The organs of both the ... CH 27 THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

CH 27 THE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
The organs of both the male and the female reproductive systems may be grouped according to
function. They include:
Gonads
Ducts
Accessory Glands
STRUCTURES OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM
1 – TESTES
The testes are paired oval glands measuring about 5 cm (2 inches) in length and 2.5 cm (1 inch) in
width. They weigh approximately 10-15 grams. Structures include:
Tunica Albuginea
Lobules
Seminiferous Tubules
Sustenocytes Cells
Formerly sustentacular cells, Sertoli cells, and nurse cells.
Sperm
Interstitial Endocrine Cells
Formerly interstitial or Leydig cells.
Testosterones
Rete Testis
Efferent Ducts
2 - SCROTUM
Raphe
Septum
Dartos Muscles
Cremaster Muscles
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3 - EPIDIDYMIS
The two epididymides are comma-shaped organs that lie along the posterior border of each testis.
Each contains a tightly coiled tube called the ductus epididymis. The ductus epididymides are the site
of sperm maturation. Sperm require between 18 hours and 10 days to become mature and capable of
fertilization capacitated (capacitated).
Sections of Structure
Head
Body
Tail
Ductus Epididymis
4 – DUCTUS DEFERENS (VAS DEFERENS)
The ductus deferens is about 18 inches long, ascends along the posterior border of each testis,
penetrates the inguinal canal as part of the spermatic cord and enters the pelvic cavity. Once in the
pelvic cavity it loops over the side and down the posterior surface of the urinary bladder.
5 – SPERMATIC CORD
Testicular Artery
Testicular Veins
Lymphatics
Cremaster Muscles
Autonomic Nerves
Ductus Deferens
Formerly the vas deferens.
6 – EJACULATORY DUCTS
These ducts are located posterior to the urinary bladder. Each duct is about 2 cm (1 inch) in length.
The two ductus deferens and the ducts from the seminal vesicles form the ejaculatory ducts. The
ejaculatory ducts release sperm into the prostatic urethra.
7 – URETHRA
This is the terminal duct of the system. It passes through the prostate gland, the urogenital
diaphragm, and the penis.
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8 - PENIS
The penis is the copulatory organ of the male, and contains masses of sinusoidal erectile tissues.
Structural Masses:
Corpora Cavernosa
Corpus Spongiosum
Urethra
CT Septum
Tunica Albuginea
9 – ACCESSORY GLANDS
These structures produce the secretions called seminal fluid that protect and buffer the sperm as
they travel through and out of the male system.
Prostate Gland
Seminal Glands
Formerly seminal vesicles.
Bulbo-urethral Glands
Formerly Cowper’s glands.
10 – THE MALE GAMETE: THE SPERM CELL
Spermatozoa are “suicide cells”. They are specially designed to carry a payload of chromosomes a
specific distance and are not expected to survive their mission.
Sperm have a life expectancy of 48 hours once they are ejaculated into the female tract. They are
produced constantly and mature at the rate of about 300 million per day.
Head
Acrosome
Middle Piece
Spiral Mitochondria
Flagellum
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11 - MALE HORMONES
Hypothalamus
GnRH
“GnRF”
Anterior Pituitary
FSH
LH
Testosterones
Activin
Inhibin
Relaxin
STRUCTURES OF THE FEMALE SYSTEM
1 - OVARIES
The ovaries are the gonads of the female and they are analogous to the testes of the male. They
produce ova, discharge ova and secrete female sex hormones, including estrogen and progesterone.
These gonads are paired glands that resemble unshelled almonds. They are positioned in the upper
pelvic cavity, one on each side of the uterus.
Hilum (Hilus)
Germinal Epithelium
Tunica Albuginea
Stroma
2 - OVARIAN LIGAMENTS
The ovarian system of supporting ligaments includes:
Broad Ligament
Mesovarium Ligament
Ovarian Ligament
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Suspensory Ligament
3 – UTERINE TUBES (OVIDUCTS; FALLOPIAN TUBES)
These tubes extend laterally from the uterus and transport the ova from the ovaries to the uterus.
They are positioned between the folds of the broad ligaments of the uterus.
Infundibulum
Fimbriae
Layers of tube structure:
Mucosa
Muscularis
Serosa
4 - UTERUS
Uterine Regions:
Fundus
Body
Uterine Cavity
Isthmus
Internal Os
Cervix
Cervical Canal
Uterine Histology:
Perimetrium
“Serosa”
Myometrium
Endometrium
Endometrial Glands
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Stratum Basalis
Stratum Functionalis
5 – VAGINAL CANAL
The vaginal canal serves as a passageway for menstrual flow, acts as a birth canal and also as a
receptacle for the penis during copulation. It is a muscular, tubular organ lined with mucous membrane.
Fornix
Rugae
Hymen
Microbial Populations
6 – ACCESSORY GLANDS
Vestibular Glands
Formerly Bartholin’s glands.
Endometrial Glands
“Uterine glands”
Mammary Glands
7 – THE VULVA
The term vulva is a collective designation for the external genitalia of the female. The vulva consists
of:
Mons Pubis
Formerly mons pubis veneris.
Labia Majora
Labia Minora
Clitoris
Perineum
Episiotomy
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8 – MAMMARY GLANDS
The mammary glands are modified sweat glands that are located above the pectoralis major muscles
and are attached to them by layers of CT.
Lobes
Lobules
Alveoli
Suspensory Ligament
Formerly Cooper’s suspensory ligament.
Ducts
Ampullae
Areola
Sebaceous Glands
9 – FEMALE HORMONES
The monthly cycle of the female is termed the ovarian cycle and one phase of this cycle is termed
menstruation. Specific hormones that regulate the operation of the monthly cycle include:
GnRF
FSH
LH
Estrogens
Progesterone
Activin
Inhibin
Relaxin
Prostaglandins
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10 - THE “MONTHLY CYCLE” AND FOLLICLE DEVELOPMENT: GAMETE PRODUCTION
During each month in the life of a sexually mature female, hormone levels dictate the production of
approximately 5-7 potential egg cells (ova), each of which is surrounded by supporting cells (follicular
cells).
Oocyte
Ova
Sing: Ovum
Follicle
Follicle Cells
Stages of Development:
Primordial Follicle
Primary Follicle
Secondary Follicle
Vesicular (antral) Follicle
Formerly Graafian follicle or tertiary follicle.
Zona Pellucida
Corona Radiata
Antrum
Ovulation
Corpus Luteum
Corpus Albicans
PHASES OF THE MONTHLY CYCLE
Menstrual Phase
Preovulatory Phase
Formerly follicular phase or proliferative phase.
Ovulatory Phase
Postovulatory
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TERMS ASSOCIATED WITH THE FEMALE CYCLE:
Menarche
Menopause
Menses
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DISORDERS/DISEASES
Breast cancer
Chlamydia
Cryptorchidism
Dysmenorrhea
Ectopic pregnancy
Endometriosis
Genital herpes
Genital warts
Gonorrhea
Impotence
Inguinal hernia
Male infertility
Orchitis
Pelvic inflammatory disease
Prostatitis
Syphilis
Uterine prolapse
Vaginitis
A cancer that usually originates in the breast tissues of both men
and women. Worldwide, breast cancer is the second most common
type of cancer after lung cancer.
Called the silent epidemic. This is easily treated with tetracycline,
but mighty difficult to diagnose. Over 50% of all cases of PID in
USA are caused by Chlamydia.
Failure of the testes to descend into the scrotum just prior to
birth. Increases risk of testicular cancer.
Painful menstruation. May be caused by problems with
prostaglandin production or fluctuations in prostaglandin levels.
When the fertilized ovum implants in the uterine tube, or falls into
the body cavity and implants on the surface of an abdominal organ.
Inflammation of the uterine lining. Tissue grows from uterus into
abdominal cavity. May cause sterility, or possibly be pre-cancerous.
Caused by herpes simplex, Epstein-Barr virus and probably others.
Symptoms range from mild to very severe and include periodic
severe outbreaks of blisters and other sores.
Caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), which is really a family of
about 60 different viruses. Increases risk of certain cancers, such
as penile, vaginal, cervical and anal cancers.
Caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which infects the
mucosal linings of both the urinary and reproductive tracts.
Failure to achieve erection. Psychological factors or physiological
ones can cause this situation. Some medications can cause
impotence.
Protrusion of a portion of intestine through the wall of the inguinal
canal, scrotum, or the lower abdominal wall.
Variety of possible causes, including blockage in tubular system of
reproductive tract, poorly developed flagella on sperm, malformed
sperm, effect of chemical therapies and the denaturation of
critical sperm-head enzymes (from wearing tight clothing, etc.).
Inflammation of the testes. Often caused by mumps virus.
A/k/a PID. Long-term scarring from bacterial infections, like
gonorrhea. Can scar tubular system and cause infertility.
Any inflammation of the prostate gland. Long-term inflammation
and repeat infection may make structure prime pre-cancerous
area.
Caused by the spiral bacterium Treponema pallidum, which
penetrates mucosae and eventually is transmitted to CNS. Initial
site of infection is called chancre. Is sexually transmitted, but
may also be passed via blood stream of mother to her unborn child.
Protrusion of the uterus through the vaginal wall.
An inflammation of the vaginal canal that is usually caused by
either the flagellated protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis or the
bacterium Gardnerella vaginalis.
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