God
blessed
His
He
rested
which
the
seventh
on
which
had
it He
He
for
created
Creation
THE
reply given
THEfashionable
the older
with
so
infidelity.It
the writers
history nor
Genesis.
Dr.
had
made.
of this
science
in
Driver, in
He
day
And
hallowed
and
all
His
work
(ii.1-3).
the
Scientific?
above
of
the
question by the
time
points besides,the
many
pleted
com-
II.
criticism
this,as in
seventh
making
pleted
com-
which
the
from
History
to
had
work
day
rested
were
God
His
on
CHAPTER
Is
earth
And
day
work
it, because
God
host.
seventh
and
the
and
has
become
school
the
his
that
a
endorses
in
contentions
of
common-place
there
first eleven
is neither
chapters of
volume
recently-published
THE
Genesis"
12
BEGINNING"
on
Genesis, makes
the
growing
into
shall
conviction
call
again
italics
is at variance
with
it cannot,
and
scientific.
It
is
scientific
an
by science."^
narrative
believed
in
as
mentioned, however, that
with
Sir
J.
held
of their
character
dice
preju-
revealed, then
to, be
of whom
their
the
i. creates
If the
own.
not
I
said, only-
without
reaches
geologist,
no
teachers
record
Read
of Genesis
be
to
contending
positionsas
on
ought
Dana, both
Professor
been
facts," however
"
ought
Driver, who
after
put
it
has
of
chapter
attention) with
all that
Driver's
come
(to which
with the factsrevealed
Dr.
are
first
his remarks
narrative
variance
impression at
the
reader's
crush
to
geology has
recent
be drawn.
can
II. 3.
attempt
with
"From
bias, the
or
Dr.
the
:
conclusion
The
that
concludes
he
; and
following words
one
determined
a
strikingagreement
Genesis
L"
of the
the very
science, and
Creation
and
Dawson
W.
highest
who
belief
profound
most
this conclusion
have
in
History
the
of the
Bible.
is the
This
higher criticism
the
supposed
existed
made
;
with
the
the
earth
concludes
scientific
higher than
of the
statement
he
that
the
was
history of
of its
the
Israel's
the
stars
That
nothing
than
Jewish literature)conveys
the
ignorant speculations or
"
Page
26.
t Genesis
not
is,the
fellow-critics
is to
merely
his
"
this
and
were
was
Scripture (for
better
at
acquaintance
world
neighbours."t
him
smiles
Gunkel
Scripture that vegetation
before
that
of the
first,word
this matter.
upon
upon
and
it
latest,as
fancies
iibersetzt,"c., p. ii6.
to
us
of that
Genesis and
in which
far-off time
of
Word
God, the
this
the
of which
here
elsewhere
and
statements,
erroneous
crude
or
standpointof
inevitable.
absolute
Bible
The
is the
revealed
conclusion
continuation
proceed
I. The
When
its message,
heavens
History of
the universe
the
and
"
In
"beginning," the
the
upon
the
is rendered
the
Bible
form
sun,
the result
the
and
moon,
material
was,
exercise
of
escaped
has
beginning God
always
of
the
created
universe
whatever.
had
For, without
of the
meaning
merely
possible.
im-
opening words
Hebrew
the
word
work
material
stars
were
out
barah,
a
the
Power.
in existence
It
was
to
read
we
act, there
which
"
mere
isted
ex-
earth,
ultimatelyformed.
therefore,not
Creative
of
insisting
for
of the first creative
ence
exist-
no
not
was
re-arrangingof pre-existingmaterial;
as
be
cannot
in the
material
create," it is plain that
that,
struction
"recon-
earth," it clearly
impliesthat,before
the
in any
His
that
is not eternal.
Scripture says,
that
of man;
sacrilege;and
a
critic's work
is
show.
to
Creation
taught that
this
the
the
with
And
is arrested.
becomes
the
on
first at
word
mere
of God.
Word
us
conclusion
one
that this conclusion
And
now
is not the
Bible"
of
then
:
the critic's hand
of the
I
truth
give
not
the
to
that
proved
does
from
It
of the
fancies,but,
contrary, has placed its readers
but
if it is
3
the
take, and
to
if this contention
successfullyrepelled;
Scripture
is not
gives Hght.
criticism
higher
position. For,
critics is
1
written, and
was
entrance
is essential for the
keep,
it
Criticism.
That
before
this
brought
into
Genesis"
14
being by
THE
the act
BEGINNING"
of the Creator
time
a
when
this is teachingwhich
Now
to
ancient
of
boasting itself to
flourished
said
that
of the
and
gods,
shall
ever
by
nor
be,
man
in due
self-enkindled,and
absolute
taught the
he
said, perished, but
somewhat
later, believed
which
intelligence
; but
was
this Power
which
a
filled with
combined
now
it
know
but
;
that
due
were
five years
that
these
their
361
who
lived
the matter
B.C.,
the
in
presented
infinite space
of atoms,
which
universe
had
atoms
as
we
been
not
ever-changingarrangements
chance."
This
expression in
the
the birth
extinguishbelief
of Democritus,
of
in creation.
Epicurus, and
and
latter
theory
works
Lord.
our
He
of
the
Leucippus,
to believe
that
is eternal.
that
Creation
to
was
tried to
He
adopted
accomplishments
countrymen
matter
present
always been
that
formed
"
measure
poet-philosopherLucretius, about fifty-
before
all his powers
had
died
and
to
its supreme
great Roman
taught that
he
arranged
even
is,
Arranging Power,
An
infinite number
an
together
created, and
found
in
maintained
He
theory.
new
was
had
and
Individuals,
nature.
Anaxagoras,
Democritus, who
existence.
it was,
due
one
any
(that is, the
nature
is eternal.
system)
by
B.C.,
self-extinguished."
measure
of
vitality
He
material
that
encircling fire,in
an
century
neither
and
;
tired
never
Heraclitus,
of the sixth
made
was
is
Science."
the end
about
distinctly
opposed
as
be "Modern
the world
"
was
sequently,
con-
was,
non-existent.
was
it is to what
philosophy as
who
there
; and
it
even
I." II. 3.
the
and
theory
bent
get his fellowa
fancy,and
Genesis and
The
of
materialism
sacred
of
name
Materialism.
to-day, which
1
the
assumes
science, occupies the
5
position.
same
Haeckel, in his book, The Riddle of the C/mz;^rs^,
speaks
of
the
"
creation-mythof the
religions
.
the
he
what
The
illimitable."
This
his
names
is : The
second
infinite
"
"Theuniverse,
says:
and
eternal,infinite,
of
motion
unbroken
is in
runs
dissolution
in
life and
new
theorems."
their
(3)
an
as
rotating
destruction
and
springing
are
in other
development
and
the
others
space,
fills
"
infinite time
While
part of
one
is the first
motion";
eternal
towards
slowly move
That
of the universe
through
on
the cosmos,
or
cosmological
development
masses
into
"
substance
and
space,
Mahommedan
Mosaic, Christian, and
.
theologies";and
is
three great Mediterranean
quarters
of
the universe."*
This
by
is also the
other
position taken
materialists.
There
creation.
that these
was
Force
should
element
more
any
These
ago
;
time
never
when
to which
than
to
sight of
can
we
know
we
in
set
the
the
no
:
supposed
was
the
results
his
Advanced
"Again, where
result,the student
element
bounds
Time
:
an
in the past,
of its limit in the
periodphysicalresearch
The
of
future."
published nearly fiftyyears
were
but within this
strides.
it
supported by
unequal
lose
its existence
owe
of Geology,writes
seems
last words
immense
not
investigation. Page,
Students' Text Book
the
a
opinionswere
scientific
and
Matter, according to them, is
eternal, and, therefore, does
to
Biichner
by
result has been
*
Chapter
i.
the
has made
repudiation
Genesis"
i6
science
by
advanced
in its
the
both
deprived
will thus
dissipationof
energy
universe
We
it
is, it
rather
as
If this
lamp
it had
so
without
end.
had
Professor
*
Tait
of
in
"
a
writes
arrangement."
t
.
"All
:
In
another
portionsof
beautiful
reached
the
have
"We
beginning
to
such
"
end.
an
it
began
in time
these
Can
science," asks Sir J. W.
quotations
of the heavens
*
\ Recent
Advances
still
he
to
says,
of
the
will in time
the
clusion
con-
come
X
To
duration
previous
end
come
; and
derived
Immortality is,therefore,impossiblein
universe."
a
have
ning,
begin-
a
speaks
the
as
the
one,
thus,"
well
as
present visible universe, and
that
he
work
hence
assuredlyhave
conceivable
any
.
emphatically:
more
**
from
.
that
continue
so
thingsincapableof being
laws
by present
lamp.
a
burning, and
it will
but
conceive
might
especiallythat
of
state
upon
matter,
Dissipationof Energy, point unanimously to
to
if it
look
fact, as
might
is
lamp
beginning,as
a
itself,
beginning.
a
"
and
ever,
this
But
that
And
Skertchly,
alightwe
for
had
collection
a
not
were
science, and
our
have
energetic agent
existed
end."
an
as
show
brilliant,moving, living
also
must
not
an
have
must
the
indeed," says Mr.
may
system,
our
be
the radiation
of motion.
and
been
if left to
by-and-bye,
heat
to
had
upon
will
of
cease
which
Observations
name.
and
I." II.3.
statements
physicaluniverse
be
"
BEGINNING"
those
of
of heat
the
THE
The
I
may
and
Physical System
add
the
Dawson,
the earth
as
following:
"
regard
infinite ?
the
It
of the Universe, p. 370.
in Physical Science, Tp.26.
X The
Unseen
Universe, p. 128.
i8
Genesis"
now.
Verses
THE
BEGINNING"
and
i
record
2
creation
of matter;
the
six great successive
thus
created
This
distinction
tradition.
be
to
which
if matter
Now,
the
no
much
with
had
merely
question as
say
has
time
a
of
dissection
and
still smaller
pieces of
divided
matter
any
these
upper
and
under
has
been,
not
could
have
itselt
of matter.
party
small
not,
was
affirming that,
substance
must
that
come
they
at
could
maintaining,
particleof
surface,it must
as
in
smaller
obtained
we
and
itself with
or
was,
it
Can
concerned
busied
matter
further; others
an
What,
point ?
not
to
close
dis-
to
use.
science
last
contrary, that, as the smallest
an
expected
constitution
quantities,we
so
genius.
philosophicaltheories
whether
of any
be
or
when
had
which
hand, and
been,
that
professes
too,
historic
may
a
confused
or
it
one,
that
upon
exists.
insight and
for its destined
divisible; one
infinitely
our
and
"
matter
apprise us
Creator's
certain
to
of
than
Research
One
now
clearlywhat
fundamental
the
discussions.
the
to
was
reply.
given
which
once
created, it
matter
There
?
is
more
of the
science
tell whether
created
of
preparation
then, has
at
History;
was
imprint
some
We
narrative
the presence
the
blunderinglegend
no
Creation
a
"
reveals
bear
The
which
clearness
a
act
describe
3-31
verses
by
acts
reveals
dealingwith
are
great initial
the universe
became
masterly arrangement
we
the
while
the
I." II. 3.
last to
not
on
matter
be
the
has
be stillfurther
divisible.
But
we
have
Chemistry
and
left these
word-battles
PhysicalScience
have
far behind
laboured
us.
hard
has been Created.
Matter
this
at
There
of
out
which
and
made,
carried
of
up
all
form
consist
which
particles
minute
These
which
than
are
chemical
same
wonderful
more
planetaryuniverse.
our
substance
utterlyfrom
the
Sir
to be
The
of
Herschell
other
themselves
according to
constitution.
They
They
them
and
act
in
the
re-act
exact, mathematical,
rigorously
laid down
for them
wonderful
So
and
their
been
them
who
equally
Professor
"
have
touched
Tyndall,J
458.
The
presenceof
"are
Familiar
italics
and
I New
what
rule
creation.
the
mind."
beginning.
movements
to
f
have
atoms,"
Maxwell
the
relations
this theme
p. 80.
planted
im-
impossible not
Lectures, p. 456.
Sir John
capitals are
Fragments,
primary
fixed
These
"
being.
according to
upon
enthusiastic.
*
tPage
the
their
their
from
it is
stances.
sub-
primary
determinate
"
differ
their
says, in their
interchanges,that
recognisein
Others
ab initio"*
they, he
are
of
other
each
on
of
the
instant
of the
chemical
They comport
laws
to
structure
of these
says
conform
cules,
mole-
alike, but
the
in
indivisible.
molecules
all
are
molecules
John
"
identity.
infinitely
in their
they obey
that
atoms
baffle
themselves
lose their
supposed
are
made
they
electrons,almost
or
are
not
are
among
never
are
nature
together into bodies, called
bound
are
world
of
that these
combinations
of atoms,
known
material
but, meanwhile,
;
much.
now
processes
laws, but
fixed
to
discovered
the
certain
simpler elements
according
They
the
It is not
analysis.They
in
things
which
by
on.
have
seventy-fiveelements
some
are
and
problem,
very
19
says
finelycalls
Herschell's
own.
which, amid
unbroken
"
there
is
of each
which
the
of
case
unable
produced
the
the
all others
of
Herschell
has
the
being
of
the universe
A
recent
nineteenth
a
atom
only
number
are
which
of
"
In
of the
John
idea
other
of
of
a
its
words,
covery
profoundestdisThe
of
matter
atom
foundation
is,on
this
view,
electrons," electric entities
thousand
between
of electrons
the
that the
times
is itself invisible.
difference
Sir
to
of Creation.
electricity.The
many
the
On
molecule
each
century.
product
conglomeration
which
in the
operationof
the
precludes
speculationassumes
is
of matter
a
is
Nature
of the molecules
gives it, as
abreast
the
therefore,
are,
self-existent."
is here
the
when
said, the essential character
and
Scripture
of
call natural.
kind
article,and
eternal
time
We
we
the
under
"None
propertiesto
same
well
manufactured
the
equalityof
exact
speculation
slightestdifference
which
causes
hand, the
other
the
their
of
viduals
indi-
to
quiteinapplicable
adds:
molecule.
:
is permanent
the
familiar
either the existence
identityof
of
any
is
He
since
ascribe
to
the
or
of evolution
any
writes
destruction, and
or
so
remain
individual
the kind
become
Nature,
of
properties
*
difference,between
molecules."
began, have
universe,'
Maxwell
each
generation
no
have
of
processes
Clerk
And
species.Hence
of theories
name
material
composite matter,
"
rather
we
I." II.3.
the
of the molecules
variation,or
with
of
unworn.'
case
;
of
stones
the wreck
and
the
In
no
BEGINNING"
foundation
the
'
THE
Genesis"
20
which
elements
form
smaller
It is said
consists
than
the
that
the
in
the
their unit space
or
of
Identity
The
But
atom.
Who
another
like
of the
duties
universe
shall
this
could
have
not
A
this
to
thus
which
assure
and
simplicity
very
to
Foolish
Creator.
that
us
the
the
Scripture
have
found
been
to
unscientific
an
have
might
ultimate
in which
exploded
truths
of science
put into the simplest language ; and
be
before
years
concealed
is
what
on
the
anticipatedscience, because,
these
of
one
science
lifted the vail
elements
primary
had
physicaluniverse, God
word
the
reflection
3,000
had
into
of the
still closer
scientific truth
moment's
than
The
us
of
stupid fallacy. The
more
way
night, summer
?
bring
language could
always
can
the
Who
?
foundations
and
day
would
communicate
age.
the
harvest
and
laboured
forsooth, no
to
that
arrangements
have
pens
pass
in this
perform
law.
together
shall not
21
abide,and that the operationsof Nature
theory
immediate
and
special function
and
unlike, so
winter, seed-time
of
its
assume
bound
element
continue, givingus
shall
and
one
abandon
or
the
made
that
so
of the Universe.
is arrangement
numbered
and
"electrons,"
there
here
even
made
the Matter
alreadygiven
the
us
of the
its last
deepest mysteries
of
Nature.
The
III.
has been
The
from
here
Scripttire
formed from
entire
the
which
matter
in
earth,
sun,
moon,
primal
mass,
of similar
same
kind
physical universe
placed
that
the
teaches that the entire universe
space
by
the
and
and
elements.
"
in
has
the
creative
stars
of
were
matter.
been
fashioned
beginning
"
was
God.
The
all formed
from
act
of
must,
therefore,be constituted
Such
is the
representationof
Genesis"
22
these
THE
opening
able to
matter
is
something
be
to
able
the
floatingin
of
"
glass (or
White
in
his
up
is
now
from
lightthrown
In
"
The
igth century.
a
upon
examining these
upon
the
sun's
lightby
found
that
spectrum
the
the
various
screen
with
the
same
of
moon
matter
discoveryof
by passing
in
of all the colours
merely
upon
made
a
careful
But
expected.
was
who
man,
"
a
of the
colours
called the
"
of
He
screen.
the
and
a
rays
the
lines shown
the
analysed
spectrum."
telescopeFraunhofer
was
a
forced
analysis earlyin
are
of
analysing light.
ranks, laid the foundation
spectrum
across
sequently
con-
triangularpiece
science
that, besides the colours, there
straight lines
a
self-educated
the
called
which
the
a
long looked
was
earth,
were
Newton,
consist
nothing
optician,a
way
what
This
which
note, but from
Bavarian
to
distant
questionquite within
this
fact,of which
curious
a
But
Sir Isaac
shown
light was
ever
of the
matter
of
something
succeeded
prism "),
our
of
the
These
globe.
sunlight through
rapid motion.
as
of the
of science.
the domain
beam
learned
brought
to
still more
fall upon
us
to
the solar system,
of the
celestial spaces.
has
times
recent
tell
unable
specimen
meteors
our
be
hope
any
planetin
and
is thus
to
was
might
confined
are
handle
sun,
outside
found
It
the remotest
not
occasional
But
stars.
and
of the
speak
Bible.
We
and
secure
I." II.3.
point science
of the nearest
even
to
not
a
have
planet,and
being
this
the
light whatever.
any
own
of
words
that upon
imagined
shed
BEGINNING"
found
of
largenumber
experimented
reflected
from
planet Venus,
in the
sun's
the
and
own
The
the Matter
of
Identity
lightreappeared there.
of
the
the
The
varied in each
screen
next
steps
and
Draper, who
the
vapours
various
"
burning
The
kind
and
the
screen
thrown
upon
metal,
or
gas,
registrationhas
that
light,
passed through
and
metals, produced
the screen,
the
Lardner's
Astronomy,
"
:
of
any
of them
and
other
exceeded
yet that
by
sun
have
able to
the
we
and
stars, and
replied that
thing has,
that
it
the
on
*
Popular
the
to
referring
lectures
on
stituents
con-
tell whether
iron, hydrogen,
lecturer
would
quite
statement
And
.
certain
a
men
chemical
to
to
stars,
that
credulity.
own
to
for
of
weigh the
the
elements, the
the aid of the
know
written
lecturer
determine
.
.
extent, been
spectroscope."*
Referring to this questionas
as
upon
utterlyincredible
was
the limits of his
very
thrown
have
did, or did not, contain
chemical
probably
be
This
these
popular
seem
told
to
ing
burn-
detect
Newcomb,
in his
hearer
the
of each
to
might
science.
able
bars
cross
entrancing chapters
that science
also be
would
science
it would
a
its
upon
carefullyrecorded.
were
most
that
Had
the vapour
by
statement
his audience
the
the results obtained
of modern
romance
position of
lightwhich
and
of
one
proceeded
now
enabled
in any
vapours
done
lines
case.
"
Analysis
says
the
by Kirckhoff,Bunsen,
gases
Spectrum
Dr.
that
lines in the spectrum.
way.
us
taken
were
discovered
of
analysed the light
next
discovered
stars, and
fixed
across
He
of the Universe. 23
earth,
to
the
were
Astronomy,
p.
whether
22
same
"
matter,
as
that
Genesis"
24
which
THE
the
forms
obedient
bodies
the
to
BEGINNING"
of
Bettex
properties,"
writes
the
of
demonstrator
the
dream
of
"
discoveringwhether
extant
Who
would
thought
been
reaching us
have
.
.
One
.
.
turned
astronomers
elements
bodies.
forms
of
water,
stones
diffused
The
universe, or
reply was
that
matter
and
from
in
a
are
those
the
the
those
regarding
character.
is almost
"
that
the
meteoric
afford
nebulas, or
the
us
the
suggestivefact
been
found
*
form
have
which
have
samples
cooler
of
a
none
to contain
Prof. F. Bettex, Modern
a
brought
Alfred
of the
are
obtained
less,
or
solid
more
of
to
Russell
solid
It
of
are
celestial
"
us.
It
Wallace,
infrequentlybring us
not
stars.
and
less direct information
regions of
remoter
that
been
stones
Those
air
more
are,
are
Dr.
known
un-
bones,
been
have
which
certain," says
from
matter
and
fortunately,samples
But,
in solid
matter
other
universe, and
results which
We
own
*
same."
condition.
ardour
our
some
blood
entire
heavenly bodies
gaseous
what
terrestrial
plants,our
everywhere entirelythe
These
had
astonishing.
compose
throughout
or
star.
a
information
enquiry whether
the
the
pervaded
salt
such
imagine with
can
to
at
ironically
and
that such
of
pencilof lightfor thousands
in each
?
Newton,
common
such
on
same
prevalence
smiled
probably have
general,
the
Sir Isaac
universal
the
in
with
Even
:
quicksilverwere
of years
universe
the
laws, endowed
same
would
gravitation,
I." II.3.
space,
and
of
constituents
is,therefore, a
these
bably
pro-
meteorites
most
have
singlenon-terrestrial element,
Science
and
Christianity, pp. 76, 77.
Genesis"
26
which, in
THE
so
Science
of
myriads
evolution
certain
that
"
follow
will
every
the beast
The
Creator.
forth
belonging
to
i. 21,
"after
It
the
That
belief
scientific formula
:
corruptionof
the
Aristotle
which
taught
was
that
that
not
there
all life
in
forms
of life
case.
putrifyingcar-
the
supposed
generatioalterius,
three
he
some
another."
sources
said,are
"
;
notion
generation.
generation of
were
a
Scriptureswere
a
expressed
is the
after his
earth
was
from
that is, produced alive
"
also
lower
livingbeings spring. Some,
"
kind," but
word,
the
Corruptio unius
one
not
one
this
produced, for example,
were
moveth";
in spontaneous
universallysupposed
was
God
created.
when
given. Antiquitybelieved
and
great whales,"
the
In
that
time
the earth
the waters
that
been
from
come
their kind."
"
only
25).
all life has
the
lowest
contrary,
and
of the earth after his
it be remembered
Let
the
on
but
;
everything that creepeth upon
exists because
the
with
through gradual
waters
living creature
(Genesis
thing
some-
provided
of
I
even
have
of life have
all forms
species,not
"
be
beings
"
But
must
Scripture has,
bring them
each
kind"
"
"
which
to say.
to
forth in abundance
bring them
only
that
of the
also
for the
account
having got these, it imagines
else
The
always taught
created
requires
vitality
; and
development.
"
It
everything
the earth
something
primordial forms
hand
to
startingpoint: it
a
evolve.
"
of
order
tried
forms, fills
livingbeings by evolution, on
needs
to
but
has
I." II.3.
marvellous
such
immediately have
shall
the
and
many
earth ?
the
BEGINNING"
are
from
arous
vivip-
oviparous
Life has been Created.
from
"produced
last
These
living being.
parentage.
Reptiles,and
insects,and
minute
the belief that
chronicles
the
of
spinalmarrow
shall
Now
"
How
art
from
Swarms
and
the
taneously
spon-
Pliny
time, explain
swain
;
will restore
at
can
and
Virgilsings:
slaughteredbull's corrupting gore."
recipefor procuring a
Varro
bees, and
that the bees
says
of
swarm
new
called
are
*
"
bull-
they proceed from putrid
(Bougonai),hecdinse
That
Greek
term, here explained by Varro,
"
oxen.
this
that
shows
the
the
was
born
creates,
maggots,
serpent is produced from
a
'tis now
song,
my
no
putrid matter.
man.
a
had
"
produced
were
great discovery of th' Arcadian
The
That
life-forms
other
any
host
fish, and
into
come
from
vast
a
"
river-slime and
from
some
being produced
without
existence
and
egg";
an
27
The
belief lived
and
that, too,
but
also
was
on
not
the
as
also
belief in ancient
a
through
even
merely
as
Christian
ages,
superstition,
common
a
of
conviction
the
Greece.
of
men
learning and
research, the scientists of the day.
This
has
behef
it continued
forms
to
readilyparted with, for
of escape
from
forms
life
of
matter,
the
hard
what
life that
existence
*
belief in
can
more
The
our
time.
own
it is the
The
do
we
requireto
us,
tiny life,it
and
is
idea
to
many
only possibledoor
Creator.
a
fied
modi-
under
tiniest
If the
spring spontaneously from
is around
The
?
kill,and
to
generation is too preciousto
of spontaneous
be
been
even
for all
account
for
our
argued, will
Georgics, iv.,323-326 (Sotheby's translation).
dead
grow
own
in
BEGINNING"
THE
Genesis"
28
: it will
favouringcircumstances
well as larger proportions.
as
produced
be
It
of
hay
or
the
They
infusions.
life."
the
from
bacilli,
bodies
possessed of
other
In
them.
also
Latin
the
time
in this way,
life-forms.
few
a
"
small
rods.
word
for
whitish
a
of
power
day's
called
are
"
fusoria,"
in-
in these
they spring up
called
easier
infusion
An
after
They
fact that
soft, of
are
need
nothing
was
example,
resemble
Some
only
may,
there
lowest
are
We
microbes," from
words, micros, "minute";
Greek
two
that
with
from
shapes
new
Creator.
for
moss,
swarms
exposure,
"
the
produce
to
the
a
imagined
was
than
without
assume
the world
said, and
it is
enough,
I." II.3.
and
These
bioSy
called
are
stick."
"a
Their
colour, elastic,and
contractingand
words, minute
they
as
ing.
expand-
are,
they
are
livingcreatures.
it is neither
But
their
Are
they
new
existences,
when
have
or
it left the
in the
hand
forms,
now
cerned.
con-
they sprung?
continuations
merely
been
their
are
we
have
only, whence
ask
which
names,
size that
We
existences
moment
their
nor
powers,
their
with
world
of God
of
from
the
in its
pleteness
com-
?
That
times
in recent
by
his
our
questionwhich
is the
by
the
Professor
own
has
French
face
to
face
generation,'to
Pouchet
had
"
Tyndall.
with
says
the
which
just given fresh
settled
finally
scientist,Pasteur, and
Pasteur,"
investigations,
himself
been
In
the
Tyndall,
question
the
interest
of
course
of
found
"
'
taneous
spon-
researches
One
of
by
Life has been Created.
the statements
one
experiments of
and
with
success,
by
and, for
ardour, ability,
from
excluded
with
in the
liquidof
minute
contrary, due
forms.
a
rod, has
existence
had
from
life as
there
in
summed
are
which
elements.
arise
from
within
wall
the
like.
of
A
of cell-wall.
cells must
New
have
out
pp.
the
of
just published
own
of
created
chemical
vidualised
beings indi-
these
185, 186.
forms
species
It follows
Fragments,
little
as
of real
only be
can
living cell
its
been
the
is thus
than
parts that
living cell
*
living
science
the smallest
cell,bioplast only
only out
speciesof
their
is
book
a
testimony of
stronglyare
from
a
In
primordial cells
in all their
generated
are,
of the
the smallest
differentiated
So
fermentation
There
mankind.
"The
more
the
to
or
merely repeats
it sprang.
the
Germany
much
the
which
livingforms
parent, and
a
is among
up:
settling
of which
presence
generationamong
spontaneous
due to the
bacillus,that littlelivingthing like
the
Even
the
to
mentation
fer-
no
tion
fermenta-
eggs,
corruptionand
was
germs
was
fermentation
the
to
but the
corruption;
the
due
not
are
appear
and
seeds
is full. The
ordinary atmosphere
on
they are
corruption occur,
self
him-
air
the
from
infusion,or freed
the
the
when
proof that,
time, with
Tyndall
ordinary air is laden, there
and
no
corruption. Wherever
which
and
the
of spontaneous
a
Professor
Dr. Bastian."*
completed
were
discredited,until it was
generationremained
revived
Pouchet
the doctrine
overthrown, and
explained or
29
only
can
species,and,
bioplast,cellthat
as
as
many
there
are
Genesis"
30
THE
BEGINNING"
I." II.3.
species existent." *
science,and yet it is also
the first word
The
in
Scripturestands
ignorance
out
first chapter of Genesis
what
till very
was
tells
that
us
the
earth
prolonged study
assures
the
of the
the
among
us
that
the
Scripture drew
ingenuous
every
reply:
Since
have
Darwinism
of
has
to
of
skill.
there
not
Portig.
Das
display
the
is but
come
one
from
God.
Genesis.
without
of the
first
reference
some
to
simple explanation. Darwin,
Haeckel
*
that
questionwhich
a
what
a
after
Whence
Origin of Species,has provided the
With
now,
"
life,science
in his
**
them
after laborious
impossibleto speak
very
to
III.
and
Genesis
a
the
And
could
from
come
now
that
everywhere, and
will ask ; and
Darwinism
it is
It
command
other.
knowledge, is
CHAPTER
THAT
chapter
science.
highest,livingforms
information
The
past.
as
forms
holds
the
scientific than
more
God's
creative
mind
the
it must
man,
the
as
this
no
minutest
marvellous
same
the
creation, and
this law
lowest, as well
with
the -kind committed
to
of
of the Bible!
created, and
received
that kind and
accordingto
last word
contrast
recentlyregarded
produce according to
research
also
was
everything was
and
waters
sharp
superstitionof
the
and
is the
That
true
rightly names
singlestroke,"
Weltgesetz des kUinsten
"
an
he
tells
with
anti-Genesis."
"
us,
world
Darwin
has
Kra/tau/waniies (1903), vol. i.,p. 16.
the
annihilated
of
these
creation of
he
obstacle
for he
Huxley;
evolution
on
to
the
under
veiled
Miltonic
Hypothesis."*
It
of
name
Christian
presumably
a
at first made
alarm
which
the
these
ceased
of
any
to
assure
tone
be
made
"
Darwinism
longer
a
us, has
the
made
first
down, with
to
their
*
the
His
in
were
mode
by
work.
But
"
American
it
universal
help, our
;
of
our
Genesis
have
and
we
believe
as
any
theologians
urgent duty is
doctrine
Adtiresses, pp. 7-22.
to
acceptance
impossible to
Darwinism,
stay, and
They
informed
better
chapter
Revelation.
come
able
unreason-
We
be reconciled.
that the
has
Divine
attempts
attempts
utterlyillogical
by
in the
the
not
merely
was
never
can
franklytold
now
part of
and
what
harmonise
are
rash
were
the
Darwinism
Bible.
the
proceeded
Creator
the
to
ignorant misapprehension to
was
ture
opposed to the Scrip-
evolution
that
and
an
was
Darwinism
that
imagine
;
it
quiet
in
believers
of
that
assured
to
him, in
Lost than
poeticalparaphrasein Paradise
were
for
in
the
"
audience,
Scriptureitself. The antagonism between
Genesis
and
was
equally confessed in
which
History
easier
was
of
exposure
of the Creation
thinly
lecturingbefore
attempted
an
Genesis,
the
serious
most
the first of three
devotes
character
the unscientific
attack
the
first Book
general acceptance of the theory of
This was
evidentlyaccepted as true by
evolution."
lectures
ments
supple-
the
to
Professor
trine
mysticaldoc-
The
"
"is
says,
31
species." He
by another.
statements
Pentateuch,"
of the
of creation,the
dogma
isolated
an
Genesis.
and
Darwinism
of
to
inspira-
THE
Genesis"
32
I." II.3.
BEGINNING"
tion tillit accords
what
with
said
are
sally-admitted
univer-
be
to
facts.
Evidently,however,
of the
faith
That
than
now
France
the
the
able
been
not
; and
with
and
in
evolution
of
should
"
Hoppe,*
that
and
as
to
from
the
Darwinism
back.
the
stand
is dying,
to
And
ado,
some
to
renouncing
as
a
outside
have
'
a
at
last the
Der
Moderne
'
power
gether,
alto-
be banished
must
he
continues,
principleof evolution,
the
the world
form
that all questions
maxim
power of
designatethis
*
evolution
investigation.Others,"
to
recourse
forces
are
that
Edm.
Professor
is," says
surrender
turned
rejection of
the
with
originof speciesand types
cannot
without
not
lest belief in every
result
down
scientific
of
test
Darwinism
Germany
perish
some
layit
scientific
"who
have
The
"
Darwinism.
its favour.
risingin
was
alarmed
are
applause.
great
apparentlydying rapidly,although
struggle. So completely has the tide
scientists
it is true,
Germany,
steadilygone
to
now
In
opposed
was
and
some
sadly
greatest scientific
very
there
it has
that time
research
a
is
it is less
and
;
Darwinism
first.
tide
till 1890 the
has
of
some
from
true
never
was
widely received,
was
From
guides
would-be
formerly.
by
authorities
Up
these
examine
we
"
scientists."
it
when
And,
sure
utterlymisleading, for instance, to
Darwinism
as
universallyaccepted by
of
speak
in
in
is to make
duty
It is
shaken.
true
"facts."
so-called
these, our
first
our
a
second hand
of sensible
courage,
of
a
"
that
is,
perceptions.
without
second
Evolutionismus, Leipzig,
'
1903.
hand
more
'
by
Genesis"
34
parts
which
to
he
with
covered
fathers
These
have
variations
the
Darwin's
of
the
out
and
itself.
broader
much
wide
able
was
be
he
held
with
be
to
The
world
there
a
a
wealth
of
public as
a
laws
inherited
?
It
these
his
the
in the
to
answer
fame.
laws
he
observation
he
believed
all that
produce
and
it
explains
operation of
which
we
now
accompanied
was
from
ally
gener-
book, notwithstanding
theory,
new
to
the
prominent place
use
of
of the
case
his
of what
constant
came
to
did
guided
in the
minute
number
of
which
man
drawn
illustration,
It
effects of
that
was
scientific revelation.
a
and
possibilities
really won
and
facts,that
storm.
of
anything
sufficient to
startlingnature
by
we
satisfactory
explanation
a
Darwin
exposition of
such
been
How
the
In
guiding hand
laws, the
unknown
the
The
indicate
natural
to
see.
pigeons
knowledge
to
has
this edifice
But
?
that
question
living
foundation
higher.
emerged
field of Nature
From
the
were
"
has
Was
everything.
;
capability
in
time
and
capabilities
of the
presents
that
(i) endless
"
of these
present world
dogs
facts
development-hypothesis.
that
but
(so-called)at which
tell
suppositions rose
happen
on
lift the world
the world
how
(2) unlimited
variation, and
make
fulcrum
a
long marvelled.
so
supposed
two
sufficiently
unshapen
one
show
the creation
for
he would
lever, and
would
time
"
only
asked
merely required
thing,and
of
his
rest
I." II.3.
in time
come
Archimedes
Darwin
our
BEGINNING"
all these would
"
extended.
so
THE
disuse.
the
general reading
Among
was
took
these
given
In
to
posed
sup-
the
his Preface
The
the
to
he
said
weight
of
glance
this
at
the
Table
is
statement
read
I.
Chapter
of Habit
Effects
do
even
of
that
Contents,
handed
them
down
with
on
from
shall
soon
Habit, of Use
the
the
Darwinian
thus
harmful
were
helpfulto
this
be
to
within
There
Disuse
to
which
sult
re-
the foundation
stones
of
the variations
were
How
those
fostered
?
The
were
replyto
verts
half-con-
Darwin, contained
that
and
is what
which
which
delighted the
required.
was
perpetualstruggle
the least fit go
the Survival
those
were
of, and
stern
This
The
ifthat hands
of
machinery
existence, in which
are
Effects
Nature, said
a
disuse
and
use
plain
generationfollowing,
how
But
preserved and
*
It is
"
(3) Inherited
be sifted ?
is,he averred,
or
of
strikingdevelopments.
very
itself all the
Selection:
that
of Parts
differences
the
to
causes
evolution.
of
marked
be got rid
fit survive.
a
"
disuse
and
use
question surprisedand
to
of
Causes
generation; and
theory.
developed to
discover
we
Inheritance," "c.
"
still more
and
cast
variability
"
:
have, therefore,to add
We
Origin
thus
to the next
have
The
Contents
and
the like
the
to
than
more
if these effects of habit and
that
great
effects
both
to
of
fullyjustified. The
Variation
Correlated
turn
no
Descent
inherited
the
we
35
first edition
respect
If
mind."
the
of Species,and
most
the
to
disuse, with
and
and
body
attributed
be
must
use
for
in
Even
The
on
stated
Origin of SpeciesI distinctly
The
we
*'
:
of Darwinism.
his book
of
Edition
Second
of Man,
Foundations
Four
he
down
called
of the Fittest."*
Origin of Species,chapter iv.
and
"
the
Natural
This
law,
36 Genesis" THE
he
maintained,
beings."
BEGINNING"
explains the grouping
"
have
We
has
of its
these
acceptance
it
how
as
it fared
with
the
immortality?
published at
supposed
of
of
"
and
prejudice,"
dust !
and
;
of these
foundations
them
Taking
Review, which
of the
Darwinian
pointed
limited.
grains.
which
wild
A
A
would
their
variation.
and
other
wild
could
gardener
weigh
twice
One
specimens.
300
limit,beyond which
breeds
rose,
this part
as
is
cattle
he
But
is most
distinctly
instance, weighs thirty
raise
or
North
of
animals.
to vary
for
The
to
of
pen
great variation
very
domestic
rose,
the
In
fullyadmitted,
He
pigeons,various
that this power
Vaisse," weighs
fatal blow
a
structure.
among
out
dealt
admit, that
must
horses,
in
"
British
and
within
now,
June, 1867, a review of the book from
Professor
Fleeming Jenkin, appeared in
witnessed
with
Origin of Species
1859
one
hailed
crowned
supposedendless capabilityof
everyone
to
heaven,
edifice,thus
The
of
every
into
have
order, we
(i) A
the end
fifty
years,
crumbled
scientific
a
stood, in the imagination
far-resoundingacclamations
less than
theory,
of time.
has
of
fourth
evolution
only
alike to the assaults
defiance
prophecies
has
the
wide
upon
organic
accordingly the
origin of species,was
the tooth
to
And
was
of all
friends, four-squareto all the winds
bidding
with
the
Raised
rest.
and
found
ever
of
account
here
which
great principleon
that
I." II.3.
seedhngs
thrice
called
grains.
But
the rose-grower
the
"
from
weight
the
this
cannot
this
of his
Senateur
marks
go.
the
He
Limited.
Strictly
Variability
increasing the weight
cannot
keep
till he
produces
limits in that
without
of
variable
which
the
specialexcellences
Small
which
worth
as
its
well
a
the
as
species has
of selection
limits
the
greater becomes
feature
the
of this
the
to
sphere
a
and
stubborn
man
may
;
and,
no
the
be
it ; and
is
of
one
obliterates
matter
what
dogs,
animal
or
marked
What
from
with
the individual
whatever
species.
No
variable
notwithstanding all
"
the
even
ference,
inter-
pigeons,
other
In
made
by
differences
distinction
not
that
admission
own
variations
the
a
acknowledge
to
originalform.
the
brought,
offspringto
is removed
man
with
his
to
nearer
is
reversion."
to
is
kind
no
very
compelled
was
to
of the
so
which
the
specimen
tendency
Each
which
beyond
be, rigidlypreserves
"
variation
perfectlyplainin
back
Nature
of
This
example,
all go
words.
carried.
race-horse."
a
any
centre.
the hand
for
they
the
"tendency
becomes
that, when
sphere
Darwin
that
means
the
or
would
good shape
possiblycarry
can
the
back
of
speed
rigorouslycircumscribed,
go
point
a
weight in silver,perhaps in gold,is nearly
fixed
animal
of
to
valuable, and
are
terrier
most
be
cannot
"
says,
come
most
the
race-horse,
a
prizecattle
in
terriers,"he
limit below
of
speed
that
the
which
They
trary,
con-
also
in
even
a
not
the
shows
than
go.
is,on
It
limits
cannot
flower
is thus
rose
He
farther
animals
skilful of breeders
beyond
the
direction.
equally distinct
are
of the
size, for example, of
limited.
definitely
very
"
the
rose
a
variabiHty of
The
cabbage.
there
on
37
of
the
skill which
the
most
man
38 Genesis" THE
bring
can
bear, has
to
limits of the
is
BEGINNING"
enough
variability
forms
speciesis
thus
fundamental
of
his
Sir Chas.
read
have
the
been
of
slowly deposited in
in the
same
grapple
manner
the
which
with
the
is
no
bearing
"
idea
the
the past
upon
stratified
of
error
rocks,"
the
as
of which
*
our
The
human
to
upon
the
been
tion
consideraalmost
mind
endeavour
to
Professor
circumstantial
the
the
historyof
earth,
of mistake,
possibility
its chief
"What
says:
the great series of formations
time
of
once
have
the
vain
vast
at
may
The
"
:
was
can
how
eternity."t
effect
its
Principles
admit
which
the
of
furnished,without
chance
the
on
impress
does
as
Huxley, stating
evidence
facts
of
who
"He
time,
rocks
the
to
indicated,
not
he adds
water,
various
with
the
"
the variations
And, after dwelling
thickness
of these
shown
other
make
work
of
are
"
says:
periods
past
close this volume."*
immense
He
yet does
.
they
falls
every
requiredto
theory.
.
in
I take
Lyell'sgrand
.
that
and
This, Darwin
and
Geology
experience.
structure
equally
time
forms.
to
different
experience has
suppositions.
new
there
vegetable
and
all
to
"
Darwinian
(2) The unlimited
essential
all
it fails
But
and
speciesanother
any
the
pass
of variation
that, if the possibilities
seen
entire
ground.
produce
animal
circumscribed
strictly
the
to
supposition that
among
strictlycircumscribed
then
the
made
opposed
distinctly
most
It will be
are
from
make
to
been
ever
and
species;
I." II.3.
we
represents
features,by
find
a
is,that
period of
chronologies hardly afford
Origin of Species,chapter
x.
+ Ibid.
of Darwinism
Demands
unit of
a
us
ought
we
I will not
measure.
billions of years.
the
that
But
For
its absolute
of
this
estimate
to
pretend
to
the
purpose,
my
is
wholly
how
say
in
or
tion
determinaunessential.
there
enormous
was
39
time, in millions
duration
time
Time.
on
be
can
no
question."*
Darwin
But
themselves
that
about
itself
Haeckel
declares
the
since
over
(chapter xiv.)he
"
calculation
over
is any
truth
time
is
the
present
years
"
Here
such
time
varied
*
from
have
we
vast
according
a
passage
"
to
its
life alone
carry
us
If there
years.
animals
alone
could
which
a
that
world
+ The
have
not
our
years ;
earth
has
to
the
millions
many
of
hundred."
issue.
unanimously
fills our
whose
commencement
taken
distinct
Addresses, p. 26.
recent
a
If there
have
periods,then Darwin, Haeckel,
life which
American
in another
siderably
con-
"
million
forty-eight
have
"must
a
older.
years
of years
discovered
been
considerablyover
declare
rest
t and
of
life-period,
scene,
down
unlimited
evolution, practically
in less than
whole
the
been
no
have
evolved
and
;
necessity. Those
a
fossil remains
been
million
million
forty-eight
all in
wash
belief
and, consequently, the
fossils of extinct
of
at
"
that
says
the
period
a
many
hundred
a
to
millions
"
to
his
period which has elapsed
enough to permit life to
the
cool
was
extend
;
confined
not
states
years
many
that
earth
exist must
strata
be
must
He
million
300
portion of English
earth
have
general terms.
to
it took
friends
his
and
Riddle
the
due
the
and
of the
presence
is not
been
to
evolu-
of the Universe, chapter
i.
BEGINNING"
Genesis" THE
40
tion.
We
his
said, close
then
drafts
dealt with
time
on
the
earth, and
the
which
and
Thomson,
Wm.
The
by
that
shown
the
the
the earth
when
matter,
and
existed
upon
than
more
for
reason
much
it,a period has
twenty
nearer
Darwinism
But
youth
"Whatever,"
the true
that, if
for
both
century,
*
the
the
says
vegetable
at all events
Journal
rocky
of
the
since
the
molten
is not
less than
twenty
"
:
have
We
only ;
age
the
by
it is
of
animal
within
a
the Victoria
the
earth
life,if
few
of
parative
com-
equally
the
have
Kelvin, "may
ready,
of
now
probably
....
been
ready,
was
not
hundred
sun.
certain
atmosphere, it seems
and
have
which
discredited
consolidation
Transaction
not
earth
Lord
of
could
elapsed
ascertained
historyof our
sunlight was
the
after
of
forbid
forty."*
is not
with
inconsistent
than
bank
white-hot
it was
that
judging
the
funds,"
that
course,
and, he added
;
The
of heat
said
life,of
no
years
that
Address
globe of
forty millions,and
millions,of
good
when
a
was
of
and
sun
Scientists," has
radiation
Institute,in 1897, he
Victoria
time
of
Annual
the
In
assumption.
has
Kelvin, rightlydescribed
of the
laws
these
Sir
impossibility.
an
Prince
"
that
as
of the
is "without
is
Lord
now
Times
since
conclusion
made
were
evolutionaryscheme
the
will
purely imaginary.
are
drafts
the
theory
made, science
age
the
reached
has
supposed periods
on
of the
problem
has
But
first
were
himself
elaborate
incredible.
be
to
Darwin
as
his
for
book,
shown
be
huge
in that case,
may,
I." II.3.
within
a
centuries
its surface.
Institute,vol. xxxi., p.
20.
But
Genesis"
42
for this
the
period
of
rate
1.7 times
instead
BEGINNING"
is founded
be
to
*
in
for
fauna."
He
that
celestial
from
and
the
which
cannot
be
he
such
elapsebefore
for either
flora
the
or
the
that
have
it of
in science
and
such
this
time
strata,
requiredfor
was
again takes
to
possible
the
to
some
have
we
from
not
points
He
it for
granted
"
Professor
for the
that
one
is
taken
vegetablelife of
attempt
is
years,"
be
allowed,
the
on
earth's
known
form
surface
was
since
capable
t
being
now
*
Advances
can
still
compared
10,000,000
that
a
view, for all the changes
of
the lowest
existingthere."
"
:
us
of life upon
duration
the utmost
place
gives
startlingwhen
of Darwin
is about
Tait
actual
physical point
+ Recent
into
been
of that
demands
"
crashing
laws,
and
proved.
writes,
An
would
life ;
similar to
earlytime were
prevail to-day an assumption which
estimate
from
of
animal
and
have
accidents.
earth, and
with
would
years
may
But
deposition. But
those
the
the
by
that the conditions
closer
have
we
heat
sun's
ascertained
that
says
their
Thomson,
years,
adapted
bodies.
impossible
or
of years
being
rate
Sir W.
plant
proved
*
largelyincreased
reason
been
12,000,000
of
estimate
correct
says
for
become
suggests
other
as
the
But
millions
could
globe
has
20,000,000
available
realitybe
undoubtedly
our
Thus,'
Helmholz's
only 12,000,000.'
not
Pouillet's
on
small, the
too
greater.
of
I." II.3.
radiation, which
solar
by Langley
'
THE
stellar
in
made
to
use
the
Evolution, p. 35.
Physical Science, p. 175 (third edition).
newly-
Limited.
Strictly
Time
a
as
cover
distressed
a
professor has declared
enthusiastic
An
Darwinism.
shield to
"
"radium
discovered
43
that owing to the heat-emitting property of this
element, geologistsmay
have
desired.
ever
all the
time
is no
new
thing. It was
newly-discovered,
the experiments were
its part when
being
as
it
third fact led to the
earth
of the
its axis is
the
scientists have
been
of
cooling
the
led to
of
tend
about
something
millions
ten
of years
allowed, from
the
that
have
changes
since
vegetable
Whatever
of
doubt
and
that
the
may
these
the
the
is about
of the earth's
from
Tait, "is
is
and
"
that
lowest
form
can
be
for all the
the earth's
place on
for all
to the effect that
"
physicalpoint of view,
taken
the
earth.
the
the utmost
was
surface
capable
*
be
said
as
to
hundred
million
practicallyunlimited
''Recent
decreasing,
Professor
same
of
the
upon
drawn
two,
im-
action
the
cooling of
says
a
,
is
estimate
the
calculations, there
the
The
almost
calculations
other
the
life of the
existingthere."
of
through
those
arguments,"
quite independent
to
an
with
and
sun
of these
"Each
to
revolution
becoming
motion
earth's
is identical
age, which
bodies.
The
conclusion.
same
round
which
at
made
unchallengeablenow
as
perceptibly,
yet surely,slower
the tides ; and, basing their
rate
playing
Besides, it is also forgottenthat
before.
was
remains
therefore
calculation
white-hot
cooling of
of
the rate
caculate
they
forgetsthat radium, though
he
But
have
now
new
Advances
absolute
is
tude
exacti-
longer
no
years
of
time
claimed
in Physical Science, p. 175.
any
Haeckel,
by
Genesis" THE
44
Darwin,
alike
are
has
Both
Let
us
should
it
as
shown
with
show
to
that
differences
another
have
Apart
from
have
begun
Darwin,
which
arisen
from
though
skin
any
the
on
other
soles
body
pressure
during a long
"
:
modified
through
facts
has
now
not
Although
during
the
given
show
*
natural
Descent
his
in the
general
before
it
inherited
not
than
of
use
his
be
And
much
existence
of parts, the
in
liability
p. 33.
on
effects of
been
have
birth,
hardly
can
this respect
know
positively
of Man,
certain
to
*
generations."
decreased
we
?
causes
generationwould
latter stages
lost ; and
one
could
how
regard
the
may
that
But
speciesfrom
one
and
;
series of
or
in
feet is thicker
to
man
the increased
been
with
this is due
theory.
original starting-point.
of the
that
regard
made
writes, "long
part of the
It is
scientific
not
next,
his confidence
doubted
again
the
merely
cautious
infants," he
"In
did
variations
the
at
of
of his
that transmission, each
afresh
take
disuse.
state
divide
now
allegedproofs,retained
the
and
use
to
on
natural
assumed
Darwin
alleged law, that
handed
unscientific.
supposed law, attempts
this
to
unlimited
investigation.We
of the foundation-stones
the
law.
the
effects
of
regard
be
to
that, in the present
generation are
the
variabilityand
been
inherited
one
sequently,
is,con-
great fundamental
two
the test of
be made
without
Darwinism
inquire whether
quite natural
opinion
the
unlimited
stood
(3) The
with
have
now
have
laws
inadmissible.
it fared
suppositions of
time.
I." II.3.
confessed
impossibility.
a
Thus
BEGINNING"
that the
Law
law
same
is well
of
holds
explains
that, in
the
famine
for the
accounts
habits
and
more,
the
weight
he
the
had
the
in times
of
of trees, while
He
similarly
*'
We
progenitor of
of
of its
the
the
bustard,
body
creased
in-
were
generations,its legs were
wings less, until they
its
It
of
the ostrich.
like those
successive
during
used
subsist
perished,t
"that
that, as the size and
and
form
which
higher leaves
the
says,
had
genus
to
of
peculiarities
believe," he
ostrich
able
*
Lamarck,
peculiar
those
45
animals."
with
that
animals
the shorter-necked
may
be
by cropping
lower
and
out
would
necks
the
common
neck
long
giraffeby pointing
longest
with
good
known
Mistake.
Hereditya
became
X
incapableof flight."
Weismann
that
imply
he
and
whose
dismissing a
be
can
of
of
the
which
concerns
the
Essays
Heredity
Page
35
Editors
The
been
"
Essays
"The
deep
expressed
in
to
that
hope
kindred
a
volume
Weismann's
problems
would
real want."
supply a
"
Preface:
of all Professor
and
But
.
+ See
Origin of Species,p.
a
foundationsof Evolution,
Editors
collection
on
ance
import-
Weismann's
everywhere
containing a
upon
of
the very
cardinal
theory.
in their
say
unusual
not
argument
an
the
to
as
a
matter
a
longer reckon.
in Darwin's
has
encouraged
or
no
translation
English
which
subject
has
question
no
Heredity
interest
can
were
It is
to
seem
heredity;
upon
if its loss
as
person
party
a
Heredity"
upon
it
might
much
lean
Darwinism.
to
support
there
did not
moment
of
way
Darwin
certainlytreats
of small
which
language
uses
177.
I The
Origin 0/ Species,p.
io8.
46 Genesis" THE
BEGINNING"
then, of this third foundation-stone
What,
shown
investigation
is it
or
burst
before
reply
will
In
of
its aid.
without
;
and
the
in
in
organs,
the
be
the
the
the
"
of
and
effects
other
which
simply
from
he had
"
for he adds
the
must
we
species
and
neglect
"
cannot
direct
And
that
forming
trans-
the
same
as
of
combination
All
these,
perhaps produce
the
of
disuse
individual,hut
great
cannot
transformationof the species^
the
reach
never
germ-cells
It
succeedinggenerationarises."
has taken
this positionwith extreme
he
reluctance
*0n
can
rence
occur-
the
plain that
processes
of
its
of
call climate.
we
the
they
because
which
body
effectin
produce any
first
influences, such
direct
disuse, may
the
upon
or
species.
a
nutrition, light,moisture, and
use
"
:
The
long
been
an
ardent
Darwinian
of understanding
difficulty
of transformation
Supposed Botanical
:
there
that
that
use
practice
upon
different influences
1883, I
stated
possessing any
as
all the
of
a
apparentlypowerful
.
results
influence
with
in
transformation
Even
.
regarded
In
1888, * he writes
I then
transformation
factors
The
?
following.
transmission, that
such
.
air and
in the
opinionthat acquired characters
explain
to
attempt
is true
awhile
improbable, and
theoretically
is
now
the
an
"
Heredity,delivered
on
proofs
no
from
Weismann
be transmitted
cannot
Has
imagination
an
of its admirers
eyes
gathered
forward
brought
are
the ravished
lecture
a
be
to
glitteredfor
published by
paper,
"
that
be
?
it to be all that it at first seemed,
confessed
now
bubble
empty
I." II. 3.
is
by
no
Proofs of the Transmission
means
is
"
these
lightened
of Acquired Characters.
of
Law
the
by abandoning
in
seek
to
phenomena
which
understood.
But
of
direction,we
were
this
that
short
deprived of
St.
upon
volume
published in
Are
the
result
The
words, with
these
thanks
warmest
E. B. Poulton
discussed
Weismann's
for the
which
due
a
small
It is from
Series.
Ball, a
Darwinian, and
Use and
researches
are
Weismann's
quoted,
now
held
he
Disuse
be
begins
Mr.
is
inherited ?
by Spencerand
may
to
I
But
Nature
Effectsof
of his
tail-less
particularinstances.
of
Piatt
of the view
Examination
road,
others.
many
have
when
imposed
had
publication of
I
of William
pen
and
in
been
accidentally
had
stories which
"
the
which
was
entitled:
Mr.
tail,"c.
after
from
paper,
which
discussion
years
another
take
a
wrong
a
of the stories about
the
Two
truth, and
in
be
which
one
work
Mivart
omit
An
its
of
than
difficulties."*
cat
many
are
we
more
a
now
are
we
for
:
leading
is
it and
George
must
the
of
being born
cats
view
seek
path
leave
culty,
diffi-
The
previouslybelieved to
hardly be regarded as
We
our
must
makes
He
can
47
explanation of
different
a
if it presents
even
greater, for
much
convenient.
and
recognise
we
theory.
explanationrather
correct
a
is easy
Lamarckian
accepting the
for not
want
Mistake.
fact,becomes
compelled
reason
Hereditya
Darwin.
gathered from
his Preface:
Francis
"My
Darwin,
to
(whose interest in the subjecthere
by his share in the translation of
Essays on Heredity),dindto Prof. Romanes,
is shown
help afforded
by
for the
criticisms,and
*
Weismanti
their
advice
on
kindlysuggestionsand
and
recommendation
Heredity, pp. 387, 388.
48 Genesis" THE
which
under
this essay
from
Mr.
precious,and
from
the
examines,
with
result
a
headings of
"
and
proven,
If
"
:
we
seductive
for which
And
vanishes
so
Darwin,
inferred
chapter entitled
as
shall
we
reliance
Heredity, the
trust
to
the
property
never
was
Darwin's
"
that
a
individual
an
can
that
of
law.
It
be
inheritance
If,"wrote
Darwin,*
complex
possibly be
And
dream.
than
to
up
adduced."
of
use
and
variations
and
made
with
It
it falls,
by
tion.
confession, his entire theory of Evolu-
own
any
a
great
descendants.
individual's
was
use-
on
of Evolution
gathered
were
:
un-
the
rather
disuse, the loudly-proclaimedlaw by which
acquired by
"
of the book
words
allegedfactor
an
these
Conclusions
"
assuredly know,
of
from
unnecessary,
evidence
satisfactory
no
the
and
be
may
we
claims
with
so-called
by Spencer
wise
that
acquired
another, the
discredited
are
that
variance
at
"
ruling truths
the
gratefulrecognition,
improbable "; Modern
misplaced." The last
inheritance
are
after
which
his final
is
more
father."
forward
Use-inheritance
of
the
me,
generalconclusion
one
proofs brought
is,to
Darwin
inherited
not
are
ment
published. Encourage-
worthy
more
of his revered
opinion
He
is now
Francis
the fact that my
characters
I." II.3.
BEGINNING"
formed
organ
by
"
be demonstrated
it could
existed
which
could
not
successive, slight
numerous,
Darwin's
absolutelybreak
theory would
of
this very thing,by the full admission
But
with a quite
friends,has been demonstrated
unusual
completeness.
modifications,
down."
my
*
The
They
tell
Origin of Species,p.
us
208.
that there
is
no
THE
Genesis"
50
this.
Artificial selection
within
no
discover
purchase
of these
us
to
sheep
or
of those
descendants
certainly
of
admits
has
that mankind
means
in Nature.
the
There
than
those
few
such
no
of any
pressure
wider
sweep
years
show
ancestors,
"
Natural
service,"
rendered
in
If
"
by
of
has
been
Professor
says
Mr.
general is
Darwin
to
he
has
this
:
tendency
livingforms
other
to
may
be
is the influence
or
such
a
may
"
"
and
show
that
One
great
that
has
:
one
two
are
of them
of which
observation
surrounding
been
of Evolution
that there
of Evolution
a
hundred,
two
the doctrine
shown
of
the space
at work.
proved by
of
forms
descendants
the existence
vary,
other
visible within
years
Huxley,
chief factors in the process
is the
between
still thousands
Selection
either
operation of
hundred,
a
differences
no
the
possibly be
may
of time.
modifying
them
possessionof
indicate
law, still its action
progression
law
leading
It
their ancestors.
possessed by
generationsto
that
still? That
sheep
But, although there is nothing within
a
mind
interpretation.
one
and
Is
goats?
generations,the
will be
into the
upward
or
no
and
rational
observed
animals,
of
organs
outward
is
man
slightest
expectation
sheep
only
a
longer,but something,
no
sheep
shall
If
?
a
find the descendants
thousand,
a
where
But
he the
in any
slightestdoubt
confined
seen) is
in Nature
process
half-way between
hundred,
a
be
to
have
we
grandchildrenwill
sheep
II. 3.
always
deny.
to
sheep,has
flock of
a
the
similar
any
say,
there
is
(which
seeks
one
that his
let
L"
limits,as
strictly-defined
fact which
we
BEGINNING"
conditions
in all
;
the
upon
Ignorantof Natural Selection.
Nature
what
which
thus
are
reallyso
if to these
;
Huxley himself
question by the
of the
I
"
test
we
owe
do
the
in
researches
the
course
reply given
again quote
The
of the
French
the
hypothesis
the
by comparing
the mummies
as
in
were
and
of the
livingin Egypt. He arrived
no
appreciable change had
in the
time, and
undergone
other
of
preservation
speciesnow
same
the
taken
parts of
conviction
that
in
these
place
of this considerable
course
the
at
justice
of
his
to
of structure,
such
state
fitting
a
corresponding parts
animals
have
"
Cuvier
"endeavoured
"
animals
skeletons
tion
expedi'''
progressivemodifications
and
the
that
our
inspected b}'one
were
Huxley's words
to
?
mummies
Egypt.
Napoleon
note
we
of time
greatestof comparative anatomists.
gradual
with
the exceedingly
"
livingforms,
mentions
under
Egypt
Well, if this is
operationin largerareas
brought to lightin
to
of
the variations
and
it."*
factors
'*
varieties
of their
trace
from
evolved
numerous
any
parent form
call the
I may
5^
lapse of
conclusion
is
not
disputed."t
In
there
other
is
trace
no
confession
been
words, taking
read
been
?
of
"
no
only no
sweep
Natural
"
weighed
?
Has
years
of
Selection
If,in comparing
separated by 4,000
is not
a
!"
and
years,
Has
its evident
ancestors
"
4,000
this
meaning
ants
descend-
fortycenturies
"
there
higher forms, but absolutely
be
appreciablechange," then one
thing must
confessed.
advance
to
It is this
consulted, Darwin's
*
A mcrican
:
if
book
A
experience alone
had
had
the
ddresses, p. 39.
never
t Page
seen
33.
been
light,
his
and
or
the
the
and
comprised
within
he
they appeal
regions
4,000
where
I
too
chivalrous
which
confront
Darwinism
of
have
the
already
which
long
stated
it is true, but
oldest
we
examine
of the
diiferent from
Hence
.
speciesof
time
bottom
some
that
we
I
types.
work
our
way
of
those
which
it must
animals
the
great
that which
period.
authorities
.
.
More
Silurian
referred
present time.
that certain
sign of
carries
a
At
which
Cambrian
existing
tion,
modifica-
back
us
this.
series,in beds
to the
of
course
than
closest
important respect,
distinct
no
as
as
the
live at the
be admitted
show
epoch, we
which
any
transformation, in the
of the
Furthermore, when
Cretaceous
be, in
to
proportion in
certain
a
animals
some
show
those
day, diminishing in numbers,
of
rocks
with
identical
animals
or
Cretaceous
facts
the
still stronger
is
Tertiaryrocks.
the
scrutinycannot
.
Huxley,
to
of certain
as
doubtedly
un-
tion.
unyielding opposi-
"there
still existingin
find the remains
.
allude
to
duration
live at the present
the
have
Professor
with
says,
speciesof
find many
we
not
to
great series of the Tertiary formations,
the
through
of the time
climate
again quote
was
he
Egyptian
equally unfortunate
and
geography
"But,"
By
!
years
are
for he
evidence
of
?
vastly longer periods,and
to
changed.
Huxley
blow
damaging
the shortness
and
Darwinism
and
Prof.
does
changeless character
these
scientific
received
How
this
climate
geography
when
from
theory
I." 11. 3.
never
attention.
even
referringto
Bat
had
hypothesis
support,
save
BEGINNING"
THE
Genesis"
52
lapse of
to
the
the very
are
by
formation,
No
the
where
Trace
signsof
the few
among
are
.
.
for
of
example, the
such
reptiles,
which
and
as
they
with
the
is
the
the
have
strata
as
which
of
not
has
been
a
busied
the
could
be
illusion.
but
of this
appear
dis-
or
was
to
were
that
way,
the
earth's
that
of
first
livingcreatures
us
have
been
to-day.
a
even
There
it
Was
it
the
our
"
ally
gradu-
follow ?
No
is
singlelife-form
have
been
asleep?
its
no
then,
Was
it
strength for
demonstration
Selection
is
learned, first of all,that there
Pages 35-38.
there
But
Where,
nursing
Natural
"
no
constantly accumulating
that
?
of
evidence
preserved for
in this way.
Selection
clearer
We
Plesiosauria,
have
assures
evidence
shaped
that
groups
They
like office to
of the
small
elsewhere,
days
are
considered
another
into the life-forms of
Natural
as,
"
numbers.
constantly-accumulatingvariations.
was
history
There
the
turn
rocks, they present
They
Egypt.
Darwinism
vestigeof
a
generic
*
in
forms
shaped by
variations
that, at
same
earth's
be
safely
can
matter
inspectionthe
forms
animals
chalk, and, throughout the whole
performed
mummy-pits
are
exemplifiedif we
in vast
progressiveformation."
put
which
the commencement
great series of Mesozoic
To
the
Ichthyosauriaand
occur
such modifications
of
under
epoch.
shortlyafter
appear
epoch,
Mesozoic
there,
even
"
molluscous
great periods of the
certain
to
53
existingforms
to
truth
same
us
remains
species of
grouped
were
.
fail
to
scanty animal
find
The
name.
begin
closelyallied
so
time, they
one
life
and
discoverable,we
which
of Natural Selection.
an
was
utter
no
THE
Genesis"
54
of its existence
indication
now
we
the
BEGINNING"
informed
are
of any
operation
Indeed,
going back
the Cambrian
to
proof be
any
Natural
breaks
Selection
is not, and
even
made
of
much
be
in my
work."
There
were
of the
already
noted.
is
a
The
fact is
continent.
be,
far
as
injurious;
This
the
was
still long years
in front
facts.
attributed
this
and
seemed
an
theory ;
but
Darwinism
attempt
to
given up by the
They confess
*
Descent
not
Darwinian
of Man,
vol.
triumph,
they
i.,p. 152.
been
with
square
that Natural
that
and,
success,
fatal flaw had
could
prove
I believe
of the end.
overwhelming
the
judge,
yet detected
begmning
of apparent
ures
struct-
can
we
the
formerly
of many
as
too
or
not
greatest oversights as
*
indeed, of what
recently
Selection
Natural
the existence
nor
of the
one
on
with
authors
I had
to
appear
beneficial
neither
It
"I
Man:
especiallythose
of
considered
sufficiently
which
fact.
by Nageli
essay
of the fittest
survival
then
published
of
various
by
more
action
the
to
"
? Could
a
Darwin
Origin of SpeciesI probably
my
life
Broca, that in the earlier editions
Professor
by
was,
never
his Descent
in
remarks
animals,
to
respect
of
years.
that from
Selection
theory.
a
as
the
plants, and
of
beginning of
discover
admit, after reading the
now
to
millions
of Natural
following confession
the
indication
no
complete ?
more
down
and
;
during periods that,
cover
we
"
trace
no
is
the very
to
rocks
there is
tillnow
law
Darwinism,
to
on
there
such
according
fortycenturies
for
that
I." II. 3.
Selection
leaders
cannot
on
trace
the
its
production of
in the
action
has
Weismann
Prof.
acknowledgment
the
very
for
easy
of
realm
for it is
he says
"
Selection, we
in
later work
a
has
since then
the
pen
received
amusing
"
action
are
the
is too
neither
turn
to
comprehensive
nor
in
ascertained
for
our
us
Nature,
out
be
to
invent
the
Selection,instead
*
Page
29.
of
des
illustration from
says
(Descendenz
of Natural
because
enough
fittest cannot
it would
be
for
be
impossible
individuals
I am,
its
of observation
delicate
the
natural
would
therefore,obliged
of
Natural
seekingto explainit by
observed
\ Allmacht
X Bedcutung
Prof.
Evolutionist,
means
which
fittest.
instance
an
because
beforehand
judge
to
it." t
process
of the
survival
The
He
The
dehberate, and
purpose.
of Natural
directlyobserved,
be
cannot
example,
is not
Selection"
Theorie,igo2, vol. i.,p. 66) :
Selection
yet
sion.
significantadmis-
same
himself.
of Weismann
certain
a
in all others
the
an
not
INSTANCE."
prominent
"Natural
That
$
;
this process
to prove
position
a
his views
SINGLE
in
so
Berlin, another
of
makes,
in
to
process
details,and
Selection
not
are
it is
of tracingthe
difficulty
the
in this case,
As
:
that
to
represent
A
IN
referringto
of Natural
process
Plate
IT
PROVE
after
to
out
that here
see
weight
in the
oneself
to
TO
Again,
hard
uncommonly
POSSIBLE
think
to
details,we
attach
fancy,to
of Selection
seek
we
the
form.
following striking
nothing fundamentally,and
who
relegatesthis
anyone
know
we
the
When
"
*
:
55
singleorganic
a
made
Selection-processin
also
the
of Natural Selection.
Trace
No
of
der
process
Naturziichtung {iSg^),-p.
SeUctionsprinsipes(1899),pp.
so.
93, 94.
56 Genesis" THE
"
examples."
of The
So,"
in
"
Erlangen,
BEGINNING"
Prof.
comments
has
single definite
one
Selection ! When
they still have
Fleischmann, of
forty-two years (since the publication
Origin of Species)it
discover
I." II. 3.
Darwinists
possibleto
example
of
Natural
talk about
the
subject,
the
rely upon
to
been
not
goodwill
*
and
pious
faith' of their auditories."*
The
Darwinists
rest
not
a
of science
progress
themselves
baseless
that
observed
upon
have
Liebig stylesa
Evolution, said, in
erected, namely, the
the
prove
restriction
Liebig
'
We
to
seem
doctrine, of
a
a
have
Mflller,the well-known
him
Die
Darw.
cold
\ Bettes, Modern
in it.'
was
and
Science
and
water
of Die
**
It
was
(1903),p.
igi.
Christianity,p.
And
almost
Selection
Natural
above
Editor
Thtorie
and
organisms.'
these
journal (April,1888) :
"
that
was
sarily
neces-
sensation, in holding
singleplank to keep
in that
must
hopelesslysinking who
man
it
strict scientific search
of
in
not,
its subversion
theory of
the
which
on
of truth
'
of
the
on
could
Nature,
of
chain
a
of the
terms
of
that
speaks
Dubois-Raymond
sarcastic
study
Bischoff,
department
movement
basis
modicum
of
nothing
knows
The
declares
himself
this
instrument
that
to
'
tative
authori-
Munich,
at
of
men,
"
in the
does
words, it is
alreadygiven
lecture
his
last.
not,
other
Scientific
master
theory,that
would
Selection
this condemnation.
expression to
and
In
dream.
hypothesis,a
Darwinian
demonstrating to
Natural
facts.
unchallenged eminence,
whom
is thus
to this
is grasping
!
'
"
Natur,
a
147.
:
t
Dr.
wrote
great
con-
BEGINNING"
58 Genesis" THE
I." 11. 3.
story told by the fossils. If animals
we
should
remains
animal
we
found
have
of
have
should
at
the
outset,
very
different
did
which
respect the
every
I
not,
are
differences
wide
and
which
new
lead
look
to
us
suddenly
"
if of
strength
a
as
new
to
the
from
the
absence
the
of
fatal to
There
first ;
present hour
of
of
source
The
"
and
ally,
gener-
type in great
great perfectionas
usual
facts
"
Argyll,"always
type, exhibiting that
in
earlier life
of these.
coming
known
regards organisation. The
in the
this great difficulty
such
the very
from
late Duke
numbers, and
be
find.
variations
for the
should
for
do
to
and
;
enter, their entrance
forms
no
tirely
en-
were
We
alike
we
forms
preceded by
forms," says
appear
is what
new
encounter,
this ;
forms, and
in the
When
been
not
discover
earliest continue
of the
some
unchanged.
has
this
But
theory.
were
continued, in
after age.
age
to
forms
to
by
become
which
afterwards, would
in them
then
but
vary,
of the
distinction
change
the
same,
other
fully developed
were
repeat, expect
radical
each
expect
forms
afterwards
not
by-and-bye
would
not
numerous
which
;
Then
perfectly distinct
until
should
certainly
We
reached.
differences
at first by
occupied
only.
evolved,
been
divergefrom
these
The
marked,
strata
form
one
seen
small variations.
more
the
had
way
of
of
evading
Geology
is to
plead what is called the imperfectionof the Record.
There
some
are
But this plea will not avail us here.
records
are
as
of time, respectingwhich, our
tracts
In the Jurassicrocks
complete as we could desire.
series of long
and undisturbed
have a continuous
we
No
and
of oceanic
ages
of hundreds
1,850
of them
still
variations.
These
them, struck
creative
the
by
place
side
Ammonites,
and
of it so long
fixity
strikingas they are
In
the
Darwinism
after
of
face
could
all,it is not
belief that
has
Man's
Word
of the
'
as
of
are
at
all,each
failed to
of this
truly
instructive
more
species,such
as
perfectregularity
of
the
shell,and
all,are
features
as
*
facts, it is astonishingthat
such
have
found
acceptance.
astonishingthan
been
'
never
new
pattern
it lasted
mixture, or
of indeterminate
The
side.
obvious."
more
Lord
sign
nothing
new
ever
word
hour.
is
by
of each
beauty
superseded by
or
series of these
a
turn
plasticmaterials
There
all
"
lastingonly for
die, which
new
the
on
work.
to
a
definite
as
counted
of Creation
Medals
*
been
no
of infinitesimal
or
impress itself
is
thick
existingspecies. No
as
in their
There
forms.
newer
only a
all
are
all of them
"
all of them
and
confusion,
than
born
ages
the first appearance
species have
new
suddenly
time,
other
each
distinct from
less than
not
species.These
new
those
And
see
deposit,but
of
of
to
record
introduced
were
life.
fact,long enough
a
(1,300 feet)mass
and
of life which
forms
new
these
as
were,
of
59
"
during
of
Development.
tranquildeposits containing a complete
of all the
a
of
Trace
the
the
fashion, or
changes
endureth
Organic Evolution
many
and
another
idol,of
disappears.
for ever."
Cross-examined,
pp.
145-147.
But,
an
"The
Genesis"
6o
THE
BEGINNING"
CHAPTER
The
World
in
of scientific
the
"
"
is
a
It
it
For,
with
correct
very
account
notions
died
who
Creation
six
about
"
teachers.
do
not
that this is merely
are
always
indicate
accustomed
to
text
is that the Creation
certain
higher
scale, those
than
those
is
the
the
;
entire
that
the
of time
minds
real
meaning
are
are
named
named
last
before
;
which
in
of the
arranged according
which
which
Alexandria,
act
our
the
things accomplished
see
that
successive^parts
; and
this
on
real succession
a
adaptation to
an
and
that
Divine
one
consonant
of
a.d., maintains
217
the
of
one
for
difficulty
Clement
produced by
was
days
distinct
cessive
suc-
likelyconception,
a
power,
a
by
inspirationof
of the Divine
it formed
early Christian
forms
seemed
to
mation
infor-
of
anticipation
all that
opposed
was
formed
being
to
as
Scripturehas
the Divine
far from
so
been
which
fact also
must
in the very
of distinct
instance
possibleproofs of
Bible.
here,
has
is,and
in doubt
the
that
But
Universe
an
clearest
the
the
acts, is
science.
"
the statement
Stages.
perfectedresults
nevertheless
science.
anticipated
the
with
research, are
proprietyof
that
that the Bible
accord
complete
Successive
in
fullybelieve
who
SOME
be,
IV.
Created
was
I." II. 3.
to
a
being
them.
of Clement, explainedthe Creation
Origen, a disciple
As a proof of his position,
historyin the same
way.
Science.
Anticipated
Genesis I.
he refers to
with
that there
evening
and
morning,
a
held,
The
therefore
set
into
called
were
which
beings
created
from
one
ancient
more
at
than
of
It
ancient
an
moon,
of
the
the
and
once,
the
days
degrees by
of
separated,in point
''
says
all
:
and
one
No
:
cellence,
ex-
created
specieswere
the
ment."
command-
same
Genesis
of
notion
the
against this explanation,
continued
there
thought
something
was
its
hold
to
Augustine and
S.
taught by
is
creature
plain teaching
the
creation
was
day,
things,it was
All
indicate
another
simultaneous
a
ground.
To
revolt
a
at
Athanasius
Although
provoked
third
without
sun,
aside.
to
are
together,by
once,
will believe
"
another.
like manner,
In
a
1
dowed
en-
man,
plain meaning
being
supposed merely
were
without
stars?"
Scripture was
asks,
second, and
first,a
a
was
What
"
days.
sense," he
common
without
and
first three
the
6
others.
abhorrent
plain meaning of
Genesis
i. It seemed
to imply that God
was
obliged
to accomplish His
work, like puny man, step by step.
in
what
The
to
then,
was
ancient
the
writers
question as
Divine
wisdom.
the earth
should
was
to
same
as
seen
the
This
Jew
purpose
in Adam
in
God's
to
be
by
proclamation
afterwards
all die
in the
; even
so
of the
to
The
went
like order
gospel.
It
the Gentile.
waitingof to-day.
in Christ
to
was
the life which
plan always.
the
that
purpose
for the life that
its occupancy
is shown
regardlessof
power,
prepared
first and
confining themselves
part of God's
was
is God's
in the
the
now,
erred
It
follow,through
before.
as
was
The
"
For
shall all be
THE
Genesis"
62
alive.
made
But
BEGINNING"
in his
man
every
the first-fruits : afterwards
His
coming
they
cometh
then
:
I." II. 3.
order.
own
that
Christ's
are
"
end
the
Christ
at
(i. Cor.
xv.
22-24).
But
that
now
working,
earth
and
and
how
mark
material
Nineteenth
Professor
to
point
a
between
but
two,
The
2.
The
well
Let
has
to
anticipated
in his
as
to
rejoinder
this
upon
vellous
mar-
science. The
shall see,
we
wrongly)
this
ignore
before
place now
me
creation
as
chose
followingpoints in
1.
Bible
the
by
compelled
are
Scriptureand
challenged (and,
coincidence.
the
story indicated
Huxley, laid specialstress
or
Divine
Gladstone, in his first paper
Mr.
Century,as
agreement
Professor
the
the
traced
universe, we
wondrously
scientific research.
in The
the
pointed out
the
has
science
strange
the
reader
the story of the earth's past
:
of matter.
material
universe
is formed
of the
same
matter.
3.
The
earth
and
the
constitute
heavenly bodies
a
unity.
4.
The
first condition
5.
The
introduction
God
of matter,
of
moving
energy:
upon
the
that of
a
"The
fluid.
Spiritof
face of the waters"
(Genesis i. 2).
6.
The
creation
7.
The
creation
ether,
stars
8.
The
are
of
light.
of the expanse,
in which
the sun
one
and
great
ocean
planets
of
and
placed.
separation
water,
the
and
place.
in
the
our
earth
of
gathering of
dry
land
and
the
seas
into
Originof the Creation- History. 63
Divine
of
period
A
g.
vegetation,previous
of animal
life.
of the
heavenly
10.
The
creation
11.
A
period of
12.
A
period.
reptilian
13.
Some
14.
The
introduction
of bird life.
15.
The
introduction
of cattle.
16.
The
introduction
of
17.
The
cessation
is
Here
were
reptiles
this
facts could
An
man
had
and
were
there
these
to
that which
in all
are
of
calculation
That
science
place
to
Genesis
?
by
These
chance.
that, if
shows
a
put before him,
in the
them
arranges
the Divine
prove
statements
seventeen
try
If this chain
fallen into this order
have
mathematical
easy
work.
links.
opening chapter
not
dimensions.
huge
requiredto
anything more
origin of
bodies.
man.
of seventeen
corresponds exactlywith
for us, is
of
of the creative
chain
a
duction
intro-
life.
marine
of the
the
to
right order,
355,687,428,096,000possiblearrangements.
is, the arrangement
be
might
wrong
be
355,687,428,095,999times, and could only once
the statements
right. This calculation,however, assumes
to
notions
who
or
be
could
at
given ;
have
that
the utter
had
a
This
should
originwill
if it be
there
an
be
was
a
age,
ments,
state-
having
apparent.
the
subject
which
human
those
such
this account
astonishingthat
through
how
unscientific
penned
beyond
us
detail the stages
passed,before
have
of
impossibility
taken
chapter. But,
could
ask
we
originated in
time
merely human
has
when
but
eye
the
of
Scripture
the world
to
this
see,
has
or
a
BEGINNING"
64 Genesis" THE
human
truth
that the
heavens
these
opening
the
placesourselves
had
had
science
has
Before
ask whether
through which
us
with
to
for
creative
"days"?
understand
them
hours
and
twenty
that
they were
each
?
extended
Or
THE
long
Bible
days
hours.
a
of Creation
has
stages
brief space.
the
Scripture
four
plainlyindicated
V.
of
has
were
are
What
ordinarydays of
is it
:
actuallypassed,
Creation.
almost-undisturbed
readers
the text
commentary.
a
a
story
periods?
Days
and
science
the world's
Does
as
CHAPTER
The
placed
latest
seventeen
the world
us
those
But
of faith had
men
those
question detains
those
mean
The
the
knew, before geologists
strata, that
only provided us
we
the stages
were
the
searched
in this way.
run
another
time.
the
Believers
now.
work
frame-
to
difficulty
a
Scripture exactly where
the
in
thoroughly
teaching in simplicitywere
its
received
very
thus
seen,
of the
enshrined
This
unscientific
an
marvellous
creation
been
Bible.
have
we
as
have
history is
earth's
highest learningof
by
should
of the
words
scientific. It was,
who
hardly less
regarding the gradual
the earth
and
of
tell ; it is
to
tongue
I." II. 3.
undoubtedly
ordinary days
opinion
been
of
that
of
the
twenty-four
ancient
Babylonians represented the sar^
3,600 years, as "a true cosmogonic day;"*
The
periodof
*
Lenormant,
The
Beginnings
of History,
p. 237.
THE
BEGINNING"
66
Genesis"
an
which,
interpretation,
facts of
geology, and
is said that the
words
created
the
God
indicate
not
the creation
was
made, but
the
"
whole
heavens
second
fallen
had
earth
the
is then
verse
chapter
the creation
of
state
a
is treated
as
the
earth,"
of which
pleted
com-
The
exist.
statingthat
the
the rest
chaos, and
descriptionof
a
It
In
of the
they now
as
"
the
and
interpretedas
into
Bible,
of the material out
the earth
and
of the
heavens
"
all the
inquiryneedless.
our
opening
11. 3.
told, suits
are
we
renders
beginning
L"
of
the earth's
restoration.
the
Insuperable difficulties prevent
interpretation.
appeared
man
to
the
there
Let
"
created
be
light,"been
for
existence
time
a
There
?
untold
that these
are
first time
made
does
before
ages
not
material
the
an
and
account
then
renovation.
the
not
one
The
then
was
moon,
and
and
night
told that
as
creation
that
same
read
for the
named
it heaven.
certainlyseems
of
already
apparentlyto
are
named
it
universe, and
earth's
day
earth, but the whole
the
;
been
sun,
been
are
We
and
concern
from
have
we
the
not
period,and
distinguishedand
now
expanse
celestial space
reading
but
;
Have
it had
forth
(verses 3-5).
the
when
also
must
just before
always understood
light? But how could
unnamed
an
actually being poured
stars
Scripture.
of
there
limit ourselves
We
the
fact that
chaos
and
of
at
the
earth.
creation
the
denoting
lightbe
in
the
upon
statements
words,
as
total destruction
such
no
was
nothing of
I say
of that
adoption
of
God
this
Now
extent
if
we
the
were
entire
speaks merely
remarks
of
of
apply to
Twenty-fourHours' Day Theory. 67
The
the work
and
moon,
in
the
The
stars.
of
sense
should
be
appointed
ministered
is
addition
In
only of
2-31
of the creation
account
it
For
heavens
and
of them
"
well
"
For
the
in
the
Lord
Those
all that
and
six
"
Let
us
understand
question
of
only
the
the creative
by
that
the
term
"period,"
We
xiii. 8,
residence
in
and
is used
to
earth,
that
11).
xx.
historyof
universe.
and
to
us
be
can
freelyin
in the
no
the
New
that this is true
also
the word
in this
of
days:
and
the
as
not
creative
There
occurs
In Exodus
sense.
of Israel's entrance
of their settlement
it, refers
work,
material
immediately see
Moses, speaking in view
Canaan,
the
heavens
(Exodus
day."
an
all the host
heaven
in the Old
in the Pentateuch
Thus
Scripture means
but
Creation-Historyitself;
elsewhere
six
verses
universe.
"
in the
is"
"day"
both
shall
"
stroyed.
de-
It is
:
of the
made
of the
what
ask
now
Testament.
into
these
in them
creation
earth
been
earth.
days," therefore,embrace
the first and
of the
included
was
of
da}s
have
have
words
making
but
six
must
former
finished,and
the
pointed."
ap-
been
speaking in
as
these
beginning,"
sea,
sense
earth
the
of the
were
(ii.i) ; and
of the
as
"the
the earth
"
have
of the entire material
with
concludes
not
this,it is plain that the
renovation
the
of
sense
theory to
all
to
the sun,
taken,
must
to
be understood
Scripture cannot
the
is
long before,and
this
supposed by
"
made
which
heat
and
light
made
ask, however, why these
now
office
very
God
in
but
will
reader
exercisingthis
"
word
formed,
The
which
day, when
of the fourth
and
entire
prolonged
period
as
a
68
He
"day."
in
that
which
did
observed,
the
"
thus
and
in Deut.
Passover
"
i
this
day, to
which
Israel
crossing,or
The
Jordan.
three
the
phrase
of
Israel
Lawgiver
will
I will
them, and
and
troubles
in that
our
God
is not
My
face
in
that
the
cross,
two
day,"
;
evils
lapse
The
in that
hide
so
of
of
decline
In
to the
people
God's
and
they
from
evils
will say
us, because
I will
is
day, and
many
upon
This
My
face
My
that
come
And
etc.
view.
discloses
devoured, and
us.
among
prolonged period of
surely hide
plainly not
people.
It is
a
a
fall,of disaster and
penitentreturn.
That
to
be
these
not
twenty-four hours'
of
I will
shall befall them
day,Are
out
with-
idolatry. "Then
againstthem
shall
natural
meaning
of Israel.
with
them, and
they
to
nations
"
fullyin
was
coming apostasy
forsake
art
time, that is,the period, had
the
shall be kindled
anger
the evident
; and
themselves
defile
The
(xxxi.16-18) the Lord
the
Thou
:
to
shorter
place between
crossingtook
of
annually
a
preparing to
this great event
Book
same
be
spoken, passed
were
even
later
is that
when
the
actual
months
and
come
the words
that
ing
cover-
"
in to possess
go
son
generation
one
"c.
greater and mightierthan thyself,"
day," on
of
to
to
It is used
Hear, O
:
thy
forth out
came
was
explained by
ix.
Jordan
over
pass
I
periodreferred
generation following.
period
show
because
when
me
the whole
centuries
many
unto
shall
is done
day, saying, This
the Lord
I." II. 3.
thou
"And
says:
Egypt." During
the
BEGINNING"
THE
Genesis"
the word
designate
the
is
frequentlyused
period of
the
in the
earth's
Prophets
full salvation
of
use
Scripture
is aware.
everyone
"
that
In
Egyptians
that
day
with
.
the
(John
possible service
the
night cometh
That
the term
in
Corinthians
2
is the
now
same
speaks
no
man
in the
vi.
2
is
time
accepted
to
"
as
Me
the
while
"
is
:
day
"
period
"I
must
it is
day:
:
(John ix. 4).
of"
sense
behold,
third
My
"
equally clear
;
into
says
entire
work
same
.
the
see
day
a
can
.
Lord
man's
that sent
when
is used
Our
a
In
.
of the word
use
of
the
Egypt
be
"
Egypt
blessingin
a
rejoiced
of Him
of
out
Testament.
He
of
day.
shall Israel
The
Abraham
the works
work
in that
Assyria,even
New
viii. 56).
of life and
Lord
day
earth."
father
Your
with
and
in
69
And
highway
a
that
land
Canaan
the
be
In
.
of the
frequent
"
shall know
Egypt
midst
of
language
.
of Period.
sense
See, for example, Isaiah xix. 18-24
shall there
Assyria.
in the
shall five cities in the
day
the
speak
Day
period
Behold,
"
:
is the
now
"
day
of
salvation."
These
be
similar
and
that
contested
instances
"day"
show
that it cannot
mean
may
period,and
a
that, if the Spiritso willed, it might be employed
designate periods
remains, however,
in this
the
in the
sense
creation.
to whether
The
question still
the word
is employed
Creation-History.One
reader, if unacquainted with
has
know,
Hebrew
day,"
etc.;
not
but
read
with
day two,"
not
used
the
seventh
second
etc.
till we
day."
to
The
matter.
closes the creative
"
ought
first day," "the
"the," is
day," which
found
"the
fact,which
Hebrew,
this
upon
one,""
"day
article ha;
sixth
is also
bearing
some
does
definite
"the
as
of
to
The
reach
work.
Now,
It
if
THE
Genesis"
70
these
BEGINNING"
each, they would
have
and
memorable
been
which
has
centuries
measured
months
out
millenniums.
and
days, should
the
It
was
and
does
was
not
tillwe
occur
series.
entire
The
to
them, it
of those
days.
the
; and
translation
the last which
concludes
close,is
alone
to
periods
carried
was
seventh
is not
the
off
of God
phrase, "the
the
day, completing
rounding
its
of
Authorised
sixth
that this also
indicate
its view
this great work
beginning
first,"
But, seeing
on.
entirelyapart
reach
that
ordinary
"the
speak
so
our
work, and
through which
this way.
series
is,the
That
creative
the
a
throughout
used
not
be
to
appear
phrase
to
not
clear that this
They
from
does
and
years
be
to
as
so
sion
succes-
natural
very
them
third," and
the
"
of
spoken
Scripture
the
seems
the
have
second,"
that
the firstborn
as
translators,understanding these
our
hours
twenty
time, the opening days in the great
of
**
of four
ordinary days
were
I." II. 3.
in
numbered
day,"
be
on
appears
regarded
as
an
ordinary twenty-four hours' day, but as the same
facts will not
kind with the preceding six. These
aside
lightlyset
by
has
who
anyone
be
some
why
reason
the
Bible
second, third,fourth, and
first,
one,
two,
three,four,and
days, they
If
they were
why they are
A
the
meaning
further
were
not
five.
does
fifth
slightest
there
and
not
must
speak
da3^s,but
If these
of
ordinary
were
in this way
set
can
"c.
understand
apart by themselves.
question also requiresan
of
days
actuallythe first,the second,
ordinary days, we
be
ness
the ful-
marked
lying hid beneath
of Scripture language ;
peculiarities
of
in
answer.
How
could
there
first three
the
to
bodies.
"And
DAYS,
and
there
was,
"
the
there
signs,and
It
night,"and
creative
to
days
contention
heavens
and
for
heavens."
divide
without
a
"
"
Day
These
in its usual
at
for
Four
Day
Scripture,no
it is the
day
if the
But
the
first three
the
of the
whole
are
is
God
undoubtedly
the
the
when
Scripture,
of
sense
generationsof
they were
clearly means
activityjust described
that
the
term
the
be
in the
is not
There
is not
The
signification.
once
and
in this sense,
explanation.
vast
in
the
created, in
the earth
made
It is used
used
Period."
"
"day"
of
slightestwarning
of this fact will
Lord
Book.
word
the
statements
of the earth
of the
and
ordinary days,
the
to
"
creative
the
night;
down.
:
Here
period of
section
for seasons,
days."
not
the word
that the
DAY
the
the
from
were
read
we
lightsin
theirs "to
Creation-Historyitself in
ii. 4
be
heavenly
divisions
breaks
find that
the
ordinary night. For
those lightsto make
these
"be
Turning again
had
course.
no
of
was
the
which
(Genesis i. 14). Before
and
and
;
day from
to
The
special mission
of
rest
therefore,according
of time.
day
71
and
?
apparent
the
the
divide
to
years
specialmission
THE
sun's
said, Let
for
be
ordinary day
In
and
sun
God
let them
and
the
the
by
of heaven
expanse
we
fourth
four
sun
consequently days
were
measured
assigned
of
of the
question is emphasised by
That
the Fourth.
days
until the
"
made
"
days
been
natural
been
each, in the absence
not
was
not
have
hours
twenty
sun
Days Possiblebefore
Natural
No
to
the
entire
first
too,
the
be understood
importance
recognised. The
meaning
of
"
"
is
period
its
which
its
in
use
for man's
had
should
have
six
the
removed
in Hebrews
to
there
of the Rest
into,
and
which
believers
of
Israelites
began
doubt
with
the
the
when
of the
the
is
Apostle
all.
at
for
the
into
to
and
enter
to
people
it
the Seventh
the
not
Day.
due
God's
made,
was
words,
My
of
God's
the
Rest
all believers
to
commenced
of the
the
works
the
existence
non-
were
the
and
Rest
works,
was
which
still
enter, is this
And, if there
this identification
from
is,the failure of the
was
last
3)
in
sworn
finished
For
into which
period which
of
My rest," the Apostle
That
world
Seventh
I have
were
Rest.
other
is
day
speaking
Israel failed
As
works
into
man,
In
as
"
enter
the
enter
to
remaineth,
rest
as
God, into the enjoyment of
of the world."
when
created.
"
day
seventh
The
The
Scripture:
of
finished
phrase
"
to
enter, is identified with
"Although
foundation
such
still remaineth
wrath, if they shall
adds:
one
as
Scripture here, we
here
God, which
of
earth
Creation-History. Quoting (in verse
of the
words
of
of
unimportant questionis
not
iv.
this Rest
But
the
of
which
God.
Day
this
each
of the word
sense
some
Scriptureitself.
the
by
referred
either
light
the
prepare
of the
reference
no
on
to
are
throw
not
as
we
periods,in
if this
But
expected
days," or
; and
naturallybe spoken
in view
been
not
all doubt
But
does
Six
i.
chapter
abode, may
"day"
plainly regarded
here
use
great period of creation.
"
is
great step is taken
some
I." II. 3.
early narrative
this
to
whether
ask
upon
which
one
entirelynatural
led to
BEGINNING"
THE
Genesis"
72
were
Seventh
at man's
any
Day
creation
rested
is, and
have
But
told
the
that
the
God
rests
contrary, God's
only belong
Day
continues
Even
the
is in accord
with
is
spoken
of
in
little
our
God
in His
great sphere.
Six
Creative
Periods, and
when
the
Seventh
The
other
of
hour
If
weighed.
have
case
days
of the seventh
morning
that
period?
and
morning
wherever
Must
it is
in
occur
regard
Him
when
to
John
that sent
no
man
ix. 4
:
Me, while
can
be
to
has
should
it
"I
tion
men-
twenty-four
well-
been
not
as
evening and
not
a
day
that
parts of
denote
law that
evening
used, and
so
must
in the
used
it be wise
it is
work,"
and
connection
Scripture,they
Would
interpreted?
literally
in
certainlyso
be
never
will
work
figurativelyfor period
accept
we
And,
heavens
new
to
figuratively
shall
they
them
day) why
be also used
Seventh.
"morning"
is used
that
seen
those
righteousness.
objection
"day"
imitate
that the constant
prove
the
But
days.
we
and
"evening"
it
other
through
end, God's
dwelleth
objectionargues
the creative
with
(as
wherein
earth
new
that
us
therefore,
worked
the
it
Seventh
to
will create
He
and
;
sphere, are
the
the
On
from
its
to
we,
learned
rested
comes
begin again,and
the
He
that
past
as
iv. teaches
have
we
not
day.
Commandment,
what
are
if God's
present
Hebrews
We
and
day,
that
Fourth
Scriptures. We,
?
exact
upon
as
now,
not
ii).
xx.
argument,
an
as
rest
time
to
(Exodus
seventh
every
action
can
"
this
use
also
I." II. 3.
day
is
parallel
therefore, should
does.
seventh
those, who
that
observed
BEGINNING"
THE
Genesis"
74
work
:
the
to
the
to
be
argue,
in
works
of
are
night
because
that,
cometh
the
word
Evening and Morning used Figuratively.
75
"
night
"
in the
occurs
referred to must
xxi. II,
be
of
Watchman,
what
said. The
morning
both
Here
have
may
similar
a
what
The
night ?
"
"evening"
? Isaiah
the
"
morning
night?
night."
evidently
are
stood
to be under-
and
significance in
"
day
watchman
also
and
"
of the
plainlyintended
are
That
periods.
as
the
and
and
figuratively,
used
the
twenty-fourhours
cometh,
"
night
"
of
one
"Watchman,
reads:
12
therefore
passage,
"morning"
the
Creation-
History is,therefore,entirelypossible.
To
as
reasoned, that
have
that this is the
possiblybe
that
permit
I
works
;
for
any
upon
such
securely,upon
the
explained that
these
centuries
sixteen
teaching of
before
of
Genesis
Hugh
and
admitted,
was
been
Miller
not
His
to
Word.
Scripture
periods
rests
which
than
more
geology began.
VI.
in
made
geology.
refuse
Full
Accord
Science.
WITH
has
not
definitely
It rests, and
the
were
Creation-History
MUCH
showed
interpretationis not
our
reasoning.
days
say
light upon
CHAPTER
The
interpreted
geology
should
we
shed
to
But, it will be observed, that
based
be
prepared to
not
am
be wrong
God's
must
might
only appropriateinterpretation,
wrong.
it would
"
Day
Genesis, because
in
"period"
"
and
The
of
of
the
supposed
others
to
failure
reconcile
reconciliation,it may
be
yet complete ; for geology had
76 Genesis" THE
then
not
recognised
since.
and
BEGINNING"
broad
Genesis
agreement
mind.
make
of God
now
that
have
we
which
it is admitted
revealed
series
a
as
every
in those
that
see
points already noted,
of science
exist between
to
then
nised
recog-
marked
so
deep impression upon
a
shall
We
it has
attempts
shown
was
the work
and
fitted to
things which
some
in all those
But
an
I." II. 3.
was
open
seventeen
of
tions
anticipa-
only be explained when
can
i. is
Genesis
direct
a
Divine
Revelation.
We
have
with
agreement
1.
Matter
2.
The
Let
us
is
That
the
bodies
of
which
one
creative
the
day
show
that
the
of the
the
God
to
binds
one
heavens
its
is much
the
completion.
the
The
rounding
sur-
(verses 6, 7)
expanse
the Divine
the fourth
on
earth
hand
are
was
Further,
heavenly bodies
to
we
two
great lights
; the greater lightto rule the
We
read
that
"
are
the earth
the
of service.
one
where
every-
with
yoke
prehensive
com-
in the narrative
impression.
and
They
grand
one
is
heavenly
Creator.
same
heavenly bodies
system which
carrying
told that
the
confirms
making
connected
there
But
tion-History
Crea-
universe
the
All
act.
:
unity.
a
in the
entire
accomplish
to
matter.
same
constitute
made
of the
the
by
of all with
and
entire
link in this chain
statements
matter
existence
of the
heavenlybodies
The
plan.
besides
the
fashioned
into
come
is in
points:
two
is formed
the next
to
in the
implied
are
these
on
universe
earth and
result
science
has been created.
proceed
now
that
seen
Genesis
material
The
3.
already
God
made
day,
and
the lesser
that
is,the
lesser
in the
the
stars
for
the
note
heavens
let
That
us
to
is
are
is
adapted
which
of
which
delightof
science
to
earth
and
stability
the
other
hand, the
attractive
and
difficult,
that the
mass
would
power
render
of the
by livingbeings upon
mass
earth
receiving
animate
is
the
they
evidently
an
of the
mass
they would
lose
enjoy. If,on
now
greater, the
much
make
the
and
livingbeings on
effort
This
life a burden.
the earth
and
still is,the
If the
force, and
and
There
of the earth
mass
would
many
tastes.
There
were
the
and
been, and
attract
which
for
ear
between
the earth.
rest
it,the
to
we
tastes
our
the
decreased
that
increased
the
system.
adaptation between
it has
between
is upon
with
we
air,for example,
the
and
explore.
less,it would
were
its surface
The
harmony
a
and
us,
gratifythose
Nature
relation
to
between
inanimate
the life which
which
on
connected
one
are
similar
a
Nature
indications
planned
for seasons,
fact
a
proves.
light, and
objects in
from
day
Meanwhile, it is enough
conveying sound,
There
and
eye
lights
ask, is the reading of science ?
now
observation
slightest
sound.
is set
be
the
signs,and
upon
say.
earth
the world
is fitted for
let there
the
Scripturerepresentation that
the
and
"
;
years."
something
we
with
whole
divide
to
be for
touches
statement
shall have
What,
let them
the
said
God
of the heaven
and
this service
of
purpose
"And
:
days, and
This
that
14
expanse
for
and
the
"TJ
the stars
night,and
joined in
were
and
verse
night ;
rule the
lightto
light;
forth in
the Material Universe.
Unity of
The
powers
belong
to
one
more
shows
enjoyed
plan.
78 Genesis" THE
Science
which
has had
of all
order
Sir
showed
that
Isaac
also
immersed,
are
"
one
*'
reveals
to
distant
most
by
holds
gravitation,
unity,and
a
with
all
held
were
of
united
are
with
and
all
the late Duke
we
bodies
heavenly
that
seen
says
of the
the existence
all the
opinion
of
embraces
of
progress
and
science, since
accumulated
to the
more
universe
of
and
stars
and
the
especially
stellar research
that it is
The
Thus
systems, which
Unity of Nature,
vast
has
so
been
the whole
body
p.
ii.
the
is
half of
Wallace,
more
one
during
of facts
plete
com-
the last
lated
accumu-
firmlyestablished
unity
Place
in
any
of the
implied in
\ Man's
stellar
of the visible
constitutes
; and
an
tending
hardly questioned by
now
t
authority."
sidereal
nebulae
closely-related
system
thirtyyears
by
conception that
Alfred
Dr.
has
astronomers
the
intervening space,
which
century," writes
in
Argyll,
with
"
the nineteenth
the
research
place the unity of the
During the latter
beyond doubt.
universe
*
of
of facts which
array
view
proceeded,
Advancing
lightand
The
*
law
epoch-making discoveries,has
these
and
orbs.
was
the
planetarymotion,
formed
system
atmosphere,
all."
them
the
fact that
worlds,
ethereal
some
"the
it
the
us
of
laws
of
Light,"
grasp.
with
increasinglymanifest.
in which
and
research
as
of facts
similarly connected
of
of ether
sea
the
be
the nature
but
;
celestial
distant
great
reconcile
solar
our
it must
revealed
difficult to
Newton's
that
more
multitude
became
harmony
Kepler's discovery of
and
a
pervading law
and
I." II. 3.
encounter
to
first seemed
at
idea
BEGINNING"
the
the
this
tent
compe-
solar
and
Scripture
Universe,
p.
loo.
Unity of
The
regardingtheir origin,is
statements
science
seeing that
Bible
the
conviction.
This
fact.
a
as
Nature
spoken of, as
which
the Material Universe.
continue
is
throughout thought of, and
all
Thy
are
"
servants
the
times, which
to
has
one
the
They
ordinances:
made
knowledge
a
domain
a
it abideth.
cxix. go,
(Psalm
of
as
this
estabhshed
to Thine
Bible
it possessors
earliest
hast
Thou
"
day according
again, therefore,
received
of
with
all its vastness,
Psalmist, "and
the
this
imbued
everywhere
will.
all-controlling
says
remarkable,
more
It is conceived
one.
accepted by
now
is
subject,throughout
is
earth,"
is the
79
for
gi).
Here
those
who
from
even
the
incredible
science, after almost
achievements, is onl}^clearlyattainingnow.
The
4.
condition ofmatter
first
the
applied by
terms
Scripture to
created, indicate that it was
the
"
as
the
"
:
be
and
a
Spiritof
"
waters
the
this refers to
dividingof
the whole
matter
in
was
The
been
a
advanced,
this nebular
moved
"the
upon
the
said. Let
God
of the waters, and
created
(ver.6). If
and
matter,
two, then
into
mass
as
the
primeval
fluid condition.
surrendered
discovered
to
the waters"
hypothesis of
nebular
research
from
partitionof
a
referred
in the midst
waters
the face of
upon
God
first
at
as
It is described
(verse 2) ; "And
firmament
let it divide
was
is also
ofa fluid.The
matter,
fluid.
a
darkness
It
the
"And
face of the
there
"
;
(i. 2).
deep"
waters
"
deep
that
was
by
some
one
weak
after another.
hypothesiswas
"
Kant
Laplace
and
leading
scientists.
place in
the
For
about
theory
half
a
has
As
was
century
generallyaccepted ;
but
8o
during the
last
thirtyyears
difficulties have
will
been
now
as
Science
day.
has
unable
to
of the
mass
earth
is
in
of matter
as
that of
last result is
of
in
the
upon
imparted
5. The
of
partlydue
the
sun
of
;
that
round
the
that
the
posed
com-
compressed
so
mass
similar
to
fluidity
*
Man's
fiewcomh,
Popular
with
the
in the
it from
it."
This
p.
%
intense
This
heat
must
have
the first.
Universe, p.
Astronomy
honey
or
acting
gravitation,
but
of force.
Place
tar
as
to
behaviour
primeval matter,
mighty
introduction
tSee
agreed
mechanical
"
familiar
are
we
doubt
interior
the
the
diameter, is
in
substances
such
air,as
no
its
render
to
as
like that
than
and
liquid.!"The density and viscosity
matter
are
probably such, says Prof.
a
of this internal
more
infer
to
"
to resemble
Newcomb,
able
; and
state, but
gaseous
developing
crust
sun
we
of the
mass
are
the
of
mass
a
dition.
con-
the great
heavens
Astronomers
860,000 miles
is
interior,which
solid
But
are
we
comparatively thin
globular
enormous
and
stages the
what
passed.
a
however,
a
from
luminary
planet ;
our
now
future
some
entirelysolid,though
now
even
through
have
there
of
fluid to
a
another
by yet
exploreits internal state.
as
compared with the
sun,
rapidly as
it
theory, which
in its turn
from
earth, has prevented that
from
another
knowledge
passed
It is not
are
the
felt
been
clearly demonstrated,
has
that the earth
it has
working hypothesis."*
replaced by
keeping with
in
objections and
many
a
probably be supplanted
more
as
so
I." II. 3.
suggested, that
been
retain it even
impossibleto
It has
BEGINNING"
THE
Genesis"
264.
is the first thing
112.
J Page 276.
worlds
be
know
of the
almost
kind
advocated, and
is
kind
a
generated
Motion,
writes
is
motion,
moving
bodies
to
rest
or
is force. "t
of the
movement
the waters."
has
been
it,matter
for the
to
would
Croonian
whence
Lectures
ever
sustain
phenomena
know
*
decreasing
of the
was
Force, p. 28.
end.
an
God
"
upon
Force,"
which
is at
which
starts
This
thing
some-
conveyed
impulsive
the
face
of
self-evolved; for it
not
To
be
material
the force which
on
"
themselves
since ; and
it.
of
by experience,
the continued
was
be
mass
brings one
force which
outside
heat
?
body
a
outside
Spirit of
That
that
stop moving, of their
or
brings it to
The
:
says
may
this
come
know
you
move,
primeval matter
to
as
Something
their movement,
heat
and,
;
of
by friction,percussion,
for
to
sets
a
*
heat
motion
is
powerfully
motion
also whatever
either
never
free will.
own
this
meant
was
and
Jones
so
that
; and
is
words
ably supported, was,
is whatever
"
Bence
mind
heat
these
combustion."
by
as
whence
Caillard,
in
rest
well
that
Rumford
so
therefore,
But
matter.
conclude
compression,
as
a
quoting
of motion
and
to
profound
heat,
which
Davy
heat
was
of
Professor
theory, then,
and
moon
contem.plationof
After
Tyndall,
how
that
the direct
From
phenomena
and
sun
But
to-day.
motion."
Professor
heat
and
the absolute
in order
needed
was
to
instinctively
of
The
"
?
I." 11. 3.
lay torpid in
earth
the
we
generated
led
Heat
become
which
some
fashioned
of space.
it should
stars
BEGINNING"
be
to
were
cold
"
THE
Genesis"
82
if matter
able
to
gave
account
universe, we
suppliedthe
f Invisible Powers
had
heat
of Nature,
p. 4.
of
The
the universe
came.
originally
written, who
was
?
needed
6. The
"
creation
be
This
light.
thing
this
fine kind
latter
Where
to
is the way
used
a
That
phrase ?
the
wait
of
light
of
matter."*
as
In
refers, like
Bohlen
von
lightdwelleth
"
of
support
in
passage
pondered
for
independent
an
ever
is,in
19th century
of
till science
an
anywhere
Job
And,
?
:
as
(xxxviii.
19) ?
the
the
?
passage
word
the
had
else than
Christian
"way"
Light
in
a
we
exactlyreflects
the
so
recent
discovery?
*
has
extraordinary
had
wait
to
It had
era.
actuallynever
It is the
"way."
of
which
advancing."
gathered knowledge enough
as
of the ether,
the
in this
at
writer
was
"
going," an
question which
answer.
the vibrations
"
a
is hinted
a
how
modern
whatever
difficulty
placethereof
was
furnish
But
that
way,
is it that
What
by
give
surely a sufficiently
strikingexpression
speaks of lightas "dwelling,"not in a place,
that
in
which
It is
(derek)?
but
bodies
Gunkel, for example, noted
Has
proper
conceptions,
is the
writers
these
Have
the
no
where
darkness, where
was
Gunkel,
says
modern
misunderstood
a
the
was
is,"
It
to
he
statement
him,
before
thinks
It
a
as
"
this
circumstance, much
antiquity.
for
*'
of light.
constituted
apologists,'
explanation
given ?
light originates before
that
83
the Pentateuch
this
that
striking,according
very
"
knew
it should
Light.
When
that
knew
who
And
place at which
'
Creation of
shall
Job
see
led to
till
to
to
dwelt
product of
immediately.
use
a
phrase
knowledge acquiredby
Genesis, p. 93.
BEGINNING"
84 Genesis" THE
far
So
this
was
idea
from
possessionof antiquitythat
the
could
sun,
has
It
angels.
Jewish
some
refer
only
of
common
tors
commenta-
from
hght, apart
the
to
others
driven
the
being
this creation
that
beheved
I." II. 3.
creation
of
equally
to
the
fanciful
But, thanks to the mighty advances
interpretations.
made
recognise
by recent physical research, we now
in it
of
statement
a
anticipationof
science.
of, the
of
followinglines
writes,
"
in
'
Sir
point of
from
Offspring
of
it
and
a
Eternal
was
a
best
simple
statement
recognise,"he
We
co-eternal
Herschell
has
beam
said
conception
due
"
scientific
the
The
be
to
a
ignorance
*
Flowers
oj the
"*
emanation
an
body
of flame
misconception which
thrown
was
and
Sky, pp.
not
i,
;
stituted
con-
the ridicule which
Creation-History.
to
products
Illuminatingparticles
forth from
age
;
superior in
physicalworld.'
and pointed
difficulty
of
'
all other
in the
power
be sent
to
*
:
to
formerly believed
so-called
statement
are
first-born
Heaven
this scientific
the
in
of
illuminatingbody.
was
"
known.
now
the
as
"
the
and
supposed
were
lines which
"
the
quotes
of all else that exists in the universe
John
was
an
over
"
rank
Light
astronomer,
Scripture
results of creative
or
raised
was
more
light
the antecedent
as
Milton
it is
And
or,
of
of the
as
laughter
was
that which
the
Proctor,
of the fact
undeniable
an
creatinglightbefore,and independently
sun.
paraphrase
fact,and
Never
than
completely silenced
the notion
sober
2.
upon
But
to
the
this
culty
diffi-
knowledge.
Creation of
The
is
It
acting
of
the
upon
lightare
The
sound.
strikingof
which
ear
these
immense
us.
pervading all
is
news
though
more
than
swiftest
to
the
flows
even
aerial
brought
to
rest,
meet
come
the
;
known
Proctor.
essence
some
depths,
remotest
at
exceeding
rate
a
velocity of
the
the
as
forest trees.
else
or
just as
but
flowing
the
to their
shore,
or
they
end,
or
shallows
a
are
waves
are
near
freely
as
breeze
summer
The
through
the
of space,
ether
the
space,
pass
result of
realitythe
more
which
of
waves
solid
bodies, but either they are
deflected
ocean
the
in this way
cannot
air,but in
asks
of
is in
solids
densest
through
is
elastic medium,
perfectly
almost
only void
not
"
is called
in what
perfectly
transparent,
through
in the
from
times
Light," he continues,
occupying
Light
train?"
express
undulations
of the
atmosphere
is traversed
million
ten
It is the
after journeys lasting many
us,
space
a
impulse given
light?"
whereby,
space,
utter
sound.
mysterious movement
brought
years,
*'
then, is
mitted
trans-
are
substance, infinitely
the thinnest
than
What,
is that
"What
elastic
an
observer,
an
mechanism
not
"
force
particles
we
an
of
motion
of
when
the
sensation
of
ocean
"
to
upon
similar
a
attenuated
more
waves
gives the
the result of
an
are
The
in motion.
set
waves
of
breath
our
listener
a
85
result
the eye
to
is the result of
sound
air,whose
the
to
of
ear
the
ether.
of
particles
the
the
to
of the
waves
transmitted
not
than
more
any
light is
that
known
now
Light.
liquid,or
or
or
sooner
or
light
less
ally
gradu-
traverse
deflected,when
the shore.
later
the
they
"All
light,however,
ethereal
minute
us
which
of which
the
therefore,
there
be light,"
Further
and
necessityof
its
extent,"
on
Sir
says
organic or
Light
"
John
in
A
the
When
former,
the
Let
forth.
the
impression
that
The
of
else
variety
Herschel,
"of
the
its action
revealed
to
photography, assign to
agents of the
of
the
anything
immense
inorganic matter,
natural
among
heat.
"
existence,in order
universe.
upon
given,
was
lightstreamed
the late discoveries
universal
command
to
agencies of lightas displayedin
chemical
Light,
universalityof light, and
exist in the
should
gives
yieldslight.
investigationdeepens
marvellous
rank
to
the molecules
to
composed.
submitted
been
prepared, the
far
so
is
of force
of force
had
primeval waters
by
known
matter
of the conferring
of energy
amount
still greater amount
both
of
the
of
movements
imparted
matter
result
certain
A
matter.
and
all forms
the result of motion
atoms
or
the
the
in
in the
origin,not
composed." Light, in short, is vibration,which,
again, is
and
I." II. 3.
its real
has
itself,but
ocean
particles,
of
are
was,
BEGINNING"
THE
Genesis"
86
highest and
us
it
a
most
character."*
was
therefore
for all the life which
requiredto
prepare
follow.
Is it
to
was
the way
possibleto
explain the fact that the creation of light occupies
this exact
place in the Creation-History,apart from
the fullest Divine
?
Light
inspiration
sufficient
and
force ;
into the
introduced
the
it
Familiar
next
after
newly-createdmatter.
forerunner
absolutely necessary
*
comes
is the effect of
Lectures
upon
of all
ScientificSubjects, p.
220.
force
is
Light
is
vegetable
Creation of the
The
in 1600
secrets
of
have
animal
vegetable and
of all
page
it is here
life; and
animal
and
been
what
taught
the
Who
placed
those
that
Scripture,so
made
life.
Who
B.C.?
Expanse.
87
precursor
these
knew
them
the
upon
centuries
thirty-five
science
discovered
only
yesterday ?
CHAPTER
The
Creation-History
continue
WE
The
creation
shown
in the
that
prove
merely
carried
this
seen
He
passage.
Hebrew
rdkia
word
^r^ss^^down
the
rdkia
is
"
supportingthe
a
note
he
margin
the
a
false
means
an
of
of
informs
his
so
of water
translation
Revised
or
show
so
carrying criticism quiteto
upon
that
thing
some-
that
capable
above."
"expanse"
stating that
Genesis, p. 7.
the
"
means
confined
the verge
is
attempt
comment
expanse
extended
is
critics to
on
Version, alleging that
;" and
"
the
beaten out;'' and
solid
and
"
Bible
readers
("firmament")
at
is felt to
the
far that
How
Driver's
masses
expanded
look
much
How
in Dr.
firm
sense
wonderful
past ignorance, and
firm, and
rejectsthe
of
suggests
a
this
now
attempts
origin.
be
We
words
opening
express
human
may
chain.
strenuous
they
Accord
(Continued).
of the expanse.
those
upon
Full
in
inspectionof
our
seventeen-linked
depend
a
is
Science
WITH
7.
VII.
"
of
In
the
"
it
the word
*
tiling.''
This
is
of the ridiculous.
88
Who
BEGINNING"
THE
Genesis"
denied
ever
that the expanse
question is whether
thing "pressed down
than
it
before.
was
rdka
as
beat
out."
Driver
Dr.
make
Hebrew
rdka
to
which
do
rdka
is
the
printed in
earth
italics
"
it
"
(Isaiah xlii. 5).
"making
but
of
"
:
the
which
And
made
able
Is it
of
"
He
cometh
is
out
of
hint
no
firmly,"
to
sense
which
"
solid
move
and
so
?
"
there
the
be
let it divide
the
below
be.
a
rdkla
rdkia
to
If so, how
is that
the waters
Is this
rational
critics would
is it that
it ?
a
How
solid
and
are
we
utterly
exegesisto keep
here
in
the waters
pressed firmly down,"
freelythrough
for any
critical
repudiatethe
latter may
something
more
i.6
the waters
these
impossible it is
the
there
Plainly,then,
from
above, whatever
"
translation
that which
said, Let
God
waters."
extends
?
in Gen.
of the waters,
midst
body
in
extending,expanding, spreading out.
comment
from
is shown
(Psalm cxxxvi. 6) ;
Here
are
down, but
solid," of "pressing down
more
Besides, the words
the
There
that stretched out
Him
and
to
other
any
meaning
"To
:
"
firm,"
press
the
out,
for which
nor
to
in which
that spreadforth the earth
of
Fuerst
Its
the waters
upon
down
mean
them.
following passages,
spread
to
meaning
press
of the
fundamental
"
chronicled.
ever
among
the
the
quite as
speaks
extend,
neither
authority has
is not
the
"
"
in Hebrew
words
with
say,
"
"
sohd
to
is
Hebrew
a
soHd
more
Fuerst
stretch,to
contends
more
Driver's
EngHsh.
Strange
The
thing?
a
made
firm," and
Dr.
to
was
expanded thing, or
an
organic root
an
of
signification
to
it is
his
unsatisfactoryas
verb
I." II. 3.
impose
to
upon
Genesis"
go
render
THE
the word
BEGINNING"
The
"expanse."
original Scripturetaught
the
which
than
them
made
time.
Here
between
is
wiser
the waters
The
"
:
above
upon
the
the
heavens
That
comment
the
the
world,
expand
waters
distance
until
are
is from
by
distinction
also
are
(here below)
high
as
above
earth."
to
Ureenah,
When
"
:
piled
com-
God
created
') continued
expanse
it."
rebuked
He
the words
heaven
'
{rakia, the
their
Jewish writer, in 1693.
a
itself it is said
it
a
in the Tzeenah
Talmud
Talmud
made
the
truths
of
on
they are
as
the
occurs
the
science
the waters, for there
And
the
as
Rabbis
comment
heavens
earth.
from
In
the
the
heavens
(or separation)between
waters
expressions of
ancient
Rabbinical
one
I." II. 3.
The
Jews
to
have
been
in their
testimony on this point, and were
kept rightsimply by the Scripture. David Kimchi,
constant
who
in the
died
hy paras,
spread
"to
has
rendering
translations
They
scholars
of the
who
and
they have
rdkla
render
learned
others
As
the
the
the
rdka
this
seen,
in
Jews
of the Old
made
the
ment.
Testa-
Christian
before
at and
the times
Jewish interpretation.
Martyr, Calvin, Luther,
Peter
translate
verb
have
we
by
followed
and
the
by "expanse."
Hebrew
Reformation
Vatablus
out."
followed
been
which
explains
1240,
year
word
by
"
and
expanse,"
"extension."
Let
us
light upon
is
now
ask
research
this great work
usually understood
separated from
heat, which
whether
to
the waters
stillmade
of the
that
mean
;
that
the
itself felt upon
has
shed
Second
the
the
Day.
clouds
earth's
any
It
were
interior
surface, had
is the
What
enveloped
this
that
made,
This,
floated.
trivial
too
in
as
work
a
disposesof
the
the
Day
Second
Dana
to
so
is "the
which
station
a
clouds,
or
rdkia
of the
stretches
out
in which
and
; for
all the
Will
the
reader
the
"
divided
the expanse
which
Driver
Dr.
it would
what
certainlyhave
could
making
empty
body
space,
and
"placed"
cannot
it to
a
interval
mere
another?
An
between
be worked
be
"as
illustration which
one
God
made
which
were
were
above
been
the
solid
to
show
that
be, it is evident
that
hard
so
be
made
"
in the formation
between
interval
works
Gesenius
Scripturetells
which
be
in
uses
in
of
"set,"
another;
gold
;" but
an
heavenly
one
can
object and
one
heaven;
(verse 8).
waters
required to
there
the
the earth"
"And
:
rdkia
the
strives
Scripture conceives
the
the
their
in
them
"
"
the
It
tion,
direc-
have
is called
the waters
had
Now,
expanse."
dome
from
tnade
the
expanse
in every
heaven
that
upon
entire
set
all that
was
and
expanse,
the
God
note
itself
between
give lightupon
to
now
that this expanse
under
"
place
a
made
heavenly bodies
that
seems
atmosphere.
earth
our
clouds
History
God
our
called the expanse
God
"And
What
even
embraces
It
(verse 17).
the
clear interval
from
read
we
the
pre-eminent
And
in
clear
a
remarked,
heavens,"
of the heavens
expanse
the
occupy
suggestion.
the
and
waters
an
Professor
is not
until
top of which
the
on
; and
occupied
was
still farther
Creation-History.
the
us
surface
earth's
was
period
91
of steam
atmosphere
an
creative
second
cooling the
interval
globe in
our
Expanse?
and
but
or
it
silver,"
speaking
of
THE
Genesis"
92
the
BEGINNING"
of
meaning
I." II. 3.
asah, which
is
here
rendered
"made."
This, had
another
"
it been
Bible
difficulty."We
enough, however,
to
that
see
Isaiah
In
expanse.
stretcheth
that
word
here
this
passage
other
referred
elsewhere
xl.
22
which
words
"
the
as
made,
be
might
and
had
men
by
meant
this
leave
It
in
with
its
to
as
it
renders
as
also
ness
gives "thin-
our
translation
when
notion
descriptionof
to
The
occurs
doubt
no
adequate
taken
was
....
closelyconnected
But
no
of the
of
the
what
heavens
cloth,
fine
signifysome
;
curtain.
or
of
One
nineteenth
that the sun,
earth
unless
two.
This
there
was
pursued
medium
to
was
be
empty
mere
for
lost
suspected
into
taken
swept
heavenly
not
attract
it
was
bodies
But
the true
shewn
move
that
in
to
the
mers
astrono-
if there
as
the
connecting the
account.
when
away
better
that
sightof afterwards, and
their calculations
the
for it seemed
space,
medium
some
of
supplied a
instance, could
was
discovered, and
all the
has
Newton
Isaac
not
were
discoveries
important
most
Sir
heavens
him
the
century, however,
comment.
was
meaning.
the word
so
is dok.
a
ture
Scrip-
curtain."
a
Gesenius
"fineness," "thinness."
The
It is He
"
Fuerst, in his Concordance,
meaning.
was
another, and
:
as
"
it is
only,but
light
now
claims.
read
we
formed
this constitution
to
curtain
"
rendered
Hebrew
it is
the heavens
out
have
of Bible
marvellous, confirmation
has
have
weighed, might
a
were
this
our
nation
imagiof
nature
earth
great
no
sea
light
and
of
The
"*
attenuated, that
so
be
could
said
be
to
the
subject is
as
a
that
Now
transmission
that
element
this
were
stretched
done
before
and
How
(i) that
us
done
at this
8. The
and
the
fineness.
relations
this work
separationin
portion of
The
heavens
had
work
to
be
heavenly bodies,
fixed.
were
Bible
(2) that
and
the
earth of
our
"
entire
a
111,000,000
tells
it
of the
was
miles,
land
or
of the
*J. hztraoT, Encyclopaiiia Britannica,
1,000
vol. xsv.,
the
38,000,000
is about
ocean
Tnen
and
tained.
ascer-
now
nearly three
surface.
is
It
upon
has
is about
is about
This
Three.
Day
enough
science
surface
water
submerged,
was
the surface
the continents
of
is water
entire land
and
place."
one
globe
fact which
square
that
"
into
seas
land
dry
the great work
miles, while
heightof
The
any
precisejuncture ?
earth to do this
as
so
from
"
other
each
done,
was
that, consequently,there
great
to
in this
made
for the fact that the
account
implies that
square
That
for the
made
gatheringof the
the first
freed
was
the
to
was
aggregation."
as
types
matter."*
clear
expanse
nature
place was
a
we
can
out
their
before
in
any
function
popular mind
The
atomic
complexitiesof
and
on
regarded
from
portions of
for the
up
"fineness."
word,
one
free
masterly
statement,
scientist,is summed
be
of the various
the
it
last word
must
.
medium
between
physicaleffect
of
expanded,"
aggregation,whose
atomic
the
to
.
93
whether
The
Aether
"
"
so
doubted
at all.
matter
uniform
complexitiesof
It is
have
some
that the
continuous
is confined
Expanse.
is this ether ?
What
ether."
of the
Nature
times
the
mean
feet above
p. io6.
as
the
THE
Genesis"
94
the
level,and
sea
BEGINNING"
of the
depth
mean
than
miles, that is,more
I." II. 3.
feet. If the land
20,000
uniformly levelled,therefore,the
earth
the whole
miles.
dry
great continents
of nature
truth
It
and
land
might
any
case,
there
But
science
was
all
were
in
left their mark
the
risinglands
seas
;
and
from
also
were
Bible.
tide.
of
functions
mark
to
waters
Then
the
out
times
rills were
the
mountains
rivers,till at last the
extent
with
covered
and
Thus
great
at
were
As
to
majestic
communication,
out
:
the
and
streams
at
nents
conti-
work,
plains,opening
distributingfertility
the
earth's
features
and
.....
successivelyindividualised
were
more
fundamental
those
myriad
its
around
Fresh
marshes, into which
throughout
everywhere.
lies behind
rain-dropimpression.
channelling mountains, spreading
lines
what
sweeping
waters
changed
of
sea
first waters," says
slopes around.
rills
of
prolonged work.
incipientcontinents
the
v/ere
"The
unbroken
fresh water
enlarged, the
rivers
indicates
commenced
the
spread with
flowing
us, and
a
the
work.
separation
for any
in
the
instantaneous, and that, in
salt, the
only
with
Divine
a
room
no
almost
an
are
of
minutely
impressed
if this
as
been
of the
"
sphere
have
is
they
:
us
corrects
the statement
the
to
appear
may
Dana,
here
declared
lines
more
are
three
tells us, the
grand
their structure
and
studied, the student
very
the
as
was
cover
and
two
submersion, science
raised, and
was
would
water
of between
depth
a
this
From
land
to
is four
ocean
"
the
first,
qualitiesbeing evolved, and
details in which
its
finally
tics,
specialcharacteris-
and
magnificentperfection,
its great purpose
Making of the Dry Land.
The
of existence
fitness for
and
Creation-Historyby
from
proceeded
for ages
or
under
it
"
That
is
tell
Genesis
before
spoke
the
the waters
as
more
it stood
be
division
for
that what
is
dry
land
bed, and that what
been
dry
changes
had
been
land.
had
is
It
a
been
the case,
to
the
now
made
we
geography
before
the
could
dry
least
It
of Geology, pp. 756, 757.
assumed,
the
had
not
formerly
these
Now, if this
once.
have
+ Manual
ocean
that
believed
than
a
believed
was
bed
ocean
and
ment.
arrange-
been
once
land
sion
if the divi-
as
been
sure
that
was
what
had
here, also,science
Manual
Scripture
permanent
this.
further
more
The
been
*
be
to
Bible
dry land and
first. But
in
science
how
the present division of
at the
will those
the
at
to-day had
was
made
came
all,and
first was
opposed
was
have
for
noted.
Geology long taught, or
theory which
channel."{
But
and
between
once
at the
earth's
?
may
made
was
and
separate
or
statement
correct
a
born
was
if this
as
the
are
look
began,
of
language
point
One
that
the voyages
science
modern
of
voyagers
to
;
continents," says
science.
it is vain
then
man
place
continents
adventurous
i. explain how
made
speaks
the
of modern
that
us
one
and
have
the waters
occupy one continuous basin
oceans
commonplace
who
could
said, Let
divisions
grander
fact which
a
God
gathered unto
while
But,
the
areas,
a
be
the
are
surface.
which
(verse g). "Oceans
"
Dana,
"
afterwards.
so
part of the
knowledge possessed by
no
the heaven
was
this
to
statement
a
*
duty, largelyconsist."
seal is attached
the Divine
And
95
sea
has
of Geology, p.
at
11.
last
96 Genesis" THE
to clash
ceased
there
BEGINNING"
with
is
Scripture.It
movements
are
I." II. 3.
which
to
known
now
continents
the
subject,the apparent objectof
which
is to
ancient division.
reason
for
writes
Mr.
tian
the
the
that
continents
prestrvethe
supposing,"
general
and
"
life began upon
supposing
Pacific,and
so
hold
great
*
right when
9. A
the earth's
the earth
there
bottoms
of
the
of
waters
Oceans
dry land.
to become
as
the
the Indian
otherwise."
the
have
Once
was
relative
oceans
long
was
sun,
objectionswhich
History in
the
no
reason
Atlantic, the
raised
been
thought
geologists
Scripture was
wrong.
the introduction
like the creation
of
of so-called
one
"
lightbefore
"
insuperable
urged against the
were
of science.
name
crust).
stupendous
ever
periodof vegetation
previousto
life.This,
is
the
Here, also, then, the
science
animal
the
that
which
abysses
of
great
"
no
period (the earliest portionof
Since
up
is
are
altered at all since the beginning of the Lauren-
have
for
There
John Fiske,
positionsof
**
"
that
Creation-
Goodwin
Mr.
sums
its
in these words:
"There
allegedimpossibilities
of the
the insuperable difficulty
remains, moreover,
up
plants and
third
day
birds
;
that
"
which
repeats the
which
to
there
done
more
is
no
than
of
an
an
indication
age
before
any
that
on
other
a
Evolutionist, p.
to
Dr.
Driver
an
artifice
Goodwin
vindicate
the
would
+ Essays and
has
Scripture
scientist of world-wide
20.
the
fishes and
geologicalauthority,who
The
J. \V. Dawson,
Excursions
than
made
clearlynot the case." t
objection,but couples it with
descended.
*
is,more
as
is
have
is Sir
being represented
trees
Reviews, pp.
fame,
239, 240.
98 Genesis" THE
but
the
humblest
observable."
*
abandon
to
accord
the
animal
old
of
Dr.
Driver
Mosaic
that
forms
too, in
marine, and
reader
notice, however,
had
from
Zockler:
animals,
and
animals
animals
from
and
the
and
so
to
"the
admitted
far
as
have
last
that
"
it goes, shows
been
of
an
event
that
has yet been
There
are
still,
plants
animals
water
after
that
to
Even
Dr.
land
of
the
Buckland
organic remains,
; if any
animals,
discovered
to
together
conclusion
of
to
geology regards
originof plants and
of
the
postulates a
life from
the
the evidence
the
Let
earlyvegetation
no
into existence
century."
contemporaneous
vegetablespreceded
such
was
But
sense.
was
these,
sion.
impliedconfes-
account
plants as coming
geology of
then
the
birds, and
That
the
tion.
by the old objecfollowingquotation
organic
proper
first."
there
the later from
among
in the
vegetation.
Mosaic
of
only
abide
makes
"The
creeping things
that
Driver's
critics who
advance
graduated
into existence
to be surrendered.
writer
recent
longer
no
themselves, and
that
position,
it is true, belated
A
Dr.
into
more
he tries to maintain
in land
not
all,has had
come
assertion
shown
compelled
It is
but
;
the
humblest
at
been
account.
life appeared
former
has
to
is
vegetation
vegetation came
objection by
The
I." II.3.
marine
and
Goodwin,
possibleto deny
the
forms
Here
Mr.
with
before
BEGINNING"
no
animals
creation
of
evidence
of
by the
researches
geology." t
The
1885
above
paragraph
Professor
*
Dana
Genesis, p. 23.
was
wrote
published in 1836.
that
the
iBridgewaier Treatise, p.
evidence
17.
In
is
Early Land
An
**
strong for
abundant
an
This
period."*
Buckland's
The
thick.
a
I should
have
Sir
J.
besides
the order
availed
tables
**
as
the
purelyillusory." If
would
be
higher criticism
;
been
table
and
The
from
form
are
has
that
lowest
rocks
Dr.
to
one-fourth
from
of
at
country
his
could
of all
of
are
feet
;
an
that
of the entire crust
Bibliotheca
the
all distinct traces
rocks
30,000
In
Sacra
least,
in order
of
my
religious
page.
the Laurentian.
are
ment
state-
evolutionist
an
the next
upon
a
The
borrow
school
own
a
as
for sober
Fiske,
Mr.
four to six miles in
*
as
described
suspicion,I
Driver's
rocks
Laurentian
20,000
of
one
Driver,
character
this
the Cambrian.
higher are
the
shadow
will be found
This
of
assertion
Dawson's
in
latterly,
pages
of the Cambrian
But
formed.
were
scientist
trainingschool
of Dr.
member
thought.
next
the
from
a
the
even
eye
hopelesslycompromised.
no
it has
our
signalisedby questionabletactics. But,
avoid
to
while
is
parts of the
But
eminent
is
twenty-one
under
they
century,"
substantiated, Dr.
scientist
have
charts.
last
to
earth
for this purpose
myself
superannuating this
"
by modern
the diiferent
to
sideration
con-
in Dr.
of the
crust
sixteen
us
the Azoic
even
made
in which
Dawson's
W.
geologistof
be
be from
to
to
referring
In
showing
map
of
rocky
99
fuller
to
known
were
crust, it is well for
earth's
largelydue
to the advances
entire
variouslyestimated
miles
is
change
time, and
chemistry.
earlyplant life in
facts which
of
Vegetation.
The
lowest
parts
of life cease.
immense
depth
"
is,they actually
of the
depth. Some
(April,1885),p.
213.
earth, and
writers
adopt
loo
a
Genesis"
still
THE
BEGINNING"
higher estimate, and
I." II.3.
believe
them
to
be
from
Recent
Pleistocene
Pliocene
Mammals
dominant.
Miocene
Eocene
Cretaceous
Jurassic
Reptiles dominant.
Triassic
Earliest
birds.
j
Earliest
mammals
(
Earliest
batrachians.
Earliest
insects.
Earliest
fishes.
Earliest
mollusks
Permian
and
reptiles.
Carboniferous
Devonian
Silurian
Cambrian
Eozoon
Indirect
Laurentian
35,000
that
to
feet.*
40,000
all that
is claimed
*
crustaceans.
?
of life.
traces
It will be
in
and
seen
regard to
from
animal
Hull, Geological History, p. 26.
the table
lifeis that
Early Land
An
there
"indirect
are
tian
rocks.
immense
far
all
But
This
vegetationthat
for it proves
of animal
traces
longer
no
can
There
was
"
humblest
the
observable.
forms
will have
He
"t
which
of iron-ore
beds
decay
iron, there
plumbago,
"
"
leads
for
graphite in
Now
light
in the
open
immense
are
pencils are
from
Laurentian
has
been
graphitethrough
the
again quote
*
from
A/aHMfl/, p. 152.
Dana
"
t
"
G"""ts, p. 23.
so-called
of
amount
is enormous."
the
upon
has
the
to
graphite,or
The
discovery that
"
equally
an
the
vegetable origin is beyond
(whose
leled
unparal-
vegetation
of
which
rocks
thrown
tation
vege-
addition
In
fashioned.
the
and
of
been
I Dana,
"
is
position,
The
marine
deposits
material
a
marine
a
this
result
air.
entirety.
vegetation
immense
unparalleledland vegetation,for
cannot
was
the other.
the
are
its
period nothing
to abandon
those
produced
it
marine
however, justas he abandoned
admits
seen,
in
Silurian
of
land
vast
geologicalobjection
but
says,
the
prior to
old
the
And
discover
a
have
we
huge
a
well-worn
we
existed
beds
air.
open
and
maintained
be
he
vegetation,
a
vegetation:
but
as
grudginglythat
somewhat
the
long before
life,there
Driver,
Dr.
vegetation.
are
''They
is the result of
decayedin
that
there
the iron-ore
"
Dana,
of this famous
end
an
rocks
feet thick.
loo
are
have
Lauren-
materials.
iron-bearing
iron-ore
must
fact makes
objection;
any
beds
thickness,'"
says
of later ages."*
that
these
beds of iron-ore and of
exceed in
loi
of it in the upper
through
of the iron-ore
Some
"
traces
Vegetation.
%
of
nature
mineral
coal
"
question)
"
I
observed, in
Afrj)""n/,
p. 157.
Genesis"
102
THE
the carboniferous
and
graphite;
BEGINNING"
of Rhode
rocks
in the
John,
New
Brunswick,
There
was,
therefore, an
period of
contested
the
encountered
Scripture
has
arises from
which
first figuresin Dr.
Genesis.
trees, is
Tertiaryperiod
we
the
of
fossil
are
coast
west
writes
objection.
the
ing
"vegetation,includThird
Day, whereas,
abundance
"
there
70"
found
are
different
all." f
This
chestnuts
of
prominence
though
it
ground
for the assertion
history
"
into
period,or
but
a
very
the rocks
*Dana,
Manual,
in
there
it had
even
earlier times.
of
in water.
in
the
higher
But
is
existence
no
partial record
Place
higher
the
that
\ Man's
137
.
the earth.
prominence then,
laid down
p. 157.
inhabit
to
.
the
afterwards
possesses
which
species of oaks, beeches, poplars,
life which
Silurian
On
of
abundance
evidentlya preparationfor
came
"
latitude,"
N.
vegetationwas
was
the
In
beautifully
preserved,among
plants very
species in
humblest
of trees.
in
Greenland,
Wallace,
Dr.
many
find
vines, walnuts, plums,
plane-trees,
the
discredit
to
attempt
period,nothing but the
vegetation is observable."
of marine
of
difficulties,
one
formidable
a
says,
on
falter,
Bible.
the Silurian
priorto
forms
complete
he
the
now
consideration, but is,
Driver's
Genesis,"
"In
as
at first
it to
caused
two
of due
want
nevertheless,often paraded
The
has
here
in the
has
but
led it to vindicate
even
graphite."*
vegetation
statement,
to
at St.
history.Science
which
be well to note
It may
changed
of
state
immense
the earth's
evidence
which
and
Island
coal-plants,as ferns,occur
even
earliest
I." II.3.
Universe,
no
in
Geology
the
earth's
Away
p.
222.
from
Some
the
shores
have
now
Driver
believed
is to
the
because
of
The
in every
second
have
lent
the
life
Third
colour
a
brought
with
to
that
with
into
of the
the
of the
close
the
The
objectionalso
each
thing
The
earth
Day
Second
?
seems
which
the entire
we
of
course
the
on
done
The
the
but
their
with
period,the
Had
have
occurred.
have
We
is taken
work
a
place
and
?
that
stars
Fourth
our
of Genesis
misconception
seen
retain
Sixth, and
the words
in
ma}'
and
the
the
up
and
sea
moon,
Fifth, the
this
Third
life,and
only during
service,not
rightlyweighed,
subside
already existed.
Land
Sun,
been
land
fuller
find
dominions.
Seventh.
light
fall at the
of the
end
ever
may
the
dry
what
to
glory. Each
throughout
did
But
contrary, is clearlythat
light remains.
assigned
continue
the
the
at
is added
in
!
the heavens
did
Or
order, so that it also
abide.
Did
?
is endowed
ended, for example,
was
Day began
the waters
increase
heavens
Day
Sixth
representation,on
own
Gladstone, and
existence,for example,
First
again beneath
Day,
Mr.
Professor
necessarily
completed within that day.
the extreme
form
assumes
objection sometimes
before
their
sive
comprehen-
throughout
It is that
that the life of the Fifth
its
be
to
is
Day,
The
end
Dr.
as
is not
detail the
runs
difficulty
just considered.
have
of which
argue
Genesis
an
Scripture.
Huxley's controversy
to
that
been
nature
To
03
confessedly partialgeological
fails to confirm
record
the distinct
maintain
1
have
must
whatever.
record
no
does
record
there
marshes
and
vegetation,of
abundant
we
DifficultiesExplained.
the
could
i.
not
Creation-
Genesis"
I04
plain,then,
is
the
and
was
import,
and
promise
about
to
But
the
it still
of
continued
had
its
each
by
called
that
to
The
the
fact
plant life upon
be
evidentlybeen
to
take
the
too
the
and
creations.
God's
charge
it,a
charge
to
the
of
working
The
varied
ascendancy
conditions
into full
the
life
of
and
climate, "c.,
exuberance, while
it also
when
that
ridiculous
also concluded
Let
have
We
to him
the
Bible
That
should
This
there
is the
quite enough
represents the
the introduction
statement
for discussion.
among
be
already noted
to be
followed
the
ties
fittinglocali-
in
heavenlybodies.
seems
"
of
preserved
the earth.
words,
its
required for
specialplant-life
of the stars to have
to
of
period
Day.
It
in
"
be
ended, the guiding hand
the earth.
Fourth
can
fulness
elder
when
possess
remark.
mention
that
left with
time
of
the absence
its fulness
God's
fully
nevertheless,
are,
in
future
creation
of the
creation
of
it forth
be
not
thing,there
one
And
symbolic
a
indicate
that
and
was
higher plant-life
Gunkel's
to
met
was
summoned
work
may
superintend.
to
the time
10.
now,
may
period was
The
for
have
"
with
specialministry.
still
must
is left in
work
obeys.
in that
God
sense
vegetationcommitted
creation
which
evening
to
as
it consorts
nurture
created
expression,"the
dry land, or earth, is
the
which
"period."
marvels
splendour;
"morning"
to
of the
Each
splendour
of
even
evening
"
appear.
doubt.
the
which,
The
of all
Thus
that
I." II.3.
in the
"day"
morning was,"
one
understood.
no
BEGINNING"
the word
History uses
It
THE
is supposed
It
has
theologiansthat
be
lights in
the
Genesis"
io6
THE
BEGINNING"
Popular Astronomy,
pp.
balance
which
of
causes
has
509-511,
would
radiatingheat just fast enough
in
its present
than
10,000,000
from
the
at
was
in
also
The
with
condition."
science, which,
distance
of the
the
when
mass
*
In that case,
the
at
trouble
Their
and
tender
than
theirs to
the
But
why
is this done
period
our
animal
made
II.
just
the work
There
of
firsta
was
*
Sir
Robert
as
be
day
made
plantsdo
to
earth.
of
its
but
of
stellar
tion,
Revela-
the wisdom
that
night ;
are
is,it is
larity
regu-
darkness.
is the introduction
Why
the Fourth
Day's
not
requiresleep,a
animal
life ; and,
the Fifth
on
alternation
Day
a
in unvar3ang
here ?
is essential
for the
moon
heavenly bodies
maintain
life is to be introduced
arrangements
are
to
night and
of repose
the
of the
manifests
the
and
to
seen
The
day
Because, while
?
now
of God.
and
in
globe
the
alternatingperiods of lightand
of
work
so
care
measure
moon
modify its earlier impression
long disbelieved and reckoned
position,too,
rule the
age
very
our
earth
our
the
very
appointed to
moon
was,
commencement
with
faith,are
to
even
more
to
reason
those words,
; and
a
seen
that the
earth, and
recent
comparison
universe, has
sun
the earth
existed
astounding discoveries,regarded
in
the
not
the earth's
confessedly more
yesterday
in
preserve
led to the conclusion
from
out
that "the
increasingsteadily,though
in touch
molten
a
is
Thus
has
time
one
fact,torn
was
is
to
II. 3.
shown
result
probably
years.
earth
slowly.This
has
state
L"
of
day
Day,
and
as
the
night
Four.
Period
of
Ball, Time
Marine
and
Tide.
Animal
Life.
The
The
it has
that
strata
its
geology began
lower
Cambrian
with
Cambrian
to
the
of
seas
clad
whose
at
begins
in the
These
crustaceans."
throughout the
Silurian,till in the
the earliest fishes.
whose
lower
Referring
tell
Its sediments
"
:
localities,
were
shores, in favourable
weeds, and
waters
Plant-feeder
Crustacea.
and
the
neither
of
joyous
thronged
were
the
of life ; and
race
current
on
a
summer's
less
From
the
era.
forms
(in the
ordinary
which
we
trace
; each
beginning,and
while
instincts
of
creational
The
beginning
and
there
sense
Past
and
with
they were
Present
are
Lije of
smaller,
a
the
those
and
term)
its
the
of
taneously,
simulassume
transitional
no
development
speciestakes
life,subserve
of
orders
of the
only within
whole, obeying
the
than
complex,
varies
functions
*
the
;
waters,
larger nor
genera,
their distinctive characters
the lower
requiresno
life-forms
kind, neither
species, and
;
The
start
the tribes that
as
eve
perfectnor
can
it
fancy to re-people Silurian
in their
less
animal-feeder
and
existing ocean.
period are,
limit
life
the
glance
zoophytes, star-fishes,sea-urchins, shell-fish,
throng
from
disputed since
water-breathinganimals,
Silurian,Dr. Page writes
great stretch
the
the
with
simultaneouslyin
busy
the
of the waters
and
meet
we
with
with
and
largeupon
so
that
and
denizens
the
Devonian
the
mollusks
"earliest
upper
107
investigations. A
(page 100) will show
continue
in the Waters.
been
never
Table
the
was
of this fact is written
record
earth's
Life
FirstAnimal
of the
through
higher
place from
certain
the
defined
impulses
and
unerring certaintythe
destined
the
to
perform."*
Globe, pp. 90, 91
THE
io8
Genesis"
The
fossils show
BEGINNING"
that
in existence
were
geology
before
years
for
12.
creation
Day's
bring
that
the earth
in the open
hath
great whales
creature
that
"
after their kind
of
birds.
scientific
credit
contention
are
If
one
Mr.
told that
Let
after
wants
on
its
to
brought forth
passage
with
has
the
troversy
con-
Mr.
Gladstone
science
by
could
of the
earth
kind, and
the
Dana,
Day
not
bring
Manual,
of
p. 249.
his
And
Genesis
the
on
forth
the
i. 24
Fifth
a
"
living
thing,"
creeping
sense
the
vehemence,
some
In
"
the
contest
not
its announcement.
the Sixth
*
fowl
between
Mr.
unanswerable.
know
living
This
Huxley.
Huxley
the
God
reptileperiod preceded
a
Scripture with
seemed
And
winged
fact,but he declined, with
said,
God
creature
*'
that
statement
life :
flyabove
every
Century
confirmation
the
mentioned
Bible
"
Professor
and
Gladstone
had
Fifth
every
21).
Nineteenth
The
The
of heaven.
in connection
memorable
made
in
we
that
may
the waters
20,
tinued
con-
abundantly the moving
kind, and
(verses
of
of animal
(tanninim), and
their
earth
it
waters
fowl that
moveth, which
abundantly, after
to
the
and
kinds
firmament
created
been
forth
life,and
creature
age
It was,
various
embraced
opening
thousands
some
be, life in the
to
ages
the waters
Let
had
life upon
it
reads
now
there
species! *
the
us
gathered together into seas.
This was followedby a Reptile
Period.
been
"
different
Scripture gave
geology began.
long
Silurian
upper
story of animal
of the
exactly as
the
at least 10,074
Here, therefore,the
chapter
in
I." II.3.
phrase used
"c.
in
Professor
Genesis,"
what
see
has
Leviticus
the
chapter
of
attention
:
And
"
Professor
wrote
I commend
the
unclean
are
to
Version).
"The
merest
Sunday
suffices,"he added,
"to
writer'
i. 24
in Genesis
include
to
Professor
objection
Scripture
and
reply to
Sixth
plainlynot
as
Sir
If the
Robert
*
The
in
Nineteenth
letter to
Century
on
putting
be
a
the
complete
reptileswere
the
been
made
Fifth, it
was
Scripturerepresented birds
and
the
Anderson
a
birds
the
day, reptiles
And,
to
in
that
having
as
fifth
appeared
and
urged
fowl
the
Goodwin
Mr.
by
sixth." t
this
and
them."*
the
on
that the
true
the 'Mosaic
'creepingthings'
writer
waters
Day
science
Professor
of
before
following reptiles
;
between
that when
therefore
merely reproducing
Gladstone.
Mr.
the
on
exegesis
This
in that way,
they which
are
school
was
the
on
after
creep" (vers.29-3i"
speaks
years
the
great lizard
land-crocodile,and the
represents lish and
"
you
the earth ;
upon
These
prove
Reviews.
mammals
matter
as
stated
from
produced
the
lizards among
Huxley
and
Essays
the
unto
all that
among
you
Revised
means
creep
tlie chameleon.
sand-lizard,and
eleventh
serious
unclean
are
and
kind, and the gecko, and
its
he
which
mouse,
the
Gladstone's
creeping things that
the weasel, and
Hence
matter.
from
Mr.
to
109
it will be well to
the
on
say
they
are
"
Huxley,
to
Leviticus
the
Mr. Gladstone.
following extract
these
among
and
Huxley
so
Bible
the
alleged accord
disappeared. But,
afterwards
The
Times, something
(February, 1886),pp.
193, 194.
the
reminded
i Page
more
239.
THE
Genesis"
no
is needed
in
school
credit
the
enough
spoke
in
it
was
Huxley,
so, he
would
who
The
The
for
word
for
from
used
in
a
is
means
whatsoever,"
to
term
very
Sixth
It
xi. 29
this very
creation
And
which
term
of
the
God
said.
sentation.
misrepre-
grave
is
quite
Genesis
in Genesis
i. 24.
in Genesis
ix. 3
all
land
"
creepingthings in
entirelydifferent term.
"
crawls, and
or
creeps
in
The
!
Genesis
words
waters
hath
20
1
of
between
will
the
with
creep
be
seen
the
Bible
from
the Cretaceous
*
Sir Robert
Ihe
Science
Table
the
epochs.
Anderson,
and
the
through the Permian,
thus
And
reptiles.
The
the
Fifth
own
the agreement
is absolute.
that
the
:
literally
run
life." *
it is
Day's creation, therefore,according to Huxley's
text, embraced
:
liveth shall be food
the
creeping thing (sheretz)that
proof
is
i. 24
populationof
the
Let
done
the land
is used
Fifth Day
he
Had
the
for
that
had
consequently
sheretz,an
signifiesa thing
Prof.
it is
the word
is
if
and
have
Gesenius, "of
and
appliedto
But
Day.
Leviticus
be
to
in
seen
not
The
to
Leviticus
is used
is used, says
It
you."
ANIMALS
"
it.
saved
is
;
unknown
was
Every moving thing (remes) that
"
heard
understood
which
rentes
ing
affect-
Version.
be
to
"creeping thing"
What
remes.
"the
than
matter
a
duty
been
that
In
his
word
from
distinct
demand
obviously
have
kind
Revised
the
tongue which
those
to
recourse
this
Original Scripturesit
the
consult
a
I." II.3.
exegesis."
themselves
Scriptures
these
of
to
even
of
discussion
a
Sunday
merest
BEGINNING"
It
reptiles range
Triassic, the Jurassic,and
Dana
Bible and
says
Modern
they appear
Criticism, p.
114.
still
Period of
A
carboniferous
earlier,in the
Age
"the
De
period, M.
the
Reptiles."*
of
Lapparent
will
created
great whales
followed
is here
to
to
it is
triumphing over
the
But
that word
appears
in the
me
is not
reptilewhich
attacks
Tanninim, the
very
and
form
Manual,
every
p. 139.
"
:
man
whale
of
speak
to
so
It
foot,
under-
xxix. 3
we
read
dragon
great
of his rivers "; and
is unmistakable.
Nebuchadrezzar
.
a
dragon."
swallows
of the word
in
a
the
whale, but
"serpents"
down
*
a
:
feet."
under
Ezekiel
midst
like
to
will
in God
trusts
trampling
the crocodile
up
the reference
is translated
who
Egypt,
li.34 it is said
swallowed
they cast
of
of
to
a
of the translation.
trample
reptile.In
reference
Jeremiah
hath
heth
ence
refer-
tanninim.
dragon (tannin,the singular
speak
king
word, which
Hebrew
correctness
the
God
Huxley
exegesis" in his
entirelyappropriate
a
Pharaoh,
(tannin) that
In
the
word) shalt thou
unusual
but
there
in which
lion and
young
is most
The
And
:
The
Professor
(verse 21).
"whales," is
doubt
"
words
xci. 13 it is said of him
of the
"
of
surface
dimensions.
of huge
the
also.
these
to
Psalm
of
the
on
Sunday school
the passages
one
form
"
merest
rendered
to
The
noticed
have
"the
references
"
same
vertebrates
masters
were
of tJiereptiles
Some
reader
In
of the
globe."t
13.
lead
"The
says:
names
Cretaceous,
Speaking
reptilefamily reigned as
of the
the
to
ill
he
period, and
the carboniferous
whole, from
the
GiganticReptiles.
to
some
a
ferocious
human
vii.
and
victim.
i. 21,
12:
"For
they
became
-fTraitie de geologic (1893),p. 909.
.
again
in Genesis
Exodus
his rod
Here
.
Genesis"
112
THE
BEGINNING"
serpents" (tanninim).
The
extended, stretched-out
;
the Old
throughout
denotes
term
it is
and
Testament
kindred, the
his
and
I." II. 3.
evidentlyused
denote
to
dreaded
more
something
the
dile
croco-
forms
in the
reptilekingdom.
This
brings
to
us
revelations contained
the Fifth
phase of
before
been
a
in the
buried
human
in slime
to
it
see
story. And
if
who
did ?
But
The
followingindicates
that
to
could
man
astonish
"
size,and
their
the
a
Cuvier
and
of the
name
given, so
ReptilianAge
completely
the
on
the
which
pigmies,and
antediluvian
seas.
At
.
ordinary reptilesthat
and
prehensible
incom-
appropriately
then
creatures
of the
the Mosasauri
to
that the
epoch
the age
which
spread
terror
the time
when
lived
we
of
one
know
of.
in
genius of
the
by
a
"
our
equal
Ichthyosauri,
throng
are
the
through
the
It
dominate
pre-
own
these
strata
most
extra,
.
being deposited
were
period," says
be most
it was
of frightful
lizards,compared
mere
eyes
these
Plesiosauri,and
gives
globe, reproduced
may
did
globe ;
this
It is to this
!
words,
science
antique
;
of the
Owen
an
its
number, their gigantic
wondering
our
those
replywhich
forms
inhabitants
was
phase of reptilelife?
a
their
by
us
had
record
to
written
of
reptiles
unwonted
all their parts to
hand
have
not
and
rock, before there
there such
was
That
long ages
its course,
run
human
a
question. "The
Pouchet,
passed away
and
or
marvellous
most
Creation-History.
It had
deep
eye
the
lifehad
Day's
appeared.
man
of
one
was
a
kind
in
of
size,
monster
toad,
so
enormous
and
teeth
of
which, resembling the windings of
the
as
to
an
ox
of
means
bulky
thigh-bone
measures
when
high
reached
form
of its bones
probably spent most
be compared
it may
where
a
claim
better
of
the
to
reptiles all is summed
the crowning marvel
was
It
only about
was
opened
that
away
with
forms
read
and
time
these
maintained,
there
no
was
for while
"
of size
they
called
be
**
had
the chief
created
God
great
this Fifth
Day's
years
that scienc"^
That
words.
ago
past creation
And
not
of
yet the
only says
work.
bird
the
was
between
Scripture,
urged
existences.
there
long
and
that
Genesis
the order.
of Life in Geological Time,
at
pp.
least
Geology
to
reptiles
But
no
of the
here
and
is
stoutly
correctness
said, made
huge
place which
life. Here
absolute
hid
were
that these
the exact
objection, so
It
accord
Chain
Dinosaurs,
the series of animal
birds.Geology reversed
The
water,
of
men.
Genesis, it was
*
in the
a
proves
account.
land,
on
relics of
very
Scripture
the
in the earth's story. Until
Introduction
The
from
seems
in these
existed,but also marks
dispute.
must
this page
infallible accuracy,
The
length
ten
up
hundred
sight of
from
they occupied in
14.
a
length
stood
enormous
to
"
"
its
It
"And
God."*
Its
potamus."
huge reptilianhippo-
a
Behemoth
than
have
its time
evidentlyin point
of
ways
of
referringtothe
After
.
...
able to walk
been
but
"
it must
fours, while
have
to
a
A
five feet in
feet.
fifty
forty or
that
the Ceteosaurus.
and
all
as
fruits for food.
than
;
stature
.
more
on
have
he adds
and
was
foot in diameter
a
feet
animal
I." II.3.
strength and
obtaining leaves
stillmore
and
its great
using
creature,
BEGINNING"
THE
Genesis"
114
Genesis
176-178.
follow
had
;
The
Birds follow the
the
always taught, on
birds
first and
are
reptiles
The
15.
creation
life ; the
water
first,
strikingfact
alone
mark
life :
forth
and
the
creation
"And
"
"
"
the wild
other
"It
of
and
of facts
to
"
the
Gen.
kind, and
i.
of the
The
lead,and then
cattle
Behemoth
which
in
"
is used
is almost
this
shall
I
Hebrew,
"domestic
in
is remarkable,
"moving"
grass-eatinganimals
the
geology
to
thus
animals.
flesh-eating
preceded the
in
are
carnivora.
marked
say," remarks
period corresponds
geologists. The
The
earth," is specially
applied
came
unnecessary
ture
Scrip-
immediately
Remes, the
words, the herbivora
and
earth
first of this second
"c.
mice, crabs, land reptiles,
beast
bring
cattle,
of the
quadrupeds,"
attention.
animals.
Genesis
that
pluralform
reader's
third term,
the
that
itself is
earth
beast
the
are
the
its
(verse 24). The
land
thing,embraces
Here
noted
of
inspiration
after
"large
The
the
will
Triassic,
divisions
two
said, Let
God
life
in view
took
in the
designatethe hippopotamus, which
to
In
the Divine
animal
of
Behemah,
ask
Table
our
second, land life. That
livingcreature
after its kind
to
in
creeping thing (rernes),and
cattle."
thus
was
increases when
explain.Our astonishment
the description of this second
creation
of
can
animal
reptilescame
It will be
comes
which
115
in the stillearlier strata.
cattle.
of
to
found
are
with
met
Creation
animal
the
we
reference
A
that the earliest birds
while the
a
contrary, that
immediately afterwards, and
entirelyscientific.
show
Reptiles.
with
coincidences
striking." After referringto
the
are
the
accord.
Dawson,
Tertiaryera
very
marked
predominance
of
reptilesin
the
"At
this
and
not
known
Tertiarymammals
would
such
as
that
in the
of
Book
Job
plural form
Behemoth, the
denote
that this animal
known
under
the
that
closelyallied
nivora also
are
serpents, which
over
will
was
must,
in
pachyder-
pachyderms are
Large
hippopotamus.
.
.
very
car-
Tertiaryformations, and there
reptilelife,as for example the
in the
the
consult
entire
period the
cattle
anticipatedscience.
Genesis
of mammals
of the
that
no
But
it
times.
recent
therefore,have
Archaia,pp.
"
"
could
man
a
not
was
The
been
revelation.
*
he
Table
will find
Mammals
after the great
came
209,210.
If the
Tertiary."^
words
except through science,or through
till
creatures
of these
fact which
science
to
bhemah, while geology
more
That
a
is called
of the
chief
is the
first appear
againstthis
period
and
;
being apparentlyused
.
of
once
dominant."
bhemah
in the
occur
forms
some
reader
the
early
largeherbivora,
prevailingorder
many
to
the
hippopotamus
Tertiary period was
and
mata,
the
general term
the
that
us
older
the
of the
many
in the word
included
be
so
are
us
of the
singular and perhaps
that
to
place. During
predominance
a
.
coincidence
accidental
informs
this
It is
continued.
.
their
taken
Tertiary period
mammalia
giganticreptileshad
of large size
mammals
terrestrial
high organisationhad
the whole
proceeds :
of the
; most
disappeared,and
he
Tertiary period, all
of the
beginning
changed
I." II. 3.
secondary period,
the
very
was
BEGINNING"
THE
Genesis"
ii6
have
revelation
made
known
which
known
communication
made
reptile
by
by
in
Divine
The
The
16.
land
it was
"
Creation
is named
race
fish of the
and
sea,
cattle,and
the
that
his
at
whole.
the
in
was
positionto
a
when
sources
belief in
which
is
That
could
another, forbade
the
upon
been
or
what
in the
Pliocene
speaking of
in
an
our
the
stated
time
every
(verse 26).
"
:
even
human
The
;
but
a
entrance
in possession.
this ?
been
in the
even
Prof.
Hull,
(called "Recent"
epoch
Miocene
remains
closer examination
Period
advent
We
had
man,
discoveries.
his appearance
His
things,in
earlier than
to
as
one
ancient
that human
continents.
from
merely
(see Table), and
At this
our
first made
date
time
to
no
life was
say
and
which
man's
shaped by
Quaternary
of
to
supposed
fullydetermined.
to
to
been
the
the
inhabitant
is not
over
be
of
all other
Miocene
Table), says
period he
over
of all
to
idea
very
Pleistocene
and
said
science
had
discredited
has
has
told from
flints,that
found
the
be
only after
scene
But
have
air,and
sovereigntyof
from
creation
the
over
"
written.
was
instantaneous
section
no
ascertain
Genesis
an
the
arrangement
an
:
moving thing
earth
is committed
advent
that
image, after
of the
the
our
issued
was
creation, therefore,is completed ;
whole
man
"
earth, and
') upon
17
the threefold
dominion
fowl
of
seen
our
creepeth (*every
moveth
that
[rentes]
in
have
all the
had
creation
man
the
over
over
creeping thing
The
let them
and
:
make
us
After
God
for man's
the decree
said,Let
likeness
our
appeared, and
1
introduction
last work.
God's
life had
God
The
Man.
of
as
good,"
And
Creation of Man.
man
At
himself
what
in
even
has been
times
was
exact
Europe
variously
downwards
;
ii8
Genesis"
but
after
THE
BEGINNING"
careful
examination
adduced, this may
Elements
"
writes
Man,"
creation
;
should
this
to
their
evidence
date
as
globe
Glacial
Period, which
step
is
no
till
man
itself."*
To
....
first appearance
have
of
turned
question have
that the first appearance
as
to
of
insufficiency
with
common
for
most
the
say, before
deluge,and
first
of the
commencement
preceded
of
TertiaryPeriod.
appeared
the
is
the
of the
in
we,
man
of the
phenomenon
there
contemplate
to
account
Quarternary Period, that
a
livingbeings
intricate
at
go
last link of visible
most
that
Conte,
period
series of
far back
on
Le
of
writers who
produced,
our
upon
evidences
presence
Many
opinion
naturalists,admit
time
that
refer the
we
globe ?
Rejectingthis
the
state
Glacial
closes the
be carried
must
man
may
is the
permitted
their attention
given it as
the
"
him
the
upon
and
Figuier,
with
period
man
of
close
are
we
what
We
of the
unquestionableevidence
the
the
safelybe rejected(see
considerably in advance,
which
of
of Geology, p. 592).
towards
I." II. 3.
the
cal
geologi-
previous
to
the
this great terrestrial
cataclysm.
"
By saying
the
upon
that
globe at
to
the
other
the
The
animals, and
cessation
*
t The
HumanRace
Sketch
of
fact,which
Moses, that
the edifice of animal
crowned
17.
of
cosmogony
after the
of the
the commencement
establish
Period, we
man
that
by
of Geological History,
revised
nary
Quarter-
is
agreeable
was
formed
his
advent
he
creation. "t
the creative work.
(edited and
first time
for the
appeared
man
by
If
man
p. 144.
Robert
Wilson),
pp.
was
the last of God's
Man
have
can
been
among
of
reader
his
is
is
however, that
aware,
of
Scripture.
before
into
forms
had
with
the
the
animal
himself.
man
ent, "is characterised
the
Since
globe.
organic world
There
species."*
scientific
not
is
knowledge
is
distinct
made, God's
into
kingdoms.
the vegetable
New
animal
contemporaneously
The
appeared since ?
"
any
by
has
is the
both
Period,"
this
it is
almost
Have
Modern,orQuarternary
ranked
long-enduringRest-day
human
forms
period, new
introduced
been
have
had
nothing
experience. The
man
being continuallyintroduced
and
forms
new
If that
this
When
119
the
completed, and
begins. Now,
are
no
advent.
all after
challenge to
a
teaching
work
since
appeared
works,
statement, it would
merely human
the most
daring on record. For
a
short
creative
last of God's
reallythe
Creation.
M.De
says
the appearance
great fact
enable
any
man
upon
produced,
was
nothing within
to
of
enriched
been
Lappar-
by
the
any
the
new
of
compass
to
one
contest
that statement.
'*
"
If
with
we
the scientific
compare
the
Biblical
the latter agrees
historyof creation, we
with
these
the
rightto expect. We
kingdoms, equallydistinct
of view
;
the
land, covered
emerging
; the
by
discover
formation
*
Traitc
de
by
see
as
one
in effect the
Pfaff,
that
has
same
themselves, keeping out
in
Moses.
at first
much
as
which
chronologicalorder
is exactlygiven
the
data
the historical variations
undergone
data," writes
The
they
have
of their appearance
primitivechaos;
the water,
of the
may
subsequently
inorganickingdom,
Geologic (1893),p. 1,338.
THE
Genesis"
I20
followed
the
by
animal
such
which
livingin
animals
is
;
then
reallythe
reallythe
I." II. 3.
vegetable kingdom
kingdom,
the animals
BEGINNING."
after them
and
the
appearing
man
succession
periods of
various
of
the
has for its first representatives
the water,
true
then
;
of
the
trial
terres-
last of all
beings, such
;
are
historyof creation,
of days." *
periodsdesignated under the name
I need not put again the question alreadyrepeated
so
often
whence
"
will himself
reader
in the
answer
one
whose
name
"
The
creation
of creation
even
Bible,"
i.
marvels
Bible
must
Many
we
the
who
it presents.
Bible,on
It is
of authorship,
the first page
Man.
in
the many
light upon
26.
of the
reckon
opening chapter
this
deepest mystery
do
not
reject,and
also, that it
of the
who
question,the testimony of Scripture have
*
ever
wher-
VIII.
Genesis
nature.
The
t
Trinity
The
sheds
in the
declaration
a
CHAPTER
of the
?
I conclude
is revered
record
the
and
volume."
sacred
AMONG
it.
which
It is
Divine.
and
both
of the
of
scheme
true
it,and
things
is,therefore, profoundly philosophical
"
Dana,
says
these
ask
is known.
science
both
of
the words
with
this Book
hath
Schop/ungsgeschichte,p.
741.
\ Manual
of Geology, p. 770.
Divine
do
not
found
"
archangel
GOD
?
"
created
that way.
it is
His
In
It is
permit
is
plainlynot
It is not
likeness."
himself
"
constitution
only
the
"And
he
very
is
is
unto
used
in
the
nature
The
all know.
we
alike
Scripture, covers
The
possess.
i.
which
it be
our
that
be
a
the
by
the
Thessalonians
and
is three-fold.
soul
"
be
Jesus
of
and
the
as
(psyche),
all endowment
believer
longer runs
of
the
from
new-born
God
"
man
; he turns
"Abba,
served
pre-
What
"
mind,
unbeliever
possession of
who
possesses
to God
Father"
!
with
He
:
wholly ;
Lord
our
23
v.
body
of
coming
conscious
The
nature."
a
?
"
"new
Is
in
the regenerate
spirit (pneuma) distinguishes
What
is this spirit-life
?
the unregenerate.
"
in
very
believer
sanctifyyou
term
US
image,"
to
Can
soul
and will,which
feeling,
and
verb, "Let
in unity?
trinity
a
God
spiritand
Human
body
repeated and
"OUR
to
of peace
God
not
this greatest of all
nature
own
One-Three
blameless
Christ."
It is
in the
will
It
then, is it
also
pluralityis,
"
whole
your
the
pronouns,
replyis suggested by
The
of
image
addressed, and
might add, compelled
of his
and
angel
explained in
over.
is enshrined
that
I
helped
Three-One
is
urgently?
so
there
mysteries,and
man
passed
What,
is called
attention
man
be
to
be
But
acts.
it is also in the
"OUR
in the
"
to
Creatorship that
not
emphasised.
make";
image
ignore its presence.
to
us
of
seraphim,
or
own
Creatorship that
nevertheless,
I." II. 3.
him."
He
pluralform
The
and
BEGINNING"
in that of cherubim
?
image
or
THE
Genesis"
122
no
the
from
It is
it
no
that cry
longer
The
or
things
which
breath
the
as
him
however
his
Christian
nostrils.
the soul and
I need
the
remind
not
this distinction
is in the view
of the
soul-ish
"
this
smite
man
me,
equal truth
wounded
with
he has
"
is my
I
invents, and
and
mind
soul is
am
grieved,"or
now
identified
upon
a
identified
with
this
the cry in my
Thy
truth ; let them
Thy
holy hill,and
preacher,instead
is it.
slander
of
a
with
say
"
"
I,"
me,
someone
soul
my
is
disquietand
previous case
tressed
dis-
was
either
can
Me," it
"
or
Again, if
mine
"
say
my
grieved." Consequently
am
soul, and
my
let
more,
"
:
lead
to
If
us.
may
full of
as
I enter
heart
note
now
us
leads
about
also I
with
morn
with
Let
knows
personalityof
the word
Once
me.
Sabbath
I
who
man
identified
in the
"
"
man
plainly,therefore,
Here
pain.
"spirit"
natural
body,"
my
is filled
body
my
the
deep
he has
body
spreads, a
grieved. My
with
am
my
the
and
or
distinguishby
body,
sufferingas
wounded
Whatever
body.
my
is,which
I
I
me."
"
The
sword, I
a
command
and
distinction
with
say
mediately
be, is im-
broad
soul-life.
three-fold
hfe,
new
assumes
"soul"
man,"
the
They
they are
;
this
how
Scripture.
nothing higher than
whither
the
the
the outset.
the reader
between
the
is,literally,
It
from
body
food
it may
acknowledged king.
over
and
Hfe.
And
immature
and
recent
God
his necessary
than
of
123
about
the
pertain to
to
more
are
conversation
hates
dreads
Man.
Trinityin
Thy
O
me
a
send
;
imagine
me
place
of
is
that
worship
Thy lightand
out
and
soul
my
bring
tabernacles."
bringinglight,
wraps
me
But
my
unto
the
thought
in
darkness.
I
**
THE
Genesis"
124
Through
with
filled
am
the
has
and
and
injured
in
say
injured
here
with
and
of denial
this
last
or
personality
My
spirit,
my
case
spirit,"
my
me."
11. 3.
I
it,,
am
it is I.
there
Now,
is
indivisible
than
call
myself."
I
doubt
can
and
identified
is, therefore,
I
robbed
robbed
I."
of
words
dismay.
has
man
"he
BEGINNING"
"
fashion.
But,
the
on
I
is
am
a
In
thus,
insight
trinity
to
to
God
Let
likeness."
The
cast
the
the
which
us
the
and
to
in
marvels
in Genesis
we
make
are
man
spirit
are
not
the
by
in
our
own
my
in
I,,
trinity.
of
for
existence.
have
add
to
words:
image,
after
I
the
;
knowledge
these
of
nature.
own
of
i.,we
led
in
incredible
my
And
each
doctrine
as
any
spirit.
Divine
that
believe
other
the
unity
a
away
in
unity.
is
embody
One-Three
cease
and
body
is
I
of
We
parts.
entities, and
words,
which
indivisible
body
unity,
of
soul,
three
that
"
separated
or
body,
mystery
in
absolutely
more
up
and
nor
other
enshrined
revelation
said,
divided
these
deepest
should
And
of
of
and
I
as
made
distinguishable.
Three-One
then
not
hand,
therefore,
cannot,
is
soul
is
personality
absolute
other
me.
the
nature
it
an
each
am
them
too,
It
neither
soul, and
human
of
is
It
thoroughly
yet
the
conceive
cannot
which
nothing
and
the
"And
our
SECTION
THE
II.
GENERATIONS
HEAVENS
OF
AND
OF
II. 4"
THE
IV.
THEclear,concise,
of the
creation
life which
of the
and
the
of
verse
at
the
and
proceeding
it is
word
our
read,
we
the
something
desire
which
to
to
The
A
say
the
work
is
striking.
generations
of
the
critical battle
Of
this
afterwards.
the
fourth
its conclusion
title is
great
words.
understand
is rendered
pletion
com-
That
rest.
reach
we
the
"are
the
its
Genesis.
IV.
earth."
around
of all the
and
great Chapter with
chapter
a
us
of the
account
Creator's
chapter II., and
"These,"
given
of creative
cessation
chapter of
its second
of
has
reached
record
of the
end
shall have
The
hallowing
our
heavens
it.
the
begin
Book
well-ordered
and
tellingof
first natural
We
of the
heavens, of the earth,
is upon
in
I.
Contents.
Section
First
EARTH.
26.
CHAPTER
The
THE
battle
we
Meanwhile
Scripture.
"generations"
is
The
is tholedoth.
This
man's
a
and
presence
generationsof
the
work
and
sons
of
Noah"
heavens
A
food
air
thirst,the
of
have
enriched
the
humanity.
of
material
humanity.
and
here
whom
woman
is the result
the heavens
"
:
earth and
In
the
"
:
They
guides
besides.
and
power.
There
universe
as
God
committed
had
made
are
and
revealed
and
us.
our
They
is not
beauty also, in
a
These
also
have
quench
wisdom
that the order
It will be observed
in
He
to
were
the
in
standing
to
the
man
their care,
generationsof
the
the earth."
and
is reversed
which
ennobled
this relation
the
and
race.
our
treasures,
Creator's
and
distinct
a
They
services
the
the
have
the cradle,
birth-place,
the
fitness, therefore, but
and
has
They
recognitionof
closes
word
for themselves.
hidden
their
to
said to
heavens
thousand
marvels
a
be
breathe, the Hght that
a
disclosed
only
the
eat, the waters
we
the
applied to
these
ministers
we
gladdens, and
They
when
their
in the earth.
The
of
constant
of
record
the
consideration, however, is
form
habitation
provide the
the
the
of these
Can
?
that
They
the
have
earth
made
man.
been
generationsof
mean
moment's
not
were
the
The
in this connection.
suitableness
and
words
discover
to
nurture
the
the
and
posterity?
earth
"
(x. i) contains
can
Thus,
(vi.g) tell of his saving
of the settlements
what
enough
"
Noah
proceeds
the earth.
placeon
of his children.
posterityand
But
2." II. 4." IV. 26.
what
descendants, offspring,
means
from
**
SECTION
Genesis"
126
the
the
of these last words
repetition with
day
heavens."
that
the
This
which
Lord
change
God
verse
made
indicates
4
the
that
The
the
Then
which
earth
The
verses
"
and
read
are
of
earth
of the
every
herb
the
earth,
of
watered
Lord
God
dust
of the
the
over
dawn
But,
as
a
entire
we
went
face
ground
the
has
history,it
of
living
soul."
shall discover
is that
present
connexion
being
instance.
Divine
the
dealt
with.
creating a seed, and
that
And
learn that
We
power
with
has
rested
on
its climax
of
sweeps
in
its
man.
studies
our
referred
to,
of the
information
may
has
a
part of the history
thus
it is in
into
the
livingthing
every
tenderly.
casting that
man
life,from
information, too, which
and
into
previous part
additional
the
breathed
course
a
the
of
of the writer
to
and
and
adam)
anything is again
some
earth
the
terrestrial
in
the
serve
life, and
in the
mentioned
been
close
specially
is
of
the
upon
ground;
and
that the eye
because
:
rain
(Hebrew,
vegetablecreation
conveyed,
which
the
every
earth, and
to
from
up
God's
and
the
it to
breath
domain
Lord
the
man
of
heavens
the
it grew
(adamah),
Genesis, wherever
which
of
in
was
no
man
noticed
in the
story
lifewhich
heavens,
caused
was
formed
It will be
the
not
mist
became
and
before
entire
nostrils
(adam)
the
the
the
**
crowning glory.
of
field
there
the
day
it
had
a
the
before
the
; and
ground
in
field
and
its
man
generations
earth
God
Lord
his
the
of the
shrub
the
with
:
These
the
with
and
127
that
with
told is connected
bears
making
similarlyhinted
it is
is to be
the
be
of the Creation.
concerned
ensuing historyis specially
earth."
in
Outcome
Instead
the
of
ground,
SECTION
Genesis"
128
formed
God
earth.
the
There
perfect plant, and
was
and
had
provided all
moisture
of the
is
fuller love
on
Bible
beginning
will
He
the
and
does
pluperfect.
whom
"
tense
the
man
both
from
section
the
it
unity.
a
as
the
garden
:
there
and
had
"
"formed
thus:
eastward
for
the
God
; but
been
"
had
the
in Eden,
It
it is natural
provided
future,
the
planted a
put the
He
had
"And
formed."
He
case
"
tense
one
perfect and
the
the Lord
"And
by putting
verse
whom
in each
:
is
There
formed," for instance, would
had
the
8
There
verb.
the present and
in Eden
planted a garden
the
more
needed
Hebrew
represents
Verse
planted," and
reading
hand
still
was
to view
language.
which
rendered
better
read
learn
for both
eastward
He
first
our
fellowship.
of the
tenses
duty
another
garden
all that
should
in the
only two
which
this
to
materiallyhelped by remembering
be
of
elasticity
are
face
The
him
endowed
so
with
race.
our
of Divine
end, and
and, the
primalvegetationrested
the
for him
student
to
of
up
the whole
dealing
man,
and prepared
richly,
of earthlygood and
The
God's
tended
;
fittingintroduction
a
great founders
and
went
earth
again, watered
story of
touched
humid
and
warm
Here
ground.
parents, the
with
the
God
But
mist
A
when
human
any
its need.
to
required.
was
fallingdown
marvellous
that
respond
that
early time
there
were
it in the
placed
in that
; neither
toil to
from
universally
rain
no
vegetablelife began
thought
2." II. 4." IV. 26.
man
be much
planted
"
for
formed," and
Lord
and
there He
is the
to
before
God
very
suppose
so
had
put
same
that
its destined
Genesis"
I30
SECTION
nourishment
proper
2." II. 4." IV. 26.
through painful,and
fatal,experiments, might have
before
it
in which
provided
the
pleasant to
"
which
it and
have
which
his
life,the
have
his
be
kept
watch
over
God
in
obedience
And
has
been
further
rivers
great
is introduced
man
it."
the
is thus
also
Divine
in love
is
body
plished
accom-
will.
and
guard
the
This
life
the
to
soul, and
presence
is rooted
Man
cherishing
him.
subjectionto
which
"
four
has
the
to
Divine
is
localityis
man
and
spirit,
in the
that
"
"to
keep it"; literally,
to
or
is
is described.
garden
committed
been
by
to
it and
created.
has
own
which
this
fellowshipwith
He
The
career
garden
tree
of this Paradise
Into
guard
to
of
birth-place of
dress
a
for food
good
Eden."
named.
"to
to
the
as
are
serve
in
man's
Hence,
species
every
sight and
eastward
identified
begun.
situation
The
planted.
It is
well
was
ended
possibly
is
Man
fellowshipby
and
(verses
trust
i6, 17) :
"And
the
Of
saying.
freely
good
the
and
surely
2.
told
:
that
creation
of God's
made,
thou
shalt
thou
garden
of
tree
not
man,
mayest
the
knowledge
eat
(of it):
thereof
eatest
alone
man
had
been
(18-25).
woman
of
in
for
shalt
thou
We
need
are
;
told
and
We
for man's
Before
created.
first learn
must
man's
of
fuller counsel
earthly gift.
marked
the
evil, thou
the
in
the
die."
The
man
of
but
commanded
God
tree
every
eat
day
Lord
to
are
life.
now
So
is
woman
appreciateGod's
(verse 18) that God
now
we
note
how
far
God
best
had
is
The
awaking
The
beasts
what
he
science
would
of
with
the
life which
utter
own
was
the
"the
In
self"
the
She
a
the
the
of
His
bones
There
is
from
Redeemer's
of
nised
recog-
of
is
interprets
his
pierced
know
in this the
see
the
"
This
We
last
Adam,"
His
heaven," and
is the fruit of
suffering.
is bone
piercedside,she
flesh of His
life
woman
own.
to
us
from
She, too,
and
So
which
way
of his
prophecy
Bride, the Church.
from
keen
flesh of his flesh.
and
Man, the Lord
Taken
that
all this varied
is taken
Scripture has taught
second
of
has
man
for him.
complement
and
see
becoming acquainted
loneliness.
of his bones
illustration
result
him,
gift.
life is the
the
in thus
existence,but in
into
side, bone
how
to
since
long
the
are
surrounded
"second
no
hallows
second
"
distinguishingcharacteristics
the
livingthing. But,
and
It is
animals
each
brought
him
brought to
are
the want.
comparative philologyhas perceived
appreciationof
there
131
recognitionof
call them."
names
his
the
to
the birds
and
of
ancient
himself
man
Fall.
is His
flesh,and
for
ever.
upon
3.
a
and
life,
Fall
(iii.
1-6). This
story is evidentlypresented as
conscious
word
in
Proverbs
of
only
qualitieswere
The
the
historyenters
chapter.
new
The
two-fold
a
now
the
serpent's
faro;nJ, translated
xii. 23
knowledge,
it occurred.
already known
Scripture
but
''k
:
a
in earth's
scene
in the
to
first
"subtil"
sense
of
prudent (drom)
fool's heart
Eve
presence
our
tragic
whose
"
parents.
is used
prudence,
man
was
where
elseas
in
concealeth
proclaimeth
foolish-
Genesis"
132
It refers
ness."
humanity
be
of the
led of the
of God
indication
an
of the
with
that
this
be
spread
its allurements
with
"
God
has
head
He
His
own
that
the
God's
robbing
was
But
14) ;
betrayed
the
Eve
God's
own
die
"
hght
"
was
that
and
if she
it
joy
could
not
to
shows
a
lifted its
kept, and
to
preserve
be
and
blasphemy
hate
was
the
and
all
ventured
arts
tastingdail}'
knowledge
attain
from
Never
be
plied
re-
it,neither
the
fruit,she should
of
?
our
she
have
not
bold
of
Eve
knowledge
That
sin
of
(verse 8).
of
that
could
when
eat
would
and
of
away
heart
the shaft stuck.
into the
not
us
marvel
delightsof extendingknowledge. If,by
yet
pondence
corres-
innocence
but
suggestion
man
plucking and eating of
as
"
word
pre-eminence.
of hell.
i.
shall not
die
ye
could
allurement
once
find
assure
how
led
are
of her
said. Ye
seductive
the
vants
ser-
we
a
this
absolute
(James
it,lest
soul
pure
that
and
otherwise
nature,
conviction
shall ye touch
horrid
to
The
iv. i).
work
before
enticed
constant
:
speak ; for
perverted
a
lust and
that
Lord
our
Here, then,
to
of
the wilderness
method,
permitted
the serpent
the
chief
the
is
making
own
tested.
first
sifted the
also, how
(Matthew
Divine
the
subsequent Scripture which
should
We,
when
of the
historyand God's revealed Word,
needful, too,
myth nor legend. It was
neither
Satan
be
must
sift
to
Spiritinto
"
"
aftewards
he
as
remember,
of the devil
tempted
"wisdom
humanity
new
Apostles fell. We
"was
the
permitted
was
wheat, just
as
little band
Himself
2." II. 4." IV. 26.
evidentlyto
Satan
serpent.
the
SECTION
mere
pass
at
limitless
this,too, and
?
A
debate
God
and
struggle there
a
struggleshave
*'And
the eyes
knew
that
they
of the
knew
They
know
to
yet
the final and
and
has
been
given
of
taken
of God.
nothing
Himself
with
was
given
also
and
he would
and
His
love
the
own
which
of
good
the
a
that
and
shade.
and
had
to
to
(ii.
ig). Man's
nature
truth
Only
and
nature.
in this way
love which
was
fested
mani-
beginning.
access
made,
God.
with
this
evil (ii.17).
grander
cool
commandment
had
fuller and
is here
thus
the
brought
He
sin
Offence
may
But
the
forbade
they
in the
Eve
that God
Himself
God
!
good.
garden
lipsthat
birds,which
know
"
Adam
the
"
God
(8-24).
first parents from
our
call them
to
in the
leave
Adam
that
fellowshipof
made
to
knowledge
told
beasts
to
of
Paradise
It is evident
new.
universe
be
as
own.
representationwhich
walks
He
comfort
safetyand
of the
the
at
afternoon, when
the
was
from
indeed,
expulsion of
enduring triumph
hanishment
4. The
leaves
like God's
the
"
they
(verse 7).
It was,
of God's
hope
:
carrying about
and, blessed
God's
sewed
"
the
shame
and
aprons
begun.
the mystery
now
of death
of
they
knowledge
in it of evil ;
presence
were
had
said, a
had
the tempter
; and
like
done; sin
was
opened,
were
brief
many
sense
concealment,
of death
body
sudden
both
so
presence
themselves
made
as
deed
The
naked
were
isolation,the
The
The
sin.
that
of them
together,and
It
by
in
announced
was
since.
ended
133
been, however
it ended
But
death
entered, and
have
must
momentary.
even
or
in the Garden.
Walking
the tree
We
are
the
man
to
what
see
craved
He
the
was
could
truth
embraced
the
Genesis"
134
whole
Creation
soul.
If two
have
facts had
is attainable
requirement of
Divine
man's
the
manhood
new
for its mission
with
God
walked
The
deepest
with
nations, it was
was
manifested
a
mightiestrealities
from
not
"
What
Christian
Church
of
to
It
by
the
communicate
the
the
lack
of
of the
the founders
had
thus
known
of Him
knowledge
posterity.
But
of
sin had
old
the
banished
now
hasting to
love and
God,
meet
fear. Every
flightand palpitating
is
filled
were
founders
who
only one
met
from
but
equallyrequiredby
was
were
objectionsprings,
thought,
needed
was
could
who
"
them.
still among
are
This
Jesus.
with
being
of Galilee
to-day.
was
humanity.
God
of
in this
Christ
spoke
man's
which
power
advanced
thought.
of
no
prepared
nurtured
God
men.
made
and
in
chief
the
fact is that
fashioned
the fishermen
lightand
a
second
the
necessities
Is it credible
yet have
The
proof
nothing
this
and
was
those
and
more,
once
to
God
way.
it ?
would
clearest
satisfies.
nature,
man's
men
communion,
constituted
have
provision for meeting
when
historythe
man
of
possession
remembered,
been
by
would
God
very
the
become
"
veracity. Without
which
that
2." II. 4." IV. 26.
in this part of the
seen
of its
SECTION
a
disclosure
of what
reality. Take,
Adam.
there
God
is
respond
return,
no
and
Instead
mark
hurried
we
in the
touch
picture
recognise as
instinctively
example, the Lord's "calling" to
for
might
of
come
and
was
we
have
hope
however,
trust.
entered
restoration
speak
not
their
for
with
enough.
refuge.
till
man
his Maker.
It
was
But
man
The
needful
Seed of the Woman.
The
also that the fruits of sin should
hence
The
shall it
bring forth
weeds
noxious
curse
had
enmity
thy
thou
it
used
his
as
and
seed
The
be
God's
is
his heel
"
the
we
have, in the
predictionof
will
shame,
had
glorifyher
opened
shall
the gates to sin.
will
with
the work
commence
the seed of the
with
serpent
their overthrow.
lower, and
Himself
"
the
There
covered
come
through
but
He
will
of
who
woman
by warring
fied
be satis-
will not
complete
of all the
at
bruising of
only vulnerable, part
her
of the
seed
He
with
descriptionof
the
Let
the
forgiveness.
of deliverance
;
that
Christ, the
the
has
victory by dealing with the author
will bruise the Serpent's head
He
sufferingto
those
Satan
The
the conflict be also noted.
who
seed
man's.
Divine
the
whom
salvation
and
of
and
It also discloses
Virgin birth.
completeness
absolute
God
first
between
This
the devil and
not
will put
I
thy head,
(iii.
15).
seed,
the
who
for him
and
his, is the woman's
of the
After
"And
are
intimation
to
word
a
it shall bruise
;
into conflict with
shall enter
proved
the woman,
and
her seed
shalt bruise
tills the soil
fruits of his labour.
instrument:
thee
between
that
the human
region man
serpent, there is
the
upon
mation
confir-
J. Dawson,
accomphshment.
its marvellous
by
Word
thistles
curious
before
found
seed
of the woman's
; and
and
a
Sir W.
by
period,and that in whatever
the
they spring up among
promise
finds
"
not
are
"thorns
"
"
thee
to
facts noted
in the
these
earth
the
upon
curse
be manifested
35
penalty.
the
expulsionand
the
1
the
His
the
cost
the
evil.
of
heel, the
Messiah's
SECTION
Genesis"
136
That
nature.
2." II. 4." IV. 26.
prediction is
this,the only historywhich
There
is
the
as
of
one
prepared
to
he
has
has
it
like
the
made
and
of
has
of
recalls
who
will have
this
words
Jesus a
raised
It
his
between
be
him
upon
is sheer
nonsense,
at
the
that
they
should
told
that
as
Elohim
it is
even
reader
Trinity,
to
what
so.
like
man
in any
cast
the
of the
him
way
down
"h.fallupward"
moral
physicalor
promise that, when
should
eyes
"
But
the likeness to God
in the
and
are
fall has
marred
transgressed,their
The
of iii.22.
"
;
member
a
knowledge
Satan's
to
idols,
evil make
the
had
be
he
among
as
his creation.
was
said
men
of the
us
mere
they
we
"
and
whether
yet it
Divine
a
among
!
"
the contrary, it has
bestowed
writes,
beings
into
God
existences
the
excellency,"and
And
idol
an
its revelation
good
cannot
On
sphere.
as
true
one
can
far
however,
man
mere
co-equal
How
man.
is
"
higher criticism
The
question untouched
mean.
?
the
evil
Jehovah, but only that
belongs."
26, with
the
distinction
from
i.
what
It is not,
with
difficulty
no
leaves
God
Lord
number
a
he
Man,"
degree
man
how
of the class of Divine
one
degraded
special
reveals
go.
represents Jehovah
now
of his
and
good
"
to
like
also
Jehovah
demands
comment
certain
a
become
has
become
which
had
ever
know
distinction.
prerogativeor
that
upon
said, Behold, the
to
Driver's
criticism
acquired
God
us
Dr.
is
which
Lord
(verse 22).
has
has
man
statement
one
"And
is become
**
hall-mark
of his fall.
originand
notice.
God's
as
God.
The
be
opened
And
Triune
here
Je-
of the
ment
dark
Section
The
of
SECTION
Genesis"
138
concludes
Hatred
deepens.
brother's
with
from
deemed
safe
a
human
the
people,and
in the
family
unprotected dwellings.
the first citybuilder.
concentrated
His
ending
of the
But
but
amusements;
"And
Seth,
to
he called
and
upon
the
Section
"the
we
made
him
this
seed
and
a
also
the Lord
Book
we
then
are
gloriousuniverse
throughout those long
began
and
a
son;
to call
men
It will be
this
second
story of
of the earth
and
in vain
place
to God.
born
was
of the material
creative
in
It is the
to
better
a
return
conclude
tempted
and
begins.
(verse 26).
heavens
their
inventions
a
of Genesis.
of the creation
on
"
has
movement
there
:
and
industries
their
words
the
became
springs up
new
with
Enos
name
generationsof
read
earth
the Sethiteshead
fitlythese
of the
the outcome
As
of
new
busy
to
his
name
how
noted
of
things
Book
are
secure
he
so
of the
Cainites
geance.
just ven-
a
feel himself
this Section
martyred Abel,
a
longer inhabit
no
of
A
becoming
dreaded
fathers
that.
than
fast
the
become
possibilities,
of arts.
Armenian
he
descendants, with thoughts
the
upon
the
was
can
the
what
loftywalls, and
and
stout
He
from
found
of
a
more
He
could
safety,
ensure
it
out
east
guiltyconscience
Cain, to
within
with
in
went
(iv.16).
assylum
The
plateau.
"
Lord
"
shadow-
hand
passionate
Cain
God.
suffering.
Sin's
Deeper guilt brings
of the
presence
The
sin and
(5) The openingchapters
its
dyes
blood.
revolt
only
human
tragedy of
story of humanity (iv. 1-26).
the
open
2." II. 4." IV. 26.
ask:
?
Did
"
"
universe.
"Has
He
God
labour
periods to subject all
Are
things
there
two
to
fallen
"
Satanic
the
of the
reign of
has
is the
Here
of
ceased
who
answer
Genesis
title of
to break
agreed
the Bible
into
work
of different writers
from
each
have
given
attempted to
of
is
one
These
with
show
means
are
strongest
agreed
are
of the
whom
they find
and
agreed
among
Genesis
is
said
pressed upon
all
But
capable
peculiar
a
this school
conclusions
our
is their
best scholars
; and
general acceptance
themselves.
the work
acceptance
our
that
of
have
of another.
the work
them.
critics
and
names,
characteristics
Many
be the
to
place. The
authors
about
of
Books
widely separated
assurances
a
other
are
representationsof
quitesets
that
time
what
by
amazing unreliableness.
entirelyrepudiate these
with
were
supposed
conclusions
scholars
by
who
arrogates
Scholarship"
and
These
distinguishedfrom
the
feature
both
those
that what
"Modern
fragments.
other
?
Genesis
up
Creation
the
of
alreadyaware
itself the
to
has
is
reader
THE
that
II.
Accounts
IN
from
will redeem.
created
"two"
there
end
raised,will yet be heard,
be
to
CHAPTER
Are
foretells the
call,which
The
in
the break
"
lightthat
darkness.
never
139
humanity, and, through it, to
the streak
"
the Lord
and
?
power
cloud
time
a
of the Creation ?
Accounts
even
are
those
by
no
stance,
Dillmann, for in-
J, E, "c., and says
three
principal
put together from
aside the
names
which
documents,
he rids himself
2." II. 4." IV. 26.
he calls A, B, and
of the unenviable
burden
and, notwithstanding Dillmann's
of the critical chariots
behaviour
unruly
of
he
son,
!*
the
of
than
flimsiness
the utter
But
should
that C
"
he
says,
proceeded
is demonstrable
Genesis
from
itself,
the
Hebron
a
very
have
must
marked
the residence
hard
saying:
resided
in Canaan
'
"
specially,
as
Genesis Critically and
are
nothing more
was
to
be himself.
of this
illustrated
that
C
was
its
assigning
(C),
from
but
within
think
"
from,"
district
of
this
Now
!!
?
for it is clear that Abraham
somewhere
; and
native
it"
"
the
"
of Abraham
a
was
a
certainty,even
remembered
mann's
Dill-
by
Judah. "That
from
Ephraim
and
and
one
what, does the reader
"
"
and
hrst
is
reply be
C
its author
with
The
all ; for it
to
of
not
that
B
by
of the foundations
kingdom
Judah,
Let
there
continue
that
and
separate document,
and
in
from
expression."t
demonstration
overwhelming
of the southern
B
is further
"science"
so-called
borrowed
C
apparent
plainlyinvites the reply that
and that
the same
personality,
natural
"
an
into considerable
he influenced
"turns
of this will be
awkwardness
heavily.The
erratic, and, like
that
seems
same
device, the
lamentably lacking, too,
indeed, is
greatly,
So
employs
he
is
He
clever
Dillmann
Dr.
plunges
individuality.It
"
"
still drag
is
it appears,
C,
difficulties.
B
of the critical
Jehovist and
clingingto the names
The spirit
of blundering,
however, abides ;
Elohist."
wheels
this way
In
C.
"
absurdities
*'
SECTION
Genesis"
I40
if his
during
residence
ExegeticallyExpounded,
p.
ii.
his
long
in the
was
t
dence
resi-
Page
12.
there Several Writers in Genesis ?
Are
of
neighbourhood
have
placed
himself
afterwards
was
"
"science
that
the
and
sort
there
any
be
If
further
that
precious
by
which
tells
that
and
he
I conclude
Frenchman,
a
"criticism"
besides?
would
of
is
And
fail to
that
kind
of
reject
the
at
critics
assign
residence
Hebron.
to
A, the
so-called
of Isaac
Isaac
then,
well
the
as
C ?
measure
But
his
is
same
not
"PriestlyWriter,"
"
A
this
of their
of
father
Jacob:
down
is not
all ;
the
folly,
to
B, called
following passage
Elohist,and afterwards described
a
as
"And
to
Abraham
Why,
Judean
writer
for, as
critics
by
the
27).
xxxv.
as
as
Mamre,
to
Hebron), where
(Genesis
set
place
same
afterwards
Isaac
sojourned
asks, is
one
and
Judean
a
his brother-
and
the very
names
in
he says that Abraham
Dillmann
which
be found
Jehovist,"was
But
unto
Jacob came
Kirjath-arba (the
and
"
the
expose
thing,it would
Dillmann, because
dwelt
passage
required to
were
inconsistency. C,
writer, says
up
was
Would
"science"
this
not
of this
Paris, must
anywhere
near
their Founder
as
book
tolerated
anything
absurdity of
as
in
that
"
of France,
Parisian?
other
Is
of
downright lunacy ?
as
its
of
speciallya
that
a
Professor
writer
dwelt
critical book
a
native
a
native
a
Abraham
"Abraham
I read
was
latterlya
was
it
When
that Astruc
me
that
could
he, therefore,lay
being
Astruc, revered
was
all critics.
of
writer
Judean city?
a
? The
mad
run
Must
charge
relates
he
Judea, because
criticism
the
to
truthful
a
else.
it nowhere
open
what
Hebron,
141
fill
assign the
others
the
if to
", the
Ephraimitic
Genesis"
142
"
writer
and
he
So
:
him
sent
to
is
who
starred
*'
Our
the aid of critical
writers
Judean
they
has
which
and
been
not
the critics base
mis-spent
be
must
and
accounts
of the
given
Genesis
the fourth
of the
tillthe end."
callycertain
us
in
the
in
he
that
it
adds
language
the reader
credit the statement
is
no
either
difference
At
of
two
the
the
accounts
in
in
It
Essays
Genesis,
one
chapter and continuing
:
"This
to
is
so
philologi-
ignore it."
the
in
Hebrew
That
Will
that the above
language or
to
"
distinct
realitytwo
of
first
earth.
foundation, and
remotely suggests
even
that
upon
present-day text-books.
absolutelywithout
difference
almost
chapter and the first
other commencing
at
useless
were
of
noticing these
for the
us
Book
first
is stillthe
is
as
writer,
Goodwin,
Mr.
second, the
And
in
and
of the second
verse
been,
same
give us
heavens
in the
being comprised
verses
must
mis-statements
(p. 217), "that
are
have
their contention
observed," writes
Reviews
three
and
chapters of
of the creation
C
of God."
hallucinations
second
that
spectacles,
the
aberrations, for they will prepare
incredible
ill-
that
on
A, B, and
and
it
plain enough,
must
or
;
one
were,
Man
time
Joseph
that
A
the fact that
It is
Hebron, and
is at
Moses, the
forth
for his brethren.
been
know
we
(Genesis xxxvii. 14).
will disclose
sending
without
Jacob'shome
all have
"
Shechem
is
of the vale of Hebron,
out
the passage
search
then, even
2." II. 4." IV. 26.
him
sent
to
reference
Jacob
SECTION
tion
asser-
that
there
stylewhich
scholar
authorship?
first these
men,
who
speak
as
if
they
alone
No
to be
were
of
chapter
Second
the third
with
so-called
"second"
conclude
the
and
"These
are,"
heavens
the
upon
to
fresh
about
to
follow ?
to
the critics themselves
in what
that
followed
description.
example,
where
"
"
origin
the words
of
verse
an
seemed
How
say
so
there
"
second
what
to
what
to
make
observed.
were
attached
the first half
of the heavens
the
and
only part
"
of Genesis
with
anything,
about
the
abandon
fourth
set
as
soon
verse
to
4
are
to
"
as
forget.
"the
they
"
be
may
these
into
the
out
indeed
or
of creation
"
for
x\nd
word
one
the author
These
the earth
by
believe in what
broke
"
was
seen
and
fulfilled,
account
They
refer
not
which
follows
never
followed
once
persistin attaching
To
little the critics themselves
"the
at
corresponded
suddenly and absolutelyto
about
way,
reallynothing
was
is there
he
which
the
of the heavens?
origin
follows
that
they
is there
ii. was
heavens
by-and-bye
was
Where
translated
intention
in
must
in an}' way
the
4
origin of
creation
the
of the earth ?
chapter
gathered from
as
"
in all that
the
with
about
the
themselves
for
;
that
which
is the
range
it
But
verse
iii. The
chapter
Rendered
of
account
the
confidentlytranslated:
side of the critics
some
of
rather, "This
appeared
account
with
generations of
(ii.4), were
or
"
first
chapter ii.,and
verse
of the earth."
and
words
the
the
"
commence
the last
are
earth"
of
verse
account
with
These
"
the so-called
made
They
conclude
words,
143
recognisedas scholars, treated the second
Genesis
account
as
confessedlya second
of creation.
and
of Creation.
Account
facts
two
and
generations
first account
'
which, in their judg-
Genesis"
144
it could
ment,
These
"
That
*
"
creation
Genesis
ii. 4
does
originof
the heavens
and
of the
and
its acceptance
is
"
the
of the
?
mean
second
nothing
which
to
(ii.
4) :
universally
accepted
now
there
iii.24
"
the words
that there is no
that
"
writer," said
heavens
the
is
what
But
It is their confession
of
of
division
the critics-
by
The
"
possibly apply.
generations
are
earth.'
2." II. 4." IV. 26.
closes the first picturewith
"
Ewald,
'
SECTION
account
whatever
"This
title,
earth,"
in
is the
possibly
can
apply.
the relief thus
But
sacrifice.
enormous
generations
wrenched
the
should
of
of
this cannot
of
and
are
when
of
page
heaven."
the
Genesis
on
36 he
made
inflicted
page
ig
remnant
:
earth
stop
a
is shown
by
of the fourth
the
are
God
they
were
earth
made
"These
of the
and
verse
generations
when
heaven
of
and
his
earth
slightestattempt
der
to
in the
"...
heaven."
close
Commentary.
or
Genesis, p. iga.
that
day
The
\ Genesis,
see
pp.
the
wounds
gaping
conceal
On
the Lord
left without
are
to
with
section
second
critical wrench
the
Composition
intended
Lord
the
commences
by
where
opening words,
the
were
created," he closes the first section
they were
*
the
generations of
bleeding
God
With
t
made
was
earth
the
the
are
earth,"
be denied
the
an
connexion, and
never
These
"
:
created, in the day that
and
their
translation
own
It reads
heaven
the
from
That
These
of the
and
of Genesis
ii.
"
important stops
Driver's
chapter
purchased by
was
words,
writer
be.
Professor
violence
most
plainlythe
The
of the heavens
with
of
one
obtained
them.
19 and
36.
the
The
SECTION
Genesis"
146
words
as
description of
a
chapter. They
do
only
be
they
can
follows
in
another
under
the
total
a
that
have
they
these
able
is
say,
that
is
sentences
of
by
But
of
statements
for
dsah,
"
to
no
steeped
that
no
or
in
"
as
yatzar,
"
of
the
sort
place as
that
second
to
have
into
a
accept
between
of
law
its
Dillmann
"
uses
But
the
been
even
account
create."
?
this pretentious
fashion," where
to
the
different pens
trustworthy.
employs bard, "to
distinction
from
dare
the
ground
some
absurdity is
one
allegedfacts
make,"
"
child, is elevated
example, that
first account
is
so
Driver,
Dr.
conclude
ludicrous
too
Genesis
on
in another
libertyto
necessitybe
a
If I find
by
purchasing
of
man
any
written
and
writers.
different
himself?
represented
notion,
even
"
as
ii.46
each,
in
Commentary
been
stylesin
ii.4a and
"
which
commit
I at
system
says,
is
and
yet that
!
of
i
of
to
have
spoken
must
criticism
of
meaning
used
are
mark
in the
to
it,am
"buying"
ventured
acting
were
distinct
i.
"
words
would
purports
Hebron,
And
the
critics contend
the
two
Genesis
clear
a
sentence
one
Abraham
near
matter
and, when
;
the
to
what
placed
stand
to
detect
to
statement
a
ordinary caution
which
Genesis
that
noted
already
(i) Different
this,they
that, in
put the
to
asunder, they
verse
portions of
two
is
of
misapprehension as
are
iv. 26.
But
Or,
they ought
the
describing
word.
Hebrew
We
"
where
critics tore
the
ii.
first
before,and
goes
as
writer
the
of the
contents
understood
chapter
way,
just
the
refer to what
not
4 of
verse
words
2." II. 4." IV. 26.
two
"
the
there
pas-
The
sages.
occurs
the
found
torn
"
the
"
in
of
the
second
of
and
had
the
of the
formation
but
have
been
the
critics
the generations
are
when
earth
second
they
chapter it
is
call
It
account,"
not
which
consequently no
was
"first
These
**
"
the rest
In
"
147
in both.
(bard) would
account
heavens
creation
there
and
"
create
created."
is not
so-called
its opening words
away
were
in the
times
word
of Creation.
dsah, to make, is used
word
seven
and
Account
Second
No
spoken of,
for
the
word
"create."
But
"
serious
more
a
Another, in
chapter i. :
it is in
than
His
is much
God
by performingother
which
setting)
which
on
whereas
by
there
a
God
series of
plishes
accom-
words,
or
(as creating,
dividing,
making,
acts
with
the
objects
performed) imply nothing
are
in the
in ii. 46, etc., the
anthropomorphic
(taken in connection
they
sensible
or
that
ventured.
vital difference,"
more
more
of creation
work
is also
even
Driver, "is
Dr.
of
conception
respects,
some
writes
assertion
Divine
nature,
instance, moulds, breathes into
man
local
Jehovah here, for
the breath
of
life,
plants,places,takes,sets,brings,builds,closes up, walks
in the
garden (which
accustomed
Let
ask
the
writing should
Garden
And
the
"
evidentlyregarded
His
as
abode)," etc., etc.*
me
science
is
? He
of
be
reader
called
affirms
Eden
to
as
that
God's
"
say
whether
criticism
"
was
"
accustomed
prepared by Jehovah
*
"
and
Genesis, pp. 35, 36.
abode
statement
as
the
of
sacred
chapter ii. represents
that, too, in face of its distinct
garden
this kind
the
"
that
abode
!
of
If God
man.
garden
the
God.
in
Has
said,Let
there
the work
of His
called the
'
moving
and
of
"
made,
that
His
hands
And
God
and
God
made,
it
blesses
the
Day
from
There
we
which
we
found
The
have
meet
work
the
with
which
identical
in
surprisedwhen
called
God
in the
"
kept
that
saw
"
that
it
which
on
had
He
has
fruitful and
of
chapter ii.,and
the
was
had
He
and
man
His
the
made
hands
Seventh
"
(ii.
2) ?
representation of
of
the
(verses 18, 31) ;
works
rested
ment
firma-
delightsin
speakswith
He
God
(verse 2) ; that
bodies
good
"
to
as
acting locally,
as
He
God
throughout the whole
reader, after noting
be at all
waters
the
over
that
all His
"
He
"
dominion
and
Spirit of
God
that
God
"
them, sa3'ing, Be
;
And
the
very
vocal
He
livingcreatures
addresses
;
"
"
everything
was
"
(verse 28)
giving
darkness
And
"
is represented
God
fiats
in
living
givesnames
example, And
also
saw
multiply (verse 22)
gives him
that
the
the
heavenly
behold
and
reveal
; that
the
:
"
anthropomorphism
"
there
of so-called
mis-statements.
(verse 17) ; that He
"
of heaven
good,"
of
the
"
"
for
5) ; that
the face
fabric
creative
light 'Day,'
"sets
the
similar
light,"etc.
represented
before
speaking and
as
as,
(verse
He
work
i.
hands,
upon
is
when
"
dwell
remarked
various
be
in
ii.; for both
Driver
the
to
utterance
eastward
God
of
chapter
chapter
garden
entire
alleged
Dr.
in
Night
This
?
same
i. as
chapter
God
did
is constructed
find
the
planted
"
made
was
criticism
'
2." II. 4." IV. 26.
(verse 8), where
"
Eden
We
SECTION
Genesis"
148
which
God
is also
Scripture.
above
he reads
facts,will
chapter
ii.and
not
dis-
The
no
There
is not
creation
motion
matter
conditions
under
details
to
the
then
the
earth."
those
and
which
of
of
human
it
that creation
which
ITchange
we
in the
pass from
whole
Elohim.
the heavens
Jehovah
name
that
by
different
of
is
used
is
and
the
of the
story of
remarkable
a
to the Creator
Genesis,
"God";
section,
and
earth," it is
led
"
of the
It
is this
Astruc's
to
the different
writers
"
a
"
the
In
in the
the second
Elohim.
which
of
sense
when
chapteri.to chapterii. Throughout
name
In
proceeds
led.
there
ascribed
of the first section
the
and
;
Names.
that
name
fresh
woman
"
the
III.
Divine
observed
be
;
and
to
in any
professes to
of
seas
; next
existence
account,
no
and
moon,
creation of the heavens
The
be
and
of
making
reference
man
CHAPTER
will
sun,
vegetationbegan
is
It is what
thingsto
the
to
brief
a
creation
the
light;
placing of
merely
That
"
of
introduction
separation of dry land
great drama
word, of
the
to
;
creation
the
its way.
upon
of Creation."
account
of
have
as
149
sHghtest reference, for example, to
making
We
stars.
"second
a
; to the
the
to
in Genesis.
the
the
to
;
the expanse
or
of
trace
covers
the
Divine Names
The
names
supposed
"
Hebrew
Lord
in
and
could
"
ning,"
Begin"
generations of
change
rash
the
law
God
the
"
Divine
amazing
clusion
con-
be
used
which
the
only
"
"
Genesis"
I50
critics have
writers
had
"
the Elohist
"
and
but when
;
"
J
"
had
with
by
this
that
"
Elohist
"
be
originalblunder
the
was
for
other
critical
Hebrew
Jehovah
before
Yahwe,'
"
he says,
was
years,
of
Babel
und
it was
of
as
"the
as
should
like
in
"the
to
the
and
quietlyburied.
critical edifice
a
much
swept
later
host
a
by
away
that the
name
identical
in
Abraham.
of
with
lonia
Baby"
This
possessionof
spiritual
the
of
out
children
Bibel, p. 46.
was
known
be
of
which, after
Israel
emerge."*
*
It
when
of God
name
tribes,
the
been
almost
time
"
Nomad
same
thousand
the
was
has shown
a
with.
This, like
(a form
Jehovah) was
long
those
in the
contentions, has
beyond
saved,
be
to
and
identified
Jehovist"
Elohim.
'a-u-va-u
Ja-a'-ve,or
*
that
"J"
were
corner-stone
discovery. Delitzsch
recent
the
letters
Jehovist,
was
spoken
"the
that the
so
to
cease
that
name
letters "E"
device
happy
supposed
than
God
the
the
dispensed
from
was
assertion
name
and
The
chief
Another
called
be henceforth
changed
writer."
Judaic
used
The
should
Ephraimitic writer,"
manner
be
most
a
and
Jehovah,
that the blunder
not
E
"
concealed
name
time, however, become
hailed, therefore,as
suggested
be
Elohist.
could
repair. They
"the
used the
"the
and
longer be
no
sometimes
highercriticism
the
supposed
inconvenientlyevident
most
Jehovistthe
the
and
IV. 26.
"
Elohist
might equally well
Elohist
first those
sometimes
Jehovist
Elohim, it grew
At
it could
"
the
"
that
II. 4."
"the
named
"
2."
abandon.
to
were
Jehovist
that
SECTION
See
also
his
note.
were
a
to
Critical Blunder.
A
Both
words
therefore,in the Hebrew
were,
to
term
When
we
which
Astruc's
which
this
the
iii. This
chapter ii.and
God
Jehovah, but
as
a
writer
section
this section
theory;
be, and
But
all this
and
and
iii.,
the terms
do
? Have
Sections
appears
the
sense
Laban
says
was
the
and
the
question
their
The
?
root
of which
Elohist,"
well
the
as
of the
new
could
writer.
still unanswered
in
chapters ii.
difference
any
distinct
in
use
He
testimony of
same
there
Is
of the
of God
made
was
name
"
to
a
in
meanings,
those
opening
of the word
Elohim
gives in
Gesenius
frequently-usedHebrew
power,"
Jacob
as
"it
in Genesis
is in the
of
sequently
con-
his
rohustus ;'' that is,"strong."
^'fortis,
also in
of
It
as
the
one
explain
meaning
as
speak
the
"
names
they specialand
of Genesis
El, the
Thesaurus
by
of
that
was
elsewhere.
these
not
Jehovist."
appears
that both
leaves
change
occur
subversive
distinctly
most
used
were,
the
and
truth
for it showed
why
is
The
was
another
names
does
"the
as
Elohim
name
Jehovah.
name
But
Both
section
on
inflicted upon
realised.
might,with equaltruth,be spoken of as
the
Deity.
misrepresentationto speak
grave
of this second
seeingthat
the
Jehovah-Elohim.
as
of any
of the blow
nature
well.
perpetrated as
was
fined
con-
the foundation
was
archaeological
discoveryhas
will be
fact
was
ignorant
was
theory rested, the
criticism
tongue
That
writer
a
applied to
be
that this
remember
higher
blunder
could
which
other
he
because
name
one
written.
was
the belief that
entirelydisposes of
in
Genesis
centuries before
many
151
phrase
It
in
xxxi. 29, where
power
(el) of
my
hand
its
for
God, the
of its
The
this
is
it
done, who
was
the
than
other
That
pass."
is
be,"
the word
in the
seen
rain
My
do,
he
pass.
In
the
through
who
shall
of
meaning
the land
*
t The
Old
of
See
I
:
Testament
in
which
word
if
this
:
For
Thus
I
night,and
Jewish Church,
a
keep
man
come
is,
to
illustration
Thesattnis, p. 577.
the
but
That
to
find another
sense
brief
Jehovah."
name
Egypt
Gesenius,
:
"
the
in this
used
to
come
shall therefore
Ye
His
we
be
he shall
"
Jehovah."
am
am
cause
xii. 12
Exodus
"
it to
cause
of the
"I
the
hardly
verb, meaning
judgments
My
and
writes
can
occurrence
shall live in them
is He
God
of
and
statutes,
the
was
fast.
"
always
strongly-emphaticsentence,
read (Leviticusxviii. 5) :
we
of
lightningto /"//upon
or
shall
frequent
there
testimonyof antiquity
sound *) has a quite
o
Smith,
was
at
spake
physical meaning,"
a
be
(which critics persistin
the
"he
or
It
it stood
and
is
and
clearlyits meaning
Almighty, who
the
word
name
thirty-seven
Scripture.
hand
cmises
t The
it to
cause
the
Robertson
who
He
the earth."
the
by
The
sense.
Professor
late
how
spiteof
"
different
this
God,
might,
that it appears
includes
name
and
for
reiteration
commanded
in
reading Yahwe,
used
will
Creation-history
so
the other
Jehovah,on
that
God,
of all power,
possessor
here
name
constant
indicated
and
seen
"
succession, shows
in
times
the
The
for
name
one
IV. 26.
signifies mightiness,"
of all power
throughout
use
II. 4."
appropriateness of
possessor
apparent.
once
the
plural Elohim,
mightinesses."
2."
Eloah
hurt."
do you
to
and
"
SECTION
Genesis"
152
p. 423.
will
pass
will smite
SECTION
Genesis"
154
2." II. 4." IV. 26.
of
foes, sufferingnothing either in person
his side, Abraham
God
in goods. With
had
on
the midst
or
and
swept
army.
But
smitten
tamian
revealed
been
the
joy
They
pass."
will
Israel, I
I will
and
I will redeem
AND
WITH
the land
Exodus
you
GREAT
for
Me
when
that
clime, have
had
have
looked
have
thought
themselves
in their
to
of Him
and
who
a
the
God's
appealed
by
to
a
the
for
table
to
common
Sinai.
remembered
furnished
you
in unto
upon
distress
Egypt
arm,
Jehovah-Revelation
people of every
word, they have
back
who
and
Egypt,
God's
cast
to
bondage,
it that
was
I
the
of
bring you
of the
Israel, and
fulfil His
impulse
time
to
and
I will take
true
so
brings it
out
and
I will
and
generation.
of their
.
the
faithfulness,and
to
stretched
(verses 6-8). And
period was
Him
with
.
not
honour
burdens
out
:
had
Jehovah,
am
the
a
the
Scripture,"say
rid you
and
.
the
under
JUDGMENTS
people
a
"
from
out
you
who
He
as
of
children
Egyptians, and
to
"
God
know
the
this very
to
continues
bring
Mesopo-
vast
fulfilments,
as
was
"Wherefore,"
the
unto
allotted
were
to
were
of
God
That
them.
to
which
the
as
the
promised inheritance,God
of the
bestower
winds
the
to
They
slave
His
in
people
in the wilderness.
That
Elohim,
two
were
clearlyregarded
is shown
meanings
governs
these
their
use
possessivepronouns
never,
even
in
a
for
names
by
from
are
a
having
as
remarkable
Genesis
used
Jehovah
God,
to
singleinstance,with
different
law
which
Malachi.
freelywith
and
the one,
the other.
The
but
We
The
meet
the
**his
God,"
the
words
Old
such
the
that
This
meaning
that
and
that
the
other
the
in
is
there
is
That
also
that
there
that
the
shall
printed
hath
would
God
did
It
another
with
be
the
indication
a
in
not
suit
distinct
to
fulfiller
that
the
His
of
be
in
our
the
observed
Version
the
by
asked
Word.
used
but
Himself
victim
his
their
;
both
who
are
name
Word.
used
not
His
of
His
as
purpose
names
perception
of
also
remind
shows
the
pledges
denoted
is
Genesis
might
Him
It will
his
in
combination
fulfiller
is
of
"
the
in
capitals)
said,"
God
of
who
(always
apart
out,
authorship
God
far
fact
Elohim
pointed
salvation.
Jehovah
name
Lord
Yea,
be
the
the
name
displays
garden
and
judgment
tempter.
"
the
by
combination,
been
the
"our
or
chapters
still revealed
as
finding
itself.
meaning
manifested
in
scene
of
is
God
now
God
by
The
search
third
the
in
change
shall
so
that
to
the
while
just
God,"
once
be
lend
so
and
has
as
no
is evident.
not
that
is added.
Jehovah
He
did
second
which,
fact
itself
lent
one
noted
be
retained
a
the
will
It
"
that
"thy
explained
felt to
always
were
155
Jehovah"
be
only
we
without
"my
as
can
names
But
through
expression
Jehovah."
"c.
God,"
"our
Names.
(Elohim),
God"
"my
Testament
an
Divine
the
of
use
that
This
in
:
is
ture
Scrip-
meaning.
Genesis"
156
SECTION
2." II. 4."
CHAPTER
The
Truth
THERE
chapter
modern
of
of Genesis
is fitted
office of the
minister
to
them
in the expanse
"
the earth
universe
judged
for
made
universe
For, when
The
shall melt
with
and
for
wherein
this
critic of
Reviews, advised
of the
set
give lightupon
to
the
of the
viii. 3,
the
"
heavens
the elements
iii. 10)
will then
and
4).
a
and
;
be
pared
pre-
earth
new
"
righteousness (verse 12).
entire
the
God
:
(2 Peter
heavens
new
conception
hope
the discoveries
"
"
heat
hopelessly antiquated.
by
the
teaching pervades
fittingabode
"
perishedwithout
man
great noise, and
*'
dwelleth
"
and
earth
stupendous greatness
fervent
more
him
a
it best to
even
clearly taught (Psalm
with
away
which
his abode.
and
moon,
earth
same
the
first
The
man.
probation is ended,
man's
shall pass
another
is
the
of the heaven
(i.17).
the
first to last it is assumed
sun,
the
to
Scripture,although
shed
of
of the
to have
From
has been
stars
But
view
whole
by long preceding preparationfor
It is the
starry
the
seem
remark.
that the universe
Narrative.
the
a
commentators
leave without
III.
through
runs
IV. 26.
Mosaic
It
of modern
under
in
should
declared, the Scripturecontains
of
be
a
the
light
The
Essays
"frank
be
have
to
astronomy.
Cosmogony,"
views
to
supposed
was
of resurrection
that there
erroneous
declared
was
and
nition
recog-
nature," which, he
; and
after contrast-
ing the teaching of
of
is itself
only
i860, and
and
teaching of
of modern
historian
universe
is confirmed
and
;
hottest
the
by
solar
in
That
the
which
Dr.
only
indicates
that
of the starry
tigation
investhe
because
centre,
that
the
observed
know
practically
is the
of cooler
of least
region
conditions."
our
of
one
Russel
the
arrangements,
many
of
all the charm
possesses
Alfred
Gierke,
occupying the central positionin
is quite startlingenough ; but
universe
fact of
material
it is
the
We
"
:
centre
therefore
disturbance, and
Miss
all sides of us,
on
centre,
he adds
the
system
our
since
astronomical
in
are
a
in
unit
Lockyer, referringto
is in the
system
of
here vindicated
Bible.
recent
we
effect arises ;" t and
that
the
"Our
:
happened
even
being equally remote
It is because
"
has
in the centre
are
us
new
pendants
astronomy,"
Sir Norman
stars
:
says
we
the
up
inconsiderable
an
have
the
greatness
upon
lesser
fresh discoveries
impressionthat
our
the
much
enforced
"the
forced
But
*
creation."
vast
had
one
earth, then, is but
the
regardingthe
astronomy
science
conceptionwhich
which
157
universe, he thus summed
of the material
body
for Man.
Made
Universe
The
fairytale.
a
Darwin's
Wallace,
story of
These
and
friend
fellow-labourer,has gathered together in his recently-
published
volume.
Speaking
t
himself,see
every where
supremacy
of
be
inclined
century
virtuous
*
Page
213.
the
scholar, Dr.
man
"
:
says
belief
of
the
is of greater worth
i^'atnre, Sth November,
1900.
t Man's
persons
the
and
Place
the
would
eighteenth
great
Bentley, that
"
universe
Such
like
who,
those
in the material
mind," he
to
of
soul
of
one
excellencythan
in the
Universe
(1903).
the
heavens
that the universe
for this very
to
Biblical
I have
has
shed
These
shall
has
objections.
One
of
this
Dr.
Driver
of
He
grounds.
"
:
says
that
existence
of
an
upon
Eden,
the
in which
removed
from
was
*
Pages
of the
he
one
319, 320.
of
the
I
meet.
to
time
the
more
later
attention
at
of the
alleged scientific
of
sciences
far from
archaeology,
points to
having begun
the
his
happy surroundings
from
a
state
of
externallyat least,little
creation.
harmony
t Vol.
stration
demon-
a
deal with
evidence
allied
brute
of
chapters
narrative
Fall,on
The
was,
covery
dis-
modern
our
slowly emerged
the
not
also
claims
globe in
has
to
rejectsthe
so
man,
savagery,
condition
account
furnished
time
shall
of the
geology, biology,and
conclusion
tion
atten-
yet dared
not
these
Eden, and
I content
Scripturehistorywhich
of the
truth
criticism
point.
an
upon
reader's
first four
have
work
touch
not
there.
I.f for
the
upon
confirmations, and
garden
believing
companion
a
directing the
mention, however, from
recent
be
with
discoveries
of the
higher
unique
into existence
copious light which
but
unexpected
the
are
universe, they will
I shall
dealt
of Vol.
139-244
pp.
to
Guide,
myself,therefore,with
Genesis.
is the
man
little further,and
is intended
which
to
there
purpose." *
New
matters
in the
stars
that
actuallybrought
was
this book
The
shown
are
of this vast
in going a
difficulty
no
all the
thinking that
product
supreme
As
they
for
reasons
2." II. 4." IV. 26.
planetsand
when
; and
strong
and
all his
and
sun
see
SECTION
Genesis"
158
II. of the
and
Library
His
primitive
happiness,but
Edition.
have, it would
and
Here, certainly,there
hostile array.
But
it is
reallywith
army
is
other
depreciatorsof
let
notice
us
death
the
Bible.
no
was
chapter
reference
to
any
have
parents may
is the passage
to,
for man,
sin
;
death
and
is
when
the
from
Adam
those
the
says
passed
upon
(Romans
"
even
after the similitude
of whom
it
speaks
of Adam's
family,and
"
only.
Moses,
not
*
our
first
creation.
If it
"c., that is referred
through
came
Scriptureadds,
to
slightest
all difficulty.
of it will clear away
v.
carefullydescribed
the similitude
human
death
12,
v.
world,"
sinned"
affected
sinned
so
the
sin of
the
as
"
As
by
death
was
and
the
Here
12).
death
for that
MEN,
all
sin
man
one
"
death
that
them
area
And
it is mankind.
of Adam's
not
sin
apostle,
Nevertheless
over
The
here.
not
the lower
upon
creation
animal
Certainly not
effect which
man
said,or implied,
the
makes
of
existence
sin,contradicts
among
Genesis
the
and
begin with,
To
man's
Bible
?
which
for
and
all have
death
had
Driver
the
that
the
has
The
scare-crows.
Scripture.
assumption
reading
into the
entered
of
imposing
an
against Dr.
in Romans
careful
one
The
by
of
his
prime
been
be
to
array
the
appeared
man
third
an
and
us
where
But
that there
before
his
and
made
man
seem,
seems
earth, previousto
in the
Pain
*
in evolution."
factors
before
earth
prevailedupon
appearance,
159
againstopposing forces.
of fierce conflict
death
Sinned.
Before Adam
Death
reigned
had
not
transgression,"
having
"
sinned
after
belong to
transgression,"
to
the brute
Genesis, p. 36.
creation.
the
SECTION
Genesis"
i6o
With
opposed
Biology
brute
the
rest,
to
fact
than
the
and
is
foremost
have
descent
M.
de
of
from
the
Quatrefages,the great
which
the front
form
then
and
the
is reversed.
order
"
their
that
It is
when
a
and
astray who
The
of
differences.
pointed
out
that
ancestry.
in the
*
the
fages,
Quatrefollow
the
an
inverse
not
Virchow
SUV
Its
in
the other
by
question
same
only one
notion,
and
up
I have
of several
afterwards
Owen
the
apes
also
consequentlyprove
the world
"
:
is
man
order, and
summed
more
ape."
Richard
entered
in
"Embryology, anatomy,
showing how far they are
brain
the
Sir
followingwords
Rapport
from
this
ape
de
says
process,
the
that the teeth
has
man
the
:
in
from
man
similar
in
which
folds
In
descend
coincide
development of
appear
lobe.
evident,"
said
is
man
teach, conformably with Darwin's
the descent
in
completed first,
are
Dealing with
following3'ear, he
morphology
the
man,
reverse
cannot
of evolution."*
that
organised beings
two
development,
in the
lesser
"
elevated of the two,
way
In
ape.
of the
naturalist
French
the contention
part of the brain
those
bility.
impossi-
an
of the folds in the brain
entirelydisposesof
from
is
that
that there is a difference
of the appearance
descended
how
seen
declared
apes
the
of the very
have
time
shows
anthropologist,
the order
Driver's.
already
Some
of the
any
Dr.
be
nothing of
know
repudiatingDarwinism.
scientists
man's
of
this
We
man.
could
statement
no
allied sciences
origin of
science
and
to
regard
more
2." II. 4." IV. 26.
the
through
an
positionin
nothing
to
do
Paris, 1867, pp. 246, 247.
progris Ue I'anthropologie,
ape
i888
with
Genesis"
i62
to any
or
SECTION
the
approach to
nearer
characteristics.
annihilation
2." II. 4." IV. 26.
If the
...
is
in essential
Man-ape
Hnks
existed,their
ever
that it may
extremely improbable
so
pronounced impossible."*
be
Driver
Dr.
has
"
man
in which
from
cites
he
have
creation."
the
perused
Dr.
the
by
Hugo
to
the very
written
begins about
sources,
the
means
we
first commencements,
primitive condition.
at the
encounter
the
"
first
there
from
ways
be able
follow
to
perhaps, the stepping out
of
the
the
and
East
science
This
gray
determine
to
development
of
art,
or
even,
from
contrary,
this
some
do
we
itself has
gone
not
ledge
present know-
our
attainment
"
the
the
civilisation,but
of
already a high
which
:
is furnished
humanity
beginning of
gropings
in art
as
On
Our
"
says
B.C.
3,000
organisation, of science,
State
stands
he
Baby-
beginningof Babylonian
might
and
will
one
Die
paper,
knowledge, that, namely, which
antiquityis by no
where
civilisation,
of
No
that
design to support
his
In
learn
to
reverse.
of any
Winckler
removed
surprisethose
foregoing pages
Kultur, published in 1902,
historical
of savagery,
state
a
It will not
Scripture testimony.
lonische
testifyingthat
externallyat least,little
was,
archseologytestifies
suspect
from
slowly emerged
the brute
who
archaeology as
an
"
ment
attainin many
since
back
there
instead
of
forward."
Wherever
possessed of
account
;
meet
we
and
ancient
beliefs for which
Manual
of Geology,
we
find
the evolutionist
the earliest records
*
man,
p.
reveal
603.
a
him
cannot
civilisation
and
Archaeology
indicates
which
says
and
tells
he
did
that
begin,
started,
man
with
an
ability
which
the
of
man's
special
us
communing
with
God.
Evolution.
Bible
163
the
as
inheritance
fully
creation
of
Scripture
knowledge
when
explains
and
his
primal
it
SECTION
"THE
BOOK
OF
III.
THE
OF
GENERATIONS
ADAM."
V.
VI.
"
CHAPTER
The
Contents
Section
THIS
narrative,
with
direction
which
at
purpose
of
new
that
the
is
discloses the great
once
The
Book.
in
Section
reader
Cainites
of
progressing development
compensation
at the
end
branches
made
man
the midst
the
for its lost
of the
of the
section
which
race
in vain.
redemption
which
picture sets
forth
;
He
science
had
a
showed
Hands
of the fallen
in
the
of
and
that God
art,
up
can
to
to
other
had
not
from
God
bring. That
the
a
Then
God.
glimpse of
cry is raised
a
alone
what,
rapidly-
lifted heavenward
are
and
cluded
con-
humanity
fellowshipwith
we
and
saw
finding in worldl}^prosperit}',and
a
remember
traced
we
takes
controlling
will
was
There
II.
The
speciallynoteworthy.
sharp precision,here
a
story of the
the
I.
for
fold
two-
present hour,
Critical Perplexities.
the creation
has resulted from
"
These
heavens
that
to
generations
III.
is the story of
from
to
Noah,
is Seth
aside ?
set
all that second
be the father
of the
questionbefore
Christ.
selected
that
from
The
and
come,
other
save
Noah
and
his house
His
house
Christ
and
with
had
so
grand, and
and
no
have
I
other, if it had
kept
shall
not
trouble
interweavingsof
and
is
R, and
the
No
weary
Sethites
with
so
each
the selection
it the
to
in
the Christ
be
cession.
suc-
of Noah
Redeemer
presents, in
all will
merely human
possessed
the
is to
symbolic
a
is to
bring.
perish save
book
such
a
that
;
it.
about
reader
which
ever
plan, could
with
the
endless
imaginary "sources," P,
the rest, with
compelled to
same.
the
just as
Divinelysilent
so
in this
clearlyoutlined,a plan as
so
our
immediately hear, perishes
;
!
repeat
we
eight links
the
; and
through
shall
we
is chosen
man
he is
this final selection
humanity, as
one
story of Enos, because
picture,the redemption which
All
this
generation of
for
only
story
series ends
his hotise ;
every
The
of the Christ
the ancestor
and
the
becomes
and
is
When
genealogicalseries,the reply is
of Genesis
chapter
generationof humanity,
of the
each
now
selections
chosen
There
posterityof Adam,
the immediate
Book
series of Divine
a
Why
of Adam
reply. From
to
the
answer
third natural
This
of Genesis
son
"of
"
the story of God's
commences
the Christ.
faces towards
other
the outcome
"
but decisively,
the
Silently,
cry.
Seth
universe.
of the earth."
and
Section
of the material
"
the
are
165
the
itself. When
and
J,
higher criticism
criticism
began,
division
the
said
between
it and
see
long
has
since
disappeared
Driver,
from
"
in which
twelve sections
the
J, P,
of
P, which
derived
critics,no
fewer
and
in and
R
pass
it be
Let
bewildering rapidity.
Flood,"
elements
of
than
not
a
of
scrap
system
of
shadow
of
conviction
the best
Our
will abide
with
that
us
all the
can
it with
of the
; for the
answer
is
this insane
nor
study
the
There
scholarshipfurnish
Hebrew
authority.
provide
Version.
foundation,
a
as
lutely
abso-
is before
manuscript authoritywhich
claim
can
resources
will
than
to go
nothing more
upon
of our
English Authorised
out
remembered
that, in all this dissecting
work, the critic has
reader
the
(chapter vii. 5-18)
verses
to
with
of the
is that
smile
and
lips,
furrowed
the account
fourteen
child
complacent
been
addition
was
A
the critical
narrative
the
according
simple.
the
from
VI. 8.
documents
and
ago
In
the main
In
are,
with
long
enlargedby
/."
there
has
perplexity.
been
so-called
it. But
"
of
says
the
follow
the critical brow
frown
3." V."
beautifullyclear
be
to
could
has
SECTION
Genesis"
165
a
narrative
unconquerable
the
Book
is
one
indivisible.
and
little
How
higher
criticism
is shown
Seth," he writes,
"
verse
3.
he is also (verse i) in God's
the
image
of God
The
*
Scripture,
verse
i
:
is
"In
left with
spiritualperception is
in Dr.
Driver's
"
in Adam's
being
image.
is transmitted
contrast,
so
entirelymissed.
day that God created
*
Genesis, p. 76.
that
It follows
Adam's
on
image,
ants."
descend-
clearlypresented
here
the
to
note
the
We
man,
in the
read
in
in the
Patriarchal Religion.
The
likeness
learn
Hved
his
it
that
and
hundred
an
to
made
of
the father
what
us
had
received
this
genealogy,* but
here
also.
title
to
the
are
of the
Old
occurs
once
"
The
If
and
the
Spiritof
and
the words
which
"the
are
Book
and
of the
of fallen
enrolment
There
is another
all who
*
has
of the
have
have
we
in
notice
variation
in the
read
We
not
"
"This
but
"
form
That
in the whole
nor
it
Testament
New
It is its
opening word
"
of Abraham
Son
big with
only
us
brief
Adam."
:
had
to
do with
one
generations of
Book
"
"
received
Introductory Volume
we
have
the Lamb's
life from
(Marshall
it ?
name
the very
There
fate for every
beings
we
that
demonstrate
to
Scripture?
i. i).
(Matthew
shall
accidental, how
God
was
features
a
Adam"
the
requireanything more
we
now
generation of Jesus Christ, the
of the
is not
to
other
Genesis,
only.
name
depravity.
Genesis.
in
in
son
and
Seth,
demand
In
once
David, the
that
Shall
again
Testament.
Book
of
Son
of
a
was
on
from
generationsof
found
of title is not
hand
to
generations of
of the
Book
THE
Adam
remarkable
a
section
this
''These
is
There
Adam
we
And, since Noah,
upon
these
And
begat
of universal
elsewhere
dwelt
have
I
able
doctrine
already the
here
3,
called his
and
man.
all,was
himself
he
and
verse
fallen nature,
give. He inherited a
in the image of a sinful
able
;
"
:
only which
that
received
Seth
Seth
thirtyyears,
after his image
likeness,
own
Seth."
is
with
thus
not
was
But, in
he him."
made
of God
167
are
of
phrases
There
us.
In
Adam."
each
Book
books
two
our
of
this Second
Brothers, 3/6),pp. 207-221.
is
that
place.
Life;"
Head
i68
of
shall
We
which
enrolled
look
farther
the
Old
has
why
ceremonial
the fathers
word
a
nothing
to
conclude
learn
that he should
not
see
Is it because
he has
brought hosts
altar,or has abounded
?
with
is it that
Or
in other
he has crucified
extraordinaryand
persevering
with
God's
companied
he
ceased
of
mention
own
plainlya
with
"walked
ship,
of fellow-
matter
earthlyfellowship
(as we
proves
of this
see
the belief in
not, for God
took
him
"
is
the
type
"gathering together unto
as
our
fullyin
more
life.
the
from
the first.
man
on
and
Him"
There
high
and
;
prophecy
which
The
following
life after death
a
(verse 24).
dwelling-placefor
translation
After
;
also of the outcome
possession of humanity
givesus
way
Divine
God
a
the world's
he
way;
is
Enoch
obedience, of livingthe
chapter)that
the
his
found.
restored.
was
forsook
He
Religion,then,
God."
with
God.
take
to
Paradise
walked
"
sought and
was
presence
of
with
from
is translated
?
communion
22.
ver.
true
No, the explanationis that he
The
this
even
austerities ?
God."
the
upon
in
of
of
observances
flesh
shall also
and
nature
spiritual
of sacrifices to God's
the
chronology of
to the
as
Enoch
; and
with
11-15).
xx.
is said of Enoch
what
note
us
Testament
religion.
death
the
chapter vi.,which
Testament
the New
into
on
closing now
of
verses
Section, let
The
in it (see Rev.
of
life-periods
enormous
Before
race.
opening
VI. 8.
chapter lays the foundation,
this
deal with
3." V."
are
humanity
our
SECTION
Genesis"
has
"
He
been
was
fore,
is,thereEnoch's
of
our
that
Lord
hope to-day.
tracingthe genealogy of Noah,
the Scripture
SECTION
Genesis"
170
from
the
"Ask
Me
of
"
earth
of the
ends
3." V."
things to
come
VI. 8.
(xhii.6) ;
and
concerning
My
again :
"
Sons
(xlv.ii).
quite useless,therefore,to
is
It
phrase
who
neither
xxii.
30).
would
And
flesh
years
"
"
is
God
words
(vi.3).
are
and
:
as
that
to
were
Driver
Spirithas
"
not
to
contend
that
write
"
beings
can
only
contracted
striving.
"
and
flesh,"
be
120
years
limited
to
devoted
ever
in
!
itself to
it would
of God
sons
of
unions
that
whose
that
mean
them
but
Understood
:
of
Sons
only mortal,
had
the
is
twenty
"
been
have
"
so
simple blindness.
angels was
can
"
also
and
man,"
as
fair,
were
these
"
of
sons
he
It is with
to.
only legitimate canons
passage
men
offenders
of documents,
interpretation
sane
the
hundred
an
For
they chose,"
said, My Spirit
for that
man,
that His
are
Lord
the
they
the
the
who
those
that
"And
described
are
that
"
men
strive with
grievedand
of the passage
of all which
Here
those
marriage (Matt,
wives
earthlyexistence is now
If the higher criticism
to
of
plainlyreferred
here these
But
in
to
suggestion impossible.
yet his days shall be
;
"
God
them
always
shall not
the
daughters
took
these
come
given
are
after the statement,
the
they
and
referringhere
as
careful consideration
a
made
immediately
saw
nor
marry
have
God
understood
be
must
that the
contend
a
seen
referred
And
yet Dr.
accordance
with
(!) the
interpretation
semi-divine
with
the
or
angelic
daughters
of
"!*
The
Samaritan
Pentateuch, which
*
Page
83.
was
intended
Who
for
"
translates, "the
Onkelos
the
the
itself.
classes
Scripture,as
dividingline
broad
"
of God
became
They
the
called upon
They
seen.
leaven
of the
flesh.
world
had
the
earth's
best
historyof Israel,and
Church.
here
And
which
the
Church's
always yielded.
in
verse
4
their fathers had
with
those
in
who
how
This
that
far the
them
by
corruption
beginning it bore
reader
in
also of the Christian
the
to
will mark
nephilim (' giants ')were
; and
days
the
unto
them,
those
the fruit
world
what
has
is said
:
The
"
sons
attractiveness in
conformity
The
The
frequentlyrepeated
in that
in the
the
tions.
separatisttradi-
revealed
be
two
now
already changed
to
was
But
"
adopting the practiceof polygamy.
of the
and
great."
into
away.
than
also
they
of
of the Lord
name
only intermarried
not
sons
explains
divided
more
God
not
without, but
were
seen,
of their
less evil and
knew
just
thinned
had
ashamed
saw
that
men
after the
"
mighty ";
of the
the
the
Targum
sons
been
long
lived
who
those
and
who
those
"
The
have
we
had
Mankind
the
"
in
inserted
of the
sons
Palestine,
of
Targum
But
sons
171
settlers
of God."
"
for
Gentile
tribes,has here
territories of the ten
of the rulers
Nephilim?
the
of
instruction
the
the
were
after
daughters
the
were
also
There
is great
these
nephihm
xiii. 33) in the
time,
ancient
uncertainty and
were.
account
The
and
the
the
they
heroes
men
given by
occurs
the
in
came
bare
to
(gihbor'im)
of renown."
contention
word
earth
of God
sons
men,
became
same
in
of
the
in
as
to what
again (Num.
spies of
the
in-
SECTION
Genesis"
172
habitants
of Canaan.
of
men
were
It is very
giganticstature
that
they
as
class apart from
a
something
were
land, who
xiii.
neighbour ;
the
be connected
with
probably
this
verb, in
in the
nephilim
who
men
and
The
"strong," "impetuous,"
to
its
see
the
grasp
important
The
Revised
has
adopted
sense
were
when
of the text.
It translates
in the earth
in
the
sons
to them."
had
before
sons
it pauses,
been
of God
it. But
should
there in this lowered
was
like that to
It is
with
an
end
in
now
and
passage,
what
follows.
the
is
and
.
to
The
"
:
critics,
no
matical
gram-
the
Nephilim
also after
they bare
us
afterthis lapse on
been
that,
children
if the intention
inform
a
of the
that
the
the part
in existence
they not have been?
testimony to bring an
What
abuse
?
surelythe duty
something
thus
just as they had
why
means
entirely misses
as
merely
in existence
nephilim were
.
in which
are
there
days, and
God, "c.
There
Scripture
of the
of
those
nephilim
frequentlyused
with
which
necessity, and
as
to
seems
sense
with
for which
harmless
gibborim
common
"
physicalsuperiority
We
connection
rendering
the
of the above
sense
Version, in
a
word
men.
a
word
others, a
attack
Testament.
positionto
The
their
abused
of the
represented
are
of its conjugations,is
one
Old
be
may
"to fall"; and
"a/"/fa/,
fall upon
to
giant
clear
of great stature
men
A
they
mentioned
are
ordinary inhabitants
of the land.
terror
that
it is also
They
more.
"
these
VI. 8.
probable
; but
were
32).
but
crowning
were
the
themselves
(Numbers
3." V."
better
of
scholarshipto present
than
gratuitous nonsense.
us
The
One
The
Authorised
and
Hundred
had
been
there
with
terror
received
wrong
a
;
"
They
strong.
'*
in ancient
time,
earth
filled with
was
God
saw
the
earth
power,
are
"
always
strive
his
years"
days
word
also
is flesh
their
with
were
thus
"the
"and
(verse 11);
of
man
Brotherhood
great in
was
and
headlong
rightwere
rush
for wealth,
the words
Lord
said,
with
shall
be
he
also
hundred
an
shall
Spirit
My
for that
men,
:
not
is flesh ;
and
twenty
here
"for
rendered
that"
") is beshaggam, which
of their
("for that
literally,
means
transgression."
he
The
words
thus
:
"And
always
the
strive
He
hundred
and
had
become
pride and
in the
Man
These
who
men,
of
(verse3) ?
The
"because
violence"
understand
to
the
forces
battled
And
law-
fame.
and
we
and
mighty
foot in the
under
the
also asserted
"
us,
filled the
of renown."
(verse 5).
"And
read
men
became
men
the
lightthere
accession.
vast
the wickedness
that
trampled
yet
had
They subjected the weak,
mastery.
How
and
new
the
henceforth
but
of
Scripture informs
nephilim
strong, impetuous
gibborim
and
the
; now,
rendering,
meaning
darkening of
The
two.
were
abiding
the
evil
one
Delay. 173
faithful
a
the
grasp
this
Before
Scripture.
gives us
to
us
Years'
Twenty
Version
enables
so
and
Lord
said,
with
men
My
Spirit
because
of
is flesh, and
twenty
"
his
shall
their
days
shall
not
gression.
trans-
be
an
years."
flesh."
He
of
gratification
was
rioting
its lusts
;
and
in its
this is
Genesis"
174
the
Divine
SECTION
sentence
Spirit, resisted
For
I20
ordinary
kind
the
upon
them
exactly
text
another
with
120
years
then
600
a
after.
500
years
100
"
else
We
us
issued
and
simply
states
first-born
the
Flood
after."
But
the
The
take
from
Divine
its
the
Noah's
the
and
place
the
numbers
two
purpose
patriarch's
at
that
to
first-born
not
that
Noah
in
Divine
statement
close
of
that
Noah,
the
the
by twenty
he
rests
was
upon
does
32
v.
was
Noah.
birth
the
It
his
of
necessarily
had
genealogy.
We
communication
preceded
was
decree
to
at
plained
ex-
come
when
objection
age
less
hope-
statement
did
communicated
Patriarch's
is in
that
be
came
the
of
sense
"the
32
v.
six-score
at
cannot
statement
when
age
probably
;
in
fixing
as
furnished
Flood
old, and
years
give
the
told
are
misunderstanding.
not
for
this
are
they
they,
say
;
a
which
"
till the
contest
Scripture
itself, and
"But,"
nothing
mean
the
then
Divine
wait
life
force
to
respite.
a
words
human
contradiction
away."
can
for
;
will
the
and
the
critics
understand
of
be
restrain
The
God's
withdrawn,
will
God
duration
antagonism
with
full.
and
It suits
years.
still
8.
earth.
be
there
words,
is
iniquity
interpretation,
the
other
In
earth's
will
VI.
revolted
But
grace
V."
will
scorned,
descend.
years
vengeance.
the
upon
and
will
judgment
3."
the
years.
birth
to
learn
of the
of
that
the Old Testament.
and
Immortality
Man's
II.
CHAPTER
Translation
The
IN
patriarchbefore
other
his age
mentioning
of years
number
he died."
And
"
Adam
around
him.
reached
the
form.
There
Divine
presence
and
world's
way.
the
Then
had
we
death.
This
the
He
character
not
criticism.
have
of the heathen
faith
;
for God
been
has
legends,which
to
he
had
changed.
was
the
finding of
a
abandonment
an
with
walking
God."
with
God
exchanged
was
took
him
"
not
for
see
(ver.24).
evidentlydisconcerted
Attempts
made
world
the
that he should
translated
was
was
this
years,
like
walked
Enoch
"
part of the record
higher
time, when
and
fellowship,
for 300
Enoch
"
this
told that, when
are
endured
sight.
lived
birth
the
to
had
God,
an
assume
man
:
the seventh
"
statements
after
seeking
a
was
mation
sum-
all,the words
to
come
the
sixty-five,
of
the
entire duration
Apparently,up
from
But
statements
event,
last of
we
(Jude 14), the
age
have
periodsgiving the
first-born,Enoch
his
of
of every
after that
But, when
entirelydifferent
of
the brief record
earthlyexistence, and,
of his
from
the statement
the birth of his first-born, the
hved
he
surprisedby
is
after,we
and
at
of these two
^'
genealogicalrecord
chapter v., the reader
In
regarding Enoch.
of
Enoch.
of
seemingly monotonous
the
175
of
a
speciallyfeeble
degrade
seem
it to the level
to be
more
or
less
Genesis"
176
distorted
these
memories
is
history.
There
of
world's
history.
The
this
remain, will
cumber
and
The
by
been
note
from
up
here
the
earliest
His
be
humanity
warning.
vexation
permit
has
theory of
and
servant
suffered
the
Man,
Driver, has
ideas.
things are
brutes
man's
Among
down
settled
be
to
belief
in
the
among
If this is
with
of
conception
from
the brute
started
man
belief which
by
from
separated
wide
as
it
equipment
an
then
interval
an
to-day.
him
And
as
history,
that which
advancing
parts
research
steadilyconfirming the Scripture,and showing
is a dream.
the critical and Hegelian evolution
of Khammurabbi
constantly speak
their fate."
which
to
of life after death.
most
quietly assumed
we
been
confidentlyset
hope
and
!
level of the
nobler
the
explanation. It
an
Dr.
is
possessionsof humanity.
creation
Laws
to
this record
evolution
by
from
clearest
is
of
the
in
earth ?
God, and
one
immortality
him
loud
already informed
belief in
and
a
away
revolted
two
acquisitions,
then
juncture
cannot
morality,and
manners,
But
this
is taken
of the
steadilyclimbing
late
fitness,too, in the
at
higher criticism
is subversive
"
event
pollute His
the
But
simplicityand sobriety
Divine
a
It struck
a
recorded.
uneasiness, however, with which
viewed
have
all the
if God
But
VI. 8.
acknowledged legends, while
is
righteous man
defilement.
to
and
arrayed in
occurrence
3." V."
of the facts here
evident
are
this record
of
SECTION
That
this life is the
the
dead
is,there
is
as
an
having
eternal
preparation.That
that
The
of Abraham)
(a contemporary
of
is
"
gone
to
destiny for
doctrine
is still
178
Genesis"
before
the reader
conceived
as
the
SECTION
the
from
Bishop Ryle
It preserves
The
science
the
of
literature
in any
statements
traditions
of
of
the
is
of
precludesthe possibility
leads
to
us
The
comparative
expect
exaggerated
by
no
singularin
means
Such
"
his
rejection
gevity
lon-
extreme
indeed," writes Dillmann,
from
such
incorporatingthe primitive
work
Scripture statements.
cannot,
other
people."*
a
Dr. Driver
Hebrew
"
:
prehistorictraditions.
correct.
figures being literally
study
with
not, in this respect, differ from
literatures.
study of
concludes
He
narrator."
following extract
literature does
VI. 8.
general pictureof primitivetimes
a
by
3." V."
"
be demonstrated
it is
experience,and
lished
estabsufficiently
he adds, quoting from Tuch,
physiologically,"
impossible for the human
organisationnot altogetherdifferent
that it is
"
to
exceed
of
goo." t
an
The
to
of
age
over
sight of
present hour.
and
others
Scripture on
the
to
aside
scientific
The
basis.:];
tradition
history is
*Page 75.
too
^Genesis, p. 211,
212.
not
distinct
The
ages
tending
ex-
and
within
for
difficulty
testimony of
rests
upon
New
no
the
cient
suffi-
vastlyextended
of
commencement
widespread
I See
one
Josephus to the
proof;
necessarilydis-
that such
the
reach
come
a
an
by Dillmann, Driver,
grounds,
characterised
life-periods
race's
made
the
of
days
is
difficulty
attempt
set
seldom
so
constituted
the
from
But
to
nine, centuries
even
times, which
Scripture readers
and
and
seven,
with
the present,
incongruitybetween
century, has
one
from
let alone
years,
marked
of historic
those
200
body,
and
Biblical
too
our
emphatic
Guide, pp. 249-251.
Patriarchal
Science and
not
"
have
to
Other
of the earliest ages
men
Mochus,
giving
similar
Hamza
gives,in
These
the age
still more
in the above
be
have
carried
been
humanity, are
picturesof
scattered
was
these
impressed
that
science
human
life was
it is
facts of
which
shown
man
Foissac,
"
to
speak
the
penned.
in
the
It is
is
recent
of what
is
a
in the
is
of
cally
physiologithe
statement
science, and,
physiologically
of the human
"There
had
extension
an
That
the
told
are
we
Driver, "with
Dr.
structure
organs,
before
But
impossibility.
body."
acquainted with
incompatible with
have
it.
"
an
therefore,entitled
could
plainthat
nation
imagiidentical
create
such
that
of the human
no
not
upon
It
widely-scattered
a
extraordinarykind
an
our
which
memories,
it does
; and
of
is intimated
imagination. The
to
memories
has
these
incompatible,"writes
structure
longevity
than
everywhere by
this kind
the
indeed, universal.
are,
that
magnify, but
may
race
ancient
They
solelydue
Genesis.
years).
widely scattered
imagined
in
given
as
aliquotad 300
antiquos
several ancient kings
them
of the
extract.
Nicolaus,
d3masty, three reigns
reges
of 300
traditions
are
cannot
apud se
Hecataeus,
respectively;and
years
(that among
attained
race
1,000
declared
vixisseannos"
that
to
the first Persian
and
746,
Arcadians
accounts
Berosus,
Hesiod,
Acusilaus, Ephorus, and
Hellanicus,
had
Manetho,
Hestiaeus, Jerome,
of 500,
"also assumed
enjoyed longer life
mentions
Josephus
now.
179
foundation.
good
some
upon
peoples,"says Knobel,
ancient
that the
than
rested
Longevity.
body,
nothing,"
functions,
or
says
the
Genesis"
i8o
propertiesof
is
SECTION
the
laws
of the
which
human
disturb
its
The
harmony,
long
physiology,than
people
More
much
life of the
in
In
him
by
much
paper
before
this field
he
text-books
glance
Driver
have
made
"
and
of the
determine
be found
*
B.
has
of German
21st, 1881,
in
hitherto
been
nothing,
almost
or
existingzoological
reveals
its statements
A
remarkable
the
this of
and
of the human
structure
of
Duration
of life in animals."
paper
chemical
words
our
body
"
are
"
Dr.
must
of the
not
as
+ Essavs
upon
Poulton, "c.
P.
Foissac, La
Heredity and
Longivite
Kindred
body
the
This
soon
humaine
following:
in
"
of life.
attention
the
composition
explainexistingfacts by
Dr.
is
observations
duration
itself upon
to
The
us
distinguishedscientist
is
physiologicalconstitution
made
that
the duration
first
Structure
sense
who
men
patriarchallongevityimpossible. Among
Weismann's
"
of
take
September
on
"There
"to
between
that the
laws
Weismann
the Association
which
Weismann's
difference
fact
a
the
of the
upon
"
adds,
upon
at
live several
with
one
as
neglected."
nothing,"
which
patriarchswas
"
a
republishedin i88g,t
speaks of
violence
should
accord
Naturalists, at Salzburg,
and
he
maladies
to-day."*
farther.
Life," read
that
the
to
nor
from
external
or
investigations
by
recent
reason,
the brief existence
the earth
their duration
organism, apart
rational, more
more
VI. 8.
what
to
contrary
injuresits mechanism,
centuries.
indicate
body, to
It is neither
3." V."
short, the
in the
only
ordinary
factors which
conclusion
as
these
the
forces
attempt
factors alone
(1873),pp. 346, 347.
Biological Problems,
edited
by
Edward
is
:
Patriarchal
Science and
there
in the
its
be
must
organism
the
that
period is solelydetermined
animal's
strength of
The
not
or
the material
facts
:
duration
is
plainlyand
of the
erroneous.
the wheel
drives
of
the size of the wheel
upon
it is made.
The
.
are
it has
the constitution
of which
tion
dura-
of this total
assumption
solelydepend
the
Hitherto
"
on
spring which
the
lifedoes
upon
by
the
But
body.
invisible part of
determines
farther
adds
He
assumed
always been
which
cause
contained
cause
and
unknown
an
as
constitution,a
of life." *
additional
other
some
i8i
Longevity.
clearlyopposed
.
.
such
to
a
position."
sup-
t
These
shed
"
To
statements
light upon
new
a
are
followed
by conclusions
this Old
Testament
he
put it briefly,"
duration
of life is
reallydependent
external
or
shorter, is governed by the needs
is of
importance
lives
that
work
conditions, that its length,whether
no
individual
towards
to
the
of the
the
upon
be
it is of
of the
before
question now
must
have
Arguing
Weismann
duration
what
been.
from
The
to what
life
facts,to which
"
says
are
we
:
of life is
*
It
t Pages
will be
us
most
safelyargue,
is not
has
8, 9.
constant.
just referred,
is,therefore,obvious
6.
its
do
to
another
extremely variable,and
Page
ance
import-
the antediluvians
period
he
the
species." How
immediately. Meanwhile, let
We
cannot
important fact be noted.
from
species.
enabled
evident
it seems,
longer
species whether
should
the maintenance
the
.
longer or shorter, but
the individual
this bears
that
adaptation
upon
to
It
problem.
I consider
"
says,
which
that
not
the
only
depends
the
in
and
most
"that
says,
an
an
occurrence
as
a
,
which
concession
the
to
death.
is not
I
primary
a
looked
advantageous
as
upon
the
to
of
conditions
outer
"
species
life,and
inherent
necessity,essentially
absolute
an
as
is
pseudo-science,
is to be
.
ordinary
extra-
secondarilyacquired
been
Death
adaptation.
by
the
life may,
More
upon
death
it has
that
necessity,but
not
Driver's
of Dr.
every
with
species,and
a
following pronouncement
he
With
altered."*
be
must,
cases
consider,"
life.
also
but
habits, the length of
new
in view
still,
is the
of
structure
acquisitionof
of
conditions
external
in
change
VI. 8.
physiologicalconsiderations,
upon
the
upon
3." V."
SECTION
Genesis"
i82
in
life itself." t
The
Law
great object is
"
to
precisely this
the
is determined
antediluvian
where
they
us
external
by
period
required
for
for the
completion
of the
framework
which, notwithstanding the
conflict
the
and
*
and
race,
conquest,
19.
of
framework
revolutions
Page
Scripture
extension
the
of
and
the
The
instruction
time,
of the
placed just
huge life-periods,
these
were
ditions."
con-
this prolongation
demanded
will be evident.
of existence
history shows
The
decisivelythe requirements
How
X
ing,
train-
perpetuationof the
latter point," says
the
ensure
which
"
Weismann,
in
is
It
species.
and
require specialcare
species is sparselyscattered.
if the
and
be that the life of the parent is
if the young
prolonged
race
to
seems
and
human
24,25.
in
t Page
and
society
"
changes
subversions
still exists
+ Pages
erection
and
due
a
of
to
its essential
10.
Longevity
elements
of
ten
their
great
not
fathers
of
therefore,
they
principles
which
always,
in
the
of
Lives
have
done
our
work
Vast
accord
rule
realm
the
now,
of
three
influence
with
as
terrestrial
score
years
achieved
as
they
by
the
the
183
required
bonds
unchanging
of
race.
in
are
Principles.
enduring
and
vigilance
formation.
could
Natural
These
everywhere.
centuries
for
with
accord
in
periods
great
must
existence.
have
and
those
are,
natural
ruled
SECTION
IV.
GENERATIONS
THE
VI.
OF
9
IX.
"
29.
CHAPTER
I.
The
here
WE
our
usual
the
section.
another
the
the
observe
was
story of
"And
with
clouds
Jehovah
was
imagination
great
of
of
the
It
words
the
earth,
thoughts
of
battle
follow
of
contents
of each
of
Genesis
"
"
is
The
is, in brief,
show
coming judgment
that
the
the
last section
closing
saw
in
which
more
science.
Bible, we
of Adam."
Its
man.
days
completeness
in the
seen
and
all,the
great Chapters into
This
black
for the
it is
as
Bible
last
note, first of
of the Generations
future
man
to
eleven
Book
the
in these
triumph
plan, and
It is well
great battle-ground
unbelief, or,
described, between
closingin
divided.
another
upon
indicating how
Before
these
Contents.
faith and
between
commonly
is
enter
NOAH.
us
:
wickedness
and
his
that
heart
a
of
every
was
i86
Genesis"
with
the Divine
the
even
There
the
last words
calls for
earth
still pit-falls
for the
are
Noah
and
with
have
been
with
the words
that
added
"And
the
shown
outbreaks
of
tion
degrada-
of Ham
deed
only
after these
Section
is
after
the
in
and
things
formally closed
:
Noah
hundred
It is
that
salvation.
ominous
are
in the shameful
Canaan.
upon
God's
their after-burdens
as
suffering,
curse
show
as
righteous,
there
; and
of perverseness,
lived
fifty years.
and
Noah
The
covenant.
renewed
lapse of
the
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
SECTION
hundred
nine
were
And
Flood
all the
three
of
days
fiftyyears" (ix.28,
and
29).
The
Fourth
which
upon
words
natural
great
enter,
now
we
Genesis,
of
Chapter
with
commences
the
:
"
These
and
Noah
three
What
just
a
was
"perfect
which
Shem,
Japheth"
that
statement
begat
(vi.9, 10).
Noah
was
the first
to
the
of "time"
that
"
meant
originally
manner
of
a
"
we
the
m.ust
Latin
the
sense
refers
period than
it is in this
and
read
the word
word
seculum, which
afterwards
generation,"was
century."
in
to the
generation ;
a
that
notes
(Tholedoth). Tholedoth
refers rather
dor
of
persons
sense
"
"
but
posterity,
similar
Noah
word,
generations"? The second
translated
generations (doroth) is
to
in the
the
Noah
generations,
And
and
:
in his
is here
Gesenius
God.
Ham,
by
meant
different from
sense
with
Noah
in his
perfect
and
man
of
generations
walked
sons,
is
the
are
Doroth
of
is
"
employed
ages,"
and
here.
used
in
a
the
Condition of the Earth.
The
that
not
meaning here is plainly,
in his posterity,but
that,
which
through
he
had
"walked
Enoch,
side
of
and
the
And
the
lessly.
blame-
honesty,purity,
that
was
(verse g).
Noah,
the
By
Scripture,without
filled with
was
And
earth, and, behold,
it
his
way
corrupted
lived
before
corrupt
was
'wrong').
had
times
or
:
earth
earth
God"
picture, the
places this
comment,
"
with
fair
that
had
of it
secret
perfect
was
ages
failure in
no
truth, or goodness. The
like
the
passed, he
been
had
There
in
Noah
187
violence
the
upon
the
upon
; for
corrupt
was
sion,'
('oppres-
looked
God
God,
all flesh
earth"
(verses
12).
II,
The
words,
that
God
God
"
was
looked
going to
now
repeated descriptionof
excuse
defence.
or
judgment
should
amendment
why it
judged; "for
the earth."
"And
and
be
prepares
God
said
with
violence
them
; and
Make
behold
I will
thee
shalt
pitch
it within
ark
an
thou
make
and
thou
was
;
'
for
no
in any
part
rest
his way
was
upon
words:
end
earth
of
hope
the
the
was
no
The
Noah,
the
urged why
for the next
of
is
all
filled
oppression ') through
destroy
them
with
(tehah)of gopher
in the
without
shalt
be
corrupted
us
Me
There
when
mean
Hence
betterness
no
('wrong,'
nests
is what
There
unto
before
come
it.
could
spared
This
is
this
fall.
not
all flesh had
flesh
earth.
deal with
Nothing
should
earth,"
its condition.
anywhere,
of it
the
upon
make
it
:
wood
thou
shalt
pitch.
And
ark, and
with
the
the
;
length of
1
Genesis"
88
the
ark
shall
breadth
of
thirty
The
SECTION
be
kenim, translated
ark would
contain
the
larger,3,600,000
here
care
accommodation
for
and
this
make
five feet
feet.
the
as
was
much
cubit
provided?
reached
"
one
and
side.
shalt
directions
How
structure.
and
how
And
cubit
the
from
"With
thou
thou
the
of
door
top
the
lower,
make
and
it
"
long
twenty-
80,000 cubic
in
of
contain
forty-five
just named.
for
the-
air,to
"nests"
to
be
ark, and
at
?
make
for the
shalt
thou
ark
me
construction
the
were
distributed
light shalt
A
feet
required
light,and
were
pression
im-
to
about
in the
access,
were
to be
seemed
were
will
vivid
a
eighty
was
I have
dimensions
further
illustration
accommodated
be
and, if
be saved
feet,the ark would
of two
the
;
lower,
utilized
to
was
always
walls
the
space,
retains
employed
could
as
But
The
cubit
yield enormous
An
It
14),
eighteen
feet
accordinglycontained
It
one
buildingsof
be
wide.
high.
cubic
This
memory
spacious.
If the
ark
food.
the
take
we
feet.
building which
fortyfeet
and
it
within
space
from
for the lifethat
My
somewhat
be
If
1,518,750
necessary
a
of
(verse
length of
indicated, would
clear.
of
to
fullythe
The
cubic
both
the
the
height
"
fore-arm) varied
the
the
the
rooms
twenty-fourinches.
to
cubits,
"
utilized.
to be
was
and
how
shows
(the length of the
with
hundred
(verses13-15).
"nests,"
literally,
inches
three
fifty cubits,
it
cubits"
word
the ark
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
shalt
second,
and
(verse 16).
complete
thou
set
third
in
it ;
its
stories
the Ark
Why
The
sides ceased
the
top of the
the
at
three
The
water.
the
throughout
roof;
of the
was
permitted
most
wind
of
and
access
easy
sixty feet
or
forty-five
of the
the
safety from
floors
space
open
feet, from
two
with
an
189
boarding
provided
combined
perfect kind,
The
ark.
thus
ventilation
thus
was
cubit,or
one
be Provided.
to
"light,"or window,
all round
and
is
the
ark's
height.
is this
why
But
What
?
narrative
anticipates and
to
come
is the
heavens
;
shall
die.
with
thee;
And
thou, and
thy
with
the
to
shall
be
male
kind,
and
keep
and
of
sort
alive.
eaten,
shall
did
shall
And
take
and
be
Noah
thou
for
food
;
him,
Here
the
of
them
earth
thou
so
purpose
did
of
to
he"
the
sons'
of
bring into
thee
thee
they
;
after
of
kind,
its
thee,
all
thy
kind,
after
thee, and
ark,
the
and
thou
their
for
earth
covenant
fowls
gather
under
the
with
shalt
according
all
living thing
shalt
unto
destroy
into
every
unto
come
of
My
come
Of
after
flood
is upon
alive
female.
question.
life from
thy wife,
sort
of the
to
The
?
the
establish
And
cattle
creeping thmg
every
that
shalt
of every
ark,
of
and
thee.
all flesh, two
breath
taken
under-
serve
our
earth,
thou
sons,
to
the
I will
and
ark
causing
everything
be
to
answers
am
upon
flesh, wherein
wives
I
I, behold,
waters
the
is the
purpose
now
And
"
construction
huge
their
every
of
two
them
to
keep
of
all that
is
and
it
it to
for
that
thee
:
them.
God
Thus
manded
com-
(verses 17-22).
building and
of
the
of the ark
arrangements
sometimes
been
which
this
"
did Noah
How
animal
into
they
Animals
these
while
the ark
the years
an
overcome
ones
it
the Divine
final
preparations.
the
above
said
to
this
At
of
With
man.
when
"
once
of Noah
days
iii.20). But
Peter
respitewere
almost
entering its
last week
to Noah
came
:
alive."
them
in the
was
Noah
now.
of
days
command
thy
before
point
his
to make
is
narrative
the
that
heaven
not
are
and
male
his
; to
earth.
it to
keep
seed
For
yet
rain
upon
; for
^halt
and
take
his
clean, they
seven,
alive
seven
the
Also
thee
to
female
Of
seven
of
and
:
[shall be] two,
of
of
fowls
the
male
upon
the
the
his
and
of
face
days, (and)
earth
I
have
thee
generation.
in this
Me
female.
and
seven
female
male
the
seven,
ark
the
thou
Come
Noah,
unto
thou
beast
clean
beasts
into
house
righteous
and
said
Lord
the
all
every
cause
the
"
seen
the
had
:
"And
the
That
interval
waited
old world
The
when
and
so
a-preparing" (i
:
?"
presentiment
a
be
to
was
the
them
keep
to
:
messengers
their fear of
God
passed
send
was
exhibited
has
was
had
end.
resumed
It
evidently a long
was
he
raised
been
thee,
often
selected
assailed
been
collect
to
care.
unto
of
long-suffering
the
at
with
coi7te
which
There
have
not
have
danger
Did
regions
read
"shall
has
Scripture
together?
various
been
questions with
the
among
It has
gather these representativesof
questionwould
verses
of
part
fullyexplained.
are
asked,
creation
the
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
SECTION
Genesis"
igo
I
forty days
all
will
and
The
; and
forty nights
I have
ground.
the
Lord
these
ark,
and
in the
told
couples.
ark
Now
he
and
be
to
he
detail very
necessary
Long
begun,
unclean
for
seven
animals.
but not
now,
Noah
made
is to receive
paironly of
one
at this
And
be
to
were
the
bring
delivered.
are
is told that
in
will
God
waiting.
was
preparations
a
was
the
that
clean
their abode
up
of
clearness
given. Noah
are
guests which
closing days
before, when
That
take
of
all that
to
alike for their
to
the
face
(vii.1-5).
preciseinstructions
more
pairsof
according
"
which
off the
last directions
are
receive
to
them
3'ears
did
him
the
brevity,
his household
was
Noah
words, remarkable
and
from
destroy
191
substance
living
commanded
their
point
I
And
and
to
Preparations.
every
will
made
the
In
Last
needful
then.
narrative
The
enters
now
greatest of all earth's
with
solemnity
a
those
awful
of the
here
"And
the
sons'
of
the
of
of
ground,
into
the
themselves
what
vividness
what
before
compassion
the eye
they
are
"
of
went
his
and
with
with
story
:
Noah
flood
Noah
and
present
writer, and
recorded
shows
of this
tells the
It
tragedies.
which
scenes
the account
upon
was
six
waters
was
in, and
his
wives
waters
beasts
with
of
are
everything
there
went
ark, the
male
and
into
flood.
not
that
in
the
sons,
two
and
old
years
upon
him,
the
that
hundred
the
two
and
ark, because
and
creepeth
his
wife,
clean
clean,
and
And
earth.
his
Of
when
beasts,
of
fowls,
upon
Noah
unto
female,
the
as
God
had
the
flood
were
how
But
to
the flood
the
for the
those
to
In
"
in
of
second
the
the
judgments
:
have
we
that
time
were
when
these
"
of
year
the
day
upon
his household
and
exact
Noah's
seventeenth
and
up,
forty days
of
fountains
the
windows
the
And
opened.
life,
day
all the
were
broken
earth
the
upon
the
full account
a
forces of nature
same
were
have
Noah
The
deep
great
heaven
of
from
month,
pass
of
waters
yet witnessed,
hundredth
six
to
came
(verses6-10).
is first marked
month,
the
has
word.
the
the
earth
tremendous
let loose
were
the
all God's
moment,
God's
fulfilling
it
? To
come
greatest of
which
turn,
that
earth"
the
upon
this, the
wrong
And
days,
seven
had
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
Noah.
commanded
after
of
SECTION
Genesis"
192
rain
was
forty nights"
and
(verses 11, 12).
the chosen
But
world, that
be
of God
went
but
surprise;
to
were
"
and
every
after
much
there
be saved.
In
that
Shem,
with
sons
beast
their
creepeth
no
They
were
Noah's
ready
had
day
and
after
kind, and
upon
the
every
fowl
after
its
sort.
And
they
had
every
earth
kind,
gone
all
creeping
after
in
that
its
bird
unto
Noah,
the
three
and
every
these
by
"
ark;
the
kind,
taken
was
entered
the
into
his
:
would
morrow
Japheth,
wife, and
them,
safety.The
surprise for
was
Ham,
the
abundant,
more
selfsame
and
and
Noah,
his
believingthat
on
to-day and
as
in absolute
were
sons
wives
they,
the
of
of
and
cattle
thing
that
kind,
and
of
Noah
every
into
Genesis"
194
SECTION
of the waters."
what
But
Hfe
panting, refugeless
all
"And
earth, both
of
and
nostrils
in
the
and
they
Noah
him
remained
upon
the
the
in
to
fowl
earth
cattle,
and
the
of
heaven
hundred
an
the
earth
the
they
the
And
:
and
:
that
were
prevailed
waters
"
fiftydays
and
stance
subface
alive, and
ark.
was
the
from
destroyed
whose
upon
was
man
the
in
living
every
which
and
creepeth
all
:
beast,
life, of all that
And
from
were
only
with
of
of
that
man
the
upon
cattle, and
every
destroyed
things,
moved
thing
died.
ground,
creeping
of
breath
dry land,
was
of
and
and
the
was
the
?
creeping
earth,
struggHng, fleeing,
that
died
fowl,
every
the
upon
of that
outside
flesh
of
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
(vers.
21-24).
The
For
flood
five
had
months
waters
its
God's
work
the
the
over
God
the
was
off
the
and
ark:
waters
judgment.
the
over
record
rising
turns
now
the
were
the
to
month,
month,
upon
the
rain
to
pass
The
windows
from
of
heaven
from
after
and
fifty days
ark
seventeenth
mountains
with
returned
waters
the
was
wind
the
and
the
every
assuaged.
and
And
the
a
returning;
and
hundred
on
the
waters
and
that
made
and
abated.
seventh
cattle
deep
stopped,
earth, going
of
the
the
; and
Noah,
God
and
restrained
end
all
of
also
were
the
borne
remembered
earth, and
fountains
heaven
of
of mercy.
living thing,
in
had
ark
livingfreight. The
"And
him
fulfilled its mission
of
rested
day
Ararat.
the
in
the
of
the
And
The
the
waters
Abating of the Waters.
were
month:
tenth
the
Avere
opened
-which
he
were
dried
forth
into
dove
from
foot, and
the
whole
earth
and
took
her, and
the
ark.
he
he
the
in
her
Noah
in
mouth
was
knew
earth.
And
and
sent
forth
in
unto
the
six
removed
and,
And
the
day
God
day
of
off
spake
face
second
the
unto
the
of
of
the
month,
Noah
was
and
;
and
:
so
off
from
days;
in
year,
on
the
the
looked,
dry.
was
the
saying,
twenty-
earth
Go
first
Noah
and
the
pass
waters
and
ark
not
to
came
ground
month,
into
and, lo,
seven
earth:
the
hand
returned
it
of
off:
abated
month,
the
;
pluckt
other
first
of
covering
the
leaf
him
face
ark
evening
And
more.
the
days
which
dove,
for
him
unto
of the
were
the
his
seven
stayed yet
from
the
forth
out
of
the
put
in
the
unto
on
olive
and
rest
he
if
face
were
in the
waters
any
up
in
seventh
him
the
first
behold,
"And
dove
hundred
dried
were
the
an
he
him
the
month,
other
to
the
her
yet
waters
see
no
ark
And
returned
he
pulled
the
that
the
again
then
forth
came
she
waters
stayed
sent
dove
:
off
that
raven,
the
to
found
dove
a
earth.
him
from
ark, for the
"And
the
it
the
forth
sent
fro, until
the
the
And
forty days,
and
off
the
month,
seen.
of
he
from
abated
the
(cliallon)of
and
to
of
day
window
:
until
departing
end
up
of her
the
again
the
made
but
sole
the
mountains
a
were
;
the
forth
it went
ground
first
at
had
and
waters
the
of
pass
Noah
sent
and
on
tops
to
came
going
195
dried.
forth
of
SECTION
Genesis"
196
the
ark, thou, and
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
sons'
wives
every
living thing
that
fowl, and
of
of
both
they
that
that
Bring
all
and
sons,
forth
is with
with
thy
thee
thee, of all flesh,
cattle,
of
and
multiply
every
the
upon
abundantly
breed
may
thy
creepeth
fruitful, and
be
and
thee.
with
thing
creeping
and
thy wife,
in
earth
the
earth,
the
upon
;
earth"
(viii.
1-17).
This
had
possessionof
the
restored
by
the restored
upon
Sin
accepted
of
We
in
read
The
Lord
smelled
The
Lord
smelled
and
it
have
can
with
gratified
But
the
words,
as
it
convey
There
is
the odour
no
nothing
That
desired
;
a
sacrifice
but
it
was
of
a
the
to
Hebrew
a
the
Calvary
:
"
"
a
of the
sense
literal translation
British
intellect.
"
a
sweet^*
are
these
God
pledge
giveth rest
:
giveth
itself what
type and
that which
was
flesh !
burning
about
in
not
savour
also,
of that which
savour
was
coming satisfaction,of
atonement
that
of
at
:
is the
that God
rendered
literally
smelled
Jehovah
rest."
in the
words
than
guess
meaning
Version
in Leviticus
the odour
mere
deeply
This
savour."
meaning
"
a
;
to
were
in the Revised:
"
imagined
was
The
savour.
a
other
rendering is
would
"And
no
be
Authorised
rendering consistentlyadhered
fice.
sacri-
unfortunate
is to
21,
savour
the sweet
entrance
sinful
the
and
the
sweet
a
The
preceded by
verse
God
earth, forfeited by
phrase,the
is one
which, in
the life that
mercy.
possessionwas
There
of God.
regretted.
the Divine
acknowledged,
was
translation
"
and
was
took
created
sin but
*'
obeyed,
command
"
"
of
the
in the Narrative.
Incidents Recorded
which
giveth
heart,
I
I
Noah
have
Noah's
seen,
by
of
; neither
will
earth
remaineth,
and
cold
I
time
seed-
heat,
night
and
day
with
and
shall
that
gence.
self-indul-
the
curse
the
with
these
To
them
(verses 18-29),
conduct, and
death.
;
decision,
upon
of Noah's
ending
decision
(ix.8-17). It is
sons
is concluded
narrative
and
Divine
the
was
the record
shameful
the
age
any
imagination
blessingpronounced
the section
Ham's
Canaan,
ground
thing living, as
his
and
God's
(ix.1-7),and
we
His
in
every
in accordance
covenant,
prefaced by
as
youth
and
above,
read
we
with
is made
his
that
(verses21, 22).
cease"
God's
and
the
the
and
winter,
and
said
Lord
for
the
While
harvest,
summer
as
;
more
any
and
That,
curse
is evil from
done.
have
again
sake
man's
smite
again
not
not
heart
man's
the
of
savour
a
; and
rest
will
for
more
smelled
Lord
the
"And
197
upon
record
last incidents
of
we
shall return.
IL
CHAPTER
Recorded
Incidents
Some
IN
the
preceding Chapter,
contents
considerable
refrained
in
from
of the
fulness, and
touching
I have
before
Section
Narrative.
the
presented
the
reader
have, meanwhile,
upon
the
with
largely
questions raised by
the
igS Genesis" SECTION
history.My
V.
the
historical
in the
deal with
The
Divine
same
risen
and
of
time
danger, for
of the waters
provided;
be
month,
"
of Ararat
mountains
are
plainlymonths
began
the
"
the
on
This
ark
period
fifteen cubits
upward
the mountains
cubits
appear
150
(5
have
to
been
now
there, so
wave.
guided
as
to
Protected
to
be
upon
months
as
of the
elapsed
seventh
We
which
the
exact
was
the mountain
longer
by
its stout
These
draught
and
was
sport of wind
timbers
and
fifteen
of the
thirtycubits.
peak,
the
no
that
prevail:
(vii.20).
the
month.
told
are
the
second
arrestingof
the waters
"
pass
seventh
and,
;
a
therefore,
30) days during
ark, the entire height of which
was
the
of the
x
did
covered
were
to
These
each
to
was
"
exactly had
day
had
month,
day
and
it in
were
the
of the
steadily risen.
had
waters
on
months
seventeenth
is the
rested
(verse 4).
the
assuaging
made
must,
thirtydays
five
for the
refuge
seventeenth
the
on
"
they
God
day
its commencement
between
ark
of
(vii.2),
month
A
seventeenth
the
flood
the
"and
the
on
i).
(viii.
for
this also
used
which
I shall
waters
Now
But
means
will
over
The
days.
wind
a
was
earth
the
over
the
these
watched
life,
back.
swept
which
arranged
followed.
150
upon
followingchapter.
which
of all
the seed
continuously for
arrested
be
in the
care,
perilwhich
of
days
chapters,and
present and
preservationof
the
Chapters
Deluge-history. But
of great interest
matters
referred to in those
be
not
of the
character
other
are
in
seen
shall,then, in Chapter VI., touch
I
and
there
in this will be
purpose
IV.
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
It
held
and
against the
Arrestingof the Ark.
The
199
wind, it rested securelyin the best possiblesituation
for
life within
protecting the
the
exhaled
vapours
from
the
by
drying earth,
escaped entirelyall injuryfrom
The
in
of the wind
was
This
version.
our
had
gravel,or
mud,
under
the
rushing waters,
bones
driven
with
highest peak
from
the
elevated
the
of
Ararat,
it
that
one
by
an
Turks
mountain,"
of
the
Nouh,
Ark."
"the
mountain
and
7,900
in
were
site. This
chain, some
feet; but
is in
consequently,
less
elevated,
complete
is the mountain
Arghi-Dagh,
by
the
of Noah."
of whose
"it
months
(viii.
5).
seen
"
Agri-Dagh,
is called
mountain
was,
by other, but
sometimes
It
exceedingly
ing,
steadilydecreas-
were
which
"
the
It
to
accord
named
the
steep
mountain
Persians
summit
appears
the
evident
a-half
and
two
waters
indication
sometimes
It is
positionwas
the ark rested
the traditional
the
these
splinterswere
freed.
was
the
surrounded
was
mountains,
with
which
on
or
mixed
ark, restingon
that the tops of the mountains
peak
they
by
and
the
the
about
was
afterwards, though the
The
it.
of stones,
flesh
broken
and
fierce onsets
Scripture that
; for
behind
force into fissures in the rocks.
vast
those
From
the action
to
avalanche
were
extraordinaryfashion,
an
"continually"
traces
stripped of
were
and
creation, where
an
it
it,the oscillation
caused
drowned
buried
been
not
the
of
carcases
"
left abundant
has
fact,and
a
The
but, whatever
;
while
phrase, going
doubt, due
no
was,
and
waters.
oscillating
5), translated
viii. 3,
returning" (see
the
the
will remember
reader
the moisture
Koh-i-
belongs
rise to
be
to
a
7,600
absolutely
SECTION
Genesis"
200
that of the
the
first
and
a-half
the
mountains
how
were
waited
raven
and
seven
days
the
To
made.
long days
After
informed
ark
are
recorded,
see
how
two
at which
two
bared.
the
forth
sent
of
intervals
fresh
placethe
us
on
decreased
were
other
all this accords
let
given in chapter viii.,
date
that
had
waters
of the range
Then
of
rested) the tops of
fortydays, and
dove.
the
(that is,about
month
The
told
being
next
are
peaks
another
which
with
those
carefully
seen.
the lower
plain
valley."*
after the
months
the
elevated
tenth
of the
day
far that
Noah
somewhat
a
13,200
(12,000 feet)
of the great cone,
rested, we
ark
little Ararat
.
chronicled.
are
the
so
by
noteworthy
waiting
when
.
south-west
it is connected
and
sea,
height
Its
villageof Aralych, in
The
of the river Araxes.
lies to the
proportions.
the level of the
feet above
feet above
It is
its
gigantic are
isolated,so
is 15,700
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
trials
with
events
the
were
dates
in tabular
form.
The
Flood
The
begins
Flood
days
150
day
on
increases
"
decrease
waters
f
^7
."
till
of Noah's
600th
year
""
7
""
""
i
,,
Noah
sends
and
the
days,
Seven
forth the
that
after
the
again
]
fortyr
raven
n
..
is,on
he
sends
[
"
)
dove
another
After
after
dove
days
forth
he
2
'
till
The
month
for\
five months
"
17
seven
sends
forth
days'!
the
j
25
,,
dove
*
P.
Muller
Simonis, Du
Caucase
au
golfe Persique (Paris, 1892),pp. 63, 64.
SECTION
Genesis"
202
similar
A
to
note
occurs
noticed," he
be
'
'
unclean
the contrary,
on
the
to
as
a
never
of the
is the
(Jehovah)
which
is
and
by sacrifice,
he
regards
The
naturally
all these
left to
which
passages
P !
that
implies
to
For
P's
pockets
those
seeing
sign
of
reader
passages
that
J
are
the
a
in every
cast
his
Numbers
if he
wishes
generally
described
as
be
to
have
wholesale
an
the
"
the
number
of
Mosaic
not
have
to
money.
assigned
of them.
one
Exodus,
over
eye
to
J, it
out
stolen
Jehovah
Lord,
name
appears
"
all
ought
is
observes
has
filled with
now
and
;
J, what
sacrifices of the
the
is
enrich
to
legislation.Yes, but, in justice,he ought
them.
favour.
sacrifice
But,
P
His
which
name
assigned
of
refer to
with
injury to point
to
law.
approached
life and
is robbed
P
insult
Driver
is
with
word;
broken
accordance
Divine
are
condition
impecunious
reader. Dr.
the
When
surely adding
His
penitent to
passages
P ?
poor
already seen,
aspect that God
connection
in
used
of
has
"Lord"
fulfiller of His
avenger
Jehovah is, therefore,
all such
word
have
we
the
the
tions
institu-
legislation." This
entreated, in
receive
to
covenant,
period.
same
Levitical
as
this very
It is under
the
'
clean
'
of sacrifices
attributes
as
the
as
of
speaks
during
Sinaitic
God
for the
assumes
also
age;
name,
represents
and, therefore,
is
he
It is
"
page.
distinction
simple explanation.
very
when
J
as
pre-Mosaic
creations
"that
altars built
offered, and
P,
same
Levitical
animals,
VI. 9." IX. 29.
the
on
says,
the
patriarchalage
and
4."
the
special
Let
Leviticus,
idea
J,
to
the
and
of what
robbery.
When
is
Some
Moses
called
was
The
whole
the
words
of these
of the
whole
their
And
J's account.
Driver
asks
to
us
P
does
never
stupid of
of
P to
have
had
in any
the
when
with
note
the
of
all.
have
It must
the
time
had
a
of
place in
from
time
any
man
practices from
before
find
to
stance
circum-
the time
back
from
its statements
excessively
was
P is
have
wide
been
lived
in
acquaintance
foreign peoples.
in
his
Israel, or
of Moses
these
B.C.)
with
the
it
had
they
held
to
could
senses
be
have
derived
were
known
un-
?
vagariesto
borne
400
had
Is
that
Gentile
Sacrifices
They
immemorial.
no
Babylonia,
(about
all of these.
and
supposed
acquaintance with
to
tion
distinc-
no
animals,
is said to have
he is said
case
there
of Moses.
extensive
He
been
believed, either that all foreignnations
we
before
patriarchalsacrifices,
among
Jews
Coming
the
P, leaving
to
remarkable
very
unclean
credited, that
those
take
touching innocence, Dr.
and
an
place
unto
belongs,by
assign it
that
the chief
that
is to
standing as they did
now,
religiouspractices
held
done
believed
clean
institutions.
and
(Jehovah) spake
have
before
sacrifices,
to
:
!
this is not
But
ran
continuallyprefaced by
are
J speaks
that, while
the
(Ex. xxiv. i).
which
legislation,
all the earlier sacrifices
to
command
"
Lord
Levitical
Mount
Tabernacle,
(Jehovah)
definition,to J, and
own
the
the critics have
What
Moses."
the
"And
:
laws
203
into the
up
sacrifices,the
the Lord
unto
up
go
regarding
the
priesthood,and
Come
to
upon
instructions
receive
"
Critical Fictions.
out
as
the
usual
Scripture,
by
facts.
204
Genesis"
SECTION
The
distinction
between
known
was
"
profane
animals
sacrifice must
of
animals
Divine
practicewas
the
in
scattered
tribes
farther
the earliest
that when
Abel
altar,he
God's
Divine
antiquated.
of the
acting
two
are
(iv.4) which
make
interpretation. Why
the old
"
firstlings and
already
fat
disregards.
evidentlya
re-institution
been
when
given
for
atonement
became
the
perverted
carried
It has
with
been
?
The
sin.
never
them
and
be
things
was
belief
his flock
with
mentioned
Abel
in
reject
to
bring
"
plainlythere
observes
the
are
and
legislationwas
which
erected
was
a
hopelessly
hesitate
Abel
primeval
law
to
had
make
naturally
nations, and
neglected or
still
goes
The
to
Mosaic
of the
that
sacrifice
for Israel of laws
This
which
in accordance
Here
the
when
of
firstlings
should
the first altar
inheritance
but
"
that
mankind.
regulations,which
ritual
Cain
the
"
that
one
most
family had
them
supposed
now
there
But
the passage
implies
where
every-
the
Scripture
practicesof
decree, is
human
with
The
was
receives
the
choice
sacrifice
it is admitted
carried
brought
practice of
such
primeval home,
this, and
than
among
its
abandoned.
was
which
This
were
find, too, that
with
which
to
one
accustomed
home
to
world.
which
some
We
of
speaks
the very
had
is associated
old
the
those
it.
explanation, when
natural
been
with
animals
Tacitus
And
necessarilyhave
worship
unclean
is, of
that
;
connected
in
and
nations.
sacrifices.
eligibleas
not
clean
other
to
"
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
forgotten
"
"
often
it
was
everywhere.
said that the selection
of the
rainbow,
The
as
God's
pledge
that
the ancient
phenomenon.
This
the
that
"
The
:
God
I
when
shall be
bow
My
cloud
:
in the
seen
I
AND
WILL
LOOK
earth."
the eye of
man
God.
It
the bow
UPON
:
of
I
it will also be under
God's
ever
is
new
guilty
a
to
come
the
ber
remem-
will
shall be
in the
I
THAT
MAY
between
all flesh that
will not
bow
cloud,"
earth, that
COVENANT
That
is for
to
IT,
living creature
every
the
upon
and
:
EVERLASTING
THE
and
And
.
.
cloud
the
rendering.
it shall
the
over
in
What
assurance
"And
:
But
phenomenon
a
known.
a
passage.
in the
bow
as
His
cloud
a
covenant.
REMEMBER
of
bring
as
bow
My
literal
rainbow
as
the
in
a
My
set
apprehensivehumanity
pass,
God
this
adopts
rainbow
set
give
well
and
supposition
for the first time.
I do
not
the
to
existence
already in
"
I have
"
are
clearlypointing
and
the
the
of that
cause
the
upon
support
no
(ix. 13), does
words
is that
finds
shared
the
to
flood
second
writer
as
proceeds
Version,
Authorised
cloud
world
appearing then
supposition
Our
the
Scripture represents
phenomenon
205
bring no
that
ignorance of
that
will
He
earth, shows
the
upon
in the Cloud.
Bow
only
is
attract
the observation
pledge
and
man's
assurance.
CHAPTER
Noah's
THE
Section
with
of the
an
HI.
Curse
ends,
as
and
has
unvailing of
coming,
of
a
the
Blessing.
been
alreadyremarked,
need, and
full salvation.
an
We
tion
intimaare
told
2o6
SECTION
GenesJs"
(ix. 2o) that
that
ground,"
planted
Noah
of
Whether
is,
Noah
is
an
and
which
that
art
that
which
with
21, where
his
done
unto
shall
he
shall
Japheth,
and
one
be
It
Noah's
conjunction
"
the
Japheth
as
other
ments
state-
afterwards) that
order
"
Canaan
his
unto
of age
Noah
was
awoke
had
son
his
servant.
shall
dwell
be
his
which
The
great Divisions
of
in the
and
enlarge
(ix.25-27).
prevent
may
;
of Shem;
tents
"
he
our
taking
Scripturehere evidently
words
are
nothing less than
the
These
parts
Shem
shall
God
servant
question which
And
brethren.
of
of
servant
; a
Elohim
be
unfolding of
humanity.
be
Jehovah
he
standpointat
seeks to place us.
solemn
old
it. In
as
his young
what
was
the garment
in
When
be
shall
Canaan
the
a
knew
or
brightness,
is described
Ham.
said, Cursed
Canaan
is
aside
The
vine.
him,"
said, Blessed
There
behind
shall consider
we
wine, and
servants
and
shadow
the first-born.
not
He
"
dark
is spoken of
this
know.
not
of
thrust
he
the
promise
Ham
plainlyJapheth, Shem,
from
do
that
the
practicesof
(what will be plain from
also which
was
wine-maker,
had
Japheth
elder," indicates
Shem
of
(verse 24). This, taken
son
X.
first
we
the
that
loud
a
him.
and
home
the
of
man
remarkable
away,
with
sleep Noah
"
"a
IX. 29.
the
of
one
passed
covered
"young
the
left many
has
his drunken
is
comes
is
It
was
had
be
to
husbandman,
a
Armenia
merely repeating
world
began
vineyard.
a
district
4." VI. 9."
the future
to
the
be
destinies
of the
played in historyby
race,
and
the
fate
of
new
two
one
The
Section
But
of the
dignityin
from
and
Was
been
it
the
given
God
the
incidents
would
been
due
sin had
been
told
when
the
was
have
here.
Spiritof
in the
more
the
meets
deeply moved
which
the
by
he
had
than
at
said
been
knowledge
been
the
the
slightestrecollection
expression of indignation,and
kindness.
though
no
stress
on
does
not
the
should
the page
fulfilment
without
They
of
shows
of
that
reflect
they
the
the
of the
facts
words
were
;
no
and
even
place given
their remarkable
not
Almighty.
long, before
are
gratitude for
the
Scripture,yet
gave
and
prophecy
be laid upon
inspirationof
require to
a
he
They
supposes.
are
was
in Noah's
more
mere
tactful
glance
humiliation
that
But
of them
that,
Noah
curse
this account
them
that
feelings in
is
If
have
not
first
of the
than
to
the
subjected,and
that there
may
together,there
his
historyshows
those
equallysure
be
may
?
joined together.
to
expression
blessing.
It has
the
this occasion
and
all,it would
at
situation
eye.
assume
imagination, we
placed them
God
himself?
had
and
book,
thus
we
thoughts
should
he
words
told
But
first
fates of his descendants
these
been
awakes
fellowship with
in
human
been
Noah
clothed
then
and
man's
to
that
never
Noah's
he had
and
been
all
weakness,
disgraceful
own
apportion the
Bible
his
not
of
lack
seeming
prophecy.
which
with
safelyconclude
of
his
to
prophetic mantle,
Had
to
of the
that there
seemly
Spiritof
the
by
207
clearlyforetold.
are
sleep. Ought
the shame
to
Division
the occasion
drunken
a
have
to
third
Canaan.
upon
troubled
are
we
Curse
he
spoken
And
sees
one
that
Genesis"
2o8
the
"
occasion
SECTION
called
Mankind,"
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
for
Tylor,
says
strugglingcrowd,
mere
always
made
up
of
such
just
"can
each
the duties
"
With
all the
remain
in force
children
is careful
against the
cement
it
bound
world
laid its hand
And,
punishment
judged by
in the very
why
But
Canaan
higher
and
the above
others
the
in the
between
permitted
who
met
by
is
attempt
to
escape,
and
the
afresh
apparently had
shameful
is in
be
the
act
and
why is
personal
How
much
no
?
high places
guessed by
the
that
Anthropology,
the
p. 402.
narrative
+ Page
428.
of
the
given
answer
question. Wellhausen, Budde,
believe
new
parent
was
latter
the
link
destroy it.
is Ham
*
history.
the
touched
attempt
the
at
societytogetheris sanctified
may
very
That
spoken by Noah,
to
criticism
the
personal rights
bond
so
word
participationin Ham's
real guidance there
in
duties, and
first sin
the former
attempt
judged,
freedom
world's
had
the
promise,
holds
again:
dissolution
new
The
upon
this Divine
which
bond
and
the
God.
as
And
weaken
with
old world
to
man
marriage
society together."t
of
which
to
child
threatened
in the
bound
parentalauthority that
the
gives
a
family despotism
future
commencement
child.
of
for their
binds
now
first sin
and
individual
parent, lest it should
was
very
of
it is under
how
which
cement
The
;
trained
are
child."*
features
best
rules of
by
as
Society is
households
or
and
growth
life,the
modern
law
of parent
lived
for himself.
togetherby kindlyties,controlled
and
have
never
families
this.
displayas
a
Gunkel,
is not
in
its
SECTION
Genesis"
2IO
potentates of
end
under
Israelites
and
had
under
of
in
then
Shem
Canaan
and
has
Canaan
is
and
and
the
this
have
with
has
the
of
Scripture long
one
words
centuries
companions,
age
is
a
be
in the
here
that
inquirefrom
varies
whom
advent
the critics to
in
the
the page
upon
the
of
the God
whether
ask
shadow
flitting
varies,and
of
of the human
were
assigned by
of
and
nected
speciallycon-
to
before
"
earth
and
learn
branch
it is to
in
manifestation
way
to
member
re-
occurs
of the
power,
some
will
universe
now
Semitic
These
came.
respect. His
in His
Lord-God
God
and
the
unnecessary
promise
are
of
material
in
kept, as
the
reader
fullyrevealed, is
as
been
be
We
be
Shem
blessingupon
name
Word.
the
like his
prophecy foretold,
heavens
of God
"
thus
They
Since
pre-eminence :
The
of the
is to
It is
promise
The
its result
Shem,
family. God,
Shem.
the
as
of His
revelation
Christ.
this
this two-fold
Jehovah-Elohim
fulfilment
had
Shem."
of
creation
is to
man
each
have
Japheth.
generationsof
(ii.
4). The
Persia, Greece,
Carthage.
striking: "Blessed
that
plete
com-
more
none.
(Jehovah-Elohim)
"
of
has, therefore, as
brief
Semitic
extinguishedthe glory
destruction
Japheth
had
Shem
served
the
of
the
of Sidon
men
still
Japheticdominions
of
the
made
was
down
went
serve
the
But
persons
the
to
the last of which
Canaan
the
Hittites,with
conquest
the
Rome,
Assyria.
Palestine
in
afterwards
The
Assyrian.
of
of Shem
the
and
;
Tyre,
and
Canaanite
children
the
of
and
Babylonia
The
came.
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
more
J.
of
He,
than
considerably.
The
But
let
before
say that the words
us
Christ.
statements
Mosaic
Blessingof Shem.
Let
to
that there
and
legislation,
hitherto
believed
idolatry;
man,
when
it be
so
With
a
it
is
declares
J,
man
that the Semite
shall be
of
Elohim
recognisedas
shall be
shall be revealed
and
to
of the
aroused
that
what
familyof
brought
in
Christ
the
Semite,
THE
it is this
"
Wherever
the
carried, the
have
been
upon
the
of
;
in His
power,
to and
as
the
light of
idols
have
ends
that
dark
once
they
;
humanity.
have
men
have
and
realised
one
"
That
other
no
have
could
question
more
fulfilment
It
?
fested
Israel,and fullymaniand
of
Saviour
of Shem
the
their
passed
more
very
earth
into
the
is
to-day !
has
been
enthralled
Jesus
who
earth
revelation
perished;
once
in
What
!
forgotten; blessingshave
innumerable
God
Semite
Jehovah-EIohim
of
confidence
Christ,
is,God
Lord
our
be called
before
astounding
to
thereby!
; that
And
is Jehovah-EIohim, revealed
Let
this,that Jehovah-
mankind
its
about
Babylon.
his God
Word,
expectation?
and
distinguished
among
in
in the
the fulfillerof His
as
branch
"
humanity
of
of God
could
years
was
darkness
views
to
Gentile
mind
only increased
800
all his brethren
and
the
down
the
of the distinct
Jewish
get clearer
by-and-bye got
revelation, this
and
the
years
no
practically
Jew
experienceof anything that
no
800
allow
whatever
through
astonishment
my
:
would
and
been
in which
that
:
its way
gradually making
had
nothing
supernaturalrevelation
have
written
were
also,for the moment,
us
pass
211
been
names
conferred
which
are
sonship
of
the brotherhood
predictionwaited
century after
SECTION
Genesis"
212
century
for
brought
its full
owe
fulfilment, but
its
much
so
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
accomplishment
it,will
to
that the word
has been
the
ages,
since
first
preached, have
added
added
Himself, and
Elohim
be
made,
the
the water
as
The
signallyfulfilled :
of
the
is inhabitant
world
Japheth
in
will be
our
in which
is that
trust
we
an
God
will
God
gathered again, and
shall
the earth
cover
also
been
enlarge Japheth, and
The
expansion
races
of ancient
even
"
times,
India
From
own.
to
Zealand, Japheth
New
three last of the great
last part of the
rulers still. The
impressive.
tents
of
exact
The
words,
indicate
Shem,"
guest, and
rejoice. The
of the
God
ants
Japhetic,and Japheth'sdescend-
Shem's
is
to
The
fulness, the rest, and
This
we
the
yet be
Jehovah-
Indo-European
attention
is still more
dwell
the
"
master.
were
was
by
the
as
of Shem."
Siberia
the world's
prophecy
the
and
empires
are
shall
of
from
America, and
made
predictionhave
in the tents
astonishment
Christ
deep.
God
challenged the
is the
Him
this
To
It will
will be
of the Lord
Japhetic tribes
which
shall
''
of
gospel
by
of the
last words
Shem.
earthlyunvailingof
the
covers
he shall dwell
of
Israel shall be
knowledge
who
we,
ment
acknowledg-
our
nothing.
too,
The
of Shem.
perfected,when
when
the
addition
the
but
to;
year
marvellouslykept. God
is,indeed, the Jehovah-Elohim
revelation
; and
nearer
withhold
not
passing
every
descriptionof
revelation
is the seed of A braham
;
He
that
that he will share
the shelter of Shem's
of Israel; the
"
the
which
Saviour
the Old
nacles.
taber-
blessings
we
prize
in whom
Testament
Are
was
there Two
written
primarilyfor
though
intended
dwell
the
fuller
the
blessedness
the
the
fulfilment
the Tabernacles
of Shem
is yet to come,
the
was
of the
shall share
we
that
gates
him.
to
Revelation
indication
promise
and, in
;
first announced
was
that
was
in
the
time
It
come.
Japheth might
was
enter
of Shem.
CHAPTER
Are
ment,
Testa-
penned by Jewish fingers.
last part of God's
of the
opening
the New
and
;
tabernacles
which
tongue
Israel
also
was
glory which
Greek
of the Flood ? 213
Japhetic tongue, and, therefore,
a
in the
now
writing of
for the
the
in
for us,
We
The
Accounts
Two
there
Accounts
Genesis
IN
IV.
vi.
has
9
"
of
the
ix.
29?
been
Flood
in
question
really
THIS chapter.
There,
dealing
answered
with
the contents
of the
the
historyfrom
in
first
Section,
have
we
point to point,and
one
of the most
and
thrilling
in
from
first,claimed
incontestable
Genesis.
two
Jehovah and
Genesis
Scripture. But
witness
"
the
use
Elohim
historyinto
"
felt the
most
the
spellupon
to
the
higher criticism has,
it
two
composite
supposed signsof
of the
of
us
closelycontinuous
this part of the
its
Applying
writers
have
we
narratives
the
followed
our
Lord
names
book
as
an
character
of
the work
of
and
God,
separated this
Section
of the
parts, and
charmed
with
was
SECTION
Genesis"
214
the result.
the
Putting
Divine
the
contain
the
by
use
in like
which
are
of the
name
have
the
ceased
never
Deluge."
the
results
this
different
?
And
supposed
clear
and
them, and
Astruc
and
of
the boast, of the
the
first of
he
these
writes,
immediately
quitewell.
"
extensive
documents,
detect
to
themselves
able
all their
happened
Sections
they
the further
with
these,
follow
to
the
interweavings.
since
the
of
days
Eichhorn, this is stillthe chief reliance,
and
Dillmann
were
for further
Furnished
writer.
has
astonishing
means
ancient
two
through
much
tion
applica-
supposed discovery,that
such
documents
Though
this
it the
each
revealed
the
such
doubt
perfectlyconvinced
from
imagined
now
the chief
as
up
writers, when
so
of those
of
peculiarities
they
of
accounts
for God
names
draw
With
them
present, they
two
held
hypothesis yielded
able to compare
were
the
"
been
distinct
they proceeded to
before
of
account
;" for who, said they, could
realityof
conquests.
the
to
of
truth, and of the value, of their
these
of the
they
collections
of the
of two
as
of these
critics
have
of these
use
of
guished
distin-
manner
Jehovah,the
time
speak
to
"science
work
placing upon
These
demonstration
that the
that
From
Flood.
so-called
side which
givingits own
quitecontinuously,
reads
of the
IX. 29.
one
Elohim, and
discovered, they said,that each
verses
on
passages
name
side those
the other
4." VI. 9."
One
invitation of God
higher
criticism.
After
alleged independent
"
all
adds
hangs
a
hint
misses
to
Noah
well
that
"
"
sources
together," though
all does
only,"he
to
tracing
enter
"
says,
not
hang
the express
into the ark
"
"
"Ascertained Results"!
somewhat
surelya
which
and
:
distinguishedfrom
is
it in respect
These
contents
another,
of
language
merely
not
are
of the other
supplementary
Dillmann
But
is interwoven
this account
With
"
continues
omission.
important
215
narrative,but constitute
complete history of the Flood, in which
narrative
is one," says
"The
wanting."*
little is
a
*'
the
of which
pointed
and
in
said, or
as
of
be
to
Driver,
has
been
f
In
popular
The
guarded.
Genesis
assumed,
for
intended
less
existence
structure,
particularlyevident."
books
even
are
the
is
out,
manuals
composite
remarks
often
critical
ments
state-
use,
demonstration
different
of
is
documents
unanswerable,
and, indeed,
unchallengeable.
these
All
statements
results of the
on
to the
be
can
further
these
by
the
are
The
following.
birds
from
assignedby
late
received
Dr.
no
trusted
be
to
are
the
are
scholarship."
"modern
the
Driver
to
tations
represen-
apparent
from
sending forth
J.
Referring to
:
this passage,
regards it
Tuch
as
Genesis, vol. i.,pp. 247, 248.
P.
and
has
Eichhorn
Knobel, it was
Stahelin
the sole
book
and
Astruc
"From
it.
Reuss
the
(viii.6-12) is confidently
about
*
far those
ark
almost
the
(it is
finally
accepted
Green, of Princeton, whose
reply,says
there
out, and
matter
Noah's
about
passage
the
How
tained
ascer-
handed
are
"experts"
now
will be
supplementary critics
uniformlyassigned to
to
whole
the
results which
The
the
which
about
matters
dispute.
threshed
implied) have
"
as
higher criticism,"and
generalpublicas
no
regarded
are
is uncertain
survivingrem-
t Gertesis,p. 85.
of
nant
third
a
the other
and
J,
the
in
they
The
flood
The
fortydays
was
is
passage
Kuenen
and
Socin
exception, only he
be
gives it to P,
reads
earth.'
All
into conflict
that
this is
mode
of
'
is with
comparison
of
good
as
cases
foundation.
"
:
Let
These
the
of
are
other
complete history
*
The
of
'
of the
out
the
upon
bringing J
of the
must
Budde
;
was
and
flood
P
; so
the
particularabout
enter
to
farther
in
of
J
at
(as
merely
the
remarks
p. 8i.
f Page
so-called
just
mentary
supple-
constitute
Flood, in which
Unity of Genesis,
in any
have
we
in
are
as
stability
look
now
into the
which
narrative, but
the
'
f
says
not
without
vii. 4
passing fancies,
us
Kautzsch
fortydays
fortydays
of
J, by
to
P
to
in
J
not
are
wanting
Dillmann
"results."
seen)
much
'
duration
the reader
those
unanimity."
Editor), and, with
of waters
accomplishing it."
weary
(vii.17),
or
design
effected,they
It would
many
*
flood
regarding the
eccentric
"
by Hupfeld
the
the
to
Dillmann
insists that the
the
whole
fortydays,'by
strikes the
but
the
by
from
differently
understood
text, and
also
P ;
to
*
raven
earth," gives us
edifying
entire
the words
the
words
the
upon
this
"given
exceptionof
the
of
the
(the Redacteur
R
to
assign
of
treatment
Friedrich
gives
preceded by
were
illustration
another
others
and
P.
to
to
Kayser, Wellhausen,
J.
to
from
(verse 7)
raven
and
matter,
dove
Dillmann,
which
"The
the
the
Ilgen."*
flood, distinct
(verses 8-12)
reverses
Kuenen,
of the
Hupfeld givesthe
dove
and
P,
to
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
account
two.
Delitzsch
J,
SECTION
Genesis"
2i6
93.
a
little is
Genesis"
2i8
critical
SECTION
dissection
"
we
that
are
do
they
suspended
v/hich
has
been
done,
told.
The
first
not
between
Mahomet's
as
we
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
hang
upon
heaven
and
P
coffin.
told
are
the
corrupt, indeed, that God
What
to exist.
it
freak of
sudden
a
has
"complete"
These
tell
vi. g-22,
God
is it the
His
and
i-8,
verses
of the
the
corruption
over
if
obtain
have
to
of what
P
is
clearlythat
more
but
simply
are
continuous
That
a
then
P
"
which
the
of
But
tion
explana-
of
Two
the
same
the
well
the
is
earth"
Noah's
follow
old when
the
(vii.6);
"In
life,in the
what
peruse
build the
distinct
together."
the
ark
livingbeings which
to
a
chapter vi.
build
to
reader
immediately
years
of
remainder
commandment
this
with
however, compared
after the command
hangs
six hundred
year
of
sons
the earth.
the
J.
to
could
and
One
let the
Now
whether
say
which
are
matter,
In
the
save.
immediately
upon
Parts
This
anything show
woHndependent accounts,
preparations for
make
to
it is to
of
these
small
receives
and
to
a
history?
is
Noah
order
referringto,
is to follow.
what
J, in
to
run
Is
preceding
of the
God, and the spread of lawlessness
we
?
issue of
assigned
are
so
longer
law?
reply; for
no
in
corrupt,
was
or
has
us
with
suffer it any
cannot
are
mysteriously
as
earth
is
and
humanity,
chapter,
verses
anything,
earth
gether
to-
note
frightful
change
account
part of the
well
led to this
from
gradual departure
hang
thing we
begins
that
"
"
Here
:
the
ark, and
narrative
was
of waters
six
"
the words
Noah
"And
flood
second
are
comes
was
hundredth
month,
on
the
Does
P
seventeenth
all the
Contain
of the
day
fountains
of heaven
the selfsame
day
safety) "and
sons
of
not
only
clean
and
of
unclean,
enter
the
windows
and
heaven
had
in such
was
that
But
all
is the
together
from
apart
Noah
that
P
had
been
to
acted
avalanche
earth, Noah
animals
they
!
that
other
In
parts of
Dr.
;
a
and
The
Driver
tells
us
had
that
at
told,
are
one
see
days
before
the
upon
and
lodging
that
now
he
of all this is in
accounts
less
and
the snatches
the
and
are
the existence
supposes
nothing
not
given,and
let loose
so
was
the invitation
been
separate
is
there
seven
was
two
which
surely
refuge,
does
the record
But
they are
narrative
Who
receiving
one
the
there
we
misses
that,
of waters
words, the
and
terrific turmoil.
saw
one
ark.
and
safety?
fiction.
other
says
been
the fountains
They
which,"
brought him,
God
all in
were
barefaced
the
had
beasts,
precious cargo
and
the invitation
upon,
Did
!
the
enter
impliesthat
that awful
He
the
up,
this, Dillmann
something lacking.
to
also
?
tranquil moment
"in
account
"
well
hangs
Even
J
if
of universal
day
a
the
temporary
a
the
transhipped
tranquil moment,
some
Japheth,
after "all
as
"
in
opened"?
ark
In
and
broken
were
were
second
a
have
must
the ark
;
entered
13-16^;). What
family,but
great deep
of
have
must
"
his
and
"
(ver. ii)
and
were
up,
(read had
Ham,
(verses
and
day
same
"
2ig
already entered
and
"c.
Noah
"
Noah
were
Shem,
Noah,"
opened
were
saved
the
on
great deep broken
entered
all the
and
month,
of the
the windows
he
Complete Account?
a
or
more
a
of
than
indivisible.
said to have
220
Genesis"
been
written
and
"will
SECTION
by P,
be
other
pieces of
knife
were
the
from
in such
"
without
miraculous
is,of the
earth
J
; but
to
The
!
mercy
with
P
leave
and
the
document
one
it
myths, P
and
critics
imagined
himself
in
again
according
a
it
"
system
to
to
f could
*
so
just swept
it in
His
silence
to
as
understand
critical
are
under
was
myths
;
necessityto
no
But
treating
the moment,
their
and
"
aim,"
Dr.
as
these
ing
answer-
criticism,is it
theocracy," and
are
circumstantiality
have
for
to
be
Driver
give a systematicview, from a
chief instituthe origin and
tions
Israelitish
and
;
earth
is allotted
We
J
ix. 1-17.
priestlystandpoint, of
of the
has
absolute
God.
writer, whose
affirms,"is
the
God
Noah
by
most
for
J, seriously
that
obeys
having alreadyfullydescribed
the sacrifice in viii. 20,
mention
He
restored
P and
so.
who
and
of
find ?
we
without, indeed, the
to Him
is the
this is
perfectly
why
ark.
re-possess
and
;
the
ness
complete-
do
thanksgiving to
acknowledgment
any
the
to
judgment
there
what
But
P
naturally
of
measure
sacrifice offered
with
One
Joshua.*
out
of
critical
that
to
pass
the
by
Hexateuch;"
acknowledgment
slightest
the
nearly
a
in
salvation
a
form
find
to
word
one
Joshua,
to
should
framework."
his
and
"to
considerable
is commanded
he
says,
we
away,
a
a
Genesis
history detached
Genesis
looks, then, for
from
affirms,indeed, that if all the
of "the
Six Books
and
he
He
taken
"framework"
Noah
extend
found,"
whole."
complete
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
made
this
Genesis, p. 4.
the
with
guiding principles,"
stupendous
t Page
22.
whom
omission
?
Does
Would
that
in
was
the
not
shocked
have
him
?
have
earth
with
another
separate and
P
as
let
"
the other
the
hausen
has
VI.
documents.
J
both
are
whom,
to
remarks
Dill-
says
supplementary
of
complete history
a
little is
of
it fares better
The
wanting?"
Well-
fragments," as
them.
I
5, 7
"
10,
"
VIII.
26
Noah
is introduced
3, 6
"
destroy
to
in the
grace
and
what
separate him
questionsthis
It is true
hundred
that
"
we
136,
by J
20
the
with
startling
abruptness.
adds
of the
Noah,
the
of man,
J
race,
that
God
"
eightyand
in
v.
two
28
But
Noah
(vi.8).
should
?
affords
that
years
God's
"
of mankind
mass
and
:
Lord"
complete history
read
23.
22.
"
wickedness
eyes
is
from
16b, lyb, 22,
12,
12,
"
recounting the
resolve
found
alleged writings
5-9.
VII.
After
attributed
bundle
named
here
history.
Flood, in which
"the
have
we
continuous, consistent,
narrative,but constitute
followingare
"
re-peopledthe
; and
those
one
merely
not
are
that
priestlywriter
formallyinquirewhether
us
have
tiality,"
circumstan-
supplements J, and
J, the portions
mann,
"
independent
the
on
carr}^
silence
and
have
to
that
221
instinct
priestly
every
man
perfectlyharmonious
with
an
the last
demonstration
But
such
"system
godless humanity
a
requiredto
who
for
of
No, this supposed
supplements P,
of
notion
outraged
been
never
and
Complete Account?
a
very
regard
and
would
were
Contain
J
"
and
thus
these
To
reply.
no
Lamech
begat
But
lived
a
son,
Genesis"
222
he
and
SECTION
called
his
P, and
"R"
Dillmann,
"has
to
man,
and
with
God."
in the
now
inserted"
We
of P,
of the
The
ark !
whence
down
from
heaven,
"
somewhere
"
is
history
ark
;
manifest
a
and
thus
way,
documents.
of
are
They
have
parts of
The
in
the
with
a
instance
Joe
Miller
which
we
to
of
of
have
He
has
and
never
unto
the
ark."
dumb
as
complete
do
"
"
been
the
"complete
make
the
up
for
in
matter
were,
distinct
standing
notwith-
them, they still
narrative.
continuity
criticism.
now
to
all
prepare
always been, and,
can
as
omitted
any
let
discovered
"
to
to
put
not, and
is
His
P
said
it been
!
upon
singlecontinuous
next
mention
into
J
have
to
are
all that the critics
are,
and
Has
Poor
Or,
J.
these
document,
suddenly
build
fall back
deficiencies
another
?
to
plete
com-
proof
Lord
?
come
fraud.
again,if we
must
a
further
house
thy
malefactor
of the command
history,"we
the
it
earth
detected
"
to
us
any
the
has it been
the
upon
other
all
has
or
so
necessity,
ludicrously evident
''And
and
that, as
figment. J's next
vii. 1-5:
thou
mention
becomes
walked
So
a
one
just
a
Noah
garding
re-
that
was
was
Is
says
words
Noah
help
to
Flood.
That
is in
J
dealingwith
are
we
that
P, if J is
Come
any
in the
"
assigned
prophecy
generations,and
this wretched
pursue
Noah,
is
Editor),
or
told
8, that
found
we
two?
of Noah
his
have
must
with
we
vi.
that
But, again, all this is P's.
required that
as
but
Lamech's
also
are
follow
history"
not
Noah,"
name
perfectin
case
we
VI. 9." IX. 29.
(the Redacteur,
him.
immediately
4."
The
deserves
section
a
place
of
dealing,concludes
J,
Does
with
these
the
"
in
rain had
been
days, and
to
belongs
(166).
But
is
J
down
the
"
of the
!
Such
is the result of
have
no
other
natural
connection
instances
of
manufacturing
will
the
"
suffice.
of all
heaven
restrained
was
off the earth
it
made."
had
Following the
tops of the
of
bundle
"J,"
that
days
after"
of
of
the
to
came
write
down
Two
returned
from
not
tied
been
when
?
in the
Scripture,
It
fortydays
month
was
(verse 5),when
in this
But
seen.
were
of
end
of the ark
the window
answering.
from
words
at the
pass
it stands
mountains
has
is
what
up
criticism, in
Forty days
fragments,"
date
of
the rain from
waters
together
included.
labelled
and
"The
forty
refer,therefore,to nothing,and, instead
imparting information, plunge
Was
taken
other.
And
:
after the first day of the tenth
the
"
"
read
as
in
forty
"
opened
account
trouble
no
for
"
which
have
The
26, 3). J's next
continually (viii.
Noah
we
late?
ments,
history out of fraglearning from J of the
; and
fortydays, that
he
shut
entrance
each
triumph
flesh,we
(verse 6) : "And
are
*'
with
After
destruction
Lord
breaking
complete
a
next
putting piecestogether that
narrative,and
reallyone
upon
The
night
againstthe
ark
223
precaution was
door
water
and
day
?
was
the
somewhat
close the
the
**
the rain
"And
:
it not
was
only then
"
And
forty nights."
to
pouring
then
"
:
and
forty days
which
passage
Complete Account
a
(vii.12)
words
earth
him
Contain
J
author
words
ever
in such
like
fatuityfollows J
the
Flood.
The
to
reader
bereft
so
a
the
will
see
ment.
bewilder-
of purpose
fashion
end
in
us
as
of the
from
that?
to
as
The
narrative
the
of
foregoing
Genesis"
224
that
table
the
and
the
builded
every
clean
the
**
the
In
sacrifice.
Where
ark ?
And
asked
to
it is for
exchange
another
who
the
usual, continued
the
month
the
ark
month,
the
on
earth
thy
and
sons,
14-ig) ; and
builded
the
and
an
cannot
thy
then
is
that
And
history
be
trim
indeed
God
confessed
we
and
beauty
are
under
day
wives
the
documents.
fragments of
They
the
one
second
month,
Noah,
unto
(viii.
thee," "c.
all is
Let
nature
not
are
Noah
"And
Here
complete.
that
thy wife, and
words:
as
us
covering of
of the
and
with
here,
the
In
spake
they will,the
disguised. They are
independent
that
told
has
"
is,
ark, thou,
follow
is
where
simplyJ
after the
twentieth
sons'
offers
both, has
to
altar," "c. (verse 20).
and
reason
dried.
sort
history. He
and
seven
dry
indeed, the inspiredpenman
twenty-six days
forth of the
saying.Go
P, which
ascribed
removed,
was
the
was
and
of
the top of the
peerlesswisdom
Moses,
work
did
built,and
of that
!
covering of
altar,and
an
of
carefully
expanse
still on
nonsense
.
took
be
the
altar
And
.
consecutive
two
wide
Is Noah
the
one
and
and
name,
and
he builds
Bible
God-given
our
Lord;
removes
is the
the sacrifice oifered ?
dry.
"
the
over
looked,
was
history
Noah
first,
are
"And
ark, and
these
Let
the second
In
the
unto
him
to
follows:
as
of the
complete
looks
ark, and
ground.
altar
an
this
marked.
as
read
covering
beast," "c.
in
scenes
of
ascribed
behold, the face of the ground
Noah
a
These
20-22.
removed
4." IV. 9." IX. 29.
last sections
two
viii. 136 and
Noah
SECTION
the
of
clear,
critics
J
and
distinct
P
and
undisguisable
document
given
"
SECTION
Genesis"
226
the
In
narrative
wickedness
of the
duplicateof
vi. 5
the
that
the
Lord
only
was
of
thoughts
evil
saw
He
had
the
earth, and
Him
at
of
of
the
Lord
it
will
whom
from
earth; both
and
the
the
fowls
I
and
made
them.
found
grace
8.
Ham,
The
for
in the
rupt
cor-
was
and
the
filled with
And
lence.
vio-
looked
God
; for all flesh
corrupt
corrupted his
had
earth.
; for
And
13.
Noah,
unto
the
upon
way
God
The
before
come
earth
end
is filled
through them;
and, behold, I will destroy
be admitted
verse
astonishment
a
closer
by
where
; but
sight appearances
these
scrutiny.When
verse,
the
*
we
have
the earth."
with
that at first
the critical argument
upon
passages
sons,
the earth, and, behold,
them
favour
And
Japheth.
God,
with violence
the Lord."
It may
Noah
10.
also
of all flesh is
of
eyes
perfect in
and
was
was
Me
was
three
earth
12.
said
Noah
But
rations
gene-
Noah
God.
before
the
that I have
repenteth Me
Shem,
it
beast,
air ;
the
begat
upon
creepingthing,and
of
Noah
stroy
de-
the face of the
man,
with
earth
have
:
and
man
walked
II.
on
7. And
I
the
generations,and
his
grieved
heart,
said,
man
created
man
just
a
13.
"
are
of Noah
man
heart
his
made
His
a
passages,
vi. 9
These
"
9.
continually.
that
Driver, "is
Dr.
Genesis
it repented the Lord
6. And
(the
13
"
placethese
us
8.
"
imagination
every
vi. 9
Deluge,
Let
great in the earth, and
was
9." IX. 29.
:
that the wickedness
it
the
8)," *
"
vi. 5
And
"
5.
of
earth)," writes
then, side by side
Genesis
4." VI.
we
to
repetitioncomes
Genesis, p. iii.
ask
appear
entirelydisthe
compare
with
some
in. Verse
9
Are
there Two
certainlydoes
which
that Noah
8 says
Lord
and
;
narrative
verses
is
favoured
repeat
found
and
9
expected
wickedness
of
immediatelysee,
the
plan
7 and
show
13
of the
that
they
the
the
communication
complete
narrative.
each
Verses
of the
Book
maiming
that
there
tell
in the
presence
hand,
earth
Noah
;" and
we
these
here.
They
to
Section
?
Noah.
to
to
to
the
holds
in
the
III.
also
are
tell
depravity,and
destroy it.
IV., and
repetitionhere
the
earth
mentioned
in
quiteunable
of
us
To
cut
in
verses
of
on
to
these
11,
a
12
the
else is
man's
other
away
sons,
of the
tion
determinawould
beginning.
maim
Hence
of the condition
5, 6.
of
dispensewith
announced
it without
verses
what
Noah, of his
of God's
leave
the
"
sible
impos-
Generations
The
"
IV.
"The
there without
13,
"
"
was
outcome
g
To
point
It
omitted
Verses
Section
commence
world's
13 describes
verse
Section
the
was
resolve to
God's
of Adam."
what
verses
statements
means
part of the history. For
us
shall
we
is compelled
passages
be
may
study of
only
complete
could
verses
no
describe
12
but, as
6 ;
this
account
resolve
these
8
"
that
earth; and
Generations
that those
to
5
by
have
of
about
and
11
on
that
10
continuous
a
more
7 records
reply,we
our
which
place
of
as
moment's
are
Verse
destroy all life upon
us
5 and
A
9 and
verses
which
repetition
Book.
thing.
same
with
this is a
of the
just
and
part
in the eyes of the
grace
Verses
men,
only
is entirely
different.
10,
of God.
servant
certainlybe compared
by
with
do, tell
to
The
5.
verse
there the statement
8, and
Verse
the
not
of the Flood ? 227
possiblybe compared
can
is verse
Accounts
The
statement
of
Genesis"
228
the conclusion
as
that
proves
writer,who
same
plan.
from
we
Let
have
to
here
Driver
says
who
of that
kind
would
be
scholar
without
in Dr.
man
that
and
has
the matter
that
the
of the
acceptance
basis, and
the
duplicateis
a
second?
The
Our
"
of these
!
his
book,
statement
it is received
Genesis.
a
as
For,
in this way
by
be left
can
room
The
criticism
present
rests
And
discover
we
By
naturallyassumed
alone.
upon
and
wide
that
yet when
that
the
we
alleged
Elohim
verse
in
names
used
Jehovah consistently
? Is not
continuouslyused in the
tive.
certainlybe in the affirma-
as
replymust
Authorised
in
a
be asked, of the Divine
may
passages
first,and
in the
higher
matter,
tion.
repeti-
myth.
what, it
those two
judged.
that basis
upon
examine
But
is
is
"
well-
a
competently examined,
been
question
have
We
published by
origin of
It
away
former
get up
what
position,
investigation?
for further
God
to
being well-founded,
Driver's
sistent
con-
pass
second
the
imagine
the
to
the
own
part of
not
authorityis deliberately
pledged
when
*'
of
made
the question of
settling
do
not
the
"
mencement
com-
and
one
uncalled-for
no
that
have
cannot
that
is
"
who
a
with
that is
duplicate
a
readers
to
do
well its lesson.
There
theologicalstudents
and
the
as
in fact,
repetition,
a
the reader
marking
"
is
passages
It is
anything
Dr.
Yet
III. and
IV.
ask
me
narrative.
arranged
absolutelynecessary,
is keepingsteadfastly
to his
this without
failed to find
is
of Section
of Section
which
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
wickedness
man's
regarding
both
SECTION
Version, in insertingthe
5, has
followed
the
name
Septuagintand
the
If these
it to
cause
His
of Section
closingwords
in its
awful
the
In
the
coming
this
with
5 is
he
of
instance
vi. i8
duplicateof
a
Let
vi. 18
Genesis
18.
the
My
shalt
thou
into
thy wife, and
with
wives
of every
flesh,
thou
shalt
thee.
of
ark, to keep them
they
thee;
and
after
female.
their
20.
kind,
thy
ig.
And
the
into
vii.
house
i
clean
before
unto
beast
thee
Lord
of beasts
his female.
and
by two,
of the air
this
in
every
shalt take
and
that
the
seven,
female
his
3. Of
seven
ark ;
Of
2.
and
right-
seen
seven
and
fowls
I
thou
male
Of
said
thou
Me
the
clean
5.
"
into the
have
male
of
"vii.
unclean
and
the
be
and
these
says:
generation.
alive with
shall
all
ecus
sort
is
It
Driver's
Dr.
Noah, Come
unto
sons'
all
of
Elohim
place.
He
"
kept.
wings
"And
thy
every
bring
i.
for thee
livingthing of
two
its
clean
sons,
ark, thou, and thy
and
will
come
the
hand,
God,
Genesis
;
in
the sections.
compare
covenant
the
22," with the exception,
22.
"
thee
with
"But
establish
and
again
us
"
between
adds, of the distinction
animals.
of
allegedrepetition.
as
will be
examine
us
shall
intimation
an
which
God
let
place
the other
on
name
of
But
terror.
its
equally in
is
"
omnipotence
very
next
God
Almighty
words
the
judgment,
who
He
resolve
God's
Noah,
to
that the
for God
It is
III.
that
"
announcement
the
"
menace
"
name
quite in
is
Word,
design, will
statement
Jehovah,
pass," the
to
come
fulfiller of
I
against the
duplicates?
are
passages
I
used, however, with
are
names
original has Jehovah.
Hebrew
this itself protest
not
"
the
but
Vulgate ;
of the Flood ? 22g
Accounts
there Two
Are
are
;
not
male
and
fowls
also
and
seven.
vi. i8
Genesis
after
cattle
their
after
ground
unto
to
21.
And
eaten, and
thou
it to
;
thee
for food
them.
thee
for
according
commanded
him,
doubt
No
feel,that
reader
"
has
him."
did
They
like
look
the
same
are
told
part,
Noah
of certain
made
I have
for
earth.
of
as
God
will I
And
of
the
Noah
all
to
that
destroy
face
the
5.
did
that
the
him."
commanded
feels,as
deal
struck
been
by
both
Vii.
that
he do
that this
But
i
"
the
well
is ordered
verses
this,of
to
kind of
one
build
are
Does
that
not
practically
in vi. 18
22, and
make
"
as
"
a
be
to
are
Vi. 18
last words
God
22
we
manded
com-
things twice?
to
we
The
commanded
did
these
previous
as
God
to
5 repeats
Noah
seems
if
these
sections.
ought
Driver.
Dr.
all that
to
one
every
with
fairly
case
Did
certain
made
off
Lord
dimensions, which
a
fortynights,and
according
;
little further.
In
passage.
"
gather
conclude
critics.
a
forty
livingsubstance
reader
in each
go
earth
every
from
seven
it to
that is
be
of
cause
and
injunctionscontained
for the
yet
days
repetition?
a
quite admit
them
the
according
him.
must
upon
face
thou
probably
Noah
"
rain
keep
to
did he."
must
we
4. For
them
and
so
the
earth.
5.
"
the
I will
all that
to
alive upon
and
did Noah
Thus
22.
the
two
it shall
and
seed
i
female,
days
take
shalt
and
vii.
come
keep
of all food
thee
unto
male
the
kind,
shall
thee,
alive.
I
Genesis
kind, of
its
sort
every
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
22.
"
creeping thing of
every
of
SECTION
Genesis"
230
Now
strong
case
quite fair,we
is
(vi. 9
Divine
onlypart of
"
17)
"
a
all of
tion
communica-
the ark.
It is to be
named.
It is to be
wood, with certain specified
there Two
Are
of the Flood ? 231
Accounts
internal and
external arrangements.
that
understand
he may
the
the
The
with
that these words
into the ark
that
had
he
Deluge
for
the
remain, he is told
once
the
The
two
not
upon
of the
semblance
from
Scripture.
offeree
stand, they are
narratives.
Lord
the term
is
and
a
Who
?
cover
be
reader
did
him."
is
thou
Noah's
have
vi. 18
all its
22
"
as
vii.
i
:
and
thy
house
?
houses
they
"And
the
house
into
What
his wife ?
sons
away
independent
even
and
his
founded,
obtains
taking them
notice
question, for
to
so
tion,
misrepresenta-
a
upon
even
Is it himself
supposed
alone
Noah
case
comparison
Noah, Come
the
And
commanded
"dupHcates," or
constitute
reasonable
may
The
But,
the
Let
said unto
the ark."
not
with
"And
through wrenching
its connection.
thing
one
animals.
:
the
detail is added
critical
but
interpretation,
an
it,seeing
entirelydifferent things.
again,therefore,the
Here
ing
enter-
respite
the
Lord
refer to
sentences
of
needed
the
did
when
to
is the
the clean
were
all that
according to
in
as
That
enter, and
to
the words
more
animals
days
seven
pairsof
seven
to Noah's
preparations; and,
that
announcement
about
forth.
final
is
there
it will also be evident
intimation
no
break
to
was
needed
yet
as
all
store
tell that Noah
housing the
and
creation.
to
possiblyrefer
cannot
tions,
direc-
selected
then, that
which
; and
commanded
had
God
animal
command
seen,
for the words
enough
scope
the
It will be
food.
necessary
as
ends
all these
assylum of
terrestrial
representativesof
section
objectof
it is to be the
he is told that
Then, in order
are
does
That
married
of their
own.
But, if it
wives
?
too, does
all this has
vi. i8
In
wife, his
his
Noah
their
cover
is told
wives
sons'
indefinite
The
ark.
it also
already settled,but
There
and
the
been
22.
"
sons,
in
sheltered
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
his sons,
covers
Now
?
where
his
SECTION
Genesis"
232
are
that
to
be
"
thy
term,
house," in vii. i, conseqentlyimplies the existence
the
shown
thereby
but,
the
on
when
contrary,
that
man
of that
"
and
these
must
of
which
that
two
is
between
and
For
"
that the animals
the
of
animals
be
unclean
to
are
seven
be
brought
pairs of
species.
That
is
a
and
in
one
quite out of place in vi. 18 22,
entirelyin its right positionin vii. i
"
"
of
a
there
repetition,
tradiction,"
"con-
assertion
is
first.
merely
he
pairs,and
that
now
detail which
been
instead
no
the
him, he is told there
to
clean
finds
distinction
any
provision accordingly. But,
makes
the
the
Noah
be
to
are
and
to exist between
animals.
unclean
forty
duplicates
the very
to
22
seven
"
"
account,
And
"
in the
yet
repetitionof
mere
them
name
centre
disposes
in vi. 18
reference
clean
informed
will
a
wonder
the earth
very
first."
itself
is
second
no
"
:
Strange
second
And,
hint
slightest
the critics declare
passages,
the
There
the
*'
in **the
place whatever
these
?
this, the
be, when
astonishment
to
it to rain upon
forty nights
days
ventured
is
i
account,
our
passages,
is there the
cause
vii.
of vi. 18.
startlingstatement
I will
days, and
the
ever
duplicates."Where
former
continuation
a
and
;
independent
an
compare
any
vi. 18
in
be
to
not
further
we
grows
"
instructions
definite
of
is
a
pair only
would
5.
have
which
but
In
continuation
of
is
short,
;
and,
SECTION
Genesis"
234
This
The
has
seeming difficulty
past
verses
13
of
tense
16
"
We
have
had
commanded
and
only past
it
commanded
of
of it in
form
before.
rendered:
the
that
Consult
"
accounts
once
Noah's
obedience
in
to the
i
verses
in
been
of the
occupied
Flood.
with
of life from
onward
we
the date
Hence
six hundredth
"
by
had
ark.
no
means
now
had
been
"
comes
that
"
the
the
seed
mencement
com-
has
the preservation
from
this
point
Deluge
itself.
in
the
the
statement
days
seven
of all flesh into
either
11
ver.
in Noah's
month
completely done.
none,
corded
re-
contains
contained
of the second
is
attention
our
but
two
g tell of
"
have
we
of the
outbreak
receive
of Noah
;
witnesses
unnecessary
work
of the house
tillnow
"
the
which
preparationsfor
And
difficulty
historywhich
Deluge
day
year.
sufficed to
The
the
of the
the seventeenth
"
the
made
are
Up
in 15,
16, instead
7
command
of that part of the
the record
in
every
11
13,
verse
Verses
ver.
given
entered";
one.
Divine
But
4.
"
In
again,and
become
more
it abundantly
therefore, rightly
and
the context
out
been
in "; and
shut,"
one
rendered
makes
"had
gone
God
statement
him."
render
"had
put
vanishes.
have,
As
is the
had
commanded
in," put "had
"shut,"
put the
command
translators
"
have
to
context, which
of "entered,"
for "went
have
the
"had
but
tenses.
:
used
tense
in
tice,
prac-
for both
9, 16
verses
;
is used
common
ver}^
form
The
would
with
The
a
of the verb
"
verb
only one
him."
plain
of
there is
alreadyexplained.
Hebrew
"
instances
harmony
instead
the
been
pluperfect
a
as
seeingthat
"
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
of the
the
None
clean
or
there Two
Are
selected
had
beasts
is shown
words
enough
Japheth."
of all had
to
seen
to
by
And
then
have
disclosure
damaging
with
conclude
proof, that
"
and
these
of
cradle
carried
with
the
old
the
Flood
was
a
new
world, and
which
are
and
found
the tradition
From
the
say
4,000
years
ago,
we
"sources."
I
This
recovered
Babylon,
various
races
of the overthrow
now
among
of the
words,
documents"
have
literature.
are
in
unanswerable
the
Flood
should
of
traditions
all nations.
quitenatural suppositionthat, if
to
come.
fictions.
which
humanity,
these
it has
unreliableness.
utter
are
the memories
them
which
has
"original
"
Babylonian
of the
and
which
already sufficiently
critical
discoveries
been
16 would
"
lessons
supposed
the
so-called
to the
owe
the old
us
back
the
overwhelming
one
13
of God
to
Noah
Nothing
preservationor
allegeddifferences
independent sources
replywe
the
add
only
and
in."
chief
convey,
style,between
should
We
to
Ham,
which
verses
of the
one
into the
enter
not
him
either for
the Word
wherever
phrases,and
for
of
be
must
had
effectively,
omitted
intended
was
conveyed
I do
have
To
and
entrance,
shut
purpose,
deprived us
the record
The
had
It is
told that the last touch
are
closed
Lord
for destruction.
the
of the
sons.
They
Shem,
"
we
intention
sons."
"
one
have
not
failed of God's
had
"his
given.
The
"
of
none
"
Noah's
naming of
say
one
been
:
the
by
could
himself
creation
this is the
That
now
enumerated
brute
of the Flood ? 235
cattle,or creeping things,or fowls,
or
left out.
been
not
of the
unclean
of the
Accounts
we
current
meet
could
of
It
get
in
lonia,
Baby-
with
it in
Genesis"
236
a
form
legends
has
also
with
the
column
the
incident
and
verse
have
is recorded
of Genesis
"
;
from
incident
confusion,
is
I have
given the
location
judiciously-silent
pages
three
incidents
t
a
this
reader
will
in the
tablet
second,
in which
held
the
reference
by
the
to
the
critics,and
as
passage
the
critics.
no
of Dr.
sixth,
to which
it is placed
Driver.
Twenty-
these
taken, and
are
most
fourth, fifth,and
of each
its
third, the chapter
made
in the
in all
history;
assigned by
conflictingopinions
in
end
to
the
"source,"
or
is
Vigoroux
Deluge
in the
now
Although
Genesis
in the
;
document,"
of the
We
conceptions,
column,
line of the
pation
antici-
it existed
as
in
in the
and
That
of Abraham.*
first
named
and
alleged
various
Flood
borrowed
the
find the incident
avoid
nations.
account
have
In
controversy.
To
marred
is,in itself,
quite sufficient
table which
account
the
idolatrous
by
the
I
the
the time
is marred
remarkable.
the
of
legend
conformity
than
astonishinglyverified.
before
Babylonia
this
of the other
been
the
possess
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
the historical
to
nearer
confused
SECTION
may
be
discovery would
be
said to tell the entire story.
It
to
was
be
expected
utilized
by
that
Biblical
our
the
of
the
that
critics,and
facts.
But
go
farther
back
The
kind, the
traditions
become.
They
sobrietyof history.
*
New
The
right
we
told
the
in
the
go
in
legendary do the
and
more
acquire more
of this
of the
be
from
taken
this is to
traditions
See
should
we
Deluge-history was
Babylonian legend.
teeth
that the
less
This
Biblical Guide, I.,pp. 283-290.
is manifest
\ Les Livrei
in the
Sninti, T. HI., p. 488.
there Two
Are
Babylonian tradition,and
fact
very
other
no
evidence
this law
apply
when
to
as
it
have
had
had
in that
possessed
we
written.
was
Let
antiquity of
relative
the
to
would
we
of its age,
indication
an
of the Flood ? 237
Accounts
us
Genesis
these
Comparing
Babylonian Deluge Tablets.
has manifestly
together,the Scripture account
more
of the historical character
the
and
have
Babylonian,then, might
The
the
Bible
that
the
Bible
from
the
Deluge
could
only
it is
but
account,
law
of
traditional
and
that, in other
have
it
Babylonian.
from
derived
impossibility
derived
been
critical contention
This
Tablets.
justifiedif
be
been
sheer
a
could
account
the
than
that
shown
were
the
development
had
been
reversed
words, there
had
been
a
;
literary
miracle.
Babylonian discovery has, nevertheless, a
this
But
real and
very
important bearing
most
present
upon
questionsregarding Genesis and the Old Testament
generally.The higher criticism is re-constructing
"
"
the
"
Scripture.
in
Bible
it not
And
in human
history.
previous Christian
with
of the venerable
many
volumes
of
It has
insists
suddenly antiquated all
tomes
of
has
reduced
antiquityand
times
recent
more
to
authorityof
and
of
our
Lord
Prophets.
all
His
and
this,it declares
right to
do
supreme
authorityof
apostles,of
And, when
truth,
and
that
we
the
of the
that of waste
but firmly,sets
Further, it reverently,
paper.
a
radical revolutions
of the most
literature,and
value
the
us
tatters,"but it has also created, and
one
establishing,
upon
only presents
aside
giver,
Law-
question its
it possesses
the
it pointsspecially
to
there Two
Are
of the
its dissection
of the Flood ? 239
Accounts
Deluge History as confirmingall
its claims.
It
be
will
enables
priceless. Let
gracious
of
What
the
were
two
there
the
Genesis
and
being a
Divine
of
upon
the
main
documents
strains of
each
to
element
in the
theory is
the
annihilated.
alone
and
of the
P of the
alone
offered
That
proof of
upon
knew
sending
be
turn
now
division
the claims
this
feat,which
alone
of
the
order
(vi.14
of the window
of
the
birds, the
6),
(viii.
P
"
sources
fact that
was
ledge
know"
"
to
20).
"
possessionof J (viii.
7
important
12).
Noah
"c.
is, I repeat, the
It rests
higher criticism.
in
says it has accomplished
of the
it
table.
of the command
knew
(viii.
20), "c.,
of the
vital
a
our
(viii.
4).
more
sacrifice
to
ark
out
other.
disproved,and
of the
the sole
was
of the
a
opening
grounding
the
of which
had
is
alone
(vii.i) ; P
ark
knew
ignorant of
J
J
known
remembered,
it,and of its prescribeddimensions
build
J
the
enter
to
that
the two
that
the
We
a
impose
to
to
that
Let
theory.
It will be observed
is
that the
thingswere
unknown
were
of
represented distinct
some
distinction, let it be
This
that
and
merely
theory is
used
that
which
writer
of
The
were
tradition,and
is
shown
Pentateuch, instead
use
Jewish people.
which
have
to
given through Moses,
made
was
marvellously
so
vastlylater day, and
a
is
the
which
documents,
of the
Revelation
of Moses
name
main
here
just
test
has
God
critics claim
rest
concoction
literary
the
apply
which
anything
gigantic claims
now
us
Providence
provided.
that
these
test
to
us
therefore, that
seen,
Genesis" SECTION
240
disentangling these
marked
distinctly
as
such
of
had
the
or
the
was
of any
;
carried
FULL
and
of the
may,
by
a
One
find
storm
of
On
impossibilities.
predatory animals
ten
days
of
their
a
the
and
when
tion,
tradi-
one
"
Sources''
snare.
a
in The
traditions
which
two
or
Deluge,
of the
its
prove
additional
fittingplace
Biblical
New
here.
reality,
remarks
We
questions,insisting
upon
what,
live
are
we
during
are
alleged
asked, did
the
the twelve
months
and
in
ark ?
It is
incarceration
"Volume
class
one
Fact.
will be found
extent.
however,
assailed
a
geologicalfacts
and
recency,
in the
them
of any
of
VI.
of the various
Guide*
the
confidently
the critical
and
Deluge
account
before
with
Neither
CHAPTER
The
were
parcel
embodied
were
distinctive
writer
one
and
hearth.
ever
and
tradition
been, consequently,a delusion
A
There
facts,the memories
nations
primeval
other
observe
now
incidents, so
were
lived for ages,
they left
the
P,
well
as
in existence. All the
Deluge
and
J
which
have
And
alreadypart
were
! All these
to
tradition
or
P
and
J
of Abraham
distributed
omissions
Babylonian discovery.
consecutive
one
which
characteristic
separatestrains of tradition
of the
traditions, each
peculiar contents.
own
characteristics
time
different
two
by
effect of the
the
no
its
by
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
I.,pp. 256-374.
the
SECTION
Genesis"
242
universal
Deluge,
indicated, is
animals
have
not
parts of the earth
and
it
is,of
could
of what
conclusive
of
to
a
the
historic
a
leader
Europe ;"
scientist who
Preface
Society on
a
the
ark
limit
to
we
be
comparatively
denied.
The
sight of by
country it was
adopted
were
read
by
Geikie
A.
to
the
the
land,
that he
be added
and
animals, evidence
distinguishedmen
the
him
In
that
the
"
:
says
that
we
the
a
Royal
Half
the
Sedgwick
same
view
a
tigation,
inves-
deluge
had, in
of
remains
adopted
was
unfinished
an
before
1892, he
of the fact.
of
theologicalconstraint
conclusion
and
as
Tertiarygeology
Buckland, after considerable
Dr.
deposits
in the
no
Sir
by
as
Sir
longer avail.
this matter.
to
paper
came
over
so
facts which
lost
no
it may
15th December,
century ago
passed
and
under
was
regard
to
in
theories
is described
acknowledged
in
not
historywill
as
in this
devices
These
Prestwich
whatever
did
;"
necessityof reinstatingthe Deluge
fact.
Western
miracle
only which
two
are
never
geologists,though
obviate
the
was
distant
are
longer be
no
the
objectionscan
deluge
strenuouslyignored,and
Joseph
"
A
can
its action
continental
we
regard
there
But
depth
that
come,
If
no
we
reply.
geologicaltime
evidence
most
area
which
to
considerably.
recent
they
of historic facts to those
brought, the
a
that
all,"c.
and
form
stupendous
a
concluded
fullycomprehend,
shrink
"
held them
acceptance
our
the
from
is,that, if they had
have
not
of
Noah
to
come
without
course,
third
A
come.
especiallyone
impossibility.Another,
an
could
and
4." VI. 9." IX. 29.
our
had
ficial
super-
entombed
other
and
for
a
time,
The
but
it
abandoned
was
of
forward.
But, while
opinion has
held
nomeclature
Diluvium
He
to
attempt
ground
certain
Rouge,
*
enne."
its
himself
devoted
of
wherever
with
a
of
second
care
high
The
exist.
now
us.
ancito
into
the
formity
con-
He
was
workers
distinguished
laboured
has
investigation
animals
first fact.
have
as
for the
same
abundant
gone,
this
The
and
seed
been
Alluvium
the Continental.
group
a
discovered.
gigantic cataclysm are
supposition of merely local floods will no longer
avail.
men
has
bring British geologicalopinion
t
The
that view
in his later years
end.
of
Continent, and
gris,and
quite independentlyhave
traces
the
on
who
Now,
in this country, that
with
Diluvium
only one, however,
dence
evi-
geological deposits,such
this matter
on
of other
subsequentlybrought
abandoned
in accordance
for
243
in consequence
character
conflicting
a
adopted
Fact.
Deluge a
hills
covered.
were
fact is that
second
Unless, then,
we
we
preserved.
Driver's
With
difficulties may
and
men
admit
to
in
some
these
Flood
is the
animals
contend
to
are
forced
are
of all terrestrial life must
Dr.
That
perished everywhere.
creation,
been
that
In
that
way
two
safelybe
for
or
facts
a
the
other
before
left to take
of themselves.
It is
highly significantthat, in proportion as
takes
us
farther back
into the
ploration
ex-
earlymemories
of
humanity, the testimony to the realityof the
clearer
and
louder.
Deluge becomes
To-day,"
writes
sandhills
Hilprecht, such
enormous
are
"
"
*Li/e
of Frestwicb,
p.
369
f See
Guttle
SECTION
Genesis"
244
found
in
of
neighbourhood
Hubba
(Sippora).
ancient
now
of the
of
of
tradition
undoubtedly
fact
alone.
cited
dividingline between
of history; and
it
writers
British
in the
names
the
kings after
the relative
in their
And
of
and
after
world
the
universal
a
In
been
the
former
and
of
every
belief
ing
describan
kind
a
Deluge,
Deluge." J
the basis
of
which
the other
which
deep conviction
lay beneath
national
divided
Explorations in Bible Lands, p. 41.
Xlbid., p. 276.
0/ Empires, p. 66.
First
are
demon-war,
new.
*
i The
'These
them,
unparalleledevent
from
royal
^^^^^^
had
reveal
Babylonian
this
t This
writings.
misery
awe-inspiringmemories
ancient
of
ancient
and
if there
references
"
not.'
.,
(Like unto)
These
Hebrew
:"
famine
Followed
As
nings
begin-
list of
read:
we
resultingfrom
tablet says
ancient
Museum,
a
a
Deluge (Abubi) yV^ho, according to
desolation
the
and
for in
:
forms
the
and
age
with
brother-
Deluge
Chaldean
both
event
order, wrote
also
appears
real
a
was
to
And
stand
distressed
The
mystic
was
issued
recently
"
what
means
any
aiding his
the
belief and
humanity.
by
:
Ahubi
words, what
the
new
book
writes
critics,nevertheless
other
the
to
Tul
antiquity in
not
a
of
purpose
of
In
Abu
known
were
name
of the
in
Boscawen,
the evident
the
the
does
Tel
(Niffer), and
heaps
remote
in the
(Erech),
geology, was
the cradle
just
Warkha
Deluge ')."*
conclusion
a
constant
the
These
IX. 29.
Iraq, notably
Nuffar
Babylonians by
(*Mounds
of
Jokha,
(Kutha), and
Ibrahim
is
districts
several
VI. 9."
4."
the
traditions
the
old
a
BOOK
FOR
COMPLETE
IN
mew
Zbc
FIVE
PRICE
"
I. How
Special
WITH
"Higher
W.
in
Moule.
Old
the
D.D.
HI.
IL
of
John Macpherson,
V.
The
By
of
Rev.
The
James Smith,
Inspiration,
About
Recent
M.A.
Israel in
Inerrancy
the
Rev.
By
The
By
and
The
VOL
V.
II.
Critics and
Joseph
"
to Sinai.
Bible.
Journey
the
on
"
East of the
of Balaam
The
Problem
Life and Times
Recent
the
Bible.
of
Joshua.
Discoveries
the
and
Bible.
"
"
"
VOL.
Recent
succeed.
The
Discoveries and
VI.
The Book
of Judges and the Telel-Amarna
Tablets
The
of
Books
Samuel
The First Book
of Kings.
I. Introductory the Story of
the Higher Criticism.
II. What
the Critics
wish
with
the
to do
Bible.
III. Why
the Critics cannot
I. The
of
John Urquhart.
VOL
II. Recent
Bible.
the
the Desert
VOL.
I. The
the
Exodus
Egypt
and
"
The
The
"
from
Conquests
Jordan
"
Times
Discoveries and
Sinai
PrincipalDouglas.
VII. The
Writing
OF
Antiquity
IN
Israel.
By Professor
Sayce.
VIII. Old Testament
ties.
DifficulRev.
March
Recent
ture.
Scrip-
of
IV.
Egypt
of
Question
the
The
"
Discoveries and
Life
The
VI.
Doctrine
and
of
The
"
Jacob
Joseph.
M.A.
Scriptures.
Scripture
Nations-
Times
and
VOL.
IV.
Divine
and
the
and
Babylon,
"
the
his
Isaac
Times
Bible.
the
of Babel
and
of
Life
"
Authority
Tower
Times
Testament.
Inspiration
IIL
Canon
and
By
Old
E.C.
London,
Metropolis of
Abraham
By
The
Testament;
the
the
Study
History
Rev,
Row,
Discoveries and
The
to
Rev.
By
Scriptures.
Bishop
Recent
Bible,
the
Literary
the
OF
9, Paternoster
VOLUME.
VOL.
M.A.,
Holy
the
PER
BOOKSELLERS.
Reference
Baxter,
L.
OF
ALL
Criticism."
Dangers
8 "
Co.,
(3ui6e
SIXPENCE
I.
Read
TO
VOLUMES.
URQUHART.
AND
AND
VOL.
EIGHT
JOHN
SHILLINGS
PARTRIDGE
S. W.
TIMES.
Biblical
Rev.
By
THE
the Bible.
of
Story of
the Discoveries.
II. Confirmationsof
Genesis
The
Creation
The
Creation
History
Discoveries
Second
Books
Ezra
VII.
of
Book
of
Kings
Book
VOL.
"
the
Chronicles
The
"
Bible.
and
"
The
The
Book
of Esther.
"
VIII.
"
of Man"
The
"
Where
Recent
Human
Fall
"
The
History
"
of Genesis
Foundations
of
The
ians"The
Antediluv-
Deluge"
"
Nimrod's
The
Times
Unity
and
Discoveries and
the Bible.
"
alleged "Myths"
The
Man
Paradise?
was
Work.
of
there two Isaiahs?
Jeremiah
Daniel
firmations
ConJonah Nahum
Are
"
"
"
"
of the
"
The
purpose.
Four
New
Gospels
"
Testament
and
their
The
Record
(Church of England) says: "Our
gratitudeis distinctlyfor
his
He wields
Urquhart
continuing
very useful work.
vigorous pen, and possesses a very graphic style."
due to Mr.
.
.
a
The
.
Roek
with up-to-date
It is a book
information.
says: "It teems
be in every student's hand, yet it is so simple and so charmingly
written that the man
in the street can
its
comprehend
easily
arguments
It is also invaluable
to the preacher for
appreciateits conclusions.
that ought
and
to
givinghim
stores
of
out
which
build
to
the fabric of many
interesting
an
discourse."
The
English Churchman
speak
cannot
The
in too
Sword
high
and
Oriental
The
The latest information gained from
says:
the witness of travellers,and from archaeological
gathered into handy and brief form, and it makes
a
Bookseller
assistance
of the
Trowel
"
of weapons,
armoury
Bible destroyers."
would-be
to
the
help we
approval."
from
monuments,
'finds' has been here
wondrous
Bible
this admirable
"Of
says:
of
terms
both
offensive
and
defensive, against all
of the greatest value and
says: "it should
prove
class of Biblical students, as well as to preachers
numerous
Gospel."
The
gleams
which
Paisley Express
of
a
humour,
not
shows
man
persuaded
says: "The
lacking either in
who
speaks under
that the Christian
Church
style is easy, racy,
vigour, or in that
strong conviction.
owes
deep
a
debt
earnestness
We
.
are
.
of
without
not
firmly
gratitude to
Mr,
Urquhart."
The
for
the
Aberdeen
the
from
received
The
reader
he
pleasant lime
have
we
Free
Scottish
is the
position
Press
has
given
We
"
us, and
are
gratefulto
for the amount
Mr.
Urquhart
of information
him."
Reformer
says:
singularlyfair and
and
says:
impartialway
of those
arguments
thingwhich
"One
who
do
not
must
in which
agree
the
with
impress the
writer
the
states
views
he
advocates."
work
is of great and
North
British Daily Mail says: "His
finds
awakened
in it when
and
the
interest
which
the
reader
value,
present
The
he
begins
meet
in
that
have
The
is almost
The
perusal will be deepened by the fresh surpriseswhich he will
of Biblical statements
strikingand unexpected confirmations
been challenged."
its
the
Christian
Liverpool
book
is learned
says: "The
all serious Bible students."
Globe
indispensableto
but
simple,and
who desire to see the historical
says: "Those
vindicated
do better than
of Genesis
cannot
ably
Mercury
of the Book
accuracy
Mr. Urquhart's Guide."
study
The
Publisher's
Circular
and
teachers, the sound
preachers
practicalway.
pages."
Students
.
.
.
"The
says:
information
will find much
great service to
being conveyed in a lucid,
book
of value
is of
in its
comprehensive
ROGER'S
REV.
By
48
REASONS
URQUHART.
JOHN
Price
Pages.
One
Penny,
the proof that the Bible is not only
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of
by a singlescientific blunder, but has also forestalled some
mightiest scientific discoveries, and is the only trulyscientific Book
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into narrative
in its sixty-seventh
is thrown
form) is now
little
This
unmarred
our
in
"
"
thousand.
This
distribution.
Will
encouraging letters
Many
friends
is of
the
been
have
received
greatest importance
kindly consider
at
urging its wide
present time.
the
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''The Oracles of God:"
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Flue "ectures ro $" S- teachers and others*
A
Reply
Five
to
in
delivered
Lectures,
Bradford,
Rev.
by
T.
S. S. Teachers
to
RHONDDA
WILLIAMS.
An
organisedand determined attempt is now
being made
These Lectures
Higher Criticism into the Sunday School.
be of special
and
service to Teachers
others.
Helpersmay
The
Glasgow
the
under
obtain
Herald
title of The
Oracles
Mr. URQUHART, wheq ordering.
Copies frotri
says :""
of God
Messrs.
:
The
critical views
sets
point.
own
a
to
meet
the
earlier
we
were
with
considerable
Readers
of Mr.
in their
own
historical
against the
Urquhart's way
opinions,while
criticism
will learn
guarding against ignorant
just issued
the Trust ? at the price
delivered
in Bradford, by
recently
previous series
by the Rev. T. Rhondda
a very
outspoken fashion,certain higher
and
teachingofthe Bible, and
lecturer's
and
statements
Mr.
criticisms
pretty freely,and
at
the
same
time
Urquhart
point by
convicts
him
he presents his
controversial
be said
can
have
(London)
Surrender
He
certainlyknocks his antagonist about
little inaccuracyand recklessness, while
case
of what
advocated, in
regarding the composition
himself
of not
latter had
Marshall
Shall
of 6d. net, a series of five lectures which
the Rev. John Urquhart, in reply to a
Williams.
to introduce the
will be found to
and
skill,and with an adequate knowledge
critical views from the standpointof archaeology.
of thinking will find much
here to confirm
them
even
from
those
who
the
fate
accept generallythe
of
Mr.
Williams
hasty applications."
the
positionsof
necessity of
Publislied
byMARSHALL
WorKs
by
Rev.
JOHN
ARE
WHAT
The
or.
KeswickHouse,
Paternoster
BROTHERS,
Row,E.G.
WE
Weekly
British
by
Christian
The
the
0
of
statement
the
from
argument
the
Trowel
This
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any
novel."
precioustreatise
should
be scattered
of thousands."
tens
forth
popular
interestingthan
More
and
Sword
The
best
Prophecy.
found."
be
Spurgeon^"
2/6
Price
"The
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to
BELIEVE?
Fulfilled
of
a
C. H.
TO
Testimony
Prophecy anywhere
URQUHART.
great
a
who
man
"This
"
of such
mass
could
worship and
read
book,
small
so
testimony
it without
exclaim
in
in bulk
lines
but so
clear and
so
and
amazement
awe.
large in thought, sets
powerful that we pity
It
is
a
book
to
make
that which
Verily the Lord reigneth,He knoweth
It
the
for
shall come
He
sitteth
ever.'
is
the
book
to put
earth,
King
very
upon
of an intelligent
is the
into the hands
Agnostic, so clear and fair and satisfactory
of the argument
from
its careful commencement,
statement
through its well
of many
defined progress, to its magnificent conclusion.
The
cream
great books
is to be found in these 230 pages.
Nevertheless, all is simple and compact."
one
to
:
'
"
INSPIRATION
THE
OF
HOLY
THE
Containing
6
Reply
a
The
I.
Rationalism.
Part
Appendix
The
which
Part
:
Dean
Record
"
"
fall under
the
III.
Farrar
We
"
have
"Daniel."
on
a
Inspiration. Part
Tested
by
Results
II.
The
"
Modern
Genesis
of
Discovery.
Daniel.
several
books
"
above
7/6
of
Critical
on
Farrar
Dean
Price
Doctrine
Scripture
"
SCRIPTURES;
to
0
ACCURACY
on
our
table
Biblical
waiting to be considered
have
Literature). "We
heading
(Recent
and
The Inspiration
on
giving the first place to the volume
the Rev. J. Urquhart
already
Accuracy of the Holy Scriptures,which
of the
Some
Biblical subjects,
has just given to the world.
known
as
a writer
on
of the
facts stated are
quite startlingin the light they throw on the accuracy
the
claim
done much
to establish
to have
narrative.
Mr. Urquhart may
of
sufficient inspirationof the Bible as a whole, and the substantial
two
accuracy
of its most
disputed books."
Mr. Urquhart is of the same
The Daily Chronicle""
opinion as those most
of the
defence
book
elaborate
His
is
and right reverend
reverend
an
prelates.
of the Old
old orthodox
positionrespectingthe authenticityand infallibility
the Higher and
Testaments.
tries hard
to be fair to both
and
New
He
of humour, and he writes vigorously
Critics ; he is not destitute of a sense
Lower
well.
If his book
and
is not
convincing, it is, at any rate, interestingand
no
hesitation
in
....
.
.
.
.
readable."
.
.
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