How to Cultivate Change maker Among Youth and Young Adult? Whee Youth Network Group Leader Founder & Senior Previous Vice-Head Socially Responsible Management Research Center 1. Create Social Enterprise 2. Make teams for founding company 3. Teams consist of teenagers and youth in their 20s 4. Experts join each team 6 42 31 3 21 18 10s-20s : 170 30s and above : 100 3 11 5 2 36 13 2 35 11 1 21 15 annual total sales ₩ 5,000,000,000 (₩ 18,500,000 per one person) 1 4 7 What is the core problem of adolescents and the young adults? Grownups and society: 1. do not consider them as resource but problems 2. do not offer them the opportunities in which they can experience 3. ignore their potential with which they can change themselves as well as world What is important experience for adolescents and the young adults? 1. experience in which they can find their will to help others and change their lives 2. experience of realization that most such trials fail in spite of their good will 3. experience in which they re-find and re-know themselves and society in such failures 4. experience of making creative partnership with various people through these process 2004 Eco Musical Performance Group 10s: 6 20s: 1 30s and above: 4 Everything can be a musical instrument Everyone can play musical instrument industrial waste and trashes from daily necessities 1. making musical instrument 2. workshop 3. performance Granting a brand new life to left over 1. things 2. even people change our society with what we desire to do 1. the more we get together 2. the better • funny and creative performing troupe • story of adolescent and young adults • realization of social problem and trial of social innovation from Yeongdeungpo distric to Guro district from Seoul to country from Seoul to Asia performance group Change maker School for Youth Nurturing Platform for Future Social Entrepreneurs 2010 Hong Kong International Chinese New Year Festival Korea University Social Service Organization -Who are they and What they do Jae C. Shim School of Journalism and Mass Communication Korea University Who They Are • • • • • • • 18 명 학생단원: 남녀 각각 9명 남자는 병역필, 남녀 나이차이는 2-3살 12일간 함께 생활, 미래의 파트너 과반수가 문과대생, 4명은 노어노문과 이공대 4명, 경영학과 1명, 언론학과 1명 법대생, 정경대생은 없음 왜 문과대생이 대다수일까? Who They Are • 가정환경은 대다수가 중상류층, 비행기값으로 70만원 학생부담 • 대원 중에서 비행기를 처음 타본 학생도 있음 • 상당수가 해외 사회봉사 활동 유경험자 • 대다수가 포탈에서 모집공고를 보고 지원, 대학에서 무슨 일이 있는지 관심이 있다고 유추 • 일부 학생은 대학생활의 추억을 남기기 위해 지원 What They Do • • • • • • 영하 20도 이하 추위로부터 생존하기 한달 동안 연습, 연습, 연습 부채춤, 택견, 사물놀이, 소녀시대 지지지 지야의 함성 - 러시아인의 애창가 전통혼례 청소하기, 한국문화 전시관 만들어주기 Lessons Learned • • • • • • • 동계훈련 – 군대를 잘 갔다 왔다는 생각 학생들과 스킨십을 통한 이해 증진 연구에 도움 – 글로벌 한인 네트워크 미국, 일본, 중국, 러시아내 한인과의 만남 러시아에서 한류 발견, 아리랑 TV 시청 고려사람도 국내드라마 시청 리더십, 희생정신, 팀웍, 글로벌 마인드 KUSSO Number of Participants and Service Hours Year Number of Students Participated Hours 2008 1,317 19,926 2009 1,750 23,119 2010 1,430 14,674 Total 4,497 57,719 Get Outa Town • 지금까지 해외 사회봉사단 – 피지, 칼미키아, 필리핀 • 금년도 해외 사회봉사단 – • 피지, 칼미키아, 필리핀, 아디개야, 우간다, 네팔 • 미국의 평화봉사단과 같은 점과 다른점 글로벌 마인드, 단기 프로그램 THANK YOU Breeding Social Entrepreneurship to Undergraduate Business Students - The Experience at Sookmyung Professor Dong-Kwon Min Division of Business Administration, Sookmyung Women’s University 1. Background The nature of the social entrepreneurship (SE) education should be informative and, more importantly, transformative. Being informative is about making people knowledgeable, while being transformative means changing people, hopefully putting them into action. For the former is the case with many undergraduate business classes, business professors without SE-related backgrounds tend not to have paid enough attention to the transformation part. To them, SE is really a new area both in education contents and goals. Before they go into and commit themselves to this area, they need to find it worthwhile to put their time and efforts. Some clues had been gathered to determine the worth of an undergraduate business course on SE. Pessimism had been heard from many people: At their age, the value system of individual college students is already fixed so that it would be unlikely, if not impossible, to change; personality required for social entrepreneurs would not be duly acquired from taking a number of classes; and, empathy, one of the important personalities expected from social entrepreneurs, would have better been infused at earlier stages of their life. Surprisingly, remarks in this line were around even at SE-centered conferences, and spoken by leaders in the area. However, optimism also stood out strong, and one of the most moving encouragements was found in the Epilogue of Bornstein book: “If I learned one thing from writing this book, it is that people who solve problems must somehow first arrive at the belief that they can solve problems. This belief does not emerge suddenly. The capacity to cause change grows in an individual over time as small-scale efforts lead gradually to larger ones. But the process needs a beginning—a story, an example, an early taste of success—something along the way that helps a person form the belief that it is possible to make the world a better place. Those who act on that belief spread it to others. They are highly contagious. Their stories must be told.”(How to Change the World, 2005, p.282) Seemingly, “their stories” would work like an epidemic, or “happiness virus,” so to speak, which was really contagious. In addition, propositions by Heath and Heath came into perspective that “sticky” ideas stay long and possibly bring about changes, and that they are simple, unexpected, concrete, credentialed, emotional stories (Made to Stick, 2008). SESSION 3: How to Cultivate Change makes Among the Youth and Young Adult? Creative Destruction of Functional Fixedness Passion Designer Jihong Yeom What is Passion Designer? Creative Are you Creative? Ashoka’s four criterion for interview Creativity Entrepreneurial Quality Idea Ethical Fiber Student Adult Age Gender Creative Future Dream Job Money Degree st score ? ? Creative Destruction of Functional Fixedness Military Service Pizza Business ? Passion Designer D Sharing Passion with Creative IDEA Ideation Strategic Maximizer Input Communication “wow! a hanger turns to a book holder! it's transformed!” Thank you for sharing your passion. Yun M Kum Collins - Creative Director - Texas Leave it open, Read it often. Breakthrough Opportunity Yellow Card Let’s Coin! CSR(Corporate Social Responsibility + SR(Consumer Sharing Responsibili Why do you share IDEA? Social entrepreneurship = sustainable & sharing Passion Passion. “People going with the tide cannot be creative.” Professor Eo-Ryeong Eo Lee Able to Discover? Really want to Discover? Why do you want to? Invest in People > Project Changemakers are people, not project. Creative De estruction of Functional Fixedness Thank you. Ji-Hong Yeom Passion Designer, Passion Design If I popped the question, “Who here think they are creative?” how many people would raise their hands? I hope many would fill up the air since we are gathered here to find and nurture people with social entrepreneurship who will resolve social issues in a creative manner. However, many would be hesitant. Rather than raising their hands, they would look around to see who does. Koreans do not call themselves creative, because we believe ‘being creative’ is a compliment given to others, not to ourselves. Of course, an idea in one’s mind is not referred as creativity. It is revealed only when one sees a potential or when others acknowledge it. Yet, if we ask children whether they are creative or not, most of them would cry out “Yes!” However, as we climb up the ladder from elementary, middle to high school, as we become adults, we lose creativity. And we get to a point when we really have to search for creativity like an oasis in the desert. Now, the world wants creative people. Where are those infinite creative ideas that we once had when we were young? What drove them away? Why do we bring up Steve Jobs who lives on the other planet when we talk about creativity? Korean society enforces functional limitations on young Koreans. We urge them to live certain way because they are university students or high school students, because they are Korean or they belong to certain relationship. We do not offer them a chance to raise their voices as a member of the society, but we push them to live in a certain way. Therefore, creativity derived from free imagination and inexorable challenges diminish as time goes by. It is time for a change. Thus I would like to propose creative destruction of functional fixedness. Creative destruction is not recklessly destroying everything and making them useless. It is critical to discover the presence of functional limitations and necessity to change. First, one needs to understand the fact that they are in a box. Then, they should observe the shape of the box: whether it is a square, a hexangular or even more complicated figure. The opening could be at the top or the bottom or on either sides. Once the examination has been completed, the next step is to break it down. However, burning or tearing is not creative destruction. If you acknowledge the presence of the box, you could use it to take notes or just simply fold them up or even color them. The box is no longer the object that walled you in the past. The shape is gone, but it has been destroyed in a creative manner for a better cause. This is the most important yet the hardest and time consuming process. And it is the most fearful for everyone. Some may question, why do we have to imagine the outer world of the box, the unknown territory. Why do we have to destroy the box. Why can’t we just live with what we see inside the box. However, there are people waiting for you outside the box. Certainly, there will be people welcoming you when you bring yourself out from the box. It was hard for me to break free from the box. My major was Persian Language which has no relation to my current work. I spent two years in the unbreakable military box and in the past ten years, I worked for more than 18,000 hours to do pizza business. Looking back, all these enjoyable, but not always joyful experiences were the box that surrounded me. And this box also helped me grow and protected me like egg shells protect an embryo. Finally one day, I freed myself from the box and announced myself as a Passion Designer. I did not name myself as a Passion Designer for I had certain business plan in my mind. After reading Tom Peter’s book, “Brand You” I just wanted to follow his footsteps. At that moment, I found freedom. I was free to name myself and be called by that name. I was no longer Jihong Yeom, a university student. I found what I wanted to do as I discovered my talents through experiences from the past. It took four years to complete 21 notebooks and 120 newsletters to share the process of freeing myself, which could not have been possible without numerous empty ink bottles. In addition, I laid my hands on books which would raise questions. After all these efforts, I was really able to see something. Year 2010 gave me another title, inventor after I made wire hanger bookstand. I named it as a ‘Bookstandup’. I just grabbed the hanger sitting next to me in order to enjoy my book more comfortably. I believe I was able to draw people’s interest because I did not cut or destroy the hanger. The video on Youtube which easily explained the making of Bookstandup encouraged people to get their hands on the hanger. This video clip spread out continuously and caught media’s attention. The hanger lost its functional limitation as a hanger, but earned a new life as a bookstand. Someone even said it was a long life and green design. I learned people liked this idea and they further developed the idea. They found new places and methods to use the Bookstandup. It was a bookstand on my desk, but others placed lap tops and picture frames on it. It is used in the libraries and elementary school classes for students to put their textbooks. It brought positive influence to people reading books in a healthier manner without bending one’s neck. Almost 300,000 hits and among them, I believe 10,000 people gave a try and are successfully using them. I am confident, there would be a huge change if students from all around the world made their own book standup and used them in class. I am preparing a campaign called ‘Leave it open, Read it often’ to spread Bookstandup idea and reading culture. It brought new opportunities. It provided breakthroughs in pursuing my other projects including Yellow Card Project preventing pedestrian accidents with carrying reflective card accessories on the school backpack and Let’s Coin Project promoting use of stocked coins and helping both merchant and consumer have chance of donation. It is a CSR(Corporate Social Responsibility) project and also CSR(Consumer Sharing Responsibility) project. Social entrepreneurship is not solely about job creation. I believe I am here today because I broke out of the box in a creative manner and people recognized that. It is definitely a great joy to find creative ideas which will bring positive influence to the world and making improvements, but there are many challenges you must endure. Nevertheless, social entrepreneurship is about persistent passion. There are a great number of young Koreans with social entrepreneurship. There are some around me, uninvited to this event, or not even aware of this event, but somewhere they will think of new ideas and experiment with them. It is our job to find them and give them strength. Some may say creative social entrepreneurs’ trials are odd and strange. I know, because some said that to me. The important thing here is that they are the people freeing themselves from their box. And they will be the hearty ones who will help you to come out of the box. I believe people with this kind of energy will change the world. Professor EoRyeong Lee said, “People going with the tide cannot be creative.” If we set boundaries for social entrepreneurs and search for those type of people and nurture them, failure would be the only option. We need to see beyond the boundaries, in a creative manner. Creative people with social entrepreneurship usually have a tendency to put themselves on the boundaries. They do not thrust themselves into the group they belong to, but they are not really ignorant either. Good-natured social entrepreneurs with warm eyes and pure hearts would be out there near us rendering efforts. If you find that person, then I urge you to invest in that person not the projects. The person’s work may not seems to be outstanding or have special impacts, but it could be part of a big picture. Maybe we are wearing glasses that prevent us from seeing that picture. If we acknowledge the fact we are unable to see the big picture, if we have spotted the potential in another person, then we need to fully trust and support them. That conviction will be a great help to social entrepreneurs and bring new innovations. 2. Opening an Introductory Course An introductory course titled “Understanding Social Enterprises” was offered in the spring semester of 2010. The goal was to help prospective change-makers to have initial exposure to social entrepreneurship. The course was structured with reference to Bloom’s SE Collaboratory(Bloom, 2006). Accordingly, the following methods and materials were weaved into syllabus: Textbooks • Arthur C. Brooks, Social Entrepreneurship – A Modern Approach to Social Value Creation, Pearson, 2009 (Korean Translation by 함께 일하는 재단) • David Bornstein, How to Change the World – Social Entrepreneurs and the Power of New Ideas, Penguin Books, 2005 (Korean Translation by 박금자 등) • Muhammad Yunus, Creating a World Without Poverty, Public Affairs, 2008 (Korean Translation by 김태훈) • 김정원, 사회적기업이란 무엇인가?, 아르케, 2009 (Selected Chapters). Videos and Photo • Aravind Hospital, Veja (MBC Production) • Grameen Bank, 적절한 기술 (EBS) • Pura Vida Coffee (Harvard Business School) • Fabio Josa (PBS) • Kevin Carter, “Sudan Child,” Pulitzer Prize Winning Photo, 1994 • Muhammad Yunus, Nobel Peace Prize Winner’s Speech, 2006 Papers (Abridged) • Dees, J. G., “The Meaning of Social Entrepreneurship,” Working Paper, CASE, Duke University, 1998 • Guclu, A., J. G. Dees, , and B. B. Anderson, “The Process of Social Entrepreneurship: Creating Opportunities Worthy of Serious Pursuit”, Working Paper, CASE, Duke University, 2002 Invited Speakers (Hosted by Division of Global Service) • Ahn, Chul-Soo, Professor, KAIST • Lee, Chul-Young, Chairperson, ARK Private Fund • Park, Chul-Soon, 희망제작소 상임이사 Presentations • Case Write-ups (by teams) • New Ideas Development (by teams) 3. Impact Assessment To assess the impact of the course, an in-class survey was conducted around 70 percent through the semester. The sample size is 38 out of 50 registered students, juniors or seniors, and most of them are majoring in business. The reasons why they took the course were asked to rate, and the followings had scores ranging from 3.5 to 3.9 on the 5-point scale: • “Recognizing social issues” (3.5 points) • “Understanding social enterprises” (3.8 points) • “Due to a preference on professor” (3.9 points) • “Fulfilling requirements on credits taken” (3.6 points) However, “Getting a job or starting a social enterprise” had the lowest score (2.7 points), which might reflect their initial interests in the area. Reasons for Taking the Course Recognizing Social Issues Understanding SE Getting Job/Starting SE Preference on Professor Fulfilling Requirement 0 5 10 15 20 25 More than half of the students (63%) had awareness about social enterprises before taking the class. Their sources of the information include mass media (43%), other courses (25%), friends (18%), books (11%), and miscellaneous (3%). SE Awareness Before Class 26% (10) 11% (4) Yes(24) 63% (24) Sources of Information 18% (5) 3% (1) 11% (3) No(10) Mass Media(12) 43% (12) 25% (7) Other Courses(7) Friends(5) Books(3) Not Remember(4) Miscellaneous(1) Most students (76%) found cases/stories most helpful to understand SE with team projects, theories, and invited speakers to follow. Overall, student satisfaction scored about 4.1 points on the 5 point scale without any negative negative-tone responses. In addition, almost all of them agreed to the necessity of SE classes: “Strongly Strongly agree agree” accounts for 58% of the responses and “agree” for 37%. 76% of the respondents replied positively to the intention to take more SE classes such as Social Enterprise Launching/Operations Launching/Operations. Helpful Methods to Understand SE 5% 3% 3% (1) 13% (2) (1) (5) 76% (29) Student Satisfaction 14% (5) Cases/Stories(29) Team Projects(5) 27% (10) 59% (22) Theories(2) Invited Speakers(1) Others(1) Strongly Agree(10) Agree(22) Neutral(5) Disagree(0) Strongly Disagree(0) Intention to Take More SE Classes Necessity of SE Classes (Social Enterprise Launching/Operations) 37% (14) 5% (2) Strongly Agree(22) 58% (22) Agree(14) Neutral(2) Disagree(0) Strongly Disagree(0) 18% (7) 5% (2) 19% (7) 58% (22) Strongly Agree(7) Agree(22) Neutral(7) Disagree(2) Strongly Disagree(0) The respondents recommended to maintain cases/stories (especially videos), the course, team project, and invited speakers in a decreasing order of frequency (19, 4, 4, 2 responses, respectively).. On the other hand, they demanded more organized deliveries of th theory (4 responses),, more detailed case information and domestic stories (4 responses) responses), and enough time for team activities (3 responses) responses). They became interested in various social issues spanning from child-caring, caring, the handicapped, the elderly, education, e employment, and multi-cultural cultural problems, to reunification, to environment. Requests for Improvement Team Project Recommendations 2 Invited Speakers 3 Cases/Stories Team Project 4 The Course 4 4 Theories 4 0 2 4 19 Cases/Stories 6 0 5 10 15 20 Comparisons of attitudes before and after taking the course revealed that the students became more proactive in the area. For example, the level of interests in SE improved by 34.6%, the awareness of social problems by 25.1%, the willingness of social cont contribution ribution by 16.8%, and the emphasis of social value over economic value by 20.5%. Attention should be given to increases in their intention to get a job, or start a social enterprise (31.2% and 26.1%, respectively): The respondents started weak with these attitudes (2.76 points and 2.68 points, respectively) respectively), but were getting stronger (3.62 points and 3.38 points, respectively) respectively). Overall, the rates of improvements are comparable to the other attitudes, but the resulting levels stay behind. Comparisons of Attitudes 5 4 3 2 1 0 Before After 4. Concluding Remarks Did this class breed social entrepreneurship to these undergraduate business students? Rather, the survey results are conclusive enough? It does not seem that way. Now, it is unknown how successful this course has been, and probably will stay that way even after the completion of the course. However, some good signs are evident as mentioned above: The students appear to build up stronger intention to get involved with SE by taking more classes and, more importantly, seeking a job in the area. Also, in-class teams have been seriously elaborating new business ideas. Among the most promising ideas is a plan to provide learning materials to the blind at reasonable prices, which is a variant of Bookshare.org in the USA. Students in the team have shown sincere interests and enthusiasm. This seems to be the beginning of remarkable moves at Sookmyung.
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