THE How CROP ICE to Harvest,Store,Shipand Use Ice A COMPLETE PRACTICAL TREATISE FOR ICE DAIRYMEN, FARMERS, PACKERS, COLD AND STORERS, COLD HOUSES, OR PRODUCE DEALERS, ALL STORAGE USE AND ICE OF IN SHIPPERS, INTERESTED THE ANY IN MEA1 ICE HANDLING WAY INCLUDING Many Recipesfor BY Iced Dishes and THE^O^T L. NEW ORANGE MILES YORK JUDD 1893 COMPANY Beverages COPYRIGHT, BY ORANGE 1892, JUDD COMPANY PREFACE. and convenience has years by No made which of the people. of the ice industry of of this are are, book. will interested of in ILL., WINTER, 256250 5 ords rec- character, practical it this few forty gauged. with meet the health, last but however, But the the during a of some it affects as THERON CHICAGO, record to accurately those than collected who there be can other behalf those ; progress here information approval its pretentious, in Ice regarding phenomenal been volume, this industry development The in made, features prominent more are is attempt An is that hoped the favor commodity. L. HILES. the and OF TABLE CONTENTS. Page. 2 Frontispiece* 3 Page Title 5 Preface I, Chapter II, Chapter III, Cutting Chapter IV, Construction Chapter V, Chapter VI, and Legal Sanitary and The Use for Quantities Small with the Artificial Chapter VII, Chapter VIII, Chapter IX, Ice in Use for in 11-14 Ice \4-22 and Ice of Methods Ice Houses Marketing of Commercial Handling House Ice Storing of Care, The 7-11 Sketch Historical An Chapter Refrigeration in Ice Crop Ice and Use, Family and Ice 56-62 tor Refrigera- Cutting Farming, Farm " 42-55 Ice in eration Co-op62-83 Air Cold 84-91 Machines 91-96 Transportation Retarding ous Miscellane- Ice Without Houses " 96-101 Hints Chapter of List X, for Recipes Iced and Food Beverages 115-116 Illustrations ..117-122 Index.. * The Chicago. 101-114 Frontispiece is from the ice harvest of the Knickerbocker Ice Co. of THE CROP. ICE I. CHAPTER HISTORICAL AN the of Origin The Ice of Prior ice, in secured Ice to this at Picture Pen In the the a Modern winter and the West States" Its in Manifold and Ice regularly no Mass., to of was country. Boston, United the Commercially 1805, there despatched was of the Harvest. conducted 1805-6, in traffic supply a following summer where yellow Indies, derful Won- a was cargo fever was raging. then DOMESTIC growth, in and, thousand world. Cargoes West and the and Australia. THE the Rio Indies TRADE of fame of London, its Mass., 1806, and who whose 7 United less the ice Boston Calcutta, height States than fifty the sumption con- of enterprise all around the to slow very following, years Janerio, reached Boston, in to of the rapidly, and more de in probably was thirty consigned Indies, Tudor, West the were EXPORT Frederick the both were consumed ports increased carried shippers ice foreign During ice TRADE 1825, the to tons. of the EXPORT AND exported and to A " in Business Development Uses SKETCH. East China, about shipped enterprise this the the Indies, Japan, time. first cargo had carried 8 TFE titled the was ships to "0i the ports Ta.eaJio.Tied, his Not many began supply the demand to is tons in date, 1855, dollars MANY NEW on the demand of the the during the Meat succeeding Government their the for ice growing stimulated a a taste the town support in the During brewers, who in on earlier of the continuously,with ice war large purchaser, a The influence mer, sum- the aid agent for immensely an the fisheries consumed many and creams for luxuries,in retailingof representativeof in the South drinks, together cities and our ice until, at this village,where or cooled ice the which time, there is privilegesexist,that does ice trade, and are towns, there are few not furnished say that,at this time, the with one or artificial ice factories. more THE USE OF ICE." It is safe to users of entire population of the United ice, directlyor DEVELOPMENT methods and and in the growth now indirectly, conveniences the construction of the for of tools and may demand. gathered all of The under which product. one are of made progress the in the securing the natural Now, a one modern manufacture comprise vessels,cars, upward nearly ice crop, storage houses, has kept pace with and saws Originally,axes prised com- appliances,whose houses, where include States. METHODS." OF the dealers' outfit. this million seven marked a years. was avocation packers found demand large towns and at this tons. The not or the million Two ice stored six exerted hospital service. pursued thousand hardly of States, with augmenting their product, while has ceased. soon suspended operations during the heat now with tropicalclimes, and amount for ice have USES of the days, had the King." capital. Rebellion, ice. United the invested of account of liberal estimate a product Ice " refrigerator machines for ice in natural the and this, ice after years importations of of CHOP. ICE is wagons, hundred plant is repletewith a distinct immense thousand tons roof, also city supply depots and equipped with special regard to calling, storage of ice are wharfs, handling AK EXTENT OF of natural and this the HISTOKICAL ICE THE the used, of tons The in the each temporary, is afforded and It is been of use which travelers This ice. to Fish, of are has been Many upon eminent the of a in within been extinct has and and is sea as a among their for ages, the and native kept during and for mutton established of many custom. ice,and, shipped the purposes human family. approval ation agent, and also for the alleviSo highly did they of hospitalshad patients. The the in ice, private stores of directors credited sylvania of the Penn- being pioneer ice dealers of that city,as in the early years of the may be trade esteem with hospitalat Philadelphia the of us large blocks commercial to of use an and doctors managers accounts given laid the seal of their the sick. sufferingamong the appearance. benefit remedial long best illustration of some beef of cakes general introduction ice for is supplies of flesh for food. handsome physicians have and annual ICE have have frozen frozen now very OF is found it that,prior to the many world's The of these incalculable an and constant decay. of ice for domestic of ice use from in the center present of the POWERS preserved that land over frozen property less this country, which transportation of fresh Fresh This is not ninety thousand Europe and Asia use are eggs of miles in this way, of in huge mammoths thousands fish half ANTISEPTIC they been the and months, they horses. species of animal and to about consumed keep food occasionally make meat by twenty million this business on in this direction perfectlyhave tribes in which Employment, than in Northern the discoveries so OR its powers of performed to industry. PRESERVING made work to exceed carrying more procured and of this home THE of in twenty-five thousand is great. By adding industries by the ice trade probable that supply the various consumption year. capitalinvested persons annual ice,of the twenty-eight million dollars. than ice of total is estimated grand ice used The ice is very tons refrigeratormachines, are INDUSTRY." manufactured equivalent, in 9 SKETCH. 10 CEOP. ICE THE century they disposed of their surplus stores of ice by sale in community. that localities which Many ice trade at are in the medical fraternityfor ice for hygienic purposes. PICTURE PEN OF Viewed " engaging eminence an brilliant leaves. The broad stretches away to the The deserted. quiet and attack brink the Stepping to scene breaks upon huge ice house, its shore entire front, with top of the the is discovered out and closer with which and into the out becomes strange is All loads of open around snow seen an on the with denotes the shore, a hill stands to the seen distant teams a galleriesalong the the water or to runway and at the foot dark line, which scene, little distance of the incline clear white the a of branches surface. men A armed great vigor, fields of ice, surface, and on which water, already stripped of its frozen are new Alongside of the incline animated main a display of treasure. tool-room, attacking,with from a the foot of the a still, plain ; its connecting bridge a large blot a and nature extending from ways emerald against the horizon. near dwellings. From lake weapons they detach the hill side serried inspection reveals navigate At power-house and a large barns leading the view. house, and and view, presents aspect of by man the of inclined joyous spring bold of outline, but and gallery and the incline. each between field in the of and trees unbroken lost to clear cut out Nothing the invites activityor until away by shore stands near with when level and outline of forest and delicatelytraced farmhouse snug a lake, ice-locked a the draperiesof spotlesswhite beauty or distance, dwindling shore farther stream in sunlight flooding the fragrant blossoms boughs with pretty and a house ice an there downy pearls,their vernal their clothed has soft shore, surrounded hills, and the shrubs, rivaling,in their and and here quiet landscape discloses among at clear The country, during the harvest. sheltered the on presented is often scene piece,) (See Frontis- HARVEST. ICE MODERN A from one the dependent upon time centers were important now and horses shores, plows and drawing markers, they tals. crys- huge cross- LEGAL ing and AND SANITARY recrossing the cleared surface, and blocks, which are being floated incline,where the puffing engine imparts gliding,endless whisk them as chains, which away though they travelingof the up their catch and endowed with Ice sold New for any is crop to and uses sanitary condition the of obtained. are water, must, in injure ice or prohibition of ice boards some In of enactment destroy to ice canal has led to the cooling purposes. protected by misdemeanor itary San- the from cut and Fields. supplies of natural in this direction than other were and specifiedpolluted waters, by cutting on and labeled. so Agitation life-motion Artificial Ice Ponds " of Ice Ponds whence for domestic York, be waiting cakes and MATTERS. being given now from sources swiftly II. Points Care the to into the ice house, looking SANITARY AND Privilegesand Legal is the to volition. own LEGAL Attention channels motion the up CHAPTER Ice long lines of ice along the incline were 11 MATTERS. several laws in the of health, States the ice which make field where it a it is to be cut. No and doubt lakes the will receive becomes knowledge LAKES FED risen preservation of BY in very of oxygen, for value the motion office. Foreign substances process of freezing,and streams our future, as having clean SPRINGS, and ice with of are streams cutting a rapidly. Exposure and of sanitary widely diffused. more streams, especially those waters purity in the care more the to beds, have urally nat- Running purposes. rapid current, purify their light and air, the influence the water, all assist in this expelled from the good ice in the of this character, not polluted 12 ICE THE packing houses, rights ice cutting way, navigable waters divided are the in this limited are secured by pre-emption, the entitled to cut fields,where the front held Ice given abutting On all and claims is being boundaries over the denote to ice is free out on ment. govern- high tides. to stake one of ice dealer whose ice erty prop- preference. navigable streams under to extend the the water ownership to above commerce, navigation and precedence. The rights to this ice The to water front line and all the WHERE submerged property should DAMS line is raised land rightsthat thus are tide water guarded are the above channel, it. take contract sold,and all deeds forth and Public however, the boundary reserved. streams across of subjectto also be may clearlyset BUILT ARE center ice formed for sale. the of the convenience and classes. public. The boundary line of abuttingproperty is includes and general a of the owners line at first is Rivers, small lakes and termed legal rights instance, being used issue is in doubt, the the the of contention authority of the national In contentions ice. the water forms are into two the water to bone a of waters, navigation being closed, the such factories, expensive litigation.In proprietaryrights of water, the property has been knowledge a is under "Navigable," tide FIELDS saved have would involved ICE OF instances, where in many products from works, etc., produce ice of great purity. gas OWNERSHIP THE waste of sewerage, by the presence CROP. and the water property beyond the limits of that held by the of the dam, consent owner must be obtained from the holders of property thus affected. There are excellent ice weeds. in forms In such be seen the of some at water best our lands bed brooks which in the for ice or expense. vicinityof ponds, fed as such by make tage Advanstreams. it is free from lakes,occurringin districts abounding is pure and sweet great depths. Springs are localities. are spring lakes,which little labor very of low and in source with fields, gravel, the can their be taken may creeks numerous have springs, or Gravel on and the gravelly bed usuallynumerous in LEGAL The in situations. the current proportions quantity of water largest amount If the soil is dig a in side drive a rammed down and stones covered The with Behind this formed of the with is gravel the near the on The sloping clay bolted pond side, should on is filled with crib is banked front face, sur- pond and logs notched plank flood. of fill in with paling sub-paling. This is the dam provided with with up earth sluiceway large a off flood waters, and, at the bottom, in bedded gives cement carries off sediment. which the season a bottom, and hard a and rip-rap. of to carry well seam the boards, breaking jointsand sand. or a faced or of rear center enough crib A clay to dam. lined the at or of stout down. set box of the together,and and light loam, row toward them during fixing Also pond the likelyto be received trench a into usually running in dams. of construction and force of the and into account to be taken are employed be can pond the depth of of the stream the upon preparing dams of The 13 MATTERS. SANITARY following methods some be AND gases, which, arisingfrom the ice. Some should always in bottom air air bubbles in the over pass a taking off form bottom, the the on It is also useful and water current a pipe or a upper sluiceway. Dams Their and stone. with increased of dams space and bolt be may from a formed stringersalong the top edges their height, current has to by driving and dam, clay. Break withTammed of earth less than pressure line of the the across embankment an be not where thickness plank inclosed should base Shallow be resisted. rows entirelyof be formed may two fillingin the jointsin the planking, to bind them firmly together. IN THE COURSE the old one, CHANGING deeper than Straightening or Food a welcome fish,which addition the can a farm cut STREAMS, to insure changing improve the topography of OF the current of course and the a nel chan- following it. stream drain wet new or will marsh often land. readilybe raised in these ponds, forms to the family larder. 14 PURITY THE should on be Stables which caught by in the will accumulate with removed and screens Harvest Their Remedy to Thickness of Ice Closing it " and up of Snow be they or ICE. Sudden " and Tools " of Ice Tools Care " time, to Preparing the Damage litter, current, should time STORING AND Rid Getting " be situated not III. of Ice Formation" Science The or injure it. CHAPTER CUTTING ponds into them dumped the from and pond fish Vegetable refuse and down brought be may be ice and cesspools should and they will drain into them. where feed filth should No preserved. banks. their which BROOKS OF CROP. ICE THE Ice Field Thaws for the and Used Implements Fillingthe Ice " Caring for It Ice Shipping " How " House from the Field. the advent With plant this time, determines the and lot of the water, whistle over surface into waves, the a is all ice The As dealer. water is cooled, it is place being taken beneath. is change reaches the at 39|" F. by expansion than as the cold now breezes mass Below as it grows water ing rapidly transform- Gradually the heat fast as sinks to the and warmer expands longer sinks the As air. condensed, and by the 31" F., water no into Gradually the entire density, weather stirringit into ripples,and breaking its wonderful is radiated water distant no preliminariesrelatingto the complex features. the at to given attention been has water is directed hoped for liquidpearls into flintydiamonds. in the water harvest together with in its various its a of purification The before sharp freeze, attention a which the ice field,from day. of lighter reaches this the the bottom, its water Now Upon until it the surface colder, being rendered beneath. from mum point of maxi- temperature, it is cooled. surface lighter reaching 32", CUTTING convection, the form. CARE OF the ice the of care ICE FIELD. THE in the care. If the ice is higher levels ice hinder was an ice field,and the travel over in the air is along the roadway than lakes inclosed water Agitation of the from ice ponds and Too weather. usually clearer beneficial it is and more to the landlocked during ice-making will retard the entire field over cloudy. growth, produces the results. best growth should The attention and other based the ice is air ; hence of the current, however, a induced materially. The outlet afforded An is often diffused gentle motion a is lake ice. rapid opened current this is done, the streams lakes been has during freezing,if opportunity assists the escape or sufficiently places on the field. ice the to cial. jarring, is benefi- gentle a the keen considerable,the ice at other growth of Unless water pond the ice is it and is necessary roadway ponds, water running brilliant than and the from for it to do" so. is found that the promotes expelled mill or with Sticks damage other or a thicker On surface, that where been studies possiblepollution in the water found It has to develop special and ice,and, when the heavy, traveling over energies of the field. the work Motion of the promote the growth across the surface cutting tools. of the the is carefullyguarded against, and also be from in the bedded edges will his alert dealer the assumes until the crop devotes running stream, a removed all rubbish stones on surface Special situations requirements, which and the this time From ice dealer ice field. 15 ICE. place, and " the house, duties of its STORING freezing,takes or solid stored AND general effects,and lower, temperature radiate The heat through the growth the at the ice,if it water. is the the The different of the at the at first made same, sides of heat rays of the water motion, applied. As and clear, into the ditions, con- atmospheric influences localitywhere which bottom under regulation is slower that than earth into to results at the ice thickens, its rapidly. carefully noted being given ascertained on be the or even a ice very ice field sun below, with pass very 16 in It shuts growth. conditions, these heat, is, under ice,being The the ice itself. little effect upon of CROP. ICE THE the the On running passing In the shallows over remains water its points in thin rapidly, a very the air at such and the turning produce clear and gases, is found than and exposed still on to the in view crop earliest at the sun, aid and snow. the the The ice ice ice is white, being from the depth of At soon as quality snow the on top oped anything envel- water, of the the endeavors rain, and well cold ice harvester as air, and to remove has to great a as It is essential of the ice. the very of the of is snow the of event rain a and snow as in of water action direct or the is known, ice field is from heat by protecting force vicinity, same always his secure practicable moment. however, to erate gen- ness greater thick- of it is well as an on practicable,as as possible thaw a Snow, an early as snow from which sources of frost into snow the greatly retards the growth this Snow, " of escape ice from the protecting grows free are in the lakes or inroads to the to the impediment ponds covering of A by it. other or sparkling ice SNOW. OF great impediment bling tum- temperature. same USEFULNESS THE a vegetable mold, of accumulations The current beds this character, whose of Streams gentle. perceptible in the where points below ice at of growth heat rapid shoals materially assists at of the water these At rapid radiation. to the places, owing swift, air and being often mist or vapor air. the to its accumulated parts with, it is the current exposed and modified. much are rapids,where or open course conditions these streams, cooler the heat. and air of escape own by passing breezes, and air, prevents agitation of its surface retards its to with contact from water obstacle an conductor poor a it from the weather the crop, snow top turns and the of warm weather, direct heat the cold in the ice freezes into This air, and the it merges snow detracts depending of water, and ice, where of is melting the again. filled with its thickness field,amount this or largely expended on porous soft on the ture. temperainto the 18 THE SNOW ICE CROP. FIG 2. FIG. 3. FIG. 4. SCOOP SCRAPERS. CUTTING windrows These made the snow shore, or sink the dump to selected points are will from main the keeps the will assist in are constructed with great deep, will A soon deep groove loosening the dump, scrapers scoop nicely adapted the to of the ice harvester. needs SUDDEN A forming, is during the winter, while THAW an the from water washed If only weather inch of water two or cold, it will left be can and, if accompanied and dirty and top of the field on an turns it ice, making standing Water Sand hills. is ice crop the by being flooded with suffer often surrounding to the on ice dealer, the to annoyance by rain, the field will ice. and care, the ice snow cracks of these Some carry weight of the The body of ice. off the field. water the points, and scrapers where from the field. being and windrows the large, and ice at these the field,not point. Scoop distance a on plowed alongside of the dump and the over up field is very If the cut. dumping loosen gather off to the is to be snow which 19 ICE. to sink the ice at any employed, now distributed are large enough are STOKING AND earth be may injuring its quality. soon comb is the field and on freeze to and rot the and the then be planed off. it is If the water, ice, if being heavier it has top, ice, but yet by splittingout chance will show for escape a white axe and should Tapping It forms raise have without of a the delay. good quality layer which is solidlya part of it,and barring off. the Ice expels bottom, and as the it has streak. the water wanted, the sink places ; through the ice beneath, the top layer tapping the field the If of number ice is not the is not in a removed water freezing principallytoward air while used. on doing. so the freezes to the old gives trouble For of in ice, will the part of the ice below. is not attached no opportunity if the water and readily handled, by cutting holes than attention, and prompt Even be can ice, or tapping the ice field the through deep it will is auger accumulating be found the and the tapping rapidly and more axe are despatch rapid-working is tool. "0 THE The in better shape THE often " OUTFIT FOR HARVESTING." any of handling ice in with field the on the reader as partialor FIG. 6. 5. ICE credit the entire is to machinery imposed on The the is than has from sufficient to meet to the far north devel- of AXE. at the command warm weather placed advent of ing dur- celerity in all departments, utmost and energy No when who Enterprise pays the in snow is be warranted ice crop is the in succeeds beneficent this,as in the strain extra and any field is partial the burden securing supplies his customers, and a with practically familiar requirements of for this most Having removed home the not one, ice dealer the to managerial abilityof the ice readily understand the as of the ice TAPPING generally supposed seasons failure. can fecting per- handled, of duties 7. FIG. splendid business, nature. devoted ket. mar- is secured. harvester, during or for the AUGER. demands harvest More to been the round MEASURE. if the crop due through gone the ice crop which follows in Delays during harvesting study have enterprisingice dealer. the operations some opment of tools and the great value emergencies the crop is only saved complete loss by the despatch which modern In harvester. FIG. is of getting ice prepared of paraphernalia by appear Time house. much and care the will the in or field the leaves desideratum. the various the cost greatly increase Great important an and work, neater makes however, auger, CEOP. ICE useful by going product of business. carefullyinspected, CUTTING and quality and The field is bored thickness the thickness. ice noted the with The If the fills the hole. methods Two ice is too this doing into chips with the It with the ice and the elevator ice cakes chain 8. FIELD is not elevator the depth of planer follows snow THICKNESS an or the OF plowed ICE. be ice, as it the exigencies of the be of fourteen The In or and the ; this the the by the to the ice snow ice. refuse ice is desired being practice, the shipped from season the ice chain plowed removed. inches ice hollse. removed cutting off grooves, incline, on the and the as endless the endless Generally speaking, " is stored the ient conven- of thickness water, varies with average thickness formed locality^ at the latitude In the is often ; in in inch, Wisconsin, the through At thickness. a any found pages of block of Lake a Chicago in in Ohio six-inch ice and Omaha, ten Minnesota, twenty and cut where stored ice forms this Chicago country. newspaper on Lake rior, Supe- in purity equal The has inch. ordinary been easily Superior ice twenty-nine inches Winnipeg, Manitoba, Such ice thick of and thick, has been Northern Southern and Maine, sixteen printingon thick. Central vicinity brilliancy to read of stored; in the Ice, thirty inches and the it is to to subsequent handling. for inch ice sap thickness average into by away planer up left be can elevator field is first laid out ice planer, the field When employed. pass way wherever use wards after- scrapers cut ice ice their is in first method The at PLANER. it or ; the on chips being scoops on be cut can planer cleared and water be removed. ice field,the FIG. and bottom snow of appearance available. are parts. indicates measure it must heavy all in the the reaches auger the and is withdrawn snow for broken loose and and the ice auger, the 21 ICE. the ice ascertained of auger before STOKING AND ice keeps the is cut year forty inches through. in FIG. 9. MARKER, FIG. FIG. 11. CHOP. ICE THE 10. SWING WITH SWING FIELD PLOW. GUIDE GUIDE. PLOWS. CUTTING LAYING and OUT mapped places where surface, are Thin rocks marked for holes at such ice, formed of Like sand or where in venturing this has been and not and line must is The strong, in calculating best ice in the the of his favor his strategy is where the house. The on streams where always be secured the of the shore as not it will lay support for the for field will house, the out lay in are of the note so can ice is needed refuse be overlooked, not If he the impede the ice floating toward shore ting, cut- during takes prevailing winds for Room reward. in them. give warning ice harvester assist to float the ice toward without is it. upon the current method removed to physical advantages of his position. field that to the near convenient A manner, good general, the a approach plant pieces of brush ice the inspected places,air holes, or bars avoidance. places,and is also marked danger the ice field is As FIELD." 23 ICE. plowing, all unsound for shallow to bore ICE THE out STORING AND rent cur- ice. prime a consideration. Quality these of days from not be close impure to given directlyor or first the always be of ice competition, pure ice business. in the cut should Ice, for contaminated allied Natural ice from much care cess suc- be can ice for all uses, curing food or is crystal water pure never healthful preserving to for should Too water. securing clean, pure, remotely is necessary purpose, any in importance, and, of one ducts. pro- nature's purest productions. Having operation,the first task the either end of The them. a board line hand marker is lay are line, and a plow is used out end for is unlatched are and Stakes are drawn laying now runs out for the the first hand set in the hand along on at between taut ing line, mak- Sometimes end. to which planted passed alongside the now plan of lines from base the heavy cord cheap substitute horse marker the determined and gauged. ice from the a is to plowing sights is with guide the in score teeth of the the and marking field the over gone a long line, and plow. plow The groove top of the ice. a Care ; 24 THE FIG. FIG. FIG. ICE CHOP. 12. HAND PLOW. 13. PLOW ROPE. 14. LINE MARKER. 26 posts at their sides of the the ice, a under ears ice, and the no trouble will cross strut raising out of its place. The ice to float beneath, and the struts,with and secured 15. the will FOR They float in the sides the cakes, tried. them across shown in is to portion When groove away is the the is the the their when the shows. square channel CURRENT. frames may be where the ice sides should not project into cracks in with take fill mortices the path of in and the surface. ice, and ice have the long planks on firmly held, inclined extend By boring inserting wooden and the cracks opposite directions pins, will a freeze firm hold ice. channel plowed with are the flat laying the loosened on in the ice. strong support is SWIFT strong, dealing one planks into pins very of Fig. 16. of good a WITH so into braces, and the following cut channel, and the cracks is secured the posts, which cut as placed are the A If the the to recesses the CHANNEL through the up. just allow place is not methods been should in through freely ; of as Various current, current in around frozen BRACES the employed. projecting given by the post be secured planted poured posts are Where cake be against FIG. feet their should braces be well the bring through braces, joining the posts opposite the ends require inclined Water post will the inserted When ends. lower of turn quarter CHOP. ICE THE at has either pond ice been located, if convenient, side, and saws. the remaining Splitting chisels a deep ice is cut are now CUTTING which cakes, the through in the section with calked is and selected, the the to calking bar requisition,and is sawed are into at several 16. a containing float,and with the thickness the favorite made on the are Canals field is stowing that the the ice cut top, and the first float cut pinching or binding The they are floats are floated one is the sides away. a are ends of at the groove another or work. this to the first cuts If the away A thousand one or for this work size of with little wider section the bar the on floats. being saws are the bottom parallel,it will facilitate getting By sinking the float at the sides is splitinto near The saws the at tools used and ice Ice ning run- CURRENT. for The water often used, the two-prong most heavy ice. on back. hundred one of the is used. grooves SLOW FOR BRACE prevent the points with ^barring off tools provided fork bars than the to the through struck now a cakes, is readily split off. The ice. carefully double grooves plowing, into called vary the for of into split up ice cakes brought the more under supply purpose FIG. out a is The this back so to furnish chips, from section of channel similarlyopened. For in. the in the house. A now are 27 ICE. floated and field plowed in readiness now sunk are STORING ice the play, and into brought AND rows to the channel a little all prevented. of single or leadingto double cakes, the incline. as As THE FIG. 17. FIG. FIG. FIG. BEST 18. 19. ICE CAST STEEL TWO-PRONG THREE-PRONG 20. FOUR-PRONG FIG. 21. FIG. CROP. 22. CALKING BREAKING ICE FORK FORK FORK BAR BAR. SAWS. BAR. EAR. BAR. CUTTING the a long rows bridge few One In splittrue and splitmust be trimmed duty is in are No closed Cakes not they reach the ice to be can smoothly incline, and the broken smaller ones to the around hard to deal is must be cleared HOUSING variations into up single wholly less either worth- are night to serve it prevent delay incident the THE in the and always needed " methods ice, new the sides of the ice and be sunk the cakes damaged under nets scoop or is attended The channels It eludes field is There of nels. chan- kept clear of the channel is sieve with are filled with net little delay room on for of out as A fort discom- much and buried the shovels. the scoop at all ice, and their as employed the cakes, making soon scraped with ICE. from trimmed the on connecting web a the floats and The with. may harvest laborious. and slow be by ice harvesters. packs field. great irregularity. The broken must the during snowstorm they hand at near flooded, and grooves over have The cakes. removed be floats the position into the house, run morning, and and up larger pieces The in cakes is avoided. wanted not are requirements being broken labor and ice in the the some In this condition much supply of ice a of the from before long with the and channel secure will be full,with in the channel be must which than more single cakes will The to placing early work, however, Some times. in left it up opening which the cleave instances. be detached up. with splitup which passed beneath will the on ting split- or hard, it danger of having the single cakes to found should partiallyfrozen being needle a ice with is directed the channel leave quitting time, or standing man, are incline,in advance ice house. the also field Ice floats left too or thrusts before the on whose within cakes, they as grooves in most a ice,strikes frosty weather, foot of the at the of those at channel, dexterous square, work The and plowed 29 ICE. removed. bunches cakes the the above two or bottom. the the STORING into inches chisel into his feet. moved are a AND slush, ress prog- is very sight,and practicable. large latitude the ice field. The for situ- 30 ations swift On done. be will freeze second the order to on of presence point, as well There is often and the channel slide incline. channel, and, often provide as the it, to necessarilydone and bar the this at men into the elevator, cakes The tools are trated illus- by channel near the of means in the to edges from heavily,and of protection his ducks dip below the for channel, the of the line and the handle of wear, channel will at lower to end, and The the to at the heel of the the surface of the of the ting eleva- convenience, and box water a admit the or cakes enough near the dodging under, when jackman, pull is felt,bears grapple, and, ice,make Where have yet ducking, or rear. the of the sides the to incline, foot the on a depth a the men. be found the up at from Ice cakes away. force avoiding delays, the far their way on sources soon ice taken refuse ice not great some prevent the cakes pressed forward out to of grapples grapples, it of means the other to passing freely on taken and striking with footing or walk trough sunk surface taken are position for the grapple. on the these, and important by ice cakes work feeding incline thrown down, All a located. are through this channel, requires accumulation an slipfrom sometimes water, length, and in Pages 00-00. on and harvester directlyleading The are in at the foot of the used miles trimmers of who placing them or several the In quality. good spots, the wear. floated are lodgment, favored which at ice in broken found his storage houses much those as of these number a regular and along the channel they as has incline to of masses floating ice channel a the subject the cakes the it of the foot ice is is to where n the water, and from the to open ice do\; float the no ice from the obliged At points freezing secure be may other of settled weather, return a confused rough and in At places. and by storms, and with broken may be to ice,after first forming, the streams running is best determining what in ingenuity, and judgment to exercise is called upon dealer the different that so are CROP. ICE THE same as a the slack firm grip time, bears is on down cake, engaged by the grapple, 23. FIG. 24. FIG. FIG. 27. FIG. ICE ELEVATOR 25. FIG. FIG. STORING AND CUTTING SIEVE RING HANDLE 28. CHANNEL FIG. 29. HOOKS. FORK. FEEDING CHAIN 26. ICE. SCOOP NET. SHOVEL. CHISEL. SPLITTING HOOK NEEDLE CHISEL. BAR. 31 32 under the jacks, if ice the pike poles is necessary is accidents and box with varies it. over each it is of Usually and Order year. adapted careless The and be disciplineis maintained, and CARE ICE OF qualitiesof of out one employed kind will money TOOLS. it. of work under neglected, importance, from or incompetent an which new, cut One be or a made. it will Ice true be and man can of ; one of the cut should held responsiblefor their work. short, or the saws are to be jeopardized. inferior An the on tool, or particular comparative tion condi- to this matter the ease with best its which type, will, dressings,done true send when in the one-fourth efficiency with them. correctlydress the sprung, loss spoilthe best implement man be trained Unless properly estimate their cutting impossible to plan efficiencyof the labor to two or the preserving the cutting the idea saws, from limb Attention failure mistaken ignorant will detract and a house, by employes. depends it is done. from rapidly and way, more, then be can wrong which all the amount fully care- by the proprietor, importance. consideration, of the tool with is often The the be large fields,much for repair,will detract from use should in run renewed out, and life and Provision " and water ice of amount system from about the of character, especiallyon tools is of great to and field and upon result,and ous grapple. Seri- employed are strictlyobserved compliance insisted exact of time the on deep. too experience some construction \vater times, ignorant methods, or all who by from sharp lookout A the Details, fully worked in force, it should once sinking handling thorough a it trip. one temporary a work the to ice harvester. every worn at from depth of the their at these jackman, and field,incline, or ice house. the or at up be observed with cake is necessary, prevent adept an the on for the prevent the last cake box the resulted should caution of part have down and below, cakes placing the are to water usually run the CEOP. bear time, to become required who The are on men same cake cakes ICE heavy, over. steady the Several is the at being ended to The water. THE When them saws, the teeth to the and are ice tool 34 manufacturer, size and plows they when the detention and cakes from the upon, may prove any for and out, on or more, be have taken plows are are of Only a down of man pretext, of an of the dress to made hour or the improvements are rigid,and the handle This looseness depart from in so should they Plows cut to the in any a lack of form Too ming gumthe are much care and steel The guides used in of a at guide, which with bolts. place. The hinge and swivel method so an agement man- need lost motion, no is latched produces entire and markers steel beams have joint,and is vertical the selection, originally. The guide, combined construction employed, hard, and lost of this waste. source ice harvester. trussed the double time of The cause. work to more lost to the owner, with the the is thus proper guide handle detaching entire force superior to the old style iron plows. markers the Nine- tenths worn a of part house. both. make to loss of plowed surface likely,the been now plows and latch. teeth, as cutting points of those is the apparent reforging, or or point,when no cause cutting implements of the They the be dressed any the work lack a system is, more which Plows the the in incompetent workman best the less. involve by nine-tenths hour an of to be the field and the cannot of must no more, may field,from frittered away chief and up, allowed, under delay in plowing crop, wages, be Ice by improper dressing or bottoms no " stiffened. proportion kept their correct to plows. Any on and be points, abilityshould ice useless heels and The keen. out straightened and range must new, regularly with both The CROP. teeth gummed the blades and handling. are known the frequently rendered are sharp and the have to shape, careless or ICE THE the pin latest is perfectly of and any ing secur- mortice plow and guide which braced that the position unless the guide plow has cannot is raised out of its groove. All ice cutlers instead of who have had straight,lines, with breaking of plow their fields marked the in curved, resulting wrenching teeth, will appreciate and welcome or this CUTTING when to tool A should room are liable to for a breakage the in used are A well-chosen a supply included* found in necessity where thus towns of and the ice dry and HOUSE. THE In hard. ; the water great repairs of an sizes connections, will often inventory. situated are hundred " Ice should men as repay are often This is a distance any sometimes are the ice out heavy, for an increase quality,and ice well-constructed and seasons, little extra then loss will then the in be the tho ice house soft,and contains the and house, frozen are breakage "When summer. in getting the ice is stowed, during freezing weather, house, it can taken during freezing enter ice is of labor shipment during best of soft weather be housed cakes, being chilled together,causing a is of timber, of such houses as the cakes weather, if possible, in fitted up, millwright tools, together harvester's Several in accommodated. FILLING some grindstone Large boarding houses storage cities. or a large, and are making seasoned runs the of set single season. a for means good the various their cost in from ice houses if well that sharpening bars, " positions,the tool house, urgent character. light,and practicable for tongs. Where to store be reserved Space should large north a assistance, affording the with all maker of all kinds extras rapid wear. or when by power isolated is cutting season ice-tool the to and scrapers, filingbench, having hooks, and close of the ship brought back to be maker, kept sharp, be provided, of sufficient size be cutting tools,scoops, driven should 35 require overhauling. all " and select to which implements hooks efficiency. The of time best the ICE. to the repair,sent of out condition a STOKING Bars, tongs, and improvement. and, AND out in be two three or good condition, with It should by breakage. kept for have attention but at all times, however, and be kept in perfect order. The cake various from the water will be noticed important methods in branch which into the detail,under of the are in ice house, a for use or on elevatingthe to the platform, specialchapter devoted mechanics of the natural ice to this ice trade. 36 THE FIG. 35. FIG. FIG. 37. 36. WAGON ICE WOODEN WOODEN AND CROP. SKID. 1. NO. SKID. LOADING FIG. 38. PACKING CHISEL. FIG. 39. PACKING CHISEL. NO. 2. TONGS. CUTTING The ice cake, which run, the having line of the the by The end end room. are and entrance, the further end, portion,graduated between imparts inclination into the of above It runs. large nails the to scratches the of depth the on This board them, nail the so is the cakes, a break is set heads left ber num- a projecting is set in the line of the runs, heads. scratches their near When board, in which a the the intermediate extremes. to the of driven, with are of one speed a and descent level with a is determined them, rapid a these usually consists surface. attached high too with on ther far- to the ice house. of the usually arranged another runs on of center continuous a the entrance ice is to travel the nearest with of these skid, or a the thus the front end is connected skid inclination the on toward The gallerieson runs the so the in leading extending from distance of the height does house, inclination, an the is formed, of the ice 37 ICE. general inclination, and same runs part the than at its lower At room. it enters as placed higher entrance the is STORING AND under The surface number easily varied to of of nails suit the or the ice and the velocity required. the As at the farther front. most end Through require the they runs, at run, and time are and side,as placed on or and rails. house during packing. The common to their final trim any runs from the the of The and used made toward stowing is under the moved are along pass follow are cuts in the directingthe some run them, but the tools used cakes, and, in the flat,with accompanying in the V-shaped bars, chisels,and adze the stored are guided off the ice will runs, are are lines cakes and runs wanted. positions. The off inequalities The Two patterns of hooks, tongs, and ice cakes the ice hook and readily slipped off when the the room, tongs. As desired. the runs, show of The care. caught with projecting sides iron center in Fillingthe front end, and ice hooks either they gradually filled are back the are into the ice house, run first,and more place with into no are rapidly performed. runs, is ice cakes cakes used to cases, to 38 layer of ice level off each done, when PACKING ICE important thing The HOUSE. THE varies ice cakes the arranging IN keep to ice shipped during the much how upon crowded be can in, but arranging of the cakes. prevention of be taken may for If the so the ICE ADZE. as an to be things are they as not good, as it is depend packing and are and out. and example, in ease taken observed varied this, loosening The as or following good place the two first courses on cause edge, and closely together as practicable. The succeeding the in doing. ice is thin, place in flat,or Arrange Two by melting, waste detaching the cakes, as of house, upon 43. FIG. pack country, TONGS. HOISTING is found in 40. FIG method the does in possible. as amount This as employed of the out season. warm ice parts of is the mind often so house, method in different in the much as The " possibleto be gotten merchantable away pack to is not This from shipment it is desired when cooling rooms, it is stored. as for is stored ice CKOP. ICE THE in the cakes one same positionthey directly above occupy the on courses the water. other, and leave a CUTTING inches of two space six courses, top floor of the house the on for this reasons edge, the cakes, placed the only breakage and breaking the few finally,the top the on in succeeding edges, having minimum of air thoroughly, and mass sifting down from also, by ; ice,is shut off,and, the the on cakes circulation the to ice at into the body of ice. The chapters construction the considerations In and risk of against side the edges, being give the is chips No or mass broken to not broken in and placed the this in the spaces between value cakes of to as much a ice The to or In ing, stow- cakes free of the in this as the runs, together on be avoided. be thrown stowing department. despatch be done Broken in the and out of the To in cakes into the house, and, if cakes come placing,they should of system the plumb, the should is necessary than places,should be allowed progress of is ice. Experience and practice,in the handling the There direction. one packing manner. of the ice out in ease closer pressure in packed ice. edge. upon are, is limited. room to throw keep house, and the crowding to their cakes, of stowing the for this method inclination an trimming slidingthem when tend all are and fullysome more of house, by the ice walls, required more should cakes storage the uneven, whole care from to damage the out taking ice, where more secures ice present methods the bearing upon advantages claimed the loosening by wastage in the house, ice houses, will localities the some Among loss of ice on of the with the contact, the courses, close courses prevent the top covering the in destructive is very on the loosening cakes, is obtained joints every currents, which obtained, and surfaces in labor, or courses the that are, other,and free the bottom and top five or rapidly,and, by placing loss is above one arrangement wastes minimum last four five In every edges. joints,and closelyplaced to break one, 39 ICE. or The broken. jointsare The edges. sides all four on placed, each are STORING AND are of the house. of runs and aging man- ice cakes, attest the do the necessary possiblerequires close work attention to 40 THE details,and watchfulness, The outside runs gallery there the is to the first run, house has one high is been two or and handle to ice is raised upon It is house. now of lower house be secured blocking and side. Before the space they left and in, run and runs Unless entrance. and irregularity, is opened ordinary height is is care loss work of this taken, first and to run, and ice the gallery,and the be The set runs of ice stowed to cakes in the front of tha will be done with ice will be left among the fillingin breakage, when fillingin under stowing, the gallery. number a by wastage and This up. gate and within second entrance, less broken or more too incline first run, the removed, the near or is then The runs of the disturbed, are the first run, the staging occupied, directlyin good cakes, causing house from uncoupled bracing on When house run. runs. all pass height. the the rearrange at the to the of level. at this to the face cakes of leries, gal- height of the second the incline to the must They under the the over necessary raised up and are ice into the passes one height higher, the level the this at placed in position,shutting off the now and house the to to the from ice the in each up runs incline the open, from runs and removed from ice to the filled with courses men arranged placed well incline be may the enter is the of being run connecting run affording access lower at the gate top gate, which a incline,thus The The and permanent, are apart, with intersection each At plate. house the incline. to the efforts of the distributed. five feet about ghlleries, the labor and that and properly directed are CROP. ICE the is attended runs with the suspends loss some of time. After up, blocked coupled second A with the on, cakes galleryto all in braced and and are a new place, the house in position, the line of the further runs part conducts of the runs are raised connecting the ice from runs the room. system of winding drums, placed in the roof timbers, ropes attached to the labor,in adjustingthe house runs, runs at either end, saves to the levels of time and the different 42 THE weather should engine be should should SHIPPING the this traffic, from the ice the or line, into At a loaded on with empty other track. 52. Endless top of before the fast car as track while loading with and platform, (See the with stowers car ice an can and hook, place and short at in 51.) A platform, slides them. the spaces, at short and the platform, cakes man, into the at Fig. stationed the the speed, slide doorway a on along regular a filled track cars pass train a shown are cake, a the the time, number. the of daily. one switched, platforms carry Fig. out, proceeds these bars sides being are switched of chains, bar. cars being Diagrams between the while both at platform at double which filled be loaded are runs by loading can accomodate placed are cars accommodate arranged cars of south connecting the to of fifteen to is on trains will lost be cars, the door ten with switch either Long tracks one each placed house. platform will time directed, platform, side A cutting any To points to points to is house made deficient. built ice from made are run. be distant is crop place. the may often platforms be double the If the incline can ice the while no lower single a where ice served pre- boiler or secure a While of are in The be parts engines on " maintained are working stored FIELD. shipments loading cakes and shipments or all oil. slushing trimmings THE stations with and brass FROM Large frost coated boxed, winter supply privilege. the down, ICE filled, where All taken CROP. attention, rust. be being thoroughly have from ICE car is at as IV. CHAPTER CONSTRUCTION The Earliest Ice Forms House House of The " of Ice Storage Site Survey " COMMERCIAL OF and Its for Construction of Requirements Size " of the Ice an Modern Placing " the House" all Embodying House a HOUSES. Development " Foundations " ICE tails De- Modern Improvements. earliest The in occurs thousand reference the among the of Romans, which winter, tapering The packed. Roman cellar snow from ice it country their method. into surface the below the Brick, light stone Gradually, evolved the and and of the wood ground. ice is taken in the and in leading house. 43 ice use the partly for way, in those who butchers, and this used some on houses the built were they emerged the surface. below building the sition tran- 47. uses Gradually only were 45, which commercial commercial air, being experience modern first tightly cellars, constructed or the modernized A Figs. 46 dairymen, top, in out was top. instances, by many vaults, The for the thickly thatched successor in seen for at which and Its stored Brewers, ice 44 Figs. is form top the ing dur- summer scooped snow, Virginia. in secured, had in and cut the with designs business. physicians, Roman in use and three prevailed the were through is shown was was bottom, the was modern more Before in in cellar a to it doorway in poses pur- mountains pits, of circular or filled being the of about which custom upon cooling back us use lined, were after straw, at point a sides The ground. with to snow made was Vaults, cooling beverages. and storing the for snow carries records History years. of use and Writ, Holy the to ice materials. dealer has 44 THE and has Improvements the and FlG. 44. INTERIOR FIG. now discoveries The VIEW ICE 45. and and OF to as as years OF branches in other of tific scien- inquirieswhich in this direction OLD FlG. 46. FIG. SAME. our of development, practical,value. a continuallymaking CELLAR. ROOF rapidly adding built are well in this expected be practicalmen STYLE are scientific,as a may ice business. represents many HOUSE ICE MODERN CROP. ICE THE store furnished, give of few 47. MODERN ITS ICE PIT. CONSTRUCTION. knowledge. Ice houses, as suggestions of their original prototype. SITE. THE site for a Many commercial quantity, a and " porous features or combined large ice house. soil,easy land, proximity are to market in Good both accessibility ; also cheap and a reallygood ice in from ample the water efficient trans- COMMERCIAL portation. Observance imperative. Where be can In natural and direct ice is soft,it will should with of watchwords a In the have to important be brought On spalled. a tion atten- the placing the incline, for supplying handled. ice them and System dealer while ice the upon and lumber for and size of the all lines staked and square roof trusses attention,and of will the entire practicevaries. local conditions large houses, where off and the sills are as the balance and the wastage building when the They climatic is comparatively dry. they of and foundations of foundations construction partly dependent location grade. to For ences. influ- readilydrained are about as able dur- placed directlyon ground. The no in is made survey size,so that dimension site should the crooked a platforms for winter the The designed. Levels, also,call fit as The be can FOUNDATION." AND It is are they and ice sloppy days, when warm, fast as on travel without as being determined, the exact will in for attention come the arrange on. SURVEY out. in motion conveniently disposed the are is cutting house On permit, practicable. The as pitch the cakes will and south, be ice cakes dispatch turns requireassistance. shipments via rail which and keep them freezing weather. in points is instances,if the most constantlybeing jammed are of proper run to these lay of the land north few as require assistance runway, the house with runs last of expense. selectinga site,when incline and first and effected,in the the 45 HOUSES. drainage is lacking,the deficiency access warrant place the length of cakes of the supplied,and other features ICE limit life of can is well years be made from varies ice house given applicableto all selected of constant repairs are an and the service will as often as so many When cases. construction tell the thorough, the plainlyon required,its causes, term that ber lum- fifteen building. of If usefulness is extended. In warm climates, also supply depots,foundations of for smaller stone or houses, and brick are for city employed to 46 THE ICE CHOP. CCLMMEBCIAL They should advantage. about feet above two DETAILS into four is divided hundred two For placed extend dimensions outside 8 sills, forty feet wide of lumber The in house in the clear, forty feet high from be requiredmay sill : inches,of such lengthsas 10 x buildingillustrated the ground. upon each rooms, The plate. to In the fiftyfeet deep, and and frost, and the surface. sills are the below in put CONSTRUCTION." OF plates A, B, be 47 HOUSES. ICE most can readilybe obtained. 6 Inside sills, 10. x posts 4 Outside 10 inches x Studding, -3 x 10 inches Inside x feet,set 12 feet apart. 40 feet,with x inches posts,4x8 40 x feet. 40 x three feet centers. inches Studding,3x8 40 feet. For inches 2x8 For circulating air outer inches 2x6 air spaces, dead inner 2x6 inches This makes x three feet 12 feet and 3 spaces 12 feet x should on 40 feet x horizontal and placed upright 12 feet apart, are studding be three feet centers. 40 feet, with x the space, studding studs cross filled in between. apart,are the inside 3 10, and of all the outer inner walls walls. Plates the on walls outer are x on inches. 3x8 The studding is lined main boarded proof sheathing, and inclosed sawdust spent or bark. tan with up sides with both moisture- lumber. matched The non-conducting substance,usually is filled with space on The fillingmust be dry and packed tightly. The boarded up their studding 2x6 matched with be made should stock inner with being used. outer covers ventilation to the swung inches over requires. at selected,no jointswith these up crooked pitch adds to durabilityof the lumber. studding is covered ship siding. Twelve hinged the lumber and then sheathing,and jointsof this studding The lumber. Sealing and also efficiency, The as care is lined with the with weather bottom them, which can are be boarding left open opened or or and closed, 48 THE ICE CROP. 50 THE H" ICE CROP. COMMERCIAL sizes of timbers is lightermaterial racked sooner The and off carry slats the At opening moisture this floor feet in size ; these the ice and the top of the ice. sawdust in the about doors required on being sufficient gable ends The stored floor is laid a the ice. for are Trap doors for and ventilatingthe a through houses the six to place in which convenient dried, when cut are between space the sawdust dumping the through seventy-fivefeet apart, four It also affords through the on the cleaned are air into roof is specialroof Being often the electric fluid add forked house where pipes galleriesare or, if at its readiest a gable end, much the of above the line of points across copper strips extended, They if material their houses. the locality, and the in their used struction con- Copper strips,terminatingin the of cone the roof, fiftyor provide ample protection. way, house should without any should ice on path through them, their exposure. ground. in prominent object points, raised surface, and it provided with large conductor them, to cover seventy-fivefeet apart each into the loft,where are especiallyrequired are most and to level provided. finds escaping vapor with the side of the is extended rods Lightning the feet,and two furnished are On fiftyfeet. to the continued ventilator. project about eaves placed, the the air. heated above space ample gutters, which a be not gable end circulatingair-spacesare outer vent The every in each loft floor, discharging the the finds It will two fall. The of and twenty feet square trusses floor,and be can place. and roof building,dividing the through are against the wind. of center while instances,the houses all sides. on braced be well should of ter, chap- durability,and to some top is about on the in out sprung high gable roofs, an to given employed, ventilator high, with feet been has in this construction, noted for ice house consideration 51 HOUSES. ICE be they terminate place,their efficiencyis increased. be connected, and break buried in a the interruption, or several drain A or feet below other damp THE I 3 fl !" h o ICE CEOP. The floor of and a should trench have inches in it should the inches are inches deep at house. and and filled with start,and the is with inches placed several ashes of closelyplaced, with water waste to they house the length form drains. Where may be six entering through them, and at depth reeds, floor. charcoal, top eight or entire The with coal boards, not or laid are other or the main drain. The channels to conduct the the trapped, to prevent are cobbles or the the toward boards the between spaces of On deep. the depth. same layer a house, After stone stones, shavings, straw, covered now the double side trenches The the at either side, away. broken It be nine size toward sets condcuted is placed, to the level filling, floor the drainage filled a,bout the the this double to ter, cen- about of it may house the drains, alternatingon intercepted top of porous too of house of the front rear surface they wide, On the Lateral If the of the front At made are nine about rod. house. be trenches the the to end. end from center gradually increasing desirable. are the dug through a square, front of the graded slightlytoward is room grade toward a inches two each 53 HOUSES. ICE COMMERCIAL collected drains air currents any into from emerge one or from main more channels. presentedin on Plate In B. large houses, however, very In neglected. floors cement (see R, in Plates on over Where the platform. work railroad is D are A, C and the top of this a for winter cars ice cakes The so should and for a section can be view depended For necessary. not is be entirely city supply houses, best. the platesA, C and in not are they climates warm are loading For soils,which porous off the wastage, drains to carry the drainage plan, and illustrates the A Plate An are shipments, used elevated expedited,as no delay incline to runways with chain siding is placed on trated illus- ing by gravity until land- slide platform, carrying platforms handling large quantities. the on D), and endless for the a both cake cross-bars each before sides of the is occasioned passes bar. platform by waiting 54 for cars, in ICE THE on a track, one INCLINED THE endless loaded while 53. are PLATE shown carry floated E. being pulled Plate foot of GIGS C In the AND empty the on cross-bars. to the HOISTING in and out loading continues WAYS chains, which the ice cakes FIG. train CROP. cars run other. are rigged with fillingthe house, incline, and REVERSING fed on ENGINE. to it, one to travel is made gates to the on There and and used, is the with the elevators, which varies smaller The to larger plants of elevators in the room in Next An stored. Plate with horses, employed. By threshing This of the the edge an incline, operated by engine, and are very management, Small gigs houses hoisting tongs. are there the on the bar. a power power, coupled several are and surroundings system, of Where Plate ice the there is are very convenient. winding to all in their handle of the drums are jack ples grap- four An this house cakes at to are reversing a a at place they time, they simplicity and power, is placed When by are method is run and ordinary in which room drum E. and power, and a operated are winding in shown one single elevator, a no to the drums, the are annually are grapples when ample Economy and chain These plan is shown large enough are conveyors is similar work the of means efficient. horse friction-winding furnishes water the on horse ten or houses power, in favor. rapidly growing cakes hundred one endless which steam using engine to up eight style of the two or an lighter build. with expensive. one mostly required power large quantities of ice readily accomplish less for platform is used of or with to the which incline (7, but and depending importance by incline called house. or jack grapples The filling smaller choice a use, and For engine. one methods size the C. operated with are pass " is first named The Plate arranged are several where the length of chains the arranging in shown one rigs and engine, of under-shot. the and desired, ice house. the methods two passed through are levels various at the into cakes The thus and bar, each of in front time a incline. the up runways are over-shot the on at these, by gravity, over on cakes two or 55 FERTILIZERS. COMMERCIAL ease of favor. cooling rooms are filled with the aid of CHAPTER of Care CARE, HANDLING in House Ice the Getting " Ice Marketing After in the a Ice out of in humid is ventilated also off the and from goes on, effect ice wastes cooling, and the the ice. room Whenever vapor opportunity will to as the collect escape, and house above when will air-tight is the by opening Water affects they sometimes as ice. the This the are tends warm should ventilator the down on strong, comb possible opened the only it settles if and rots permeates air currents, tion Evaporaate ; its immedi- Water warm destruction, them. heat. air. is wasteful rapidly, into off warm Air their temperatures ice, while Vapor ice very all carries than rapidly is condensed. Keeping the it in by Pressure evaporation. and assists at walls. attacked is house radiated is also as the courses extent, surface. the air lower some in Ice " roof, which the top of is loft The closed. are rising through currents air- air the when except on quent fre- requires circulating the Keep cupola warm earth destroys ice and away to more and exposed the the the is ICE. vapor, upon heat air warm " order, it is placed dressing top openings lower the in put operation, the OF moisture, mass mass the WASTING water, in directly into carries THE of times such ; at walls the The it intact. keep to Shipments Ice " Outfits. ice and attendant. an inspection chambers and Wagons Prevented How Waste, Machines Lowering " ICE. OF and Leaking " is filled with house care MARKETING AND Ice " V. the to ice. preserve air be cut enters, given doors an in the loft floor. As the should ice be is taken from kept in place the over 56 house, the ice the as covering far as of dust saw- possible. If 58 THD the is sealed ice the over space ice, softening and the is cooler driven IN take the covering and the bottom of the ice has been the for of the cars empty gig mostly and in moved PACKING is covered are the ICE. into the crevices to place pressure on under the hand ice and grooves, There " ice down the out run the Where plow is times some- splittingchisel to tools not to the use. from FOR the door on illustrated elsewhere They can door to employed the ice to the ice, are, in one on a to level usually return form or wheeled the another, platform, door, as desired. hay; with of counter-weight be mounted SHIPMENT." carefullypacked top methods Gravity is the force a level of the marsh the below. wagons several are from Ice-gigs, with with point, narrow a below. or employed. raising-chisel cakes the open THE dropping The beneath. house LOWERING time. the cake The shown and it from skids. are breaking, same has arranged ice is or tier upper sloping front, on a cutting down The runs, to is in advance ice saw, saw separating the cakes. house The striking-under bar is struck to loosen to good plan a is used for cutting raising-chisel-bar packed in double employed for The The cake, The handle a saw. sides. the around is at the house the are teeth for cakes, and point of the foggy readily handled. of row In without courses striking-under bar. the around be night. once. gives lowered the three clear kept closed. at This be in second, which of the can employed double a top on also can tools The with the progress can house the across be house, it the third, course. or ice from work should is air Hence, at opened air outside the loft,the moist open. be from little in advance a lower, which bar tiers three out are settles which moisture, the above air,being in the or should ICE OUT TAKING is worked of ice weather, ventilators damp with ventilators ventilators the the melting it. When the over if the out, weather, or that than up, saturated freezing point, becomes upon CHOP. TOE When any hay, to ice is loaded crevices keep out at doors into or the air. cars it windows Shavings HANDLING FIG. 58. AND LOWERING MARKETING GIG AND ICE. TRACK. 59 60 THE and sawdust the floors and cake is sides employed. When of the shipments ice house, to is high CROP. the made in ice is taken from great celerity,a counterweight deck after ice is hold, being trimmed in the The hold the caulked, and constantly required. hardly keep be not demand the doubles with pace be should North, dealers no detail take of pride in the means nothing which stock and The of efficiencyof direction. a more trip. the details efficient spell often exertions trade service and System is will should rendered supervision department. every having the in hot utmost in the large cities is deemed neat and handsome the for fine team a attention, so than comment ice wagons and wagon unfavorable of trifling. Many convenient attracting favorable there is ill-kept wagons. quality of ice used closelyscrutinized, and this sudden the conducted As causes untidy A and management their retail business. are of always be Enterprise in extending retailing ice, as In the end it. through extended can thoroughly are ice, the or the vessel, top. Hay on for in this specialvalue is of sides of until should required. overlooked, and to the day. every Resources when order working the Hatches opened the ice required. Six shavings best. with gig ICE, painstaking supervision of MARKETING IN is not sounded be must pumps short is the sawdust but used, of to on packed closely are shape, when at bottom the ice the returning placed are inches ten and, perhaps, be sawdust of eight inches to is into the hold Ice cakes discharged. tance dis- runway time, handles a from the the elevate to at with the As of, the cakes two on each set up are rail. be lowered can South elevation cases, distance, a burlap. vessels,runs the some ice The in up to in the the vessel's over if the in gig, to take A done and house, the vessel runway. tongs. and discharge it is necessary, courses are considerable, often near are shipped lined, and cars in sawdust packed When the also are ICE commodity, for domestic cleanliness is expected. on the Ice purposes part wagons of those are is now ling hand- usually AND HANDLING FIG. FIG. 59. 60. A POPULAR ANOTHER MARKETING ICE ICE ICE. WAGON. WAGON. 61 62 THE furnished with an ice are cut tongs, cakes the shave, of is and back ice indorsed quantity usually bear ice inches five loaded of the a support OF average, weigh foot Thirty-six stored in of the space thickness and ICE. WEIGHT cubic feet a stored. of of cubic house, is the ice the is given and name a of team a ice of thickness 150 up over will horse, and horses and pounds 250 pounds that ice per field. entire an support cubic foot and per square eighteen of ice per the weigh that ton care of ordinary inches of with one-half and 2,000 to depending which will, it on while pounds. pounds. forty-two ice, ice pounds, one-quarter sixty-two it is reckoned and ticket son, sea- train. weighs required the disputes. bear estimate to One feet of thickness for will fifty-seven water in The tons. railway " in safe will is usual It and distributed thickness in surface. will if surface, inches Ten generally a having errors inches thickness in receives, inches two within placed beginning tickets, four is he avoid weighing of foot thick thick the at ice Two " man, inches Eight foot a up wagon square ICE. OF ice The convenience. great a book These them, on STRENGTH a dealer. and ice of box. is of delivery pairs broom. a weighed, tickets a several axe, sometimes ice or with each the to and cleaned, coupon furnished for ice an bucket, a refrigerator use customer scale, required, as customer's The ice an CROP. ICE has But as fifty cubic upon the been cut CHAPTER THE Cold Ice Storage Fruits USE and of Ice THE of Cold Ice " How " to Meats, Principles Build Them of The " Convenience and omy Econ- Ice House and Dairy in Small Cut Farmers among Do" to Combined " Handling Will How " Houses Houses for Ice Secure to tities Quan- Advantages Supplies. REFRIGERATION OF invention results They Them Co-operation USES of What Storage Cheap " of Value Operation Combining Very " and REFRIGERATION. IN Their Vegetables" and Dairy ICE OF Houses" Construction VI. and the The economy. civilized world that it the upon is of now and days ience conven- interwoven intimately so these in numerous health, comfort are directly dependent temperature, are command, with will, at low of importance paramount to everyone. in Refrigeration mechanical by later this Cold for country, food products. more widely diffused, than be to storage in a all over be much all the the way, ing farm- winter, and convenience, practical a preserving could naturally during in in use throughout profits and show, in notice how an it can secured. CONSTRUCTION THE tools as made their receive purposes cold present, ice forms where to at largely secured by ice, is trade of is will method and benefits The here world storage, secured materially is this domestic communities, attempt commercial and means, chapter. adding the well such which methods and as facts are the as of within for employed benefits have cold a to stood the be cutting secured, will the limits test of usually 63 ice storage and be house, housing and the considered. practical experience, attained by those the ice, Only and who 64 ICE THE have good cold storage in These results CHOP. from use attainable only are to year, year storage houses, sufficient supply of articles when are kept on correct Cold market and there storage for many the meat fruits can be of economy is a may is kept and Good beyond alleviate,and impossible without commodity for the they not built of little use. in the prolonging of fruit in par- by the varieties of picking proper several will, and home tion condi- months. lengthening vegetables table will not of and only add enjoyment of the family, but it is in the line of health. is often at but over structed con- WAGON. ICE once, many to all. the In sickness supply instances it,commend a a of ice and the reach cooled suffering its judicious use price. The is best doctor, and storage brings within cold numerous Ice is the health livingwhich precursor at enjoyed fresh well. as generous viands be during which to the health more can their sented. pre- time prove entire crop, be extended can will advantage DELIVERY shipped be not storingshipping season to SIMPLE A storage houses, follow products. The 61. ticular,need Fresh will be used may Cold ice, correct length of room, be by properly of improperly used, disappointment FIG. and in cool cleanliness. principles,or and account, placed will a supply in which of necessityto health so recovery beneficent and a comfort, THE ICE CROP. FIG. FIG. WAGON 62. FIG. SCALE. ICE FIG. 66. 63. FIG. SHAVE. WAGON ICE TONGS. 64; 65. WAGON WAGON AXE. SAW. THE USE peaches,figsand kept ripen been with be best on to lighterand cooler will air. Air ; it will then should out in any heat are STORAGE. of pure, to cold will be condensed is cooled and and and age storto the It is based readily observed. ; it is thus made by the surrounding levels. and The made ier heav- capacity of air varies with considerable a its amount ture. temperaof vapor, precipitated if the air is cooled. brought to the at this process operation of these natural to water air. is condensed retainingmoisture sustain cold dry upward gravitate to lower air will in cold pends Refrigeration de- in volume rise,being forced exposed length reference " known well expanded is The storage. keep goods to have consumption into enter air the which in foods is particular case. COLD OF Warm ice is melted freezing point it expels higher temperature. a is reversed, and heat As and reabsorbed. are The laws is taken advantage refrigeration. As with if flavor and heat to cold of large part of the heat gathered of in in keep ripening,mature practicallywith circulation absorbing and water air fruits decay in ripe fruits to exposure it is desirable laws, which exposed which taken determined the before or green, rapidly than more PRINCIPLES natural Air ries, ber- pears, delicate their lose tendency to be attained sought upon a The goes upon As stored. during which THE for picked refrigerated. Food may ends but are little delay when of time Peaches, delicatelyflavored more by refrigeration. Upon process not 67 REFRIGERATION. better at 40". appearance, which while arrested usual IK long. too Fruits or all the and form ICE raisins do plums and good OF usually constructed, cold stories ; the two filled with ice. through which into the store air to the upper purifiedby The the room. storage ice houses first floor for floor between air,chilled by A flue is storing goods, the second is arranged with with the ice with the provided to conduct as the warm it is dried when it descends openings, ice,descends contact part of the ice chamber, contact built are on and being chilled. 68 THE Drains and and to secure in the cold circulation, and free from required traps are the water and from, the meltage water, air. warm air flues assist in warm ventilators nearly non-conducting cracks or Drains which channels any take air. in placed out floor and of air spaces heat are the keep floor under and cold with Windows fitted with are air three the is secured room all pan by Water is very and the from four sashes a sheet metal air is warm the the ice. the ice A there When and kept the ice ot the vapor in service the and it to by observed, in the construction the which of be water absorb it is spread as out cable, practi- air is conducted general features storage houses, subject ice purified, these cold ducting con- the ice will of top The large a surface as over so gases the in from melted cumulate ac- above the keeping it dry. in may space is of the being the ice is low chamber, room over made of top ventilator air and been tothe settlingon from plan is collected. condensed and several which destructive this away FLOOR. in a from the GROUND forms prevent the moisture ice. have or water in which placed are vessel, or meltage away are enter. can ice, usually galvanized iron, which ice, There No between. ^ 67. as practicable. as perfectlyfittingdoors /6 of loft securely trapped, to keep are large are the constructed are permissible by which Dryness in the storage FIG. ers Damp- controlling the roof ceiling the water Vestibules at all entrances. and off the to carry condensed walls, ground the CHOP. dampness. The out ICE matter of some patents. THE The shown plans features of good conflict with all USE any OF in cold ICE the IN 69 REFRIGERATION. embrace illustrations storage construction. patented devices, and will essential the do These plans prove adequate for not practical purposes. THE GENERAL may be, any size. Fig. as ARRANGEMENT shown of one set along 68. Section OF vary. COLD side, with center Walls of the filled with non-conducting a HOUSES 69. room. the of Wall. Section best made on each side of The construction sawdust, charcoal, materials, have under posts are air flues drain and for CONSTRUCTION. STORAGE the a STORAGE girder Fig. House. of COLD illustrations,Figures 67-70, require the ice floor,and at each the the Large houses PRINCIPLES center in OF been in use tan for double the girder of the walls bark many or ; other years. 70 THE FIG. FIG. 71. 70. SECTION EXTERIOR VIEW ICE VIEW OF CHOP. OF COMBINED COLD STORAGE ICE HOUSE HOUSE. AND DAIRY. THE OF USE Carefully conducted that of wall a dead with mineral The wool wall in at the top in of these inner at the walls dampness. air spaces carries off the The heat with dead of the of hold the walls dairy, fruit and of dampers and house or and No. cooling CREAMERY A adjusted the meltage, is made a vats plan and of a be varied ICE 73. of combined lumber creamery, the fillingand capacity dead illustration the all the on a of work required large farm D very (Fig.70) with one for ing fill- culation D, Fig. 68, the cirWhen these The slowly. waste the milk cooling milk, and placed alongside the storage building to advantage. A very creamery a with do for " or are in same HOUSE. humid, tightly closed. are all conditions. be can is large quantitiesof goods wastes useful boards weather air outer are to meet ice through the are air shown service Fig. 72 is about ground floor. the part of the The are matched the air channels where completely appointed 72 when paper. which the to When of ice, and tons closed are water, from room imparted sections domestic be can D, surface outer proof of air By regulating the dampers, ice. sill, dry, and the walls sawdust may storage house forty prises com- Dampers ; the is of wall sun. refrigerated. Fig. 67 shows will It be closed can air spaces, the heat re.quiredfor large houses cold packed air at the roof. water circulation The building. Additional The tains con- boards. moisture, these thickness the boards inner keeps free from charged which space. outer they so prepared is of weather one direct to the open matched The construction by the circulatingair bottom, of square. the outer wall a linings,a section loft under is lined with inches This the are section, E, contains twelve and walls to section,B, Fig, 69, is of dry sawdust, packed next place between inferior paper into the open conclusively proved have Fig. 69 gives good satisfaction. which A, placed The or outer an in shown Fig. 68, are desired. felt and air spaces, and description is spaces, 71 REFRIGERATION. IN tests,however, this air ICE conveniently arranged is shown perspectiveview, ice house and in illustrations and Fig. 73 the water tower. 72 The B tank is ice house, D ice house through the which a be may butter 72. FIG. secured water and molder, FIG. By by run below from COMBINED it. the tank power cool of the tower set creamers, are tank C is the which by pipes passing the water. At in the located ; G is a E. annex churn, At H is J is the veranda. PERSPECTIVE 73. raising the to I the from water story I At creamery. supplied with are in the second placed the CEOP. ICE THE GROUND ice VIEW OF PLAN chamber, OF If the structure can be DAIRY, COLD CREAMERY. cold a is CREAMERY. store placed on room an cin be elevation, piped through the dwelling house. STORAGE AND ICE HOUSE." Such THE ICE CEOP. THE of surface USE the better, because The best large radiatingsurface. at the six tank feet at placed should be side the of tanks The nearly room are with 75. FIG. removed. SECTION drip A OF ; these drippings of condensation metal, and provided and Frost tanks, and should tanks the ice with their be arranged, removed. ice upon the sides of instances The and pans the is so that they its force the cold are of to a be catch all off the water. may prevents is may wood, lined with of these spent be used the in cooling Duplicate thereby impaired. ice coat the tank, bottom tanks the surface on held. TANK. the to carry pipe usefulness into the room, some a ice accumulate the cold In beneath be can arranged through are at supply of off the water, carry REFRIGERATING is set pan to wide, perature the tem- the as A Fig. 68, reduce long holds hand in temperature accumulates salt which the As trap a feet shown salt,will than lodging. three ice and of center bottom salt from room end, and the lowest placed at which furnished at the storage this low gram. parallelo- through the long, and to 0" F. salt,the hollow a littlewider a feet the of salt is maintained, ice and air of and eighteen inches above prevents the ice and regularly supplied with and and set about high, sixteen one is that of circulation a This top. tanks should edge tank given capacity of ice a for the 75 REFRIGERATION. of the form The IK for the floor,to allow the tank. ICE tanks lower The OF in turn, radiation adding of to the useless waste. storage houses are divided into THE ICE CEOP. THE two rooms, more or VERY ice houses, any desired A house FIG. take may STILL SIMPLER is not warranted for cold barn a form O VIEW OF be built into An and a of with double make doors. a placed A as a a barn most The ice an in any BENCH. ice sufficient convenient corner with partitioned off floor,well insulated and its cost in this be TANK. repay Fig. 82 built of of it may AND supply of room In summer. corner will same commercial expense TANK answer, above-ground silo,if air spaces, for FREEZING well as will non-conducting filling, room the to which use farms, building. during the IV the FREEZING O rough lumber, and walls, over Where OF can other on tained main- suggested by Figs. 79, 80, 81, or some on purposes times Chapter be stock. constructed by the small END storage, varied a can thereof. PLAN 78. or in DEVICE." GROUND for household of the modification 77. temperatures but HOUSE, laid down those FIG. put ICE 77 I]ST REFRIGERATION. requirements of CHEAP principlesas ICE that various so the to meet A OF USE is a view of with many an ice manner. wood, with excellent double walls ice house, if provided underground, or masonry silo, 78 THE should be to form A boarded or ice for all purposes supply of It is neighborhood. and all participatein the of the use SUGGESTIONS where have In a obtained. few only similar The families who FOR houses may CHEAP do the farming the can be farmers benefits be secure munity coman the entire section threshing in threshing machine ICE exclusive own manner boards turn, and 80. 81. extensive very outfit for their an for FIG. FIG. power, to customary 79. FIG. in any CO-OPERATION ice-cutting privileges exist, will where abundant walls, and for ice. if used ORGANIZED LITTLE CROP. joists between up, with air space, an ICE owned livingnear HOUSES. find it to profitable use. of cold storage can be by individuals,or by enough together to con- a THE venientlyuse and USE in one who the or cold filla can appliances ICE is done be the can other to shape, one in of cutting enterprising young yearly by of to securing the outfit for all those farm ; having them, secure ice crop. the contract This and work light,and are not be interfered with. harvest ten this minds. An outfit of tools necessary good hundred ice, will just would in observing harvest, times combine 79 practical advantages of this plan will readily present themselves to few a joint property ordinary duties interests would The by of houses may labor the tools and be owned can large number their when BEFKIGEKATIOK. The storage houses, who also combine IN common. handling the ice men, of OF tons well as fifteen or quantity, and really secure the larger quantity to better than advantage smaller ing But, allow- one. the that getting out labor in hundred one of ice is the tons the FIG. per ton same the cost of the tools per ton as in the latter much many Ice years. twenty cold the As are years places,a brief similar under A boxes this in still doing storage on they is built sides. down tools near From only tons, tenth one will last for fifteen use edge of situated of up to the the water Upon end at or by The the water, in bed an The the teams are this inclined run sleds. easily of wagon platform. an ice is or wagons the several handling ice interest. little above a for use houses the water, and into the water. be in be will the backed is in been would to the height a thousand one good service. houses the water are have HOUSE, durable, and are of the methods platform is toward both it is for ICE of ice harvested circumstances, place, of when that plows which platform is built accessible BARN-CORNER The case. outline transported from 82. way end of backed or the ice cakes run are 80 rapidly run started and stow Meanwhile two the first load in At house, and tools the work such One ice plow with One ice saw. One ice chisel. One ice Two pairs of loading tongs. the ice house One pair hoisting tongs. One pair drag tongs. One pair edging tongs. this time the ICE OF and have goods, to sixteen placed in the the cost comprise : in the ice do to chamber, fiftycents in for labor per cutting and all cover of cost cut in Locality cases. Where stowing Ice, quantitiesand small cost, ice be difficult determining this cost. would ton. the it would chamber, with thick, always the cheapest. are Eegarding "would which inches ice which sixty- tools is about of these HOUSE." THE much twelve labor, about the ice field twenty feet long. to value cash place amount an tact IN in stowed quote can required: are five dollars for first-class to horse, a hooks, short lengths. jack grapple. when of guide. floatinghook, twelve ice COST for another ice chamber. required on One At at ground the returned the assistance place in the Arriving deposited on the team with men, For Three be load of ice may of the at the entrance the wagons, on storage houses. the to their way on its destination, the load. platform, quickly loaded the on up CEOP. ICE THE on an cut on for average, large scale a is less than half of this amount. A the The to serve the and LOADING method size of be of the handled several foot of is illustrated in PLATFORM running the ice cakes platform over teams the the ice must it. if incline. be a horse and handled many jack grapple. grapple supply of ice cakes Where a by the quantity is determined One with up shows Fig. 83, which teams rapidly, two will of readily is maintained are to be grapplers, one ice at served right 82 ICE THE and ice of tons be can landed such sweep ice cakes only a small shown as team a 87. be constructed, PACKING required to THE prevent with as to a day's run. advantage any on in into At ; back washed S, in and on at the Fig. 68, will as the clean. can is advantage of a an ficial arti- loading platform chamber, attention adhering where to the is ice and it will accumulate the ice melts. be found floor,the floor platform Where Fig. 86. ice an through these openings,placed of the ice Fig. 84. dirt from the floors where wagons has the embankment, an or in handling SCEAPER. ICE being packed into the ice chamber, in the drains convenience where device, which shown ICE a to sleds water readilymoved, is shown more IN Fig. 85 is CHEAP A similar pond is made pan horse several hundred be used can quantity is wanted, and required. A being in directlyfrom the FIG. may long the of platform in the upon end and way, By having the grapple rope. A not at each each pull a load the incline is Where the incline. on pulling post a will horse the walk, be used can and continuous rope the left hand, one CHOP. be opening over at convenience flushed with the drip along the water and THE Time, labor of such THE from a harvest An and bottom plank six feet through the the lower a feet apart, and four center, will do of this six feet square represent ton a would of ice weigh an of ice. ice. is surface to makes to a line shoe on in one those first made from the plow, and to the grooved twelve-inch channel few hours run the work in spaces method is now opened guide and for four men, seven the and a upon in which by hand and made are for six-inch at of ice. and groove. the field is The plow the guide is attached grooves The of tons plow is set direction. one by plowing back inches ice groove, while groove, right angles. two weight same a correspondingly line,gives the base the depth desired, about ice and a forty plow, drawn ice erable consid- a in the direction taut by large quantities,and the of snow, placed in this in each at the secure thick, loss to to allow is usual in foot a Owing readily harvest The uniform cut ice. of surface a thirty-eightfeet surface a than drawn is guide Hence, ice is thinner cleared By repeating this it. A the parallelwith run only Where is to be done. grooved now would being of the blade square required to alongside plowing The the mortised iron An ice is the this rate At irregular cutting, it larger surface guided from board foot ton. a ice field,where on fiftyfeet twelve-inch the inches pattern. margin, greater in small the ice thick, ten inches tolerable work. represent forty tons breakage, and The pose. pur- trates edge adds materially to its efficiency.Fig. 80 illus- scraper surface which the answer four a from simple scraper, a inches holes two by scraping surface secured, one-half and one use More pages. snow large fields,will on Thirty-sixcubic feet square be can the by is increased. kept free from be long, with edge, and previous on of ice cut tons those used oak all conserved are listed are 83 EEFKIGEEATIOK. clearingthe small For forty than cheaper as should FIELD of IK the amount to time. time wide tools as ICE ICE convenience and necessary be added can OF USE or is now forth crossing removed the ice is eight inches for ice. foot of the incline,and a boy driving the horse to grapple, will land the ice cakes on the platform. CHAPTER ICE ARTIFICIAL Historical Sketch" VII. COLD AND First The MACHINES. AIR Machine" Ice in Machines the Use Progress Development Construction in Involved their Principles Application Eecent Discoveries. " Subsequent Its of The " Diversity of " " artificial The remote from production The ages. in Eastern cold of has attention engaged applicationof spontaneous countries the was earliest method tion evapora- employed to produce ice. America has the first achieved who Jacob methods. New in in procure machine 1,600 in pounds favorable a of ice in result from of 2,000 Much operation pounds credit In as the in It gave England Two - Cleveland, Ohio, which pioneer machine of produced This run. an fessor Pro- later,he had years estimated these is early inventors, who now was a ity capac- introduced extensivelyemployed, and Gorrie, of New is Orleans, La., patented a producing ice, by compressing and for patents. compression system. atmospheric air. class. in 1853. twenty-four hours' which 1851,Dr. John machine British in this time. is due type of machine known a at Twinning, of Professor procured by modern patent in this country, but a one of the inventors artificial ice 1834, and 1850, each Twinning secured a being the home making in Perkins, did not former The of success Conn., Haven, honor and This machine rise to what on the are was known Continent, and also the as pioneer of its air machines, used extensively employed for the transportation of fresh beef and facilitating the ocean. 84 expanding mutton on COLD AKD ICE Carre, of France, contrived In 1848, Ferdinand employing for process and machine, ice evaporation of water addition it is commonly method the others, account some natural the temperatures. of these ; ices, and and creams refrigerator to applied as of ice of in to and salt, have The country. VI. Chapter air details of Regarding principal operationsinvolved, the phenomena ICE OF heat was which upon MACHINES. not relieving the the produced. liquify,and pressure, heat of It " to If were gases a the liquifiedby it. were would bulk, and they based, are been has fraction of their compression A few will resume is of original great, was found were gases designated compression observed permanent. as their gathered up original or reab- by them. is,naturally,a constant There of any low best known ice this in uses by compressing them that gases sorbed tures, freezing mix- given. volume, which water, have compression, absorption and the referred are PRINCIPLES most of freezing mixture the commercial into latter gases, number making importance methods and machines, be than ice is the in employed all these will by the cold storage houses. and of obtained volatile produce wonderfully great commercial and suitable by of cold a of salt to broken The By discovered of which some the a removed vapors liquids,more been have There entered being effected pressure attention. received Of of utilization The evaporation of other cars the and absorbing medium. is of being based expediting the spontaneous to reduction ; a pump, vacuum a directed been have Efforts by a extensively used. it and upon an be to proved present absorption system the invention, patented Exposition, in has This ice. of tons original an he 1865 International French the at In ammonia. aqua 1867, daily produced six notable 85 MACHINES. AIR an body, and tendency toward equilibriumof temperature also between different among bodies. the ervation pres- the atoms This of exchange 86 ICE THE is carried Where on the effected in difference rapidly and with a outer, means we able are controlling the place in such the By into a at which to bring of and heat different will 32" absorb when gas In and to F. This Some been engine. coils,which by are the this process and its ammonia objects we and The temperature effected, the continued increase not is termed takes is gas carry it is made heat is collected refrigeration duty. a a Compression of in to per from is water bath to a ; here and vaporization, as storage tank, and all pression Com- averag-* in a pression com- operated by set of the the heat the the In inch, square is carried which pressure, piston, which part with a a the vehicle as from, the body (ammonia temperature to Water of ammonia the off heat subjected gas of ammonia absorbents. as tioies its bulk fiftypounds by hidden. place varies greatly boils at 212" F., while act ish dimin- or latent, or liquifiable gas is used a heated cooled converts gas removed) is usually employed. reduction latent a is at the temperatures, by cylinder against steam service, by the from gas does Anhydrous-ammonia hundred one of this By into of in contact. low machines, this ing heat impart cold to, and be cooled. heat is ebullition brought Absorption systems, has influence the law great a temperature. a hundred manufacturing water or substances seven are of of heat at which about to ceed pro- fluid,the latter is converted its condition liquids. Water they by which from natural a fluid a in change temperature boils at of off,in cut can room, the abstraction this temperature. with we temperature with application or withdrawal The a this of exchanges union a of part a liquid. When a is exchange the rooms. vapor, it into nature. great the initial transfers general exchanges or small of vigor. or room, the it is of efficient insulation means measure, is degree slowly, but where By scale, in the economy grand a upon CROP of well. a condenser is gas pressure. fied liquiBy compression, The is then liquid ready for ICE From this AtfD COLD through escape termed the with three-fourths held, and begins a coils. expansion about from valve a The minute into the and tribute. for heat capacity The in the duty. If cooled, and they After and which IN in cakes by huge the circular a a system the condenser, its the cold a age stor- placed for this solution, the iron is brine gutters pended sus- is gas compression cylinder by one. expansion tubes is to tubes, and when loft of a rooms. which the water saw, dred five hun- about continuous ICE, the on is expansion coils,the the cakes its influence galvanized the ARTIFICIAL submerged directlyin forms in again into renders of ice is brine a ceilingof the storage forced MAKING in placed in be circulated the been to at position in which circulating through out pump be may submerged are it has large. very same may from a now expansion coils room drawn is it is freed is necessary reach pound per are heat parted with gas seventy heat units As to what enters at which pressure vaporize. the As opening, ammonia accomplish this, everything within placed under Absorption systems is allowed the boil and to and liquid ammonia As of 87 MACHINES. point the Compression practically identical. are AIR be frozen is sawed This removed. be may ; the into ice small is termed the plate system. In the can and, suspended from solution brine "the tubes, it in the gradually side, are expansion tubes, iron numerous the water freezes ABSORPTION THE and water the completely fills the tank, and containing retort its upper holds , being which has cans chilled been ; a by placed for this purpose. cans IN large tank plan, a ammonia developed in the into a and also The liquid a SYSTEM, coil of pipes. A is pressure is the vapor through into a the from gas is cooled water, making receiving tank, and a of to force Here in vapor sufficient retort placed mixed off,until rectified,or freed refrigeratorwork. steam ammonia is driven condensing tank. passes aqua small a and it pipe liquified, anhydrous. is then used for 88 is returned gas left behind to the condenser at reunited, and round AIR THE against piston, which a is driven cylinder, and in bath passed The it at the over condensed and in has done lower also air is methods PLANT Waldo, Fla. storage uniform , as which depending to be stored. low oranges the The to the or successfullymanaged it is not by fruit. the by THE INVENTIONS." LATEST machines are some plan, All less or idea in expanded is situated FRUIT and ice and A 88. temperature a be The kept varies of the so perature tem- from fruit which preferable,if are cold perfectly variation. of to Retarding houses fruits,can usually be of use natural, therefore, that seeking This for is ciently suffi- ing keepmore refrigerating machinery, a and even sufficiently of ice. means more be can Fig. always possibleto maintain temperature cold. American in have delicate more air the character the being cooling brine, as by the higher temperatures preserve After for OF degree rooms on air. to further intense STORAGE one air which spent ice tanks. or THE only water a an the or is maintained, to demand 33" to 45" F.. It is used or is illustrated It The cooling tank enough compressed is controlled and atmosphere at air the rooms FOR company. dry, cool low is still cool already mentioned, LARGE has the in to the exposed are in tubes, directlyinto the storage cylinder in the compression which deposited expanded, producing be circulated can A is of a time. same moisture temperature dried, the as are engine. steam a cooling tank a refrigeration duty, and the by jetssprayed water drying tubes, which compressed in is this gas MACHINES, by at they ; here sent water again into the retort, to begin the compressed air is cooled the the anew. IN air coils the expansion the also been has pumped then described as manner the absorber, where called tank a same From machine. compression for the the in duty is performed This CROP. ICE THE or these ice-making expensive inventors method, and should for and cold complicated. be constantly securing a low 90 existing systems also prevents their inventors scale ; hence cold producing scale. already been patented. Some writing at this though devices of these which, acting from produces while the employs a heat compound, chemical small a claimed principle is same have purpose jet,or lamp light,the gas kettle filled with a on or more a thoroughly perfected. be to temperature for low a seem this of promise good results, of them none method a etc.,on for large a on adapted for be can cars, devices Several less limited One that one houses, offices,stores, shops, in use cost, but of expense except use, strivingto find ngt only are low at The plant involved. cost for the temperature at less the CROP. ICE THE to house be refrigerator, applicable on a larger scale. USES THE For it is all hot climates In it is breweries In ice. in lines of some works, it has proved its usefulness. extensively employed ing for mak- in chemical and numerous. are ventilating buildings,aiding cooling and manufactures, REFRIGERATION ARTIFICIAL OF applied very in the extensively, and is method, is practicallyindispensable. directly dependent direction other cattle The of those living from Not only and 'America Australian milk quantitiesas cents per the to tons beef to carried been be retailed likewise water, without freight. become ten alone to in from in the Britain the States refrigerator vessels in frozen streets eggs, the to tons. of fruits transported injury to 1880 United the no food During England, but shipped daily into Great from in widespread. the years, mutton 101,500 quart. Butter, cheese, products, are or of antipodes has and beef meats are In or nearly 3,300,000 carcasses. to 50,500 marked more antipodes. fresh of 400 from advanced for the at modern refrigeration,and plains have period the exports same rail its benefits Western 1891, the imports increased meat, artificial upon are our on fresh of handling The within blocks London and enormous quality,and from a year in such for other able perish- distances at a four low by cost ICE is also It employed by the abounding in engaged on other be the as The air to universal will of the application of in goods of meat, service. branch of this descriptionof it will branches in winter. for this purpose, inventor. of Ice of in Ice and " railroads Transporting the Fisheries. regular refrigerator a transporting perishable for cheese, fruit,fresh articles, despatched by this are packing-house products is of department show the of railroad general features an ant import- service, and common a to all of the business. REFRIGERATOR CARS. freight yard discloses and other shipping The to by gravity, furnace Butter, poultry, eggs, vegetables,and garret TRANSPORTATION. IN is maintained, all kinds. houses VTII. important lines service the summer, the " all the in for the successful yield a rich reward are all modern practicaldevice a who years rooms Value Refrigerator Cars and Vessels Produce and Marketing Perishable car struction con- ficial production of arti- many CHAPTER On and in the by flues from ICE inventors refrigeratingoutfit a any and students before that air is carried hot excavating and which problems involved supplied with supply cold is frozen earth of soils in work now refrigerationwill be developed for uses question. The cold, claim will solid wall A soils,within such many without goes substructure in engineer, refrigeration is proceed with ease*and safety. can That that mention quicksands. in maintained of worthy 91 TKANSPORTATIOH. IN a " A cursory decided thoroughness of construction cars refrigerator fare very much view of the in difference among in any the appearance them. better than cars their Those styled companions. 92 THE A critical examination details of main The in the far features of and linings; second, an ice tank designs have the supply, successful thick hair made, is faced walls The paper. The doors with these is the are fastening is used or space, the frame made by insertinga stripof the door In and the of contact importance the in Where circulation admission the air by the which waste shuts air enters, it is catches water an these in This the opening of extra an between and for of and roof of and is the so dust. direct special other carried is cles, arti- of air. changed to exclude the water a brass dust ; surface, screens. trap, which by that fine a the car, Very through the a the arranged car. openings, discharged through off the entrance air chance no is pressure flannel excludes ice. is closed. seat, and discharged against the fine dust is door strong its by gravity, motion over together. eled walls, "with bev- meat, butter, is located the with lined absorbents. through cloth is doubled wire fresh air is secured of of are ice tank is created draft in which cars the verized pul- lumber a is there cars air with cooled carried, which are as best constructed filled with partment com- cotton thoroughly which frame, sections, filling. This the that are filled with all as to them space the brought against the door, forcing it into precaution taken a as both necessary several thick thickness felt elaborate of compartment a so or very have six inches is that at one, Most cars. carefully matched wedge into and features non-conducting same paper Some walls air an about are edges, which A of their third,in the regulation ; the covering other or car ventilation. Following charcoal, sections, with of the floor,ceiling and felt. ordinary variously made are placed, sometimes or being usually outer air roof working The patented. the in the been the in all found, first,in ceilings,which filled and air models are casts are these^ars of of the cars finish their and of combinations in others these shade. walls, including floors ends, and CHOP. that shows construction, freight cars ICE The effectually ICE will gravity the melts, feature, floor of the car. outlet tube, by which provisionfor renewal of ice,and trips,it is an In ICING with icing platform. By fiftycars as many delivered on ice,are broken damper, are which chute of ice cars are After are icing, the journey the ice In ice. the barrow placed in filled in is the cars more each same are ill effects moderate on atures, temper- by motion be be can taken by hand run on alongside of the track a tracks either side,as on notice. Ice cakes are platform by elevator, suited the hopper of a From is the car. By manner shovelfuls of of a platform, delivering ice tank. an at About four spout the extension the on loaded, and four into the mouth dumped above of pounds by withdrawing the to two ice large power tracks. farther intervals their on replenished. shipping other goods, which freezingpoint,ice is used the short instances. the breaker, and, directlyinto the door the ice doubt, train is to be loaded a along the edge of the runs there is for or capacity of five hundred a set below added, and are inlet and cars any run are at short into the run filled with in iced be can Barrows, of breaker. to the object is,no arranged to of double means location, and to the some have When " it is set staging above a fans the through on an temperature, are CARS. mutton, or The this in air arranged that the air so ice in motion. REFRIGERATOR beef is axles, and car is not car In long trips and ventilation the forced is car of air is effected. does not For car. not, as desired. of the the low The fan of air is beneficial,in most cars, or one when the change some changed from of the the avoid opening the air ; the advantage which the contents a with for very As To and CARS." of air. and fan a gradual change a of draft. by connection In REFRIGERATOR tons forced a is collected car VENTILATING economy salt in of ends warm. extending through the ice tanks tubes no circulation a is had of the the at of air remains strata resource placed are maintain not upper part upper ice tanks the When 93 TRANSPORTATION. IN frequent use without of ice would are salt. not wanted Even with below such often be advisable. the goods, 94 VALUE ICE OF TRANSPORTATION. IN refrigeratorservice felt directlyin the blessingswhich are of of advantages which and the be would refrigeratorcar question,as people matter a all the enumerate between the ducer pro- farms, gardens, our vineyards, dairies and fisheries,dependent,in whole or in part, this service. upon It is but left to were sections cities,as well in California ground fruits at these Trial points between. as will orchards famous between plying extensive our in dairy products is maintained machines On " Atlantic a few of air which degrees below they maintain States, Argentine, New meat expense, for shipment, IN or received in it and ton mut- fruits,vegetables, as the freezing point. Air the brisk circulation Australia, of which some are special service. The mous enor- the United Europe, to equipped, In tion connec- shippingand receiving wharfs, frozen meat is held,awaiting after its voyage. TRANSPORTING employment; the found are temperature, for meat, and this these vessels,at both large storehouses, where well these steamships beef transported from Zealand of more sea. being an advantage. requiresa large fleet of steamers, at considerable the Europe, the ocean, on it is products Dressed oysters. The quantitiesof dressed with and ports used principally are been the fastest large quantities,as and have across board refrigeratorcompartments. exported are coast shipments cousins delight our VESSELS. REFRIGERATOR all the Atlantic the probable that large quantitiesof than tor refrigera- a gratifying results,and with despatched to London, of fruit orchards, while Now destitute of fruit. were delivers service car the on of bushels hundreds since time short a decay other many are be of the products of of the consumer of amount To most mutually divided now are withdrawal follow long list,to a ine imag- land. without accepted are would It course. in the wake follow which kind a would in the community every a upon railways. The sufferingwhich actual privation and ensue our upon It is difficult to " would the state of affairs which of all CEOP. ICE THE FRUIT are found ON THE OCEAN, steamers a large fleet find built with insulated ICE hulls formed IK by liningthe the inclosed service is essential to fruits such landed been excellent in in success London condition from in handling India West to Europe oranges, lemons, shipments from and South have in Africa and South into this American and staple commodity, giving employment excellent very large quantities of and in boats. fruit in steamers From exported, are the forming nuts carried are hulls,is depended tropicalfruits imported fleet of grapes which delicate more plums which insulated Central the extensive Southern with of the most ports form an ing pack- in this way. Bananas country. and and Refrigerator transporting the California Ventilation, in connection on wood charcoal. powdered peaches, cherries pears, as steel hull with outer with space 95 TRANSPORTATION. bulk well of the ventilated compartments. development of the fruit traffic from The is attaining huge proportions with conditions reach. Fruit which transit for shipments and California,Southern The shipments from from others, are control shippers now made now have Africa proper within from and their Florida Australia. forming the complement land one the of England to Europe, South of those supply of the finest fresh fruits is continual a the different districts available. ICE IN to be were Now houses are on placed in at any later time the the which the fish to return In home on in a During the rooms and wanted. are with a all season frozen, to be Such storage tions important fishing sta- with small a slab of Northern cruise they preserved,and shippingfish to observed fish entering into immediate not fisheries of the start are fresh England coast, along the great lakes, and New fishingboats round. they as that ago by the fishing grounds. near cold storage in connection found the salmon among places caught, those be long now the year are consumption out at in the market fish may taken It is " enjoyed only they are when FISHERIES. THE inland catch are When with ice,with loaded the fishermen to Pacific. prevent are its not obliged spoiling. places,a beautiful sight is often crystalice about three feet square and 96 ICE CEOP. which a THE thick, within eight inches They frozen. been in their native seen element, Altogether ice is departments prime a the " while menting com- in business all dealer, and shipper and the fisherman, this in when as transporting them. of necessity have exists for occasion no fish more or appearance utilityof this method the upon in beautiful as are dozen the consumer. It would to the that they their way from who admirers in every the oyster beds found are and age ventilated of In the no doubt has on season, are have in cool kept of insures other and their Produce. and which caves, Its well bles. vegeta- produced in been long are ous numer- volcanic their formation, and ventilation Store- dry, cool and are island. that particularlyfavored Ventilated " preserving fruit in oranges mountains of the rock nature for Fruit great service Sicily, where among Ice that cellars which great quantities,they trays of oysters HOUSES. AND Form, Without Packing Houses are mate inti- so IX. CELLARS Modified It is well known are everywhere. RETARDING Storage in ice delight the palates of to CHAPTER Cold referring during the direction seen be ice may and without The together. usually seen are chapter of oysters and association The oyster. do to close this not not combined origin the porous with a dry cool air. CAVES of their STORAGE. FOR caves which is philosophy would ice is formed " There is much of the natural ena phenom- and definite determination interesting, be of value. There during the hottest weather, are and of in which caves in which appears it dis- during the winter. Shafts The even sunk in mining have exhibited temperature and dryness of the the same peculiarity. air in many caves is 98 THE On covered with the matched any set water The passing through. On the upper to carry hillside off the be selected placed are of top be large the tarred prevent roof are walls. the ing drain- other gravelly side porous, In at one the placed, or A water. the a joints in and of edges available. whenever one outer of the paper placed, placed now over tarred tilingshould surface and placed at the is is thicknesses two the boards top ; on are down firmly against the ground should straw Battens to hold boards roof set of boards, and matched the whole. over CROP. second a layer of another of tight cover paper this straw top of ICE front sashes double rear, dows win- two being fitted during the coldest weather. 90. FIG. THE cellar CROSS SECTION AND CAPACITY CHEAPNESS hundred one feet OF OF being required. Rough the last roof boards. in cellar,fiftythousand one ; hundreds fruits have A been COLD designed to packing,and of held PACKING as a SUCH celery plants have bushels in it care CELLAR. A lumber Large storage room of is "For a cost is $100, no is used except for in provided been such accommodated vegetables, apples and other during the fall and winter. HOUSE." properly CELLAR. deep the estimated skilled labor a FRUIT for store house On the for large fruit farms fruit a building during shipping and temporary use, is desirable. RETARDING The illustrations below with fruit house insulated in Fig.91. The slight hill. thick,extending inches six feet above The with a of a basement level almost with keep insects when placed The inch upper is a eighteen and surface clean of grouted in rising into convenient and north VIEW outside open boards, and on OP surface. sides, the floor being FRUIT HOUSE. Both for ventilation. the one-half which weather and doors to screens basement the is joists,is of mortar. feet to the are two boards are eaves, the main studding is five inches thicknesses outside This top of which, between building is fourteen the on The apartments. wide, and on gravel, coarse finishingcoat a The over walls stone story being eight feet in the clear. paper, very feet,built into 36 double, the latter being provided with inch an operated floor. front the are ceiled with cement PERSPECTIVE windows out x the eight inches dry, hard the 91. FIG. of is divided is from entrance feet below two hydraulic top, thus making The with has lated venti- a it. floor is made coat is built from perspective view A building is 24 basement The taken walls,which County, N. Y. main 99 HOUSES. (Figs.91 and 92) are successfully in Ontario shown AND CELLARS of placed. On damp-proof the inside 100 THE of the studding are studding on the dead two two-inch a again doubled is paper lumber, making inch matched layers of paper, then two which CROP. ICE wide this ; over air spaces conies insure to temperature affecting that against the changes of outside on inside. the ceilingof this The of the on paper between spaces it This and floor is these two-inch leave and to rats occupied by clear a the thus mice. floor space and and stairway of 24x24 packing feet, also dering ren- one end, all around in for the deep, this tons of as other or grapes fruits, leaving the center 0 room, capable of holding about are seven 0 placed are of wall storing Shelves, purposes. thirty-two inches and air dead (Fig.92.) office and an lumber. making room, upper ness thick- one matched with plank, the cellars and impervious by putting joists,covered floor is of matched The is formed room such for in barrels. are " .9 the From 0 door a room side east into the opens portion of the shed. fruit door the from the wagon This raised be unloaded without 92. OF SECTION FLOOR teen the runs wide" with feet CEILING. AND whole () ing, also several loads of fruit The one-inch are work veranda it,which The top story is eight feet high stuff,laid matched lathed in over and plastered. to store or on the west renders veranda side has a on or a shower. floor is The and ceiling cool a other sides for two pleasant room, fruits in flat roof with the through pack_ The paper. convenient is six feet wide accommodate floor" in the center. It makes and grapes it very on night is six- ground a ing. lift- any length of the building and FIG. this Through can shed this of a baskets, as door loading sides. or opening to the on unloading. A galvanized from air. Other left open the fruit the morning doors The can day, drawing off the heat ; the air and room it of plenty IN surrounding in selectinga site. to let the Otherwise a condenses moisture on Recipes for Iced its surface the to that unless of the There are ice The and Drinks who link of do an not atmosphere, removed, which some will with charming recipes are ice crusher ice Creams Sherbets or of may sale. every and the Sort like " for wives and in freezer luxuries. daughters American farmers for is the , Few and to as tainments enter- it falls dispense the are famous, a for their consideration. Fig. 93 is or beverage. equipment omitted cream presented here illustrated the to the farm ice dish of well a refreshing iced supply these hospitalityfor which breaking Ice " thoroughly enjoy ice house complete to the lot of the choice once BEVERAGES. Mashes, glass of a or addition are cordial Foods few cream connecting at Dishes. Iced Other made AND Fruit nal exter- X. FOODS " be can able always desir- external which, ICED Description and The it is this prevailing the fruit, being removed CHAPTER few The decay after the fruit is packed for shipment cause of house a features storage room, being cooler than cool room, in other or temperature gradually rise atmosphere. from from FRUIT through the the roof. well chosen. be floor and night through ventilated from buildings and REMOVING be heated air-tightearly in closed be diameter, the to all being required description,its location should noticed cool draft to are above Pure winds a close be in off the to carry roof, should night, thus making room. all shaft the above ventilatingdoors at 101 BOUSES. 'tabeytwo- 'feet ventilating" iron the fruit to runs ^ND' CELLARS RETARDING very iced convenient drinks. It is for an 102 improvement a ICE THE bag with the over for ices compounded are sometimes make method common by have not numerous, secret formulas are to add have different the great they housewife, caterer confectioner CREAMS into the tin ICES. AND can ; tub, being careful in crank, see that Ice should to packing. fine with shaved the tub, then a good layer of required. The strongest elements quantity given is used crank the so smooth for twenty be the salt and displacingthe not the cream from the cream is Cover the can, not so It will be up the the a more stick. salt and ice, gallon a it is If more can first,but to the salt than the but will spoon left by the which ture the mix- back the and scrape down beater the cross, off cover, take and the rapidly very beater up Turn when turn cover, the of the one sooner, carefully,turn from this till the less is used. Remove hole vas can- tub and a common For freeze hard large a layer of it into let off,as fast at space the quarts of fine ice,will be from water Work light,and cork add when itself. can it. or the turn in in fit into comes put paddle will off the water Let is frozen. be as Place Next is full. ten cream rich minutes, minutes. last ten piece,wipe and the in frozen bottom the thick help the freezing. to or give the cover. piece,and a times not must water new be to salt ; continue coarse pints of salt and, perhaps, three not Put few on mallet, or a again, till the tub pack down and put right. solid with a are large pieces,put into in ice shaver. turning the crank After following to mixture cross is fine with pack down is full ; tub the possible delicacy point on the on be broken the of them the the everything pounded bag and many in this and Put tub. the the socket But every Pour have to to intoxicating drinks. " put beater how generally knows sufficient in number are of of ices, exclusive ICE the or knows flavors. care, secret,and confectioners who one dainties many which ice cream, heretofore the way for fruits and compiled with been because dearly. Again, to pay good, plain, old-fashioned how breaking the ice in of mallet. a Recipes CROP. handle until is filled. of the ICED beater taken, add was ; set in a covered time until hours. hot for work cream with mould salt and fresh How lacking, lay are A it. a flower the a from a will press top of the the tin cover, on and and bury in of in some tify beau- long not and of their stamens robbed If these way noticed was cream by to their friends. pretty plates. on plate,or serving been pride is taken Much their cream. of cup one This vanilla. it for mould, This spoon. their dainties each on CREAM. ICE VANILLA milk, ; fill the of in seconds is to be served ICES." serve ICE of put couple a few a carpet), platter. Rest a prettierserved quaint way filled with cups for lighten it. Cover AND they Calla lilies had since. standing beater the paper, CREAMS ices look and Creams old a is well ice. in the way good cooks bit of cream with and white SERVE TO do down part thick a can can a on If the you and up dip the turn little. a into every cream and it when remove the the lift and moment, ice till the for is better to serve, it, wipe salt and It 103 BEVERAGES. place (covered with cool ready water, AND more serving. When mould, FOODS CREAMS. One " quart of rich and one sugar, teaspoonfuls of one-half recipe nearly doubles cup one cream, itself if the is very cream rich. ICE STRAWBERRY pint of one-half sugar, the cream. Mash strainer into the freezing about in crumbs and to the one-fourth COCOANUT milk, of three of quart of strawberries,one One " milk, and sugar freezer, after the and one one-half pints of together through rest of the mixture a fine has been eight minutes. CREAM. ICE Roll oven. warm a pint berries BREAD BROWN CREAM. Dry the " sift. fine and crust Add preparation for vanilla ice of the ICE eggs, CREAM. one and prepared cocoanut, " One quart one-half the one of pint The cream. bread the vanilla be omitted. must sugar of brown rind of cream, cupfuls and of one sugar, juice of one pint of one ful cup- lemon. 104 THE Beat together the in double a Add the FIG of CREAM. ICE half of One of one reserving half starch, which minutes. milk, gelatine,one pint the gelatine,which cook cold water, and the figs. Cover one of porcelainkettle ; then draw stir in the mixture, separately and again, stir constantly take then which it from have vanilla. been When well cold pour for twelve enough ten cookod fire,add tablespoonfuls of to cool. When the and cover cream, cream stir in the bring yolks and to the back four beaten. the like thick remaining freeze. Chocolate persons. a stove, have cream, whites, slightlycooled and in the kettle forward When in freezer of the whites, which looks add of sugar, boiling point mixture and Mix to the together. Draw stove pint of one tablespoonful one sugar, the kettle till the the the to grated chocolate. and six the pour corn Cook When quart of powdered milk, boiler, in the pour milk. in four off figscut fine, double a cold freeze. take One " and in cupful a freezing. teacup one eggs, cream beaten CREAM. of Set away vanilla, and finish cream, Return minutes. and of together ; soaking minutes, pint even chocolate, been the sugar ten ICE vanilla, six and and again CHOCOLATE milk, with been three cream freezing been has has add cold tablespoonfuls boiling this, stirringall the time0 on cold add it is When two the milk Put and the eggs thicken. to When cupfuls two eggs, mixed been has Beat mixture a of cupful. a cool. to quart three sugar, begins milk the Freeze. cream. " put with and mixture away tablespoonful of vanilla. one is put juice and starch, a and cocoanut corn and Stir till the vessel. lemon sugar, grated rind and eggs CROP. ICE must This add quantity be dissolved in little boilingwater. NEW coffee cup vanilla. together YORK ICE of powdered Beat and the stir in boiling point draw well mixed, then CREAM." sugar, One full quart four eggs, yolks and one cream draw pint to of whites cream. back of forward, stir three of cream, teaspoonfuls of separately, then When stove until it reaches until it one the whole put the is thickens, about 106 THE ORANGE One cream. on ICE CREAM. pint of loaf sugar. six oranges large oranges. Yolks ingredientsin the Mix Stir well until the mixture pints of milk one-half rind of two The juice of pinch of salt. A eggs. and One " sugar. The OKOP. ICE thickens. or rubbed of eight inner vessel. an through fine sieve. Pass Freeze. CINNAMON pint of One cream. CREAM. ICE stick of cinnamon, thickens. VANILLA pint of sugar. Yolks of One sugar. and vanilla bean. Yolks seven up the bean in the on One " pint of fire,and add well beaten ice until time night in to can or pail set When Remove and it will not dish. with SWANS' cup into Stir with Flavor eggs. Place meringue. it. In the tapioca by placing it in Add two-thirds stir well. eightminutes of a a tin cup of Pour vanilla. the over brown sugar, stir in the rapidly for five minutes, with Pour into of top minute a boil morning or three yolks. so that pudding Sift cream. in two oven. ice cold. Serve Beat of sugar. pinch of salt. Beat the yolks of has boiled little powdered a four pile on cover to boil. Flavor whites cup tablespoonfulsof tapioca over the soaked the fire and curdle. Beat to a the milk from water in water granulatedsugar eggs. two with milk One almonds, well chopped. yolks of Soak " just enough quart of a serve. CREAM. one and eggs, mixture, and proceed cream. into dish and Pour rose. TAPIOCA of One Cream. CREAM. of sized ture until mix- vessel inner rich good pintscream. One " One-quarter pound of blanched extract A eight eggs. one-half Break in Cinnamon over pints of one-half in Cook bruised. ICE CREAM. ALMOND and Strain,cool and freeze. pinch of salt. as One " to a DOWN froth the whites of sugar a table. CREAM." and PEACH sweetened. with Whites vanilla. set into a bowl pint of rich with ; sweeten Beat all cream. a small together. Pour of crushed ice to send to cake. sponge ICE CREAM. stiff one of three eggs flavor with glassdish and Eat Whip " One quart of of three eggs. cream. One One pintof cup of milk sliced peaches. As soon the as minutes add and been have peaches which through run ICE. of pounds one-half three Eight lemons, " Freeze well. quarts of water, two whites sugar, four of rich vanilla When FRUTTI." is cream fruit ready to and makes partly frozen raisins ice and be must time and quantity of same pounded almonds Blanched harden. in place sufficient A serve. to cream Mould cream. as generallythe is rule The cherries. candied and one This eggs. English currants, chopped citron, chopped add seven to freeze. quarts TUTTI sweetened DISHES. ICED LEMON the sieve. a Freeze whites. the beaten add well to freeze begins cream 107 BEVERAGES. AND FOODS ICED salt until allowed the for fine makes chopped a nice addition. PUDDING. FROZEN of granulated candied of French of cupful Cook soaking minutes, then add to ready serve serve dip tin in pint and can of a half pint of water, then rub the sugar, a one off the paste. Blanch in " of shelled fruit,one saucepan. One and to away ten freezing. When the out of ten shelled of pint chestnuts, of sugar. black been Freeze cream and almonds, one eggs, of cream, pint one half pound a tablespoonfulof vanilla, four skins the almonds water turn water, Set cream. finish has heaped around. cream pineapple, the yolks candied boiling milk. it. cover and sugar warm PUDDING. NESSELRODE to fruit and the candied whipped with wine, do),four tablespoonl gelatine,which water pound boil,beat the flour,one a the eggs, one cream, stir into the and add enough cold, add When cool. in hour an will to the eggs, minutes, and twenty quart of (halfa pound come cupfuls two cupful of flour, two half scant the milk and sugar pint of milk, generous gelatine,one of fruit Let fuls of wine. a sugar, poonfuls tables two One " Boil the chestnuts and pound and juice from Beat the pound the in in a same of half mortar of French wine, the eggs until a Boil manner. and one hour, an pineapplefor twenty yolks of pint a utes min- stir them 108 THE into the and beat the Mix almonds the through the cooked teaspoonful of salt. water, SHERBET. little water. Turn Boil Mix one same and can LEMON freeze. SHERBET." This One pints of water, the juice pint and of strain and freeze. ORANGE the SHERBET. for this dish PINEAPPLE pint a the gelatine an the hearts the sugar of and dissolve into the A water, half Boil Add in a gelatine lemon juice. three sugar, the same and sugar lemon-juice, lemon as instead of ten sherbet, but lemons. pint and half of can large pineapple, a one tablespoonful one in a enough cold of Boil water to the can. half gelatine in it. Stir this This Freeze. it. and add the and sherbet pint scant cover juice from Have pineapple, of gelatine. Soak fruit, chop it fine pineapple. the the the the of gelatine of from eyes pint thirty minutes. used, hour and and is the oranges SHERBET." fruit or, if fresh a smooth, rich sherbet. a Make " half creamy. lemons. ten makes juice of twenty the syrup sugar, This one dissolve a together twenty-five minutes. water the is light and cut cream. water, gelatineand sugar, all pineapple lemons, and rub flavor and ice five of water and and the minutes. ten cream, as of juice cup together the into use the ; add the it thickens. beat fruit mixture The " with candied Freeze and water, boiling water, until tablespoonful of gelatine. Soak one in it. cold of beater egg chestnuts Add this with LEMON in another an of and sieve. a fine ; mix a with mixture off, place in basin Take CHOP. the saucepan Put syrup. ICE the will to it hot water cold be Cut water white and creamy. SHERBET. STRAWBERRY pint of of stand cover. Add the two hours. one pint of gelatinein strained mixture, STRAWBERRY and the gelatine. Mash them the pint one sugar, half and SHERBET Two " a half berries Soak water a of quarts of water, and the to the sugar strawberries, one tablespoonful one together, gelatine in cold berries, and pint of boiling water and water strain. ; add let to solve Dis- this to freeze. No. 2." One pint and a haif of FOODS ICED pint of strawberry juice,one the water, SHERBET. RASPBERRY the preserved or juice of The sherbet lemon a also can the lemon and and of sugar strawberry raspberriesare fruit and two is or an as the use quantity of sugar. improvement. This for rule second by following the made be always same in season, not smaller a the is made sherbet sherbet. strawberry CURRANT SHERBET. a juice of one tablespoonful it in half dissolve and cold water pint a pint of cold water, the the of pint of one sugar, in gelatine soaked the Have gelatine. of lemon, one pint juice,one pint of currant One " half of water, the and it with This " When strawberry. canned water half a freeze. and Strain juice. the Boil lemons. two and pint one sugar, twenty minutes, add for togsther of juice 109 BEVERAGES. AND Mix boiling water. and lemon sugar, currant juice,and freeze. STRAWBERRIES. FROZEN pint of together half minutes longer. taken an add out water, and water. hour, then add pint this Boil of cook quart of fruit each sugar fifteen is fruit Preserved cream. one beater When freeze. whipped to case, and the water berries, and the cool, and this Let one in be used may quart of one sugar, quarts of fresh berries, Two " quart of one freeze. RASPBERRIES. FROZEN cold When strawberries. raspberries the Prepare " add juice of three the same as lemons, and freeze. APRICOTS. FROZEN of sugar, after and a quart of can apricots, a pint of whipped a pint measured cream" apricots in small Cut generous pieces,add sugar water, freeze. PEACHES. granulated whipped through is taken out " sugar, Boil cream. add minutes, then Rub water, being whipped. FROZEN of of One " a One of can quart of one sugar and peaches, and sieve, and peaches, when stir in the whipped water, water cook heaping pint two together twenty with a cupfuls of for minutes When cool, freeze. cream one spoon. twenty longer. the beater 110 THE BISCUIT dozen GLACE. and half a water, two-thirds Boil the sugar eggs and and stir into the of cold and flavor the Have crumbs from water, and the beat the in the cases. Serve GLACE and One " and sugar Let water. six of the eggs powdered ice to large cupful stir the the vanilla add freeze. in hour an and a stiff froth, and the Turn from GLACE. pint of sugar, sherbet, one yolks of eighteen the yolks of the syrup in another lated granu- syrup and beat with a under meringue is a beautiful dish. of large tablespoonful boiling water whisk for ten diately. imme- keeps half the part of it ; this or a ; stir the the raspberry water, of the vanilla. beat the with the eggs into this Take from the saucepan minutes. the this the serve strawberry pint and the It should every and oven out into cover board a light. Place of pan hot tine gela- to have together twenty minutes, water very eggs one one eggs, and sugar a quart of One " put Glace the bottom. BOMBE in Brown meringue. out, and four beat the whites to serve, gradually beat cream of the mixture When serving time. ready one cupful one boil, and a until Set away When sugar. the cream at least two smoothly, being careful cream If the dish is flat Boil layer of a an one cream, to come hour. stand, at least,an heat salt for of six eggs, into the tin and top perfectlysmooth. it with in a add tablespoonfulsof powdered, into the cream, pack the and in cases. (itwill usually require twenty minutes), take is frozen for Then Put these Place quart of the milk Strain ; turn sugar beat fill paper tablespoonful of gelatine, soaked into it. beater cold. and bury in ice and MERINGUE. one of cold until taining con- saucepan browned. tablespoonful of vanilla, the whites milk, the saucepan fancy plates. on granulated Place Stir well fine and well hour, beat the an fire,place the rolled cream half for mixture cream. of cupful a boiling water, and macaroons cover hours. of Take of froth, a a teaspoonful of vanilla. a syrup. in another whipped on mould, boiling to half eggs, sugar, together water the mixture pan cupful of a whipped cream three macaroons, of eight minutes. pint of One " CHOP. ICE FOODS ICED fire,place the basin for ten ice and bottom Cover and with glace can Bombe rich kind on put the to disturb the paper. Put the with of on salt and ice. sherbet, having CRUSHER. ICE to correspond with of course, MANGE." BLANC tablespoonfulsof Sweeten cups, are, mould POWER A spread not careful any and it is hard When mould. in mould cream the freezer from with made 94. dishes ice an ing beat- made the sherbet. with The brightest the sherbets. PLAIN two Pack top of the continue water, and cold piece of thick white part flavored handsomest colored a be FIG. the center of center, being the cover the of in the mixture cover, pan the sherbet Take the sides and sherbet. a Ill BEVERAGES. fifteen minutes. or salt. cooked in AND and cream. and when corn let it boil cold This serve makes To one starch quart of boiling milk dissolved long enough in a to in little cold milk. thicken. glass dishes with very a simple and a add Pour sweet wholesome into jellyand dish. 112 Always cook scorch. A ICE. WATER reduced sliced and sieve. custard is frozen to a (made by boiling one pound of sugar) and ICE. glass of ICE. with boiled Add sieve. in water of essence One a pint of picked, pounded and kernels. the through Rub pint of one syrup, syrup. Freeze. lemon. porcelainvessel. a quarter Freeze. sieve. a of cherries pounds pint of thick one drops of few Two " gillof a through one pintsof raspberry juice, juice,or juice of half currant CHERRY a fruit by pressingthe with water fine a Add water. lemon. one one-half and through Rub pint of juice of One " apt to so pineapple, peeled, pint of cold syrup of One half the RASPBERRY of pound Wash of made One " dregs with not are delight in hot weather. a pulp by pounding. pint a CROP. vessels,as they in inner custards PINEAPPLE a ICE THE Mix. and cream, Freeze twenty minutes. ICE. BLACKBERRY to stew, and strain. CUSTARD. one-half macaroons wish you bag and a vanilla, with the top and over of Beat Stir into set it quart of milk, one boiling milk. Flavor to cool. Take " of sugar. cup as put in done When tablespoonful one-half stir into the and blackberries many cold, freeze. When Mix as to taste. sweeten MACARONI boil. Put " and butter yolks of the milk, and the crumble then flour, with six eggs from take fire fresh dozen one Serve meringue. the pile on of three to on ice- cold. starch, spoonful of vanilla. Boil milk beaten corn together. and separately four teaspoonfuls vanilla, one-half cup and yolks beaten to them the sugar cup " scalding,but milk of hot milk. to thicken. Pour and not pour Return into two upon starch and to saucepan glass dish. eggs well serving. of currant them with Flavor sugar. Beat sugar, jelly. the whites eggs" tablespoonfuls of boiling. table- one eggs, quart of milk, four One " add then ice before on of teacup one sugar, Place ISLAND. FLOATING quart of milk, One CUSTARD." BOILED Heat two the yolks, stir into gradually, mixing well and Heap upon boil until the it a begins top meringue 114 THE ICE BEVERAGES. ICED COFFEE. ICED and one cream, One " CROP. of quart three-fourths coffee, strong of quart of one pint of granulated a sugar. Freeze. TEAS ICED weather. warm of are They in the prepared early when served serve, have the purpose the ice. than LEMONADE. WATER. JELLY of ounce of cream Sweeten healthful beverage for of an tumbler on an lemon out off with- Pour iced is a day. juice egg, lumpy. fresh tumblerful warm a jelly in particle of pulp. a clear. A ious delic- water a for water. make become not to through goblet of juice of and bottom. nicer are quarts of till cold ready to boil the strips without be of water. of Beat lemon, one well one together. cold. Serve with SAGO jelly,lemon, MILK. cold water and flavor one to " Tapioca it to stand or Add hour. taste. milk teaspoonful any is three arabic. gum long enough One to dissolve. fruit syrup. tablespoonfuls Three suit One " Allow water. cold tumbler Flavor WATER. ARABIC GUM warm. jelly does at the one when in water always Best three thin White " tablespoonful sugar, ice. Stir in it the stand Let LEMONADE EGG crushed "Pour disturbing sediment pleasant and to each the this way tartar. taste. to lemon a It may pretty poured looks jelliesdissolved in very cut peel the over DRINK. COOLING A pour tea patients. In cool. water, then half Sour " for fever drinks and and to taste S\t eeten of Juice " the addition it stronger than which tumblers, the the flavor. refrigerator, and in as cups, and to make care during extent milk, finer tea the day, taking ice in crushed without destroy Place hot. considerable to used are to only serves sugar served now cups Simmer prepared in sago, of soaked boiling milk. slowly half the same an manner. in a of cup Sweeten hour. Eat LIST ILLUSTRATIONS. OF Fig1. Page. Clearing-off scraper 2, 3, 4. Snow 5. Ice augur 6. scoop 17 18 scrapers 20 Measure 20 7. Tapping 20 8. Field 9. Marker, axe 10. Field 11. Swing with Hand Plow rope marker 22 plows 24 plow 14. Line 15. Braces 16. Brace 17. Best 24 24 for channel for slow ice fork Two-prong 19. Three-prong 20. Four-prong current 28 saws 28 28 bar 28 bar 28 bar Calking 28 bar Breaking 31 hooks 23. Ice Elevator 25. Chain 26. Sieve shovel 27. Ring handle 28. Channel 29. Needle feeding scoop 31 net 31 splitting hook chisel.. bars, 31. Toothed trimmer bars 32. Jack Channel 35. Wooden Wooden 31 . T 31 trimmer Handle 31 chisel bar Toothed 34. 31 fork 30. 33. 26 27 bar fork 24. 36. swift with current steel cast 18. . 22 guide 12. 22. 22 guide swing plow 13. 21 21 planer iron handle 83 33 33 grapple 33 grapple 33 grapple skid, No. 1 36 skid, No. 2 36 115 116 LIST Wagon Packing 37. 38. 40. Packing Hoisting 41. Drag 39. and loading tongs 36 chisel 36 tongs 38 tongs Edging tongs 43. Ice 38 38 adze 38 Interior of old view Modern 46-49. ILLUSTRATIONS. chisel 42. 44. 45. OF ice 50. Section 51. Elevation 52. Section 53. Hoisting 54. House 55. 56. Raising chisel Striking-under 57. Dunnage 44 44, 46, 48 incline gigs and and platform conveyors for loading cars along tracks platform of loading ice ice cellar pit of elevator of style 50 52 platforms 52 reversing engines 54 57 saw bar 57 bar 57 shovel gig 57 and track 58. Lowering 59. A 60. Another 61. Sample 62. Wagon 63. Ice 64. Wagon axe 66 65. Wagon saw 66 66. Wagon ice tongs 66 67. Ground floor 68 68. Section of house 68 69. Section of wall popular ice ice 59 61 wagon 61 wagon ice delivery 64 wagon scale 66 66 shave 70. 71. Section 72. Perspective 73. 69 of cold view Exterior storage of combined view of view ice house 70 and 70 dairy 72 creamery 75. plan of creamery combined Cold storage house of cold storage view Section 76. Section 77. Ground 78. End 74. house 72 Ground refrigerating plan of freezing of for Suggestions 79-81. 82. Barn-corner 83. A 84. Embankment loading Lifts 85. 86. 87. A cheap 88. A fruit dairy and tank 74 dairy 75 : and tank bench 77 cheap 78 ice 78 houses ice house 79 platform platform 81 for loading ice scraper ice into sleds 81 82 house retarding 81 in Florida, which uses 89. Perspective view 90. Cross section of 91. Perspective view 92. Section Ice 94. A of floor crushing power refrigerating 89 machinery 93. 76 tank of freezing view with house of fruit fruit machine ice crusher 98 cellar of fruit and 97 cellar 91 house 92 ceiling , 105 HI INDEX. Artificial Air ice cold and air machines 48-91 machines Extent of Fruit 88 artificial Historical refrigeration plant storage at 90 Fla. 88 sketch 84, 85 .% inventions, Latest Waldo. the 88 Principles of ice machines Systems employed 85, 86 Uses 90, 91 86, 87 of and Care, handling Care of ice Coupon tickets, 56-63 crop 56 of 62 house 58 use from ice Lowering of marketing in houses Marketing 60 ice Packing Taking how Ventilators, of ice, Wasting Cold to 58 41, 56, 58 use and causes atives prevent 56 storage 63-86 benefits Co-operation 78 , Preservative of 63, 64 for power various articles, extent of 65 of Principles 67 of variation Temperature, Use 63 of benefits and Extent for of house Construction Cold 58, 60 house from ice out shipment for 65 of 64, 67 ice storage house cellars," and Barn ice Combined ice best Freezing and "Storage 79 77 cold storage and of of ice in Floor, house," : house dairy, Creamery "Retarding house" house Construction Cost "Packing ice corner Cheap (see also 71, 72 of construction 73 73 room Loading platform 72, 73 80 house arrangement house 63, 67, 68 house General ice of 69 80 117 118 ICE THE Milk CEOP. 73 room 67 Principles employed described house Sample Size of rooms Silo as an 71 73 ice house 77 Tanks 75 considered Temperature Tools required in in stowing considered, various removing fruit from 101 ice 80 Ventilators Walls Construction 68 of commercial Construction, Development Earliest Site 43-55 ice houses details of of the modern 47-54 ice house " of ice storage forms Survey 44,45 and foundation of ice house, 45-47 details of 47-54 47 spaces Chains, 43, 44 43 for Construction Air 68, 69 overshot and undershot 55 Engine 55 Floor 53 Lightning rods, Lumber of use Platforms for inside Posts, loading and 47 53 cars 47, 49 for a good construction and out Sills,inside main of out Roof, Studding, 51 , dimensions required, 47 and outer 49 inner 47 Ventilators Walls Contents, 51, 68 and partitions 49 of table 115 Co-operation, how best practiced Co-operation in ice-cutting and cold Creamery ice house Cutting and storing ice Calking bar, use Care of ice fields Care of tools Channels of 79 storage 78 71, 72 14-42, 83 the 27 15, 83 32-35 and canals 25, 83 the on Channels, early work Closing and caring for the house Condition Cracks Danger of field in the time 29 ice 26 signals Floats, how 23 to handle Flooding, use of Harvesting, danger Harvesting outfit Housing quitting at 29 41, 42 the 27 17 of delay in 20 20-23 29-32, 35-38 crop Inspection Laying out ice field Marking and plowing Opening up the field of field 20, 23 23 .' .- 23-25 26 119 INDEX. ice in the Packing Plowing, results Plowing, process Refuse house of 37-41 in delay 34 of 83 ice Science 23 ice formation of from Shipping Snow, removal Snow scrapers 42 of 17, 21 17, 18 field the Tapping 14, 15 field the during 19 a thaw Thickness of ice 21 Tool and 35 room Windrows, Dairy, fittings and storage house, a Freezing Harvesting best how cold ice house, Domestic storing) 7-11 7 and Export export trade trade, height of Extent of ice Home of the Methods ." 7 industry^ 9 9 industry for securing, development ice harvest, pen picture of Modern States Origin of business in United of or Preserving antiseptic powers 8 of 10 7 9 ice 8 of ice, growing Uses closing and House, 72, 73 combined 73 and (see cutting sketch, an Historical 19 distributed Sawdust 41-42 for the caring mill or shavings, 41 used how 41-42 of Tools, inspection 41, 56, 58 Ventilation Housing 29-32 ice the Discipline 29, 35 employed, time for, the Preferable Runs, skids, how or Serious Stowing, Water use 30 37, 40 ; 32 prevented 37, 39 30 of Coffee, cooling drink, beverages: milk, tea water, lemonade, sago gum arable water, jelly 114 102-107 ices and for of process box, necessity arranged how accidents, .35 of channel, at sides Protection Ice creams 32 of various Methods Iced field, value the on 106 Almond bread Brown " 103 '. Chocolate 104 Cinnamon 106 Coffee 105 Cocoanut 103 Fig 104 General directions for making 102 Neapolitan 105 New 104 York Orange 106 Peach 106 120 ICE THE Strawberry 103 Swan's 106 down 106 Tapioca 105 Tea Vanilla Iced 103,106 Walnut 105 dishes 107-114 Biscuit glace Blanc 110 ice Blackberry 112 111-113 mange Bombe glace 110 Cherry ice 112 Currant sherbet 109 Custards 112 Frozen, apricots 109 Frozen Frozen peaches pudding raspberries 109 Frozen strawberries 109 Frozen Glace 107 109 meringue 110 Lemon ice 107 Lemon jelly 113 Lemon sherbet Maccaroni Orange 108 custard Nesselrode 112 pudding 107 sherbet Pineapple Pineapple 108 sherbet water Raspberry 108 ice 112 ice 112 sherbet Raspberry Snow pudding 109 Strawberry ice 113 Strawberry sherbet Tutti Iced food Ice 113 108 frutti ..107 and beverages beverages Iced and creams Iced , field, care Ice houses, barn 102-107 107-114 of 15, 83 corner 79 Cheap Cold 77 storage 63,67, 68, 69, 71, 72, 73 Commercial 43-55 Creamery 71, 72 Dairy and cold storage Silo in combined 72, 73 77 transportation Fisheries, ice in the 91-96 Ocean 94.95 95 transportation Refrigerator cars Ice 101-114 114 ices dishes Ice Ice CROP. 91, 92 Refrigerator vessels 94 Value 94 of machines, Principles of 85-86 ICE THE Survey and Life Tools, and vs. its 45 35 Plows, the Cold to time 34 for required 34 for 32 care 35 of Fruits, (see also refrigeration storage, extent fruits and how best ice, the and benefits " Cold 63 of 67 vegetables, preservation 65, 67 of 73 preserved 8, 64 growing 51, 68 of construction 41 of of ") storage prevented meats Poultry, Ventilators, best room in Decay 34 useless rendered tools how ice 41 use 34 the Repairing Storing 32 tools best Repairing, Saws, 42 parts often , ice of ice 41-42 41 repairing after of how Weight 54 extended inferior Plows, Wasting how of construction 32-35, Inspection Use and use fittings and Good of 45 survey machinery Engine Uses 45 of care of extent house, Elevator Uses 45 of ways, of room of of Importance Inclined 45-47 house value the Foundations, Tool for foundation Drainage, CROP. in house, and causes preventives 56, 58, 68 56 62 , , , , APPLICATION. ON FREE SENT CATALOGUE DESCRIPTIVE -: OF : " BOOKS, RURAL 116 Containing 8vo of full descriptions FARM profusely illustrated,and pages, nearly 600 works the on followingsubjects: GARDEN, AND ETC., FLOWERS, FRUITS, SHEEP, CATTLE, Docs, ETC., HORSES, POULTRY, CANOEING, FIELD PIGEONS, AND BEES, GARDENING, HOUSEHOLD ORANGE 52 " 54 SHOOTING, BUILDING, LANDSCAPE PUBLISHERS FISHING, HISTORY, NATURAL AND HUNTING, AND AND SAILING, AND SPORTS ARCHITECTURE SWINE, AND RIDING, ETC., ANGLING BOATING, giving AND JUDD AND MISCELLANEOUS IMPORTERS. COMPANY, LafayettePlace,New York. ETC., BOOKS. STANDARD 2 Mushrooms. Them. to Grow How fresh Mushrooms are and a delicious,highly nutritious they are less bulky than eggs, delicacy; and for market remunerative. Anyone properly handled, no crop is more rooms. an ordinary house cellar,woodshed, or barn cau grow MushThis is the most practicalwork on the subject ever written, and the only book ever on published in America. growing Mushrooms The whole minutely and plainly,as only a subject is treated in detail, it. practicalman, actively engaged in Mushroom growing, can handle how he himself The author describes Mushrooms, and how they grows for profit by the leading market are gnrcleners, and for home grown most successful The the is amply and book use private growers. by with drawn from nature pointedly illustrated, engravings expressly Falconer. Is nicelyprinted and for this work. bound in By Wm. cloth. 1.50 Price,post-paid For home wholesome and, when has who use . ............. Allen's New American .......................... Book. Farm The be conthe subject ; comprising all that can densed on very best work Allen. Richard L. into an available volume. Originallyby Revised and greatly enlarged by Lewis F. Allen. 2.50 Cloth, 12mo... Henderson's Gardening for Profit. New edition. Entirely By Peter Henderson. The The successful "nd his standard enlarged. work experience of the benefit The book the Market rewritten and for more and Family greatly Gardening. author than thirtyyears, does in this work, the secret of his him valuable of others, enables to give most 12mo-._ 2.00 is profuselyillustrated. Cloth, willingnessto tell,as for success information. on he Fuller's Practical Forestry. A Treatise the Propagation,Planting,and on scription Cultivation,with a deof all the and the botanical and proper^names indigenous trees of the United States,both Evergreen and Deciduous, with Notes of the most on valuable Exotic a largenumber Species. By Andrew S. Fuller, author of "Grape Culturist " "Small Fruit Culturist,"etc. 1.50 The Dairyman's Manual. of "The Shepherd's Manual," "Irrigation," is well and by a writer who practicalwork with familiar the subject of which he writes. 2.00 By Henry Stewart, author A etc. useful known as thoroughly Cloth,12mo .................................................... Truck Farming A giving at the South. of of a successful grower Essential to any markets. entering this promising field of Agriculture. of Georgia. Illustrated. Cloth, 12mo " work grain truck '' the experience for Northern vegetables or who one By A. 1.50 .......................... Harris New on the templates con- Oemler, Pig. Revised edition. and The points of tne enlarged by the author. various breeds are thoroughly discussed,and English and American thee great ad The advantage of using thoroughbred males clearlyshown. work is equally valuable to the farmer who but few and to keeps pigs, the breeder extensive scale. 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Allen. indispensableby every breeder of live stock. of The large experience of the author in improving the character American herds and has of adds his to the observations, weight him enabled make will at once to produce a work which good his revised claims New and standard the as a authority on subject. 250 Illustrated. edition. I2mo Cloth, Book Fuller's By. By Lewis will be considered Grape A. S. Fuller. Culturist. This is one of the very of the the culture best of works on for all departments of propagation, hardy grapes, with full directions ing, culture,etc.,with 150 excellent engravings, illustratingplant1.50 training,grafting,etc. Cloth, 12mo White's CranberryCulture. CONTENTS :" Location." of Meadows." Natural Preparing Choice of Vines." Management ing." PickDifficulties Overcome." History. History " the Ground." of Cultivation. and Flooding" Enemies Keeping." Profit and Loss." Letters from Insects Injuriousto the Cranberry. By Joseph and Illustrated. New Cloth,12mo. grower. 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A most Hundred Valuable Work, and Fifty-sevenIllustrations. full of Ideas, Hints, Suggestions,Plans,etc., for the Construction of Barns and Outbuildings,by Practical writers. are Chapters devoted, Erection and Use of Barns. other subjects^ to the Economic among Grain Barns, House Barns, Cattle Barns, Sheep Barns, Corn Houses, wise Smoke Ice Houses, Houses, Pig Pens, Granaries, etc. There are likeTool tors, VentilaBird Sheds, Dog Houses, Houses, chapters upon Roofs and Roofing, Doors and Fastenings, Work Shops, Poultry Two Houses, M'anure Sheds, Cloth,12mo Barn Yards, Root Pits, etc. Reqently published. 1-50 STANDARD Parsons on BOOKS. 5 the Rose. B. Parsons. New the rose. Parsons Mr. has rose, the flower,and gives us By Samuel history of treatise on the propagation,culture, and and revised edition. In his work the upon gathered up the curious legends concerning idea of the esteem an in which it was held in A A simple garden classification has been adopted, and times. the each class enumerated and leading varieties under briefly The described. chapters on multiplication,cultivation, and training is altogetherone are of the most very full,and the work complete before the public. Illustrated. 1.00 Cloth, 12mo former Heinrich's Window Flower Garden, The author and this enterprisingvolume is a practicalflorist, his personal experiences in Window Gardening during a and period. New enlarged edition. By Julius J. Heinrich. Illustrated. Cloth, 12mo.. Liautard's Chart of the Age of the Domestic Adopted by the United States Army. Enables one the Pedder's age Land of corses, cattle,sheep, dogs, and Measurer bodies em- long Fully .75 Animals. to termine accurately de50 pigs for Farmers. 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Plants in the House The By James " of the work Plain and Practitle well describes the character tical." above The author, a commercial florist and gardener, has endeavored, " the many in this work, to answer questions asked by his customers, as of plants. The book shows treatment all through that to the proper and he writes its author is a practical man, with a large store as one better meets of experience. The work the wants of the amateur who a few plants in the window, or has a small flower Garden, than grows for those who cultivate a larger treatise intended plants upon a more 40 extended-scale. Price,post-paid,paper covers. Husmann's American By George Husmann enlarged edition. Grape-Growing and Wine-Making. of Talcoa New and vineyards, Napa, California. With contributions from well-known grape-growers, of experience. The author giving a wide range the subject. Cloth, 12mo on recognizedauthority The Scientific of book this is a 1.50 Angler. A general and instructive work Foster. 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VeterinaryArt," 8vo. volume, 830 pages, half and Methods, according Family Causes, Nature, and the on of Horses" to an Stabling, Care, and Feeding. useful Manual, full of the most embracing enlightened system of Geo. A. information. By 12mo recent of Health. book The embraces of stock,management of diseases peculiar 12mo, cloth Sanders. Coburn's Veterinary Martin. A Practical Illustrated. Cloth, 1.00 Swine revised Business Mares of and all that the breeder selection of foal,and treatment H. ment Treatand improved Illustrated. 1.50 Sander's Horse Breeding, Being the general principlesof Heredity applied to the Breeding Horses and the Management of Stallions,Brood Foals. large Horse. Its to the Together One 7.50 Restoration and Practice,for Preservation Geo. H. M. D. V. Dadd, By S., Cloth, 13mo The cal etc.,with practi- morocco.. 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Containing tb.e this important subject, by Cloth 13mo Illustrated. .50 on Brooms. Broom-Corn Illustrated. 12mo. Raising Bird American Or how valuable and Ensilage and Making Cloth cover Brooms on a small or .50 Fancier. for Song and Domestic This Birds. work for all who interested in the are keeping of Song Birds,has been revised and enlaiged, and is now a All who the valuable own birds, or complete manual subject. upon wish to do so, will find the new Fancier indispensable. New, revised and enlarged edition. trated, By D. J. Browne, and Dr. Fuller Walker. Illus- breed, rear, and care and important little to paper cover. , ._ .50 STANDARD BOOKS. 9 Armatage'sEvery Man His Own Cattle Doctor. Embracing all the practical information of value heretofore of Cattle,Sheep, and published on the Diseases Swine, together with the latest and best information regarding all known diseases up to the present time. Compiled and edited by that eminent One authority, Prof. George Armatage, M. R. C. V. S. The VeterinaryCyclopedia large octavo 894 pages, Vith upwards of forms of disease and treatment. volume, showing Onions" " How to Raise them Details,from the Practical of Ground to Harvesting and Practical Onion by Seventeen Being different parts the issued. ever "was of Tobacco Culture" Selection Marketing Growers No cover, trations, practical illus7.50 morocco. Profitably. country. Paper 350 Half of Seed and Preparation Crop, given very plainly long experience residingin the of valuable more work of its size 8vo.. 30 Full Practical Details. This useful and valuable work contains full details of every process Selection and Preparationof the Seed and Soil to the Harvesting, Curing and Marketing the Crop, with illustrative engravings of the operations. The work was Experienced prepared by Fourteen Tobacco Growers, residing in different parts of the country. It also contains the Tobacco notes on Worm, with illustrations,8vo,.. ,35 from the Culture. Hop Plain Flax A directions given by ten experienced cultivators. and edited by A. S. Fuller. Forty engravings Revised, larged en- 30 Culture. valuable selection of work, containing full directions, from and seed to preparation and marketing of crop, as given by 8vo of experienced growers, 30 number very ground a Potato Pests. Farmer It gives the afford to be without this little book. can of the Colorado Beetle anywhere to be found, most complete account to the habits of the insect all the latest discoveries and includes as for its destruction. It is well illustrated, and and the various means the spread of the insect since it left its native home. exhibits in a map .50 By Prof C. V. Riley. Paper cover.... No . Fishing and Home By Seth in the Cloth, 12mo-. By The Utilization of Farm Streams of ; Management Artificial Pond Fry, etc. ; Transportation of Eggs and 50 Green. Fish Reed's Waters. Home House S. B. Reed. ---- - Plans This for Everybody. volume useful the wants meets of persons of design, from a dwelling means, dences. costing $350 up to $8,000,and adapted to farm, villageand town resiings. Nearly all of these plans have been tested by practicalworkof the work One feature lication imparts a value over any similar pub- moderate and gives a wide range of estimate of the It gives an of the kind that we have seen. of each the and cost quantity of every article used in the construction, Even made. erected or the design article at the time the buildingwas these data, ascertain from time to time, one if prices vary from can, of the of dollars the constructing within a few probable cost any one black and illustrated. here Cloth, buildings presented. Profusely gold?l3mo 1.50 STANDARD 10 Gregory BOOKS. Cabbages" How on to Grow Them. A Practical Treatise on Cabbage Culture, giving full point, including Keeping and Marketing the Crop. Gregory. Paper cover, 12mo Gregory How to J. J. H. What them, how Gregory. Paper Onion on kinds Paper This Treatise,which tells all about Settingof etc. to keep them, Cover, 12ino the way how to feed them. By 30 .-. to raise them. By J. J. H. Gregory. 30 no Farmer or soil for and Plant selectingthe to prepare ; how the Fruit ; Ripening, By J. J. H. Gregory. Hog-Raising Rufus and Squashes. on necessary J. II. 3u Raising. raise,and 12mo.-- to cover, Gregory every Carrots, Mangold-Wurtzels, etc. on raise Gregory details on By James and Gathering,Storing,Care Paper cover, 12mo during ter, Win.30 Pork-Making. The hog is reared for the money that is in either to his loss a or owner him, represents profit according to the treatment This pamphlet gives the personal research he receives. and valuable experience of the author, contains suggestions, many and answers arise of the that in of hogthe business questions many 40 raising. Paper, 12mo--- By Bacon Gardener ought to be without, much Manure is squashes ; how Hoeing and Cultivating; ; about and he Fulton's This Martin. Peach is the Culture. Culture the Delaware to Peach on is the best work the subject of peach growing for upon those who in that culture in any part of the would be successful written, country. It has been thoroughly revised and a large portion of it reby Hon. J. Alexander Fulton, the author, bringing it down to date. 1.5U Cloth, 12mo only practicalguide Peninsula,and Silk Culture. A Handbook The III. the Cocoons." Silk-Growers. for Mrs. C. E. Bamford. TENTS." CONII. the Leaves." Mulberry." Gathering Moth." V. Feeding Eggs of the Silk Worm VI. Silk Worms." The Moulting." VII. Spinning.-VIII. IX. The Moths of the Silk Worm." X. Varieties of Silk By Chapter I. The Cocoonery. "IV. Worms." Chemistry XI. Diseases of Silk. " of XIV. the Silk Worm." Miscellaneous. XII. Paper, Reeling." XIII. Price, postpaid- 12mo. .30 . Treats' injurious Insects Mrs. Mary Treat. An of the Farm and Garden. By to our originalinvestigatorwho has added much knowledge of both familiar with Darwin's are insects,and those who works that he gives her credit for important observation are aware coveries. and disNew and With Illustrated Enlarged Edition. an Chapter Plants. and Beneficial Insects. Fully illustrated. ..2.00 Cloth,12rno Fuller's Small Fruit Culturist. S. Fuller. By Andrew Rewritten,enlarged,and brought fullyup to on the very The book the whole covers ground ol propagating fruits,their culture, varieties, packing for market, etc. It is makes admirable and an finelyand thoroughly illustrated, panion comto " The well author. Culturist." the known same Grape by present time. small 1,50 Periodical Valuable foreverybody in City, and Conntry. Village, flgricnltu JheAmerican "^ ~^ ~^ (ESTABLISHED ME LEADING 1842.) FOR GARDEN, FARM, PUBLICATION INTERNATIONAL THE AND HOUSEHOLD, of from 48 to 64 pages in each number, A MONTHLY MAGAZINE containing in each volume upward of 700 pages and over 1000 originalengravings of typical and Fowls ; New prize-winning Horses, Cattle, Sheep, Swine, and and Barn Plans ; New Fruits,Vegetables, and Flowers ; House Implements and Labor-saving Contrivances ; and many pleasingand instructive pictures for young and old. THE AUTHORITY STANDARD Arts, and Rural of its class in the world. periodical Agriculture,Horticulture,and BEST PERIODICAL RURAL of hints and thousands The farmers, intelligent practical, The indoor useful hints and many special care, and what every they write pertainingto ably edited WORLD. volume about. are prepared by is valuable to every housekeeper, affording facilitate directions calculated to lighten and work. sound to moral only principles. furnish Terms Subscription : not Youth and Children for Department The know in all matters oldest and most IN THE suggestionsgiven in who Department Household very the amusement, but also to is prepared with inculcate knowledge 15o, each. include* ; samplecopies, $1.50 a year, postaga irr "TO.-ST .A. Y:EA.:EC." CSS' AGRICULTURIST, AMERICAN 52 " 54 Lafayette Place, New York.
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