“how to apply some of  what we know about  and  in 

“how to apply some of what we know about Expertise, Learning and Performance in the design and delivery of our development programmes…”
RESTORING LEARNING TO LIFE: why healthcare professionals should fall in love with learning, and how they can do so…
Alistair Smith, AMEE 2103
“If I had to reduce all of educational psychology to just one principle, the most important single factor influencing learning is what the learner already knows...”
David Ausubel (1968)
D = 0.67
Prior knowledge: which picture best represents you as a learner?
Prior knowledge: which picture best represents learning in your organisation?
“In most learning tasks, we need to already know about 90% of what we are aiming to master in order to enjoy and make the most of the challenge...”
Burns, M.K. (2002)
Content: we will learn more about expertise, learning and performance; we will continue our journey to become ‘Expert’ Developers. Process: we will learn through formal input, case studies, reflection, discussion and transfer; the presenter will model the methods espoused.
Benefits: we will enhance our professional learning and our readiness to take full advantage of our Conference.
“ Anticipatory thinking is a form of sense making. It includes the process of recognizing and preparing for difficult challenges, many of which may not be clearly understood until they are encountered. It can also consist of formulating expectancies about future events. ”
Klein, G., Snowden, D., & Pin, C. L. (2007).
Preparation and Prediction: how have you got yourself ready for your AMEE conference?
My Preparation
for our AMEE Conference…
Deep Learning: using SOLO Taxonomy
Extended Abstract
Three topics:
• Expertise
• Performing
• Learning Expertise: Who are our experts?
What characterises their expertise?
What has been their journey?
Signature Behaviours of Alchemists
‘The science of alchemy I like very well, and indeed, 'tis the philosophy of the ancients. I like it not only for the profits it brings in melting metals, in decocting, preparing, extracting and distilling herbs, roots; I like it also for the sake of the allegory and secret signification, which is exceedingly fine.’
Martin Luther, Table Talk, 1566
Signature Behaviours of Experts
“Experts adapt to complexity, synthesize and interpret information in context, and transform or "fuse" disparate items of information into coherent knowledge.”
Informed by Knowledge:
Expert Performance in Complex Situations, Mosier et al, 2010
Expertise differs from Experience 1. Experts discern meaningful patterns of information that are not noticed by novices – they do so by fixating
longer on more information rich locations.
2. Have content knowledge which is organized coherently and reflects a deep contextual understanding of their subject matter. 3. Are able to retrieve key information more easily and can do so under duress. 4. Adapt to complexity and are consistently flexible in their approaches to new situations. 5. Excel at anticipatory thinking.
50,000 chunks of information ‐
organised coherently through
‐ 10,000 hours of directed practice
Mastery: the hours required
Neurosurgery: 42,240
Astrophysics: 26,880 Economics: 26,880
Computer Programming: 15,360
Culinary Arts: 13,440
Litigation: 13,440
Poker: 7680
Knitting: 5760
Yoga: 700
Celebrity Gossip: 320
Based on the time taken to achieve the highest qualifications and/or be recognised as an effective practitioner. Teachthought.com Systems for storage and retrieval of key information would appear to be different in experts than in novices
Relative % share of
brain activity
Player Rating
Weaker players with lower ratings used more of their medial temporal lobes (black) in analysing moves. They spent time in analysis. Grandmasters used proportionately more frontal and parietal lobes (orange) to retrieve information from long term memory (University of Konstanz, 2001)
The journey to Expertise Novice: acquiring facts, learning and following rules
Advanced Beginner: deals with situational elements but still applies learned rules and procedures
Competence: appraises the situation, sets a goal, chooses a plan and acts; builds from authentic experience
Proficiency: deep involvement with rapid and fluid recognition‐primed decision‐making
Expert: experience‐based holistic recognition of similarity produces the deep situational understanding that leads to the experts fluid and innovative performance Mosier and Fischer, Informed by Knowledge, 2011
Performance: Experts retain their learning to ensure they perform under duress
“ The cases I deal with are atypical. I’d say that my ability to deal with them derives about 60% from years of formal training, learning on the job, and the last 40% is down to pure problem‐
Paediatric Heart Surgeon, Newcastle on Tyne, interviewed March, 2013
"I am not a perfectionist, but I like to feel that things are done well. More important than that, I feel an endless need to learn, to improve, to evolve, not only to please the coach and the fans, but also to feel satisfied with myself. It is my conviction that there are no limits to learning, and that it can never stop, no matter what our age." Christiano Ronaldo, 2008
Penalty Kick Performance
200 kicks assessed
World Cup and European Championships
The most successful club players spent the least time in preparation and so performed badly
England players – used more % escapist self‐
regulation strategies (56 occasions ‐ turned their back) and had fastest response time (0.28secs after referee blows whistle)
They experienced greatest ego‐threat
“Even practising under mild levels of stress can prevent choking when high levels of stress come around…”
Sian Beilock, University of Chicago, author of Choke: the Secret to Performing under Pressure, 2010
Expertise in Medicine and Surgery
Requires mastery of a unique diversity of knowledge and skills; the interplay between formal knowledge and practical experience is a central issue. Medical expertise involves three broad kinds of knowledge: causal, analytical and experiential. 1.
Causal learning – understanding the scientific principles ‐ as opposed to rote rehearsal of signs and symptoms, leads to improved diagnostic performance when the task is more difficult.
Analytical learning ‐ involves an ability to represent knowledge in category prototypes and use an agreed language, often bi‐
polar, to communicate diagnosis
Experiential learning ‐ requires speedy recognition and retrieval of information from an exemplar base.
Ericsson, (2006) The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Performance, C 19
Developing Expertise in Medicine and Surgery
Expertise in medicine appears to rely on multiple processes, so necessitating a balance of causal, analytical and experiential learning methods in training.
Greater experience leads to more exemplar based knowledge and less reliance on formal rules. Aging leads to deterioration in knowledge tests but years of experience within a domain is positively correlated to competence. 3.
Develop the cognitive processes, for example through metacognition, whilst at the same time building the knowledge base through use of effective learning methods
Premature closure is also associated with aging and is related to increased reliance on automatic processing. Metacognitive strategies will broaden the response. Mild pressure will help sustain performance
Ericsson, (2006) The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Performance, C 19
“In times of change the learners will inherit the earth, whilst the knowers will be beautifully prepared for a world which no longer exists…”
Eric Hoffer, The True Believer, 1951 Learning: Development experiences should be designed from what we know about learning and learners
Signature Behaviours of Expert Learners
Working Memory ‐ can remember multiple
tasks, rules, and strategies that may vary by situation ‐ and can do so under duress
Inhibitory Control – self regulating and directing with high levels of emotional control
Cognitive Flexibility ‐ able to revise behaviours and intentions as circumstances change
Harvard University, (2011) Building the Brain’s ‘Air Traffic Control System’ Expert learners adapt to the unevenness of learning
A Case Study:
Generic Tutor Training at the Football Association
FA Learning Examples
Student expectation
1.44 (H)
Teaching Learning
0.9 (H)
Organisational Tools
0.75 (M)
Visual Organisers such as Concept Maps,
Diagrams, Hexagons,
Reciprocal teaching
0.74 (H)
Use of Home Groups and Transfer Sets
Feedback on
Collaborative Enquiry
0.73 (S)
Specific and useful self, peer and tutor
evaluation as an on-going process
0.73 (M)
Deliberate Practice
0.72 (H)
Focusing on a challenging question and
providing solutions as a shared responsibility
Spaced Rehearsal – revisiting and reviewing
0.5 (S)
Students knowing how to improve and
engaging with what needs to be done to be
Using formative assessment, skilled
questioning; spaced rehearsal and review as
the basis for learning to learn strategies
Expose the processes behind learning and
(H) Hattie, J. Visible Learning for Teachers, Routledge, London, 2012
(S) Sutton Trust, http://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/toolkit
(M) Marzano, R. What Works in Classrooms, ASCD, 2005
Effective Learning Interventions
Strong Structure
Clear and Connected Sense of Purpose
Landmark Progress
Specific Feedback for Performance Improvement
6. Active Engagement
7. Authenticity
8. Multiple Modes of Engagement 9. Social Interaction
10.Spaced Rehearsal 11.Reflection and Transfer
1. Strong Structure
Knowing what we will learn, how we will learn and the worth of the learning
2. Chunking
Manageable and memorable bites of information between which connections can be made
3. Clear and Connected Sense of Purpose
Linking the present learning to a wider personal agenda
4. Landmark Progress
Review and preview to reinforce the learning journey
5. Specific Feedback for Performance Improvement
Bullet points for focused improvement: be positive, be specific, be useful
6. Active Engagement
Getting up and doing it: learn through challenge
7. Authenticity
Working with ‘real’ issues ‐ using own experiences: drive it back to the workplace
8. Multiple Modes
Different ways of engaging with tasks and demonstrating understanding
9. Social Interaction
Learning with and from others: groups to foster collaborative enquiry
10. Spaced Rehearsal Regular participative review and application: interleave content
11. Reflection and Transfer
Reflecting back and speculating forward: time to consider how learning will be applied
Social Capital and Learning
Behaviour is shaped more by groups much more than by individuals. Cohesive groups with less individual talent often outperform groups with superstars who don’t work as a team. Professional development does not have much impact on student learning when it relies on individual learning and does not focus on follow‐through support for teams to learn together. Success in any innovation is largely determined by the degree of Social Capital in the culture of your own organisation.
A Learning Cycle for Developers
4. Consolidate
2. Activate
3. Demonstrate
What next for you?
Find out more about the nature of Expertise
and the stages of the journey to Expertise in your field.
Understand the nature of Performance and the impact of duress.
Gain an understanding of the principles of Learning and the most effective learning interventions for your field.
Use the principles, alongside a Model of Learning, to design your training and development experiences.
“how to apply some of what we know about Expertise, Learning and Performance in the design and delivery of our development programmes…”
[email protected]learning.com